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Sample records for ability tests

  1. Computer Based Assessment: Ability Testing

    Klimusová, Helena; Květon, Petr

    Lanškroun: GOSC Group, s.r.o., 2001. s. 185. [The Tenth European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology . 16.05.2001-19.05.2001, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Ability Testing * Computer based assessment Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    Linden, van der Wim J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of examine

  3. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  4. Psychometric Testing for Assessing Farmer's Managerial Ability (and Modelling the Origins of Ability)

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2006-01-01

    The key resource in efficient production is the management input used to coordinate the land, labour and capital. Yet, our understanding of this resource is still somewhat limited, especially the factors involved in improving the managerial ability of farmers. This paper summarises three tests developed to help assess managers, and uses the data collected through random surveys of all types of farmers to explain the origins of managerial ability. Survey data on the competencies farmers' belie...

  5. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  6. Development of musical abilities, measured by Bentley's test

    Barbara Smolej-Fritz

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a part of the research that deals with the development of musical abilities of children aged 7 to 14 years. The area of musical abilities being very complex, we focus onley on some view points; namely on those which are included in Bentley's test of musical abilities. The research includes 436 children from primary schools in Krško and Brežice and from the music schools in both towns. The results show that the achievements on Bentley's test increase by age with the children who are visiting music school as well as with those who are not; but with the first group the improvement is faster, and the development finishes earlier and on a higher level. In all the sub-tests and in the whole test, significant differences are shown in the benefit of the children who are visiting music school. On the whole, the differences between boys and girls are not significant, but some significant differences are being found within the two groups. The results of the research show some lawfulness in the development of basic music abilities and also some factors that influence it; so the results may be help at planning and modelling musical-pedagogic process.

  7. [French version of TASTE (test for the ability and evaluation)].

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Pereira, A M; Depreeuw, E; Ansseau, M

    2001-01-01

    Ability to study and evaluation is only one example of performance among many others but research and publications concerning this issue for more than 50 years, especially in the context of test anxiety and need of achievement, conferred upon it a prototypical dimension. Investigations about motivation also stimulate many scientists and constitute another foundation of this study (13). The level of performance depends on knowledge and motivation (33). Time devoted to study is essential to succeed; so motivation and procrastination are in competition. The importance of reinforcement (extrinsical motivation) and the desire for learning and knowing (intrinsical motivation) are determinant. Other elements must be emphasized: guarantee of obtaining rewards, self efficacy and causal attribution. These considerations point out the multidimensional and interactive aspects of test anxiety (7, 31). The number of components is not described unanimously but experts agree with emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimensions (25). So, anxiety was approached in its motivational properties, and it was the case until the sixties, in terms of drive corresponding to a need like thirst or hunger (18); then it was conceptualized in a dynamic context broader than that of stress and coping (29, 30). Last, it constitutes the object of theories highlighting cognitive interference (9, 23, 26) or defective skills (8, 32). A lot of questionnaires were built without answering the different aspects and for instance without linking the theoretical and therapeutic components concerning this problem. Committed to the traditional fields of research (test anxiety and need of achievement), to Weiner's work about attribution theory (34) and that of Bandura in self efficacy (4, 5), E. Depreeuw (10) was particularly interested in Heckhausen's model (16, 17), trying to associate experimental conceptions with the clinical reality. On this basis, he elaborated the TASTE (10, 12, 20): test for ability to

  8. Musical Ability and the Drake Music Memory Test

    Griffin, Lawrence R.; Eisenman, Russell

    1972-01-01

    Results show that the Drake Music Memory Test should be able to discriminate between the poorest and strongest prospects for success in profiting from musical instruction, although it may not be particularly useful in individual counseling. (Authors)

  9. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  10. Ability of type a packages to withstand regulatory tests

    After a brief analysis of the concepts which characterize a type A package in accordance with the IAEA regulations, it is indicated that the main goal of the work is to verify if the most used type A packages in Italy actually meet the relevant regulatory requirements. Several specimens were selected and tested

  11. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  12. The Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (Level-H) is a Measure of g

    Weng-Tink Chooi; Holly E. Long; Thompson, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the consensus in the field of human intelligence holds that a unitary factor (g) accounts for the majority of the variance among individuals, there are still some who argue that intelligence is composed of separate abilities and individual differences across abilities in combination are what constitutes intelligence. In keeping with the latter theoretical support, the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT) is an intelligence test that is designed to measure three distinct types of...

  13. Gray matter correlates of cognitive ability tests used for vocational guidance

    Tang Cheuk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences in cognitive abilities provide information that is valuable for vocational guidance, but there is an ongoing debate about the role of ability factors, including general intelligence (g, compared to individual tests. Neuroimaging can help identify brain parameters that may account for individual differences in both factors and tests. Here we investigate how eight tests used in vocational guidance correlate to regional gray matter. We compare brain networks identified by using scores for ability factors (general and specific to those identified by using individual tests to determine whether these relatively broad and narrow approaches yield similar results. Findings Using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, we correlated gray matter with independent ability factors (general intelligence, speed of reasoning, numerical, spatial, memory and individual test scores from a battery of cognitive tests completed by 40 individuals seeking vocational guidance. Patterns of gray matter correlations differed between group ability factors and individual tests. Moreover, tests within the same factor showed qualitatively different brain correlates to some degree. Conclusions The psychometric factor structure of cognitive tests can help identify brain networks related to cognitive abilities beyond a general intelligence factor (g. Correlates of individual ability tests with gray matter, however, appear to have some differences from the correlates for group factors.

  14. Consideration of "g" as a Common Antecedent for Cognitive Ability Test Performance, Test Motivation, and Perceived Fairness

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Lam, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Several different analyses were used to test the hypothesis that test-taking motivation, perceived test fairness, and actual test performance are correlated only because they share a common antecedent. First, hierarchical regressions reveal that initial test performance has a unique influence on non-ability factors even after controlling for…

  15. Individual Differences in Gender Role Beliefs Influence Spatial Ability Test Performance

    Massa, Laura J.; Mayer, Richard E.; Bohon, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The gender role hypothesis posits that performance on a cognitive ability test is influenced by whether the test instructions frame the test as measuring a skill that is consistent or inconsistent with the test taker's gender role beliefs. The Bem sex role inventory was used to measure the gender role of female college students, and the group…

  16. Developments and Challenges in the Use of Computer-Based Testing for Assessing Second Language Ability

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) to assess second language ability has undergone remarkable development since Garret (1991) described its purpose as "the computerized administration of conventional tests" in "The Modern Language Journal." For instance, CBT has made possible the delivery of more authentic tests than traditional paper-and-pencil tests.…

  17. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  18. The Effect of Luck and Misinformation on the Discrepancy between Multiple-Choice Test Scores and True Ability.

    Lowry, Stephen R.

    The effects of luck and misinformation on ability of multiple-choice test scores to estimate examinee ability were investigated. Two measures of examinee ability were defined. Misinformation was shown to have little effect on ability of raw scores and a substantial effect on ability of corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate examinee ability.…

  19. The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment

    Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly correlated. This…

  20. The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment

    Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the sub

  1. Genetic Tests for Ability?: Talent Identification and the Value of an Open Future

    Miah, Andy; Rich, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of genetic tests for performance in physical activity and sports practices. It investigates the terminology associated with genetics, testing, selection and ability as a means towards a socio-ethical analysis of its value within sport, education and society. Our argument suggests that genetic tests need not even be…

  2. Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) for Classifying Students Academic Ability

    Lee, Jaemu; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Kwangho

    2012-01-01

    Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, assessment for we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS) developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying…

  3. ECHNOLOGICAL PROVISIONING OF TEST CONTROL OF SPECIAL HEALTH GROUP STUDENTS’ POWER ABILITIES

    Koryahin V.M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate and realize modern electronic technological means for perfection of test control of students’ power abilities in special health groups. Material: materials of students’ test control have been used in the research. Results: we have developed electronic system for test monitoring of students’ power abilities. Besides, we showed possibilities of innovative automated methodic application for test monitoring of students’ power abilities. Strict regulation of monitoring significantly decreases dispersion of error and raises reliability of test. The mentioned monitoring system removes dependence of result on teacher’s subjective perception of information. Conclusions: Implementation of the offered system of monitoring of students’ power abilities’ functional state ensures promptness of confident testing results’ reception. It will facilitate effectiveness of control in students’ physical education.

  4. The relationship between the ability to identify evaluation criteria and integrity test scores

    CORNELIUS J. KÖNIG

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that applicants who have the ability to identify what kind of behavior is evaluated positively in a personnel selection situation can use this information to adapt their behavior accordingly. Although this idea has been tested for assessment centers and structured interviews, it has not been studied with regard to integrity tests (or other personality tests. Therefore, this study tested whether candidates’ ability to identify evaluation criteria (ATIC correlates with their integrity test scores. Candidates were tested in an application training setting (N = 92. The results supported the idea that ATIC also plays an important role for integrity tests. New directions for future research are suggested based on this finding.

  5. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test…

  6. Emotional Experiences during Test Taking: Does Cognitive Ability Make a Difference?

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined test-related experiences of enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and boredom in a sample of 2059 German school students (50% female) from grade 6, and how they relate to students' abstract reasoning ability (ARA). Emotions were assessed immediately before, during, and after a mathematics achievement test. Analysis of variance showed that…

  7. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  8. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities Test for Persons with Intellectual Disability: A Valuable Clinical Tool

    Vause, Tricia; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) test requires a tester to attempt to teach to a person, using standard prompting and reinforcement procedures, six tasks that are hierarchically ordered in difficulty. Performance on the test provides valuable information for teachers and rehabilitation workers to match the difficulty of training…

  9. Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT): A new measure of scientific creativity

    Ugur Sak; M. Bahadir Ayas

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of creativity has been a controversial issue in the studies of creativity. Contrary to old paradigms, contemporary researchers support the use of domain-specific tests to measure creativity. The purpose of this study was to investigate some psychometric properties of the Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT), a domain-specific test of scientific creativity. The C-SAT was developed based on the Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model and pioneering works on divergent thinki...

  10. Emotional experiences during test taking : does cognitive ability make a difference?

    Götz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined test-related experiences of enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and boredom in a sample of 2059 German school students (50% female) from grade 6, and how they relate to students' abstract reasoning ability (ARA). Emotions were assessed immediately before, during, and after a mathematics achievement test. Analysis of variance showed that emotions experienced during the test situation differed based on students' ARA level, with correspondence analysis revealing substantial difference...

  11. The Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (Level-H is a Measure of g

    Weng-Tink Chooi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the consensus in the field of human intelligence holds that a unitary factor (g accounts for the majority of the variance among individuals, there are still some who argue that intelligence is composed of separate abilities and individual differences across abilities in combination are what constitutes intelligence. In keeping with the latter theoretical support, the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT is an intelligence test that is designed to measure three distinct types of intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative. Several analyses were conducted to establish whether or not the triarchic model is empirically supported, or if a unitary construct is the best explanation of individual differences on this test. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicate that a g model is the best explanation for the data.

  12. WEB-BASED ADAPTIVE TESTING SYSTEM (WATS FOR CLASSIFYING STUDENTS ACADEMIC ABILITY

    Jaemu LEE,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying students’ ability into different academic levels. Instead of using a traditional paper and pencil test, the WATS is expected to serve as an alternate method to promptly diagnosis and identify underachieving students through Web-based testing. The WATS can also help provide students with appropriate learning contents and necessary academic support in time. In this paper, theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed.

  13. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Joni M. Lakin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  14. Development of Spatial Ability According to Mental Rotation Test at SKF and YBL

    Kovács András Zsolt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mental Rotation Test (MRT is one of the tests to survey the spatial ability. In this article we make an attempt to measure the spatial abilities of the students of wood industrial engineering and industrial design engineering of the Simonyi Károly Faculty of Engineering, Wood Sciences and Applied Arts (SKF for short of the University of West Hungary and compare the results with the architects students of the Ybl Miklós Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering of the Szent István University. The paper aims to compare the results with respect to the scores and mainly the improvement based on new examination aspects. The article concludes that the small differences in the students’ developments of spatial ability in the two institutions can be caused by the difference in Descriptive Geometry courses

  15. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  16. Testing of spatial ability: construction and evaluation of a new instrument

    Květon, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 233-252. ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spatial ability * testing * psychometrics Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  17. Construct Validation of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test: Comment and Reanalysis.

    Brody, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Presents an alternative theoretical analysis of several analyses presented by R. Sternberg and his colleagues of studies designed to validate the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. Makes the case that "g" theory is required to understand the relationships obtained by Sternberg and his colleagues. (SLD)

  18. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  19. Simulating the Effects of Common and Specific Abilities on Test Performance: An Evaluation of Factor Analysis

    McFarland, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Factor analysis is a useful technique to aid in organizing multivariate data characterizing speech, language, and auditory abilities. However, knowledge of the limitations of factor analysis is essential for proper interpretation of results. The present study used simulated test scores to illustrate some characteristics of factor…

  20. The Relationship between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample

    Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis

    2011-01-01

    One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…

  1. Predicting Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Cognitive Ability Test Performance: An Examination of Three Models

    Sawyer, Jr., Thomas P.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As the classroom and workplace, among other contexts, become more diverse in their population characteristics, the need to be aware of specific factors impacting testing outcome issues correspondingly increases. The focus in this study, among other purposes, was to identify possible interactions between examinee's individual-difference…

  2. The test ability of an adaptive pulse wave for ADC testing

    Sheng, Xiaoqin; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    In the conventional ADC production test method, a high-quality analogue sine wave is applied to the Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC), which is expensive to generate. Nowadays, an increasing number of ADCs are integrated into a system-on-chip (SoC) platform design, which usually contains a digital

  3. Evaluation of 2 cognitive abilities tests in a dual-task environment

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Most real world operators are required to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. In some cases, such as flying a high performance aircraft or trouble shooting a failing nuclear power plant, the operator's ability to time share or process in parallel" can be driven to extremes. This has created interest in selection tests of cognitive abilities. Two tests that have been suggested are the Dichotic Listening Task and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Correlations between these test results and time sharing performance were obtained and the validity of these tests were examined. The primary task was a tracking task with dynamically varying bandwidth. This was performed either alone or concurrently with either another tracking task or a spatial transformation task. The results were: (1) An unexpected negative correlation was detected between the two tests; (2) The lack of correlation between either test and task performance made the predictive utility of the tests scores appear questionable; (3) Pilots made more errors on the Dichotic Listening Task than college students.

  4. Feasibility of repeated testing for learning ability in juvenile primates for pediatric safety assessment.

    Rose, C; Luetjens, C M; Grote-Wessels, S; Weinbauer, G F

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of learning ability in nonhuman primate (NHP) models is sometimes requested by regulatory authorities. The double choice object discrimination task using a Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA) approach is typically being applied. In this study, the WGTA approach was performed on 66 juvenile cynomolgus monkeys aged 8-9 months in the predose phase of juvenile toxicity assessment. In addition, reversal learning data of seven control animals/gender were obtained for the weeks 25 and 52 of dosing. Gender differences in the number of days required to pass the habituation, learning or reversal learning phases were statistically comparable, males and females may be combined for statistical analysis. At first instance, the habituation phase was passed on average after 6.4 days, and the learning test on average after 8.6 days with improvement to 2.0-2.6 days for habituation and 6.4-6.7 days for learning in weeks 52. Power analysis (α = 0.05, one-sided t-test) revealed a sample size of 8 and 41 to predict a 50% and 20% difference, respectively. In conclusion, examination for learning ability, but not for memory ability (during repeated testing) is feasible in juvenile NHPs using the WGTA approach. PMID:26361857

  5. Development of a psychological test to diagnose abilities required for successful learning medicine

    H.-W. Gessmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We substantiate the necessity of psychological tools aimed at diagnostics of the capabilities for successful learning in medical university, and show the progress of its development. The questionnaire is developed based on the U.S. and European success tests, and its design meets the famous “test for medical professions” (TMS. “Kostroma test for medical professions” (KTMP is not a translation or adaptation of TMS to Russian conditions. It will be re-designed with new test items based on the principles of classical test construction. Creating scientifically based methods of psychological diagnosis of general cognitive ability is a prerequisite for the successful solution of a wide range of research and practical issues related to improving the effectiveness of education and training programs.

  6. Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability

    Alexander, Gerianne M.; Son, Troy

    2007-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored in 16 women and 20 men during completion of a standard diagram-based test of mental rotation ability to provide measures of cognitive function not requiring conscious, decisional processes. Overall, women and men allocated visual attention during task performance in very similar, systematic ways. However, consistent with previous suggestions that sex differences in attentional processes during completion of the mental rotation task may exist, eye movements in men ...

  7. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate Following Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle Testing

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    To date, changes in functional performance have been systematically studied after short-duration space flight. As important as the postflight functional changes have been, full functional recovery has never been investigated or established for long-duration flights. The Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment, conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S, is comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. The objective of the Seat Egress - Walk and Obstacle Test, developed by NASA's Russian collaborators at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, is to address this gap in knowledge. This will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission requirements that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity.

  8. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  9. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate After Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk, and Obstacle Test

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These changes lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the components involved in postflight ataxia. Full functional recovery has not been sufficiently investigated for long-duration crewmembers. The joint U.S./Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment (a pre-cursor to Field Test (FT)) was developed to address this gap in knowledge. The PFT was conducted on crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S and was comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing and for several days thereafter. Closing this gap will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity. The Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle (SEWO) Test will be discussed in this poster.

  10. Novel permittivity test for determination of yeast surface charge and flocculation abilities.

    Kregiel, Dorota; Berlowska, Joanna; Szubzda, Bronisław

    2012-12-01

    Yeast flocculation has been found to be important in many biotechnological processes. It has been suggested that flocculation is promoted by decreasing electrostatic repulsion between cells. In this study, we used an unconventional rapid technique--permittivity test--for determination of the flocculation properties and surface charge values of three industrial yeast strains with well-known flocculation characteristics: Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 1017 (brewery, ale), S. pastorianus NCYC 680 (brewery, lager), and Debaryomyces occidentalis LOCK 0251 (unconventional amylolytic yeast). The measurements of permittivity were compared with the results from two classical methods for determination of surface charge: Alcian blue retention and Sephadex DEAE attachment. The permittivity values for particular strains correlated directly with the results of Alcian blue retention (r = 0.9). The results also confirmed a strong negative relationship between the capacitance of yeast suspensions and their flocculation abilities. The highest permittivity was noted for the ale strain NCYC 1017, with weak flocculation abilities, and the lowest for the flocculating lager yeast NCYC 680. This paper is the first to describe the possibility of using a rapid permittivity test to evaluate the surface charge of yeast cells and their flocculation abilities. This method is of practical value in various biotechnological industries where flocculation is applied as a major method of cell separation. PMID:22976039

  11. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and PMID:27445902

  12. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A.; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research. PMID:27445902

  13. Test Review: C. D. Elliott "Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition." San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment, 2007

    Marshall, Stephanie; McGoey, Kara E.; Moschos, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II), an individually administered cognitive test battery, designed to evaluate children ages 2 years 6 months to 17 years 11 months. It purports to measure a hierarchy of cognitive abilities, including broad abilities contributing to a single cognitive factor…

  14. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL learners

    Bahareh Molazem Atashgahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening has any impact on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch.  The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional scores, among all the testers, only those whose scores were nearly within one standard deviation above or below the mean were selected as the participants of this study. After the assignment of the participants to the control and experimental groups- 30 students in each group- they were asked to write five-paragraph-essays on two topics. Such a pretest was given to both groups to test their initial writing ability. Once scoring of the students’ writings (five- paragraph essay was finished the two means of the groups were calculated and compared with each other through the t-test analysis. The result demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between those two groups regarding the variable under investigation. Four sets of diagnostic tests were given to the experimental group every two weeks and after each test both the result of the exam and suitable feedback regarding students’ errors were given to them by the teacher, while the Current-Traditional Rhetoric method was administered in the control group.In the posttest which was run after giving the treatment and placebo to experimental group and control group respectively, students took another writing test with the same characteristics in administration, topics and scoring as the one in pretest. Thereafter, the significance of the difference between the obtained means of experimental and control groups in the posttest was determined through the t-test.  The result of the t-test analysis indicated a significant difference between the two groups which consequently rejected the null hypothesis of the study.Therefore, any

  15. Somatotype and intellectual ability (Raven progressive matrices test) in Chilean school-age children

    Liliana U. Tapia; Pablo A. Lizana; Yasna Z. Orellana; Francisca S. Villagrán; Vanessa F. Arias; Atilio F. Almagià; Raquel A. Burrows; Daniza M. Ivanovic

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between somatotype and intellectual ability (IA) in 11-12 and 15-16 year-old students (n = 1,015) in the Chile's Metropolitan Region from a representative sample of 33 educational establishments chosen at random. Methods: The Heath-Carter somatotype and the IA assessed through the Raven Progressive Matrices Test were measured. Results: The endomorph was observed in 59% of the students; 28% had a mesomorph and 13% ectomorph. T...

  16. Startup test strategy for demonstrating the ability of DWPF to comply with the WAPS

    This document discusses Startup Test Program for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which has been formulated to demonstrate that the DWPF can be operated in a safe, environmentally responsible manner to produce a product that will meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications. Startup will be managed in four distinct phases: Integrated Water Runs, Cold Chemical Runs, Waste Qualification Runs, and Radioactive Operation. A variety of feeds will be used for Waste Qualification Runs. Initial operation will commence with a composite feed with characteristics designed to approximate those of the initial waste glass. All equipment critical to radioactive operation of the DWPF will be tested to demonstrate the ability of DWPF to produce a product suitable for eventual geological disposal

  17. Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT: A new measure of scientific creativity

    Ugur Sak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of creativity has been a controversial issue in the studies of creativity. Contrary to old paradigms, contemporary researchers support the use of domain-specific tests to measure creativity. The purpose of this study was to investigate some psychometric properties of the Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT, a domain-specific test of scientific creativity. The C-SAT was developed based on the Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model and pioneering works on divergent thinking. The test is composed of five subtests and measures fluency, flexibility and creativity and hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation in five areas of science. In the study, the C-SAT was administered to 288 sixth grade students in a city in the mid part of Turkey. Factor validity analysis revealed the presence of one component and concurrent validity analysis showed that mathematically talented students scored significantly higher on the C-SAT than did average students. Reliability values of the C-SAT ranged from good (.85 to excellent (.96 and all of the item discrimination correlations were medium or large. Research findings show that the C-SAT can be used as an objective measure of scientific creativity.

  18. Validating a test to assess early childhood learners’ ability to perceive, express and appreciate emotions

    Jose Miguel Mestre Navas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Education, regardless of the school level, has an important mission in the goal of any educational project: socialising younger generations. However, it is also important to assess implemented programs by means of a valid, reliable measure of the progression of children’s’ cognitive and emotional development. Using a sample of 138 early childhood learners (aged from 3 to 6 this paper tested an instrument for assessing the ability to perceive, appreciate and express emotions (as defined by Mayer & Salovey’s model, 1997; 2007. Also, external criteria were developed by teachers on several issues related to children’s social and personal adaptation (school rules, achievement, impulsiveness, social acceptance of peers and hostility. Findings suggest that children from 3 to 6 years who obtain best scores in the perception and assessment of basic emotions are considered by their teachers to better adjust to school rules, to better control impulses, to achieve better academic performance and to be less problematic. It is also important to note that the study is at its initial stages and presents some limitations, as certain important variables such as personality and verbal ability are not controlled. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that children showed great enthusiasm in taking the test.

  19. A nonlinear regression approach to test for size-dependence of competitive ability.

    Lamb, Eric G; Cahill, James F; Dale, Mark R T

    2006-06-01

    An individual's competitive ability is often dependent on its size, but the methods commonly used to analyze plant competition experiments generally assume that the outcome of interactions are size independent. A method for the analysis of experiments with paired competition treatments based on nonlinear regression with a power function is presented. This method allows straightforward tests of whether a competitive interaction is size dependent, and for the significance of experimental treatments. The method is applied to three example data sets: (1) an experiment where pairs of plants were grown with and without competition at five fertilization levels, (2) an experiment where the fecundity of two snail species were compared between environments at two densities, and (3) an addition series experiment where two plant species were grown in proportional mixtures at several densities. Competitive ability was size-dependent in two of these examples, which demonstrates that a wide range of ecologically important information can be lost when the assumption of size-dependence is ignored. Regression with a power curve should always be used to test whether competitive interactions are size independent, and for the further analysis of size-dependent interactions. PMID:16869420

  20. Applicability of the free field Sustained Auditory Attention Ability Test (SAAAT

    Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The attention is an underlying neuropsychology function to all the cognitive processes. The auditory deficiency compromises the normal development of the child, modifying diverse auditory abilities, including the attention. Objective: to compare the performance of children in the Test of the Ability of Auditory Attention Support, as for the different forms of application (auricular phones and free field, sort and, application order. Method: 40 children (7 years old voluntary with typical development had participated, divided in two groups: G1 and G2, composites of 20 children each. The application of the THAAS in the G1 if gave first with auricular phones and after that in free field and the G2 the process was inverse. The evaluation consisted in: specific questionnaire, auditory tests and application of the THAAS. Results: It did not have significant difference how much to the sort. For the THAAS with phones, the G1 presented greater amount of errors of carelessness and total punctuation. For the THAAS in field it had a significant difference of the G2 for the monitoring decrease. How much to the application form, the G1 demonstrated a bigger number of errors when it was used phones. The G2 did not demonstrate difference. Conclusion: It had viability in the application of the THAAS in Free Field, being able to be adopted the same used normative values for the conventional way of evaluation.

  1. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions). PMID:27047425

  2. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations. PMID:25410405

  3. An experimental test of the ability of Daphnia galeata resting egg production in Lake Biwa

    Narumi K. Tsugeki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Daphnia galeata population in Lake Biwa (Japan had almost ceased producing resting eggs by the 1980s. To examine whether D. galeata had lost the ability to produce resting eggs, or if chemical contamination was inhibiting resting egg production, individuals collected in fall (November and late winter (March, were reared in the laboratory. More than 50% of these D. galeata individuals produced resting eggs irrespective of the month of collection, when reared with food supplied at a level lower than that available during the maternal generation. The results reflect that D. galeata in Lake Biwa have a high ability to produce resting eggs when appropriate stimuli are provided. As chemical substances, such as endocrine disrupters, are known to inhibit resting egg production in Daphnia and these accumulate in lake sediments, we tested whether Daphnia individuals produce resting eggs when reared in sediment-conditioned lake water. In sediment-conditioned lake water, only a few Daphnia that were collected in March produced resting eggs, while 50% of the individuals collected in November produced resting eggs. Thus, D. galeata collected from Lake Biwa are able to produce resting eggs, but genetic variation likely leads to variation in resting egg production in the presence of chemical contaminants. These results suggest that the recent decrease in the resting egg production of Daphnia populations in lake Biwa is mainly due to a decrease in the strength of the environmental queue that stimulates resting egg production rather than a genetic shift to strains that have a lower ability to produce resting eggs; yet, we cannot rule out the possibility that a chemical contamination plays a role in the decrease of resting egg production.

  4. Intellectual ability as a predictor of performance on the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    Tanabe, Mark K; Whitaker, Ashley M; O'Callaghan, Erin T; Murray, Joan; Houskamp, Beth M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and executive functioning in youth. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Ability Index (GAI) and understanding of sorting principles as measured by percent conceptual-level responses on the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST). One hundred eighty-five children and adolescents completed neuropsychological evaluations. Results revealed a curvilinear regression with bright youth (GAI = 115-129) and gifted youth (GAI ≥130) performing better than average youth (GAI = 90-114) and no difference in performance between bright and gifted youth. Additionally, post-hoc analyses revealed intelligence in children 5 to 8 years of age and 12 to 16 years of age did not significantly predict percent conceptual-level responses, while intelligence predicted more than 19% of the variance in percent conceptual-level responses for children ages 9 to 11 years old. Findings revealed new evidence about the role of intellectual ability in executive functioning among different age ranges and have important implications for psychologists, caregivers, educators, and other professionals working with this population. PMID:24083565

  5. The Munich High Ability Test Battery (MHBT: A multidimensional, multimethod approach

    CHRISTOPH PERLETH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction the theoretical basis of the Munich High Ability Test-Battery (MHBT will be outlined in the first part of the article. The MHBT has been developed in the framework of the Munich longitudinal study of giftedness and talent. The MHBT includes not only cognitive predictors measuring several dimensions and types of giftedness concerning intellectual, creative or social abilities etc., but also giftedness-relevant non-cognitive personality and social moderators measuring interests, motivations, learning emotions, self-concepts or family and school climate, educational style, quality of instruction, etc. The MHBT-instruments (different scales and dimensions are described in greater detail.In the second part of the article, after dealing with the objectivity, the reliability, and the validity of the MHBT, the authors discuss the standardization procedure including the development of grade-based T-norms respectively as well as several talent-profiles, e.g. of gifted achievers vs. underachievers, intellectual, creative, social talents or linguistic, math, science talent profiles etc. Finally, examples of talent search for gifted programs and case studies on the basis of MHBT should illustrate multidimensional identification procedures.The MHBT fulfills the most relevant assessment tasks belonging to the gifted educational and counseling practice. The usefulness of the MHBT in the framework of giftedness research as well as of gifted program evaluation studies has also been proven in the last decade. Hence the MHBT offers many opportunities to assessing giftedness and talent.

  6. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  7. Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates.

    Ballester-Plané, Júlia; Laporta-Hoyos, Olga; Macaya, Alfons; Póo, Pilar; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar; Vázquez, Élida; Delgado, Ignacio; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Narberhaus, Ana; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Russi, Maria Eugenia; Tenorio, Violeta; Segarra, Dolors; Pueyo, Roser

    2016-09-01

    Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy. PMID:27262445

  8. Testing the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model to simulate contributing area

    Mengistu, S. G.; Spence, C.

    2016-06-01

    A dry climate, the prevalence of small depressions, and the lack of a well-developed drainage network are characteristics of environments with extremely variable contributing areas to runoff. These types of regions arguably present the greatest challenge to properly understanding catchment streamflow generation processes. Previous studies have shown that contributing area dynamics are important for streamflow response, but the nature of the relationship between the two is not typically understood. Furthermore, it is not often tested how well hydrological models simulate contributing area. In this study, the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model, the PDMROF configuration of Environment Canada's MESH model, was tested to determine if it could simulate contributing area. The study focused on the St. Denis Creek watershed in central Saskatchewan, Canada, which with its considerable topographic depressions, exhibits wide variation in contributing area, making it ideal for this type of investigation. MESH-PDMROF was able to replicate contributing area derived independently from satellite imagery. Daily model simulations revealed a hysteretic relationship between contributing area and streamflow not apparent from the less frequent remote sensing observations. This exercise revealed that contributing area extent can be simulated by a semi-distributed hydrological model with a scheme that assumes storage capacity distribution can be represented with a probability function. However, further investigation is needed to determine if it can adequately represent the complex relationship between streamflow and contributing area that is such a key signature of catchment behavior.

  9. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  10. Somatotype and intellectual ability (Raven progressive matrices test in Chilean school-age children

    Liliana U. Tapia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between somatotype and intellectual ability (IA in 11-12 and 15-16 year-old students (n = 1,015 in the Chile's Metropolitan Region from a representative sample of 33 educational establishments chosen at random. Methods: The Heath-Carter somatotype and the IA assessed through the Raven Progressive Matrices Test were measured. Results: The endomorph was observed in 59% of the students; 28% had a mesomorph and 13% ectomorph. The IA was distributed in: 11.2% Grade I, 26.8% Grade II, 41% Grade III, 17.6% Grade IV and 3.2% Grade V. A positive and significant correlation of IA with the endo-morphic component (r = 0.074, p = 0.02 was found in the total sample and only in females (r = 0.109, p = 0.02; at the same time, a positive and significant correlation with the ectomorph component was also observed (r = 0.067, p < 0.05. Conclusions: This suggests that other variables would influence more strongly the IA for which further research is needed to quantitate this multifactorial problem.

  11. Testing the ability of different seismic detections approaches to monitor aftershocks following a moderate magnitude event.

    Romero, Paula; Díaz, Jordi; Ruiz, Mario; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Gomez-García, Clara

    2016-04-01

    The detection and picking of seismic events is a permanent concern for seismic surveying, in particular when dealing with aftershocks of moderate magnitude events. Many efforts have been done to find the balance between computer efficiency and the robustness of the detection methods. In this work, data recorded by a high density seismic network deployed following a 5.2 magnitude event located close to Albacete, SE Spain, is used to test the ability of classical and recently proposed detection methodologies. Two days after the main shock, occurred the 23th February, a network formed by 11 stations from ICTJA-CSIC and 2 stations from IGN were deployed over the region, with inter-station distances ranging between 5 and 10 km. The network remained in operation until April 6th, 2015 and allowed to manually identify up to 552 events with magnitudes from 0.2 to 3.5 located in an area of just 25 km2 inside the network limits. The detection methods here studied applied are the classical STA/LTA, a power spectral method, a detector based in the Benford's law and a waveform similarity method. The STA/LTA method, based in the comparison of background noise and seismic signal amplitudes, is taken as a reference to evaluate the results arising from the other approaches. The power spectral density method is based in the inspection of the characteristic frequency pattern associated to seismic events. The Benford's Law detector analyses the distribution of the first-digit of displacement count in the histogram of a seismic waveform, considering that only the windows containing seismic wave arrivals will match the logarithmic law. Finally, the waveform similarity method is based in the analysis of the normalized waveform amplitude, detecting those events with waveform similar to a previously defined master event. The aim of this contribution is to inspect the ability of the different approaches to accurately detect the aftershocks events for this kind of seismic crisis and to

  12. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Niileksela, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    "The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities" (WJ IV COG) is an individually administered measure of psychometric intellectual abilities designed for ages 2 to 90+. The measure was published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt-Riverside in 2014. Frederick Shrank, Kevin McGrew, and Nancy Mather are the authors. Richard Woodcock, the…

  13. Recent Developments in Language Assessment and the Case of Four Large-Scale Tests of ESOL Ability

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This review article surveys recent developments and validation activities related to four large-scale tests of L2 English ability: the iBT TOEFL, the IELTS, the FCE, and the TOEIC. In addition to describing recent changes to these tests, the paper reports on validation activities that were conducted on the measures. The results of this research…

  14. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:24153402

  15. Reprocessing ability of high density fuels for research and test reactors

    The development of a new high density fuel is becoming a key issue for Research Reactors operators. Such a new fuel should be a Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) fuel with a high density, to improve present in core performances. It must be compatible with the reprocessing in an industrial plant to provide a steady back-end solution. Within the framework of a work group CEA/CERCA/COGEMA on new fuel development for Research Reactors, COGEMA has performed an evaluation of the reprocessing ability of some fuel dispersants selected as good candidates. The results will allow US to classify these fuel dispersants from a reprocessing ability point of view. (author)

  16. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on academi

  17. The Relationship between Spoken Language Ability and Intelligence Test Performance of Deaf Children and Adolescents

    Remine, Maria D.; Brown, P. Margaret; Care, Esther; Rickards, Field

    2007-01-01

    For several decades the intellectual abilities of deaf children and adolescents, as measured by performance IQ, have been reported as comparable with those of hearing children and adolescents. Differences have been reported, however, on measures of verbal IQ, with deaf children and adolescents typically obtaining verbal IQ scores within the low…

  18. Innovative testing of spatial ability: interactive responding and the use of complex stimuli material

    Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 45-55. ISSN 1612-4782 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Spatial ability * Navigation skill * Working memory Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.388, year: 2014

  19. An Investigation of Calculator Use on Employment Tests of Mathematical Ability: Effects on Reliability, Validity, Test Scores, and Speed of Completion

    Bing, Mark N.; Stewart, Susan M.; Davison, H. Kristl

    2009-01-01

    Handheld calculators have been used on the job for more than 30 years, yet the degree to which these devices can affect performance on employment tests of mathematical ability has not been thoroughly examined. This study used a within-subjects research design (N = 167) to investigate the effects of calculator use on test score reliability, test…

  20. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  1. Emotional intelligence as ability : assessing the construct validity of scores from the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the results from three papers assessing the validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is the only performance test measuring the entire four-branch ability model of EI (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Previous studies have reported low reliability coefficients for the branch scores for MSCEIT and reliability estimates vary greatly from study to study. The reported reliability coe...

  2. A framework for testing the ability of models to project climate change and its impacts

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Madsen, H.; Andréassian, V.;

    2014-01-01

    a validation framework and guiding principles applicable across earth science disciplines for testing the capability of models to project future climate change and its impacts. Model test schemes comprising split-sample tests, differential split-sample tests and proxy site tests are discussed in...... relation to their application for projections by use of single models, ensemble modelling and space-time-substitution and in relation to use of different data from historical time series, paleo data and controlled experiments. We recommend that differential-split sample tests should be performed with best......Models used for climate change impact projections are typically not tested for simulation beyond current climate conditions. Since we have no data truly reflecting future conditions, a key challenge in this respect is to rigorously test models using proxies of future conditions. This paper presents...

  3. Propriedades psicométricas do conjunto de testes da habilidade visuo espacial Psychometric proprieties of visual-spatial ability tests kit

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as propriedades psicométricas de um conjunto de testes elaborados para mensurar a habilidade visuo espacial (Gv, quanto a sua estrutura fatorial, unidimensionalidade, validade convergente e discriminante. Fizeram parte da pesquisa 558 participantes que cursavam ou concluíram o ensino médio. Utilizou-se o Teste de Visualização (Vz, Teste de Flexibilidade de Fechamento (CF, Teste de Memória Visual (MV, Teste de Fluência Figural (FF, Teste de Fluência Ideacional 1 (FI1 e Teste de Fluência Ideacional 2 (FI2. Foram usados procedimentos de análise fatorial exploratória, análise fatorial confirmatória e o ajuste ao modelo Rasch. Os índices de ajuste dos modelos aos dados estão adequados às recomendações da literatura. Os testes possuem uma estrutura fatorial de dois níveis, porém unidimensional. Convergem para mensurar a habilidade visuo espacial (Gv e divergem na mensuração da fluência, utilizada neste estudo como habilidade contrastante.This article analyses the psychometrical properties of a test kit developed to measure visual-spatial ability in terms of its factorial structure, unidimensionality, convergent validity and divergent validity. A sample of 558 students that were either attending High School or had just concluded it participated of this research. The Visualization Test (Vz, Flexibility of Closure Test (CF, Visual Memory Test (MV, Figural Fluency Test (FF, Ideational Fluency Test 1 (FI1 and Ideational Fluency Test 2 (FI2 were used. The data analysis used the exploratory factorial analysis, the confirmatory factorial analysis and the fit to the Rasch model procedures. The model fit indexes are in accordance with the cutoff values suggested by the literature. The tests showed a two-level factorial structure, although it can be taken as an unidimensional structure. The tests converge to measure the visual-spatial ability and diverge to measure the fluency ability which was used in this study as

  4. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  5. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a number of years, eliminating a language component in testing by using nonverbal cognitive tests has been proposed as a possible solution to the effect of groups’ languages (mother tongues or first languages on test performance. This is particularly relevant in South Africa with its 11 official languages.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups.Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution.Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made.Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  6. Developing a c-test to measure language ability as an alternative to a skills-based test Ingrid Sarapuu, Ene Alas

    Ingrid Sarapuu; Ene Alas

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates the properties of a c-test and its ability to measure test-takers’ overall English language proficiency in the Estonian context. For this purpose, prior research concerning c-test validity and reliability are consulted, and the c- test’s assets with relation to a skills-based proficiency evaluation instrument are sought. The article then discusses the process of developing a c-test following the procedure recommended by Grotjahn (1987) and Raatz and Klein-Braley (2002...

  7. Testing elementary and secondary school students' ability to perform historical perspective taking: the constructing of valid and reliable measure instruments

    Huijgen,T.; Boxtel, van, C.; Grift, van de, Wim J.C.M.; Holthuis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Historical reasoning competencies play an important role in history education. However, valid and reliable large-scale measurement instruments to assess these competencies are scarce. This study considers two instruments for measuring students’ ability to perform historical perspective taking (HPT) as a historical reasoning competency. The instruments have been tested for validity and reliability among 1,270 Dutch upper elementary and secondary school students, ranging in age from 10 to 17 ye...

  8. Pedestrian navigation using haptic feedback: Results from a field study to test spatial abilities and memory recall

    Jacob, Ricky; Winstanley, Adam; Togher, Naomi; Roche, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Haptic feedback (using the sense of touch) or 'haptics' is a technology that provides forced feedback, vibrations, and/or motions to haptic-enabled user devices. The mobile haptic interaction model for a point to destination pedestrian navigation system is described. The importance of eyes-free, subtle feedback has been highlighted in previous work. This paper reports on the initial findings from the tests carried out to evaluate the user’s spatial abilities, navigations skills an...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF BALANCE ABILITIES IN ELDERLY PEOPLE BY MEANS OF A CLINICAL TEST AND A LOW-COST FORCE PLATE

    Sgrò, Francesco; Licari, Danilo; Coppola, Roberto; Lipoma, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Balance and mobility assessment, and the estimation of the risk of falls, represent crucial elements for supporting a healthy aging process. In this work, we evaluated the association of two approaches used to estimate standing balance and sit-to-stand abilities in community-dwelling older people. The clinical-based test was the Short Physical Performance Battery, while the laboratory-based assessments were realized by means of output measures obtained with the Wii Balance Board. The corre...

  10. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    McNulty, E.W.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Rabeni, C.F. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Environmental Research Center

    1999-03-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition, at the start of a test. The authors evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl{sub 2}, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl{sub 2} (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods, such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  11. Limited ability of the proton-pump inhibitor test to identify patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Bytzer, Peter; Jones, Roger; Vakil, Nimish;

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy often is assessed to determine whether patients' symptoms are acid-related and if patients have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), although the accuracy of this approach is questionable. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the PPI test...

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters and transmitting ability for Minnesota Johne’s milk ELISA test

    A total number of 45,907 results for Johne’s Milk ELISA test were received from Minnesota DHIA, of which 40,177 records were from herds with at least one positive Johne’s cow. Pedigree information was available for 19,304 Holstein cows from AIPL USDA representing 22,694 total records. Milk ELISA opt...

  13. On the effect of test head sound fields on the ability to detect faults in plating

    Ferritic reactor pressure vessels and some ferritic pipelines are protected by Austentic plating. In connection with discussions on possible corrosive attack on this plating, the occurrence and growth of cracks, processes for testing this plating have come to the fore again. Apart from the qualification of eddy current processes, such as the pulse eddy current process for example, ultrasonic test techniques are also required. In order to be able to compare measured results from different platings with one another, running time rosettes wer measured. Characteristic sound field data can be determined from this. One tried to derive criteria for the detectability of groove-like faults from this information and to examine them for their applicability in practice. This evaluation of results was supported by statistical methods. (orig.)

  14. Does the Defining Issues Test measure ethical judgment ability or political position?

    Bailey, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the construct validity of the Defining Issues Test of ethical judgment (DIT/DIT-2). Alleging a political bias in the test, Emler and colleagues (1983, 1998, 1999, 2007), show that conservatives score higher when asked to fake as liberals, implying that they understand the reasoning associated with "higher" moral development but avoid items they see as liberally biased. DIT proponents challenge the internal validity of faking studies, advocating an explained-variance validation. This study takes a new approach: Adult participants complete the DIT-2, then evaluate the raw responses of others to discern political orientation and ethical development. Results show that individuals scoring higher on the DIT-2 rank others' ethical judgment in a way consistent with DIT-2-based rankings. Accuracy at assessing political orientation, however, is low. Results support the DIT-2's validity as a measure of ethical development, not an expression of political position. PMID:21675184

  15. Prediction of Driving Ability with Neuropsychological Tests: Demographic Adjustments Diminish Accuracy

    Barrash, Joseph; Stillman, Ashley; Anderson, Steven W; UC, Ergun Y; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Demographically-adjusted norms are used to enhance accuracy of inferences based on neuropsychological assessment. However, we hypothesized that predictive accuracy regarding complex real-world activities is diminished by demographic corrections. Driving performance was assessed with a standardized on-road test in participants aged 65+ (24 healthy elderly, 26 Alzheimer’s disease, 33 Parkinson’s disease). Neuropsychological measures included Trailmaking A and B, Complex Figure, Benton Visual Re...

  16. Influence of impulsivity-reflexivity when testing dynamic spatial ability: sex and g differences.

    Quiroga, M Angeles; Hernández, José Manuel; Rubio, Victor; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, José

    2007-11-01

    This work analyzes the possibility that the differences in the performance of men and women in dynamic spatial tasks such as the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R; Santacreu & Rubio, 1998), obtained in previous works, are due to cognitive style (Reflexivity-Impulsivity) or to the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO) that the participants implement. If these differences are due to cognitive style, they would be independent of intelligence, whereas if they are due to SATO, they may be associated with intelligence. In this work, 1652 participants, 984 men and 668 women, ages between 18 and 55 years, were assessed. In addition to the SODT-R, the "Test de Razonamiento Analitico, Secuencial e Inductivo" (TRASI [Analytical, Sequential, and Inductive Reasoning Test]; Rubio & Santacreu, 2003) was administered as a measure of general intelligence. Impulsivity scores (Zi) of Salkind and Wright (1977) were used to analyze reflexivity-impulsivity and SATO. The results obtained indicate that (a) four performance groups can be identified: Fast-accurate, Slow-inaccurate, Impulsive, and Reflexive. The first two groups solve the task as a function of a competence variable and the last two as a function of a personality variable; (b) performance differences should be attributed to SATO; (c) SATO differs depending on sex and intelligence level. PMID:17992956

  17. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  18. Weld ability test of the ODS type steel. Cohesion mechanism of oxide

    Fuel-duct tubes for fast-breeder reactors are exposed to severe fast neutron flux at 673 - 973 K. Material for those tubes is to be able to bare very high irradiation damage over 200 dpa. One probable candidate for this need is heat-resistant ferrite steel, but the strength of ferrite steel is rather low at high temperatures over 873 K. Accordingly it is under consideration to utilize oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferrite steel, ferrite steel whose high-temperature strength is improved by dispersion of nano-size oxide particles in matrix. Poor creep rupture strength under internal pressure and difficulty in welding, deterioration in strength with aggregation of oxide particles in weld metal, are major problems in utilization of ODS ferrite steel. In this study, rapid thermal cycle and compressive deformation are applied simultaneously to MA957 ODS ferrite steel using GLEEBLE thermo-mechanical simulator to investigate the changes in microstructure of ODS ferrite steel under high temperature and deformation during resistance-welding. Heated areas in specimens were observed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With application of only thermal cycles (no compression), coarsening of crystal grains of matrix was apparent in specimens kept over 1693 K for 10 s. In the specimen kept at 1703 K porosities of 2 - 3 μm in size appeared along grain boundaries of matrix. Porosities were gathered at triple points of grain boundaries and coarsened in specimens heated to higher temperatures. In these porosities precipitations of oxide of aluminum, titanium, and yttrium were found. From these precipitations TiO2 and Y2TiO5 were identified with selected area electron diffraction by TEM. These oxides were supposed to form with oxidation of Ti in the test material by oxygen existing as iron oxide and others. Compression with heating was enhanced formation of porosities and aggregation of oxide particles remarkably

  19. A novel test of planning ability: great apes can plan step-by-step but not in advance of action.

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2013-11-01

    The ability to identify an appropriate sequence of actions or to consider alternative possible action sequences might be particularly useful during problem solving in the physical domain. We developed a new 'paddle-box' task to test the ability of different ape species to plan an appropriate sequence of physical actions (rotating paddles) to retrieve a reward from a goal location. The task had an adjustable difficulty level and was not dependent on species-specific behaviours (e.g. complex tool use). We investigated the planning abilities of captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) using the paddle-box. In experiment 1, subjects had to rotate one or two paddles before rotating the paddle with the reward on. Subjects of both species performed poorly, though orangutans rotated more non-food paddles, which may be related to their greater exploratory tendencies and bolder temperament compared with bonobos. In experiment 2 subjects could always rotate the paddle with the reward on first and still succeed, and most subjects of both species performed appropriate sequences of up to three paddle rotations to retrieve the reward. Poor performance in experiment 1 may have been related to subjects' difficulty in inhibiting the prepotent response to act on the reward immediately. PMID:24153327

  20. Testing marine shales' ability to generate catalytic gas at low temperature

    Wei, L.; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.; Sauer, P. E.; Mastalerz, M.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbon gases are generally thought to originatevia low-temperature microbial or high-temperature thermogenicpathways (Whiticar, 1996) that can be distinguished by compound-specific hydrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios. An alternative low-temperature catalytic pathway for hydrocarbon generation from sedimentary organic matter has been proposed to be active at temperatures as low as 50oC (e.g.,Mango and Jarvie,2009,2010; Mango et al., 2010; Bartholomew et al., 1999). This hypothesis, however, still requires rigoroustesting by independent laboratory experiments.The possibility of catalytic generation of hydrocarbons in some source rocks (most likely in relatively impermeable and organic-rich shales where reduced catalytic centers can be best preserved) would offer an explanation for the finding of gas of non-microbial origin in formations that lack the thermal maturity for generating thermogenic gas.It is unknown whether catalytically generated methane would be isotopically different from thermogenicmethane (δ13CCH4>-50‰, δ2HCH4from -275‰ to -100‰) ormicrobially generated methane (δ13CCH4from -40‰ to -110‰, δ2HCH4from -400‰to -150‰) (Whiticar, 1998). In order to test for catalytic gas generationin water-wet shales and coals, we are conductinglaboratory experiments at three temperatures (60°C, 100°C, 200°C)and three pressures (ambient pressure, 107 Pa, 3x107 Pa)over periods of six months to several years. So far, our longest running experiments have reached one year. We sealed different types of thermally immature, pre-evacuatedshales (Mowry, New Albany, and Mahoganyshales) and coals (SpringfieldCoal and Wilcoxlignite)with isotopically defined waters in gold cells in the absence of elemental oxygen.Preliminary results show that these samples, depending on conditions, can generate light hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethane and propane) and CO2. Methane, CO2, and traces of H2havebeen generated at 60°C, whereas experiments at 100°C and 200

  1. Invasion success in a marginal habitat: an experimental test of competitive ability and drought tolerance in Chromolaena odorata.

    te Beest, Mariska; Elschot, Kelly; Olff, Han; Etienne, Rampal S

    2013-01-01

    Climatic niche models based on native-range climatic data accurately predict invasive-range distributions in the majority of species. However, these models often do not account for ecological and evolutionary processes, which limit the ability to predict future range expansion. This might be particularly problematic in the case of invaders that occupy environments that would be considered marginal relative to the climatic niche in the native range of the species. Here, we assess the potential for future range expansion in the shrub Chromolaena odorata that is currently invading mesic savannas (>650 mm MAP) in South Africa that are colder and drier than most habitats in its native range. In a greenhouse experiment we tested whether its current distribution in South Africa can be explained by increased competitive ability and/or differentiation in drought tolerance relative to the native population. We compared aboveground biomass, biomass allocation, water use efficiency and relative yields of native and invasive C. odorata and the resident grass Panicum maximum in wet and dry conditions. Surprisingly, we found little differentiation between ranges. Invasive C. odorata showed no increased competitive ability or superior drought tolerance compared to native C. odorata. Moreover we found that P. maximum was a better competitor than either native or invasive C. odorata. These results imply that C. odorata is unlikely to expand its future range towards more extreme, drier, habitats beyond the limits of its current climatic niche and that the species' invasiveness most likely depends on superior light interception when temporarily released from competition by disturbance. Our study highlights the fact that species can successfully invade habitats that are at the extreme end of their ranges and thereby contributes towards a better understanding of range expansion during species invasions. PMID:23936301

  2. Invasion success in a marginal habitat: an experimental test of competitive ability and drought tolerance in Chromolaena odorata.

    Mariska te Beest

    Full Text Available Climatic niche models based on native-range climatic data accurately predict invasive-range distributions in the majority of species. However, these models often do not account for ecological and evolutionary processes, which limit the ability to predict future range expansion. This might be particularly problematic in the case of invaders that occupy environments that would be considered marginal relative to the climatic niche in the native range of the species. Here, we assess the potential for future range expansion in the shrub Chromolaena odorata that is currently invading mesic savannas (>650 mm MAP in South Africa that are colder and drier than most habitats in its native range. In a greenhouse experiment we tested whether its current distribution in South Africa can be explained by increased competitive ability and/or differentiation in drought tolerance relative to the native population. We compared aboveground biomass, biomass allocation, water use efficiency and relative yields of native and invasive C. odorata and the resident grass Panicum maximum in wet and dry conditions. Surprisingly, we found little differentiation between ranges. Invasive C. odorata showed no increased competitive ability or superior drought tolerance compared to native C. odorata. Moreover we found that P. maximum was a better competitor than either native or invasive C. odorata. These results imply that C. odorata is unlikely to expand its future range towards more extreme, drier, habitats beyond the limits of its current climatic niche and that the species' invasiveness most likely depends on superior light interception when temporarily released from competition by disturbance. Our study highlights the fact that species can successfully invade habitats that are at the extreme end of their ranges and thereby contributes towards a better understanding of range expansion during species invasions.

  3. Development and pilot testing of a questionnaire to determine the ability and willingness of health personnel accompanying perinatal bereavement

    Mª José Domínguez Santarén

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The care that parents receive around the time of a loss has a huge impact on their perception of what happened and on their ability to cope. Good care cannot remove the pain and devastation that the loss of a pregnancy or the death of a baby can bring, but can promote healing.Methodology: Creation and pilot study for a questionnaire to determinate the capacity and willingness of perinatal bereavement support from staff in hospitalization and delivery room services in Zaragoza and Jaca who care for couples with a perinatal death.Statistical analysis. Qualitative analysis is made of the difficulties and limitations of this support staff is performing. Psychometric tests were conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire by calculating Cronbach´s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient. For the analysis of construct validity, we performed the principal components factorial analysis (PCFA through the Varimax rotation system.Results. The qualitative analysis of open-ended responses indicates a lack of knowledge about this type of mourning and social and communication tools that often precludes effective accompaniment. We obtained a Cronbach alpha value of 0.835 overall questionnaire, which indicates high internal consistency or coherence among the items and relatively high CCI indicates good stability over time with significance p<,001. Making appropriate modifications could assess the ability and willingness of workers.

  4. Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition, and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, with a Preschool Population

    Chang, Mei; Paulson, Sharon E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the underlying constructs measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition (WJ-III COG) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), based on the Cattell-Horn-Carrol (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities. This study reports the results of the first joint confirmatory factor analysis…

  5. A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

  6. Drawing Abilities of Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: Prediction of Expert Judgments by Self-Report Responses and Spatial Tests

    Chan, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The drawing abilities of 297 Hong Kong Chinese students were assessed by two expert judges based on two drawings done by each student, using two drawing tasks originally used in Clark's Drawing Abilities Test. These expert ratings were examined in relation to students' self-ratings on the same drawings, self-reports on their involvement in drawing…

  7. The use of multiple sources of social information in contest behavior: testing the social cognitive abilities of a cichlid fish

    Hotta, Takashi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Heg, Dik; Awata, Satoshi; Jordan, Lyndon A.; Kohda, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favors the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winne...

  8. Expanding Talent Search Procedures by Including Measures of Spatial Ability: CTY's Spatial Test Battery

    Stumpf, Heinrich; Mills, Carol J.; Brody, Linda E.; Baxley, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of spatial ability for success in a variety of domains, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), is widely acknowledged. Yet, students with high spatial ability are rarely identified, as Talent Searches for academically talented students focus on identifying high mathematical and verbal abilities.…

  9. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  10. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  11. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  12. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  13. The use of multiple sources of social information in contest behaviour: testing the social cognitive abilities of a cichlid fish

    Takashi eHotta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favours the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winner/loser effects, social eavesdropping and transitive inference (TI. We conducted experiments in which fish assessed the social status of rivals after either direct physical contests or observed contests. Individuals used direct information from a previous physical encounter to re-establish dominance without additional contact, but winner/loser effects were not observed. Social eavesdropping alone was ruled out, but we found that transitive reasoning was used to infer social dominance of other individuals of unknown status. Our results suggest that in stable hierarchical social groups, estimations of contest ability, based on individual recognition pathways such as TI and direct experience, are more prevalent than social eavesdropping or winner/loser effects. We suggest that advanced cognitive abilities might be widespread among highly social fishes, but have previously gone undetected.

  14. Exploring Ways to Provide Diagnostic Feedback with an ESL Placement Test: Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment of L2 Reading Ability

    Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-01-01

    Previous research in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) of L2 reading ability has been frequently conducted using large-scale English proficiency exams (e.g., TOEFL, MELAB). Using CDA, it is possible to analyze individual learners' strengths and weaknesses in multiple attributes (i.e., knowledge, skill, strategy) measured at the item level.…

  15. Evaluation of the Ability of People with Intellectual Disabilities to "Weigh Up" Information in Two Tests of Financial Reasoning

    Willner, P.; Bailey, R.; Parry, R.; Dymond, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: An assessment of mental capacity includes an evaluation of the ability to "weigh up" information, but how to do this is uncertain. We have previously used a laboratory decision-making task, temporal discounting, which involves a trade-off between the value and the delay of expected rewards. Participants with intellectual disabilities…

  16. Invasion success in a marginal habitat : An experimental test of competitive ability and drought tolerance in Chromolaena odorata

    te Beest, Mariska; Elschot, Kelly; Olff, Han; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2013-01-01

    Climatic niche models based on native-range climatic data accurately predict invasive-range distributions in the majority of species. However, these models often do not account for ecological and evolutionary processes, which limit the ability to predict future range expansion. This might be particu

  17. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory and Cross-Age Invariance of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2004-01-01

    Establishing an instrument's factorial invariance provides the empirical foundation to compare an individual's score across time or to examine the pattern of correlations between variables in differentiated age groups. In the recently published Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ COG) and Achievement (WJ ACH) Third Edition (III) the…

  18. The Effects of High Scientific Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on Teachers' Ability to Compose Effective Tests: Case Study from Manado, Indonesia

    Poluakan, Cosmas

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of high scientific literacy, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on teachers' ability to compose effective tests. It was conducted among junior high school science teachers in Manado, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from April to September 2011, using a cross-sectional survey design.…

  19. Longitudinal Assessment of Intellectual Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Multilevel Modeling of Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Kistler, Doris J.; John, Angela E.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004) 4-7 times…

  20. Using an On-Line Test To Assess Reading Skills and Predict the Ability To Successfully Pass a Reading SOL Test.

    Simpson, Katherine P.

    Designing a remediation program to meet students' needs involves finding out what a student knows and needs to know. An online testing program, such as eduTest, may provide the answers. This test is a versatile instrument that offers benchmark tests, grade specific tests, and strand tests in the four content areas for grades K through 8. The…

  1. Invasion Success in a Marginal Habitat: An Experimental Test of Competitive Ability and Drought Tolerance in Chromolaena odorata

    Mariska te Beest; Kelly Elschot; Han Olff; Etienne, Rampal S

    2013-01-01

    Climatic niche models based on native-range climatic data accurately predict invasive-range distributions in the majority of species. However, these models often do not account for ecological and evolutionary processes, which limit the ability to predict future range expansion. This might be particularly problematic in the case of invaders that occupy environments that would be considered marginal relative to the climatic niche in the native range of the species. Here, we assess the potential...

  2. Ability of the D-15 panel tests and HRR pseudoisochromatic plates to predict performance in naming VDT colors.

    Ramaswamy, Shankaran; Hovis, Jeffery K

    2004-01-01

    Color codes in VDT displays often contain sets of colors that are confusing to individuals with color-vision deficiencies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether individuals with color-vision deficiencies (color defectives) can perform as well as individuals without color-vision deficiencies (color normals) on a colored VDT display used in the railway industry and to determine whether clinical color-vision tests can predict their performance. Of the 52 color defectives, 58% failed the VDT test. The kappa coefficients of agreement for the Farnsworth D-15, Adams desaturated D-15, and Richmond 3rd Edition HRR PIC diagnostic plates were significantly greater than chance. In particular, the D-15 tests have a high probability of predicting who fails the practical test. However, all three tests had an unacceptably high false-negative rate (9.5-35%); so that a practical test is still needed. PMID:15518229

  3. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  4. Development and pilot testing of a questionnaire to determine the ability and willingness of health personnel accompanying perinatal bereavement

    Mª José Domínguez Santarén

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The care that parents receive around the time of a loss has a huge impact on their perception of what happened and on their ability to cope. Good care cannot remove the pain and devastation that the loss of a pregnancy or the death of a baby can bring, but can promote healing.Methodology: Creation and pilot study for a questionnaire to determinate the capacity and willingness of perinatal bereavement support from staff in hospitalization and delivery room services in Zaragoza an...

  5. Ability to learn inhaler technique in relation to cognitive scores and tests of praxis in old age

    Allen, S.; Ragab, S.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical observations have shown that some older patients are unable to learn to use a metered dose inhaler (MDI) despite having a normal abbreviated mental test (AMT) score, possibly because of dyspraxia or unrecognised cognitive impairment. Thirty inhaler-naive inpatients (age 76–94) with an AMT score of 8–10 (normal) were studied. Standard MDI training was given and the level of competence reached was scored (inhalation score). A separate observer performed the minimental test (MMT), Barth...

  6. Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge

    Germann, Paul J.

    Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  7. Development of a testing system for the documentation and evaluation of the weed-suppressing ability of blue lupins

    Böhm, Herwart

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of a joint research project for breeding advancement of blue and yellow lupins, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops (coordinator), Saatzucht Steinach and the IPK Gatersleben, in a sub-project at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming 1. a test system for detection and assessment of weed-suppressing effect of blue lupins will be developed, and 2. this test system will b...

  8. Gender Differences in Variance and Means on the Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test: Data from the Philippines

    Vista, Alvin; Care, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on gender differences in intelligence has focused mostly on samples from Western countries and empirical evidence on gender differences from Southeast Asia is relatively sparse. Aims: This article presents results on gender differences in variance and means on a non-verbal intelligence test using a national sample of public…

  9. Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL iBT Tasks against Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability

    Weigle, Sara Cushing

    2010-01-01

    Automated scoring has the potential to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with the assessment of complex skills such as writing, but its use must be validated against a variety of criteria for it to be accepted by test users and stakeholders. This study approaches validity by comparing human and automated scores on responses to…

  10. Effect of Rasch Calibration on Ability and DIF Estimation in Computer-Adaptive Tests. Research Report RR-94-32.

    Zwick, Rebecca; And Others

    A previous simulation study of methods for assessing item functioning (DIF) in computer-adaptive tests (CATs) showed that modified versions of the Mantel-Haenszel and standardization methods work well with CAT data. In that study, data were generated using the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model, and this same model was assumed in obtaining item…

  11. Screening of Highly Effective Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains for 'Vector' Alfalfa and Testing of Its Competitive Nodulation Ability in the Field

    ZENG Zhao-Hai; CHEN Wen-Xin; HU Yue-Gao; SUI Xin-Hua; CHEN Dan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen Sinorhizobium meliloti strains from seven provinces in China were used to screen highly effective strains for alfalfa cultivar in a greenhouse study and their symbiotic relationship and competitive ability were studied in the field.CCBAU30138 was the most effective strain,as evidenced by increase in dry weights.A field experiment showed that the inoculation of alfalfa with CCBAU30138 resulted in increases of 11.9%and 19.6%of dry matter production and crude protein production,respectively,in forage of monocultured plants.The total dry matter yields of alfalfa and tall fescue in binary culture were increased by 16.3%by inoculation of alfalfa with this strain.These results showed that S.Meliloti strain CCBAU30138 was an effective inoculant both in the greenhouse and in the field.The analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)from nodule extracts showed that the strain CCBAU30138 had high competitiveness in the field.It occupied 47.5%of nodules in alfalfa monoculture and 44.4% of nodules in alfalfa-tall fescue binary culture after 20 weeks of growth.In conclusion,a simple system to select highly effective and competitive symbiotic strains specific to alfalfa was established.Using this system.A strain suitable for the alfalfa cultivar'Vector’grown in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province was obtained.

  12. Mobile Testing of Cognitive Function : A tool for assessment of cognitive abilities in an everyday environment using a handheld device

    Fouchenette, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The unit of Cognitive Developmental Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet have developed a method for measuring cognitive performance with handheld devices, which resulted in a mobile application for the iPod Touch. The application was previously used in a clinical trial with individuals suffering from chronic stress disorder, but had to be further developed. The application, which consisted of cognitive tests and questionnaires, required improvements that could be divided into three parts: (...

  13. Slow Strain Rate Tensile Testing to Assess the Ability of Superalloys to Resist Environment-Assisted Intergranular Cracking

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Banik, Anthony; McDevitt, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Intergranular fatigue crack initiation and growth due to environmental degradation, especially at notched features, can often limit the fatigue life of disk superalloys at high temperatures. For clear comparisons, the effects of alloy composition on cracking in air needs to be understood and compared separately from variables associated with notches and cracks such as effective stress concentration, plastic flow, stress relaxation, and stress redistribution. The objective of this study was to attempt using simple tensile tests of specimens with uniform gage sections to compare the effects of varied alloy composition on environment-assisted cracking of several powder metal and cast and wrought superalloys including ME3, LSHR, Udimet 720, ATI 718Plus alloy, Haynes 282, and Inconel 740. Slow and fast strain-rate tensile tests were found to be a useful tool to compare propensities for intergranular surface crack initiation and growth. The effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile fracture strain and associated failure modes were compared. Environment interactions were determined to often limit ductility, by promoting intergranular surface cracking. The response of various superalloys and heat treatments to slow strain rate tensile testing varied substantially, showing that composition and microstructure can significantly influence environmental resistance to cracking.

  14. A case study in the Chernobyl exclusion zone - Part 1: testing our ability to predict radionuclide transfer to wildlife

    In recent years, national and international programmes have proposed a number of frameworks and methodologies to assess the protection of wildlife from ionising radiations. Whilst some of these are now being used by national authorities, there has been little attempt to rigorously test their predictions against available data. In part this is because of the lack of sites where radiation induced effects can be observed. One such site is the Chernobyl exclusion zone for which a considerable amount of data are available for a wide range of biota across a gradient of exposure rates. This allows predictions of assessment frameworks, from exposure through to effects, to be thoroughly tested. In this paper we spatially implement terrestrial radionuclide transfer models developed within the EC FP5 project FASSET and test predictions of radionuclide activity concentrations in biota against compiled databases. More than 700 measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in wild animals made throughout the exclusion zone between 1988 and 2000 are available. These include 8 species of predominantly large mammals and 13 bird species. This is supplemented by approximately 900 measurements of plant components representing the diets of the herbivorous animals sampled. On the basis of comparisons of predicted and observed activity concentrations in this wide range of biota, recommendations for improving the existing transfer models are made. In a second paper we consider predictions of dose and radiation induced effects and compare these to data from the exclusion zone. (author)

  15. Development of a testing system for the documentation and evaluation of the weed-suppressing ability of blue lupins

    Böhm, Herwart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a joint research project for breeding advancement of blue and yellow lupins, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops (coordinator, Saatzucht Steinach and the IPK Gatersleben, in a sub-project at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming 1. a test system for detection and assessment of weed-suppressing effect of blue lupins will be developed, and 2. this test system will be tested to pre-breeding lines of blue lupin. In the first year of the project, plot trials were conducted in 3-fold field repetition with two phenological widely differing varieties (cv. Boruta [terminated type], cv. Boregine [branched type] in combination with selected partners with four different seed rates. As partners, monocotyledonous species (e.g., cereals and dicotyledonous species (false flax or resp., a mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, are used. Twice during the growing season and at harvest, the aboveground biomass, separated by lupin, partners and weeds, were recorded. The results of the first project year show that all the partner plants which should serve as artificial weeds were successfully established. False flax leads to the strongest effect on the development of lupins, which showed the lowest biomass production in these variants. In comparison to the sown partners, the false flax variants also showed the highest biomass production, while the lowest biomass production was recorded for the natural weeds occurring at the site. The species mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, however, led to the lowest biomass production; contemporaneously the biomass production of lupins in these variants was only affected slightly. Comparing the two cultivated lupin varieties, Boruta showed a better weed suppressive effect.

  16. Estimation of ability and item parameters in mathematics testing by using the combination of 3PLM/ GRM and MCM/ GPCM scoring model

    Abadyo Abadyo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the superiority of scoring by utilizing the combination of MCM/GPCM model in comparison to 3PLM/GRM model within a mixed-item format of Mathematics tests. To achieve the purpose, the impact of two scoring models was investigated based on the test length, the sample size, and the M-C item proportion within the mixed-item format test and the investigation was conducted on the aspects of: (1 estimation of ability and item parameters, (2 optimalization of TIF, (3 standard error rates, and (4 model fitness on the data. The investigation made use of simulated data that was generated based on fixed effects factorial design 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 and 5 replications resulting in 270 data sets. The data were analyzed by means of fixed effect MANOVA on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of the ability and RMSE and Root Mean Square Deviation (RNSD of the itemparameters in order to identify the significant main effects at level of a = .05; on the other hand, the interaction effects were incorporated into the error term for statistical testing. The -2LL statistics were also used in order to evaluate the moel fitness on the data set. The results of the study show that the combination of MCM/GPCM model provide higher accurate estimation than that of 3PLM/GRM model. In addition, the test information given by the combination of MCM/GPCM model is three times hhigher than that of 3PLM/GRM model although the test information cannot offer a solid conclusion in relation to the sample size and the M-C item proportion on each test length which provides the optimal score of thest information. Finally, the differences of fit statistics between the two models of scoring determine the position of MCM/GPCM model rather than that of 3PLM/GRM model.

  17. Validity of Cognitive ability tests – comparison of computerized adaptive testing with paper and pencil and computer-based forms of administrations

    Žitný, P.; Halama, P.; Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2012), s. 181-194. ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP406/09/P284 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : item response theory * computerized adaptive testing * paper and pencil * computer-based * criterion and construct validity * efficiency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.215, year: 2012

  18. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  19. CAPACIDAD DEL TEST BASADO EN ANÁLISIS DE TRANSITORIO PARA DETECTAR FALLAS PARAMÉTRICAS ABILITY OF TRANSIENT ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DETECTING PARAMETRIC FAULTS

    José Peralta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa la capacidad de la estrategia de test denominada Método de Análisis de Transitorio para la detección de fallas paramétricas . Estas fallas son definidas como violaciones en las especificaciones de un circuito debido a desviaciones estadísticas en los componentes. Consecuentemente, el circuito es declarado como defectuoso si al menos una de las especificaciones está más allá de los límites tolerables. Un filtro de segundo orden se adopta como caso de estudio para la realización de las evaluaciones propuestas. Las especificaciones son establecidas sobre los parámetros de desempeño y los atributos de test son el tiempo de pico y la sobre elongación de la respuesta transitoria. Para determinar la calidad del test , son generadas 8 poblaciones de 1.000 individuos. Cada individuo es obtenido asignando un valor aleatorio para sus componentes. Las poblaciones son obtenidas mediante el incremento de la variabilidad de los componentes, desde 3% hasta 10% en pasos de 1%. La evaluación concurrente de las especificaciones y de los parámetros de test permite establecer las métricas utilizadas para calificar al test. Los resultados de simulación permiten concluir que mediante la medición de los atributos de test propuestos es posible lograr un alto número de buenas decisiones de test . Adicionalmente, es posible observar que la capacidad de detección de circuitos buenos es también elevada. A pesar de estos hechos, el número de circuitos defectuosos que pasan el test podría ser inaceptable para aplicaciones que demanden una alta cobertura de fallas.In this work, the ability of the test strategy named Transient Analysis Method for detecting parametric faults is evaluated. These faults are defined as violations in the circuit specifications due to statistical deviations in the components. Consequently, a circuit is declared as faulty if at least one of the specifications is beyond the tolerable limits. A second

  20. Assessment of predatory ability of native and non-native freshwater gammaridean species: A rapid test with water fleas as prey

    B.E.M.W. STOFFELS; J.S. TUMMERS; G. VAN DER VELDE; D. PLAT-VOET; H.W.M. HENDRIKS; R.S.E.W. LEUVEN

    2011-01-01

    Predation rate with relation to species,sex and water temperature was tested among four different gammaridean species:Dikerogammarus villosus,Gammarus roeselii,Gammarus pulex and Gammarus fossarum.Tests were performed in microcosms in climate-controlled rooms at five different temperatures.Daphnia magna,a common water flea,served as prey.On average D.villosus showed the highest consumption rate of Daphnia magna over the entire temperature range,followed in decreasing order by G.pulex,G.roeselii and G.fossarum.The predation rate of all species showed a distinct peak at 20℃.Correction of predation rates for body size gave somewhat different results.D.villosus is then still the most predatory of all gammaridean species tested followed by G.pulex,G.fossarum and G.roeselii.The outcome of the Daphnia tests is consistent with results of other studies with different prey.This supports that the Daphnia test is a good and quick indicator of the predatory abilities in gammaridean species at varying temperatures,and allows the prediction of how changing temperature regimes influence invasion impacts [Current Zoology 57 (6):836-843,2011 ].

  1. Human abilities.

    Sternberg, R J; Kaufman, J C

    1998-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches. The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments. PMID:9496630

  2. The Culture Repopulation Ability (CRA) Assay and Incubation in Low Oxygen to Test Antileukemic Drugs on Imatinib-Resistant CML Stem-Like Cells.

    Cheloni, Giulia; Tanturli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a stem cell-driven disorder caused by the BCR/Abl oncoprotein, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase (TK). Chronic-phase CML patients are treated with impressive efficacy with TK inhibitors (TKi) such as imatinib mesylate (IM). However, rather than definitively curing CML, TKi induces a state of minimal residual disease, due to the persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSC) which are insensitive to this class of drugs. LSC persistence may be due to different reasons, including the suppression of BCR/Abl oncoprotein. It has been shown that this suppression follows incubation in low oxygen under appropriate culture conditions and incubation times.Here we describe the culture repopulation ability (CRA) assay, a non-clonogenic assay capable - together with incubation in low oxygen - to reveal in vitro stem cells endowed with marrow repopulation ability (MRA) in vivo. The CRA assay can be used, before moving to animal tests, as a simple and reliable method for the prescreening of drugs potentially active on CML and other leukemias with respect to their activity on the more immature leukemia cell subsets. PMID:27581140

  3. The construct equivalence and item bias of the pib/SpEEx conceptualisation-ability test for members of five language groups in South Africa

    Pieter Schaap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to determine whether the Potential Index Batteries/Situation Specific Evaluation Expert (PIB/SpEEx conceptualisation (100 ability test displays construct equivalence and item bias for members of five selected language groups in South Africa. The sample consisted of a non-probability convenience sample (N = 6 261 of members of five language groups (speakers of Afrikaans, English, North Sotho, Setswana and isiZulu working in the medical and beverage industries or studying at higher-educational institutions. Exploratory factor analysis with target rotations confrmed the PIB/SpEEx 100’s construct equivalence for the respondents from these five language groups. No evidence of either uniform or non-uniform item bias of practical signifcance was found for the sample.

  4. Development of SSRT facility with ability of in-situ observation during SCC test in high temperature water for irradiated materials

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the key issues for the life management of light water reactor (LWR) core components as well as one of the possible degradation phenomena of structural materials of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). For understanding IASCC phenomenon, development of slow stain rate test (SSRT) facility with ability of in-situ observation during SSRT in high temperature water for irradiated materials was initiated. The SSRT facility, which has already been installed in a hot cell, consists of a water make-up system, a pressurized high temperature water circulation system, a tensile testing system with an autoclave, a monitoring/purification system, a hydrogen peroxide injection system, and an observation/recording system. The autoclave has a sapphire window for in-situ observation of the specimen. Images through the window can be recorded using the CCD camera system. Since the SSRT facility is designed for irradiated materials under boiling water reactor (BWR) condition, the maximum operational parameters are as follows; temperature: 573 K, pressure: 10 MPa and flow rate: 30 l/h. To simulate the normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) under BWR environment, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations (DO and DH) can be controlled within the range of 10 ppb - 32 ppm and 10 ppb - 2.8 ppm, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide can be injected into the autoclave to simulate influence of hydrogen peroxide produced from radiolysis of water in the reactor core. (author)

  5. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  6. 潜艇自航模操纵性试验的模型设计%Design of the Self-propelled Model for Submarine Maneuvering Ability Tests

    刘洋; 肖昌润; 杜佩佩

    2016-01-01

    For the system arrangement problem in practical processing the self-propelled submarine model , a device is de-signed for measuring the weight center of gravity and moment of inertiat for a complex structure , and solving the problem of sub-marine since the model aircraft measurement of internal components .The Isight data optimization software is used to optimize the structure of internal component , providing accurate layout for internal components of self-propelled model.At the same time, the model of internal self regulating device is designed accordingly , eliminating the influence of the error of the tooling , so as to get more accurate position of the center of gravity and inertia moment , so that the self-propelled submarine model test can obtain ac-curatelly the maneuvering ability of the real submarine .%针对潜艇自航模实际加工过程中系统设备布置问题,设计一种用于复杂结构体重量重心及转动惯量测量装置,解决潜艇自航模内部构件的测量问题;运用Isight数据优化软件对自航模内部构件的布局进行优化,为自航模内部构件的装配提供较为准确的布局形式;同时对自航模内部自调装置进行相应的设计,消除工装误差的影响,使自航模重心位置、转动惯量更加准确,使自航模操纵性试验能够更加准确地反应实艇的操纵性能.

  7. Mathematics Quality Education Is the Key to Improving the Students'Mathematics Test Ability%数学素质教育是提高学生数学考试水平的关键

    郑正亚; 石循忠

    2001-01-01

    Mathematics test ability required students not only to grasp mathematics basic knowledge and skills, but also to have mathematics ability and mathematics quality. However, mathematics test education had not been able to exploit students' mathematics test ability. Students' mathematics test ability could only be improved in the practice of mathematics quality education. A practical, plausible and effective approach was expected when mathematics quality education was pursued in the process of promoting students' mathematics test ability.%数学考试水平要求学生具有良好的数学“双基”、数学能力与数学品质,但数学“应试”教育并没有充分挖掘学生的数学考试能力.只有实施数学素质教育,才能真正提高学生的数学考试水平.以提高学生的数学考试水平为突破口,逐步推行数学素质教育,是一条现实的、可行的和有效的途径.

  8. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  9. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  10. 英语应用能力B级写作测试内容分析与写作技巧%Ability to apply English class B writing test content analysis and writing skills

    廖淑娜

    2015-01-01

    In view of the present English application abilities of the higher vocational college to attend class B test, analyze the content of the writing test, puts forward the effective writing skills.%针对目前高职高专参加的英语应用能力B级考试,对写作测试内容进行分析,提出了有效写作技巧。

  11. Effetti dell'allenamento intermittente breve ad alta intensità e delle ripetute aerobiche sul Test Repeated Sprint Ability in giovani calciatori d'elite

    Ibba, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of two different training methods: the repeated aerobic bouts and the short intermittent high intensity workout on the ability to carry out repeated sprint bouts RSA in a group of young soccer players and also to determine the impact of training on aerobic and neuromuscular performances. Twenty-Four (24) male soccer players have been assessed and trained, all of them partecipating regularly in the 2013-2014 season at the Nati...

  12. Evaluating the integration of the sensory-motor abilities to facilitate teachinglearning processes: a comparison between Italian and Indian models of teaching through the use of VMI test

    CLAUDIO MACCHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a great number of evidences seems to prove that the movement plays a central role in the integrationof different mental processes. The visual-motor feedback may be considered the first sensorial integration of thedevelopment. The importance of an effective support to the pre-adolescent development of the sensory-motorintegration ability seems one of most important aim that every school system should follow. The aim of thisresearch is to investigate and monitor on international scale if the current Italian and Indian schools systems canadequately support the development of the student’s sensory-motor integration ability. According to the datashowed in this paper, it is clear that the scores obtained by the Italian and Indian students are lower than theinternational mean. However if a wider analysis based on a larger and more representative sample of the twoCountries should confirm the output of this research, it will be clear that the two school systems cannoteffectively support the development of the visual-motor integration abilities of the students. If the trend showedin this work should be confirmed by future and more precise researches, it will be necessary an accurate analysisaimed to identify the possible reasons of this phenomenon and the possible school support, since without them, awhole generation of students will risk to reduce the cultural level of the two nations and to be not competitive onan international level.

  13. Construction of Practical Teaching System of the Professional Ability of Software Testing in Polytechnic%高职软件测试职业能力分层实践教学体系的构建

    周江; 庄越; 王槐彬

    2015-01-01

    At present, the main reason for the lack of students' software-testing ability is to be independent of the program design and the software testing course. Presents a hierarchical practical teaching system based on software testing professional ability cultivation. This system mainly carries on the organic integration of the software testing course and the program design curriculum content. It mainly includes unit training, integrated project training, comprehensive application ability of the three levels of the main content, it lets the students learn the development of the course and the software testing at the same time, develops the software development quality awareness and ability of software testing of the students.%在目前大多数高校软件专业课程体系中程序设计类课程与软件测试类课程相互独立是导致学生就业测试职业能力欠缺的主要原因之一. 提出了一种基于软件测试职业能力培养的分层实践教学体系,该体系主要对软件测试类课程与程序设计类课程内容进行有机整合,主要包含"单元实训"、"综合项目实训"、"综合应用能力实践"三个层次的为主体内容,可以让学生学习开发类课程的同时学习软件测试,全学程培养软件开发质量的意识,培养学生软件测试职业能力.

  14. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We ensured...... exogenous variation in -otherwise random- team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  15. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous...... variation in - otherwise random - team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  16. Adherention ability of intestinal bacteria

    Morgensternová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide positive health benefits. Bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium belong to this group. These bacteria have to meet a number of criteria so that they could be considered for probiotic. These include the ability to survive, grow, and be metabolically active in the gastrointestinal tract of the recipient. Probiotics protect the intestinal mucus from the adhesion of pathogenic organisms. The aim of this thesis was to test the ability of different ...

  17. An evaluation of depth sizing ability of ultrasonic testing by the large aperture transducer for axial crack in cast stainless steel pipe weld

    Ultrasonic testing is difficult for cast stainless steel which is used as the material of main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors, because of the large attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves caused by its macro structure. Ultrasonic testing for the axial fatigue crack on welding area in the test piece of the cast stainless pipe was performed, using the double large aperture ultrasonic probes. In this study, depth sizing of defects was performed under the positive result of the detection of defects in former study. As a result, sizing of defects with over 20mm target depth for the specimen thickness 69mm is highly possible. (author)

  18. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11 years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  19. An evaluation of detection ability of ultrasonic testing with a large aperture transducer for axial cracks in cast stainless steel pipe welds

    Ultrasonic testing is difficult to apply to cast stainless steel which is the material of the main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors, because of the large attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves caused by its macro structure. In this study, ultrasonic testing for progression of axial fatigue cracks of a welded area in the test piece of cast stainless steel pipe was performed using double big-size ultrasonic probes which were formerly developed in INSS. It was found that detection of defects that were over 6% of the target depth for the specimen thickness of 69mm is possible, and detection of defects with over 10% of the target depth is possible for all test conditions. (author)

  20. Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing

    Mennenga, Sarah E.; Gerson, Julia E.; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1 mg (low) Harmine and 5 mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested ...

  1. Haptic-2D: A new haptic test battery assessing the tactual abilities of sighted and visually impaired children and adolescents with two-dimensional raised materials.

    Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision. PMID:26551596

  2. Comparison of Methods to Assess the Discriminating Ability of Testing Locations in Crop Cultivar Regional Trials%作物品种区域试验试点区辨力评价方法的比较

    刘永建; 魏冰; 胡尔良; 黄玉碧

    2012-01-01

    试点区辨力是作物品种区域试验试点选择的重要依据,可以用不同的方法进行评价.本研究分别对西南玉米区域试验2003和2004两年的产量数据进行联合方差分析,然后用变异系数(CV)、遗传变异系数(GCV)、环境区分指数(DI)、B型生态价(WE)、回归系数(RC)、基于AM MI分析结果的试点互作主成分点到原点的距离(DA)、AMMI稳定性值(ASV)和基于GGE双标图分析的试点到原点的距离(DG)对西南玉米区域试验试点的区辨力进行评价,进而用秩次相关分析和主成分分析揭示试点区辨力评价方法间的内在关系.结果表明,两年试验品种间、试点间均存在极显著差异,且品种和试点间互作也极显著;8个统计数也许可以用来度量试点的区辨力,但是不同统计数对同一年度内试点的区辨力评价结果不完全一致;统计数CV、GCV、WE、DA和DG间都存在极显著的秩次相关,但是统计数DG也许更有利于评价试点的区辨力.%The discriminating ability of testing locations is an important issue for the selection of testing locations in crop cultivar regional trials.Several procedures are available to assess the discriminating ability of testing locations,each of them allowing for different interpretations.The objectives of the present study were to assess the discriminating ability of testing locations in National Maize Cultivar Regional Trials in Southwestern China using the eight statistics including coefficient of variability (CV),coefficient of genetic variability (GCV),discriminating index (DI),type-B ecovalence (WE),regression coefficient (RC),distance (DA) of interaction principal component point of a location with the origin in space and stability value (ASV) based on the results of AMMI analysis,and distance (DG) between a location marker and the biplot origin based on the results of GGE biplot analysis,and to investigate their interrelationships.Two yield datasets were obtained

  3. Use of Slow Strain Rate Tensile Testing to Assess the Ability of Several Superalloys to Resist Environmentally-Assisted Intergranular Cracking

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Banik, Anthony; McDevitt, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Intergranular fatigue crack initiation and growth due to environmental degradation, especially at notched features, can often limit the fatigue life of disk superalloys at high temperatures. For clear comparisons, the effects of alloy composition on cracking in air needs to be understood and compared separately from variables associated with notches and cracks such as effective stress concentration, plastic flow, stress relaxation, and stress redistribution. The objective of this study was to attempt using simple tensile tests of specimens with uniform gage sections to compare the effects of varied alloy composition on environment-assisted cracking of several powder metal and cast and wrought superalloys including ME3, LSHR, Udimet 720(TradeMark) ATI 718Plus(Registered TradeMark) alloy, Haynes 282(Trademark), and Inconel 740(TradeMark) Slow and fast strain-rate tensile tests were found to be a useful tool to compare propensities for intergranular surface crack initiation and growth. The effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile fracture strain and associated failure modes were compared. Environment interactions were determined to often limit ductility, by promoting intergranular surface cracking. The response of various superalloys and heat treatments to slow strain rate tensile testing varied substantially, showing that composition and microstructure can significantly influence environmental resistance to cracking.

  4. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

  5. Verification of the Short-Circuit Resistance Ability of the OPPC Overhead Test Line%OPPC架空试验线路抗短路能力验证

    李杰; 梁炯光; 程启诚; 林杨; 陈景鹏

    2015-01-01

    As the operating temperature limit of the optical unit PBT (Polybutylene terephthalate) sleeve is 150 ℃,the pre-requisite of applying insulated optical unit OPPC with PBT sleeve as overhead power transmission line(OHPTL)conductor is that,in case the most probable serious short-circuit accident occurs,the duration conductor temperature rising will longer than the time of tripping the accident. This paper presents the calculation method and result of the short-circuit resistance ability of a trial transmission line which uses the optical unit PBT in Guangdong province. According to the bus impedance provided by the system and the actual impedance of the trial line at the point where short circuits may occur,the possible maximum short-circuit current is worked out. Furthermore,the temperature rising time is calculated with the software devel-oped by Guangdong Power Grid Company in 2007. The cal-culation result shows the trial line can be reliably cut off before the most serious short-circuit temperature rises to 150 ℃. Therefore the paper provides a concrete method to verify the short-circuit resistance ability for the design of the insulated OPPC OHPTL.%为了在110 kV架空送输线路使用绝缘(PBT塑料)护套光单元OPPC(光单元复合相导线,optical phase conductor),须验证输电线发生短路事故温升达到塑料护套最高能忍受温度150℃之前,系统能切除故障。介绍广东电网一条塑料光单元试验线路耐受短路的计算方法和结果。按照系统提供该线路母线阻抗,以及至试验线路段可能发生短路点的实际阻抗,计算出试验线路最大可能的短路电流。再用广东电网公司2007年开发的计算软件计算其温升时间。计算结果表明,该试验线路最严重短路温升至150℃之前能被保护可靠地切除,验证了试验线路耐受抗短路事故的能力。为绝缘光单元OPPC 110 kV架空送电线路的设计,提供了一套具体的抗短路能力验证方法。

  6. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  7. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  8. Validation and test-retest reliability of a health measure, health as ability of acting, based on the welfare theory of health.

    Snellman, Ingrid; Jonsson, Bosse; Wikblad, Karin

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a validation and assess the test-retest reliability of the health questionnaire based on Nordenfelt's Welfare Theory of Health (WTH). The study used a questionnaire on health together with the Short Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire, and 490 pupils at colleges for adult education participated. The results of the study are in accordance with Nordenfelt's WTH. Three hypotheses were stated, and the first was confirmed: People who were satisfied with life rated higher levels than those who were dissatisfied with life concerning both mental and physical health, measured with the SF-12. The second hypothesis was partially confirmed: People with high education were more often satisfied with life than those with low education, but they were not healthier. The third hypothesis, that women are unhealthy more often than men, was not confirmed. The questionnaire on health showed acceptable stability. PMID:21930655

  9. 全国省级兽医实验室检测能力比对结果分析%A Comparative Analysis of the Testing Abilities Among19 Provincial Veterinary Laboratories in China in 2012

    刘伟; 王传彬; 董昕欣; 李文京; 顾小雪; 王静; 张硕; 郑东霞; 李雁彬; 何继军

    2012-01-01

      The testing ability comparison experiments were carried out among 32 provincial veterinary laboratories,including H5-AI Ab testing,FMD-3ABC Ab testing,HP-PRRSV testing,NDV testing. The results showed that,the results of 24 laboratories were all accurate,and the other 8 laboratories’results were not accurate. The qualified rate of H5-AI Ab testing was 81.3%,the qualified rate of FMD-3ABC Ab testing was 87.5%,the qualified rate of HP-PRRSV testing was 96.9%,and the qualified rate of NDV testing was 100%. The results also showed that the provincial veterinary laboratories had good master for RT-PCR testing virus technology,while the technical ability of ELISA and HI methods to test antibody need to be raised.%  对全国32个省级兽医实验室开展了检测能力比对,比对项目包括H5亚型禽流感抗体(H5-AI Ab)检测、口蹄疫非结构蛋白3ABC抗体(FMD-3ABC Ab)检测、高致病性猪蓝耳病病毒检测(HP-PRRSV)、新城疫病毒(NDV)检测.比对结果表明,有24个实验室的比对结果全部准确,8个实验室部分项目的比对结果存在较大偏差.其中H5-AI Ab检测项目的合格率为81.3%,FMD-3ABC Ab检测项目的合格率为87.5%,HP-PRRSV检测项目的合格率为96.9%,NDV检测项目的合格率为100%.比对结果说明省级兽医实验室对RT-PCR检测病毒的技术掌握较好,而用ELISA和HI方法检测抗体的技术能力有待提高.

  10. An inter-laboratory study to test the ability of amendments to reduce the availability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in situ

    An international inter-laboratory research program investigated the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium, lead and zinc, measuring changes in soil and soil solution chemistry, plants and soil microbiota. A common soil, from mine wastes in Jasper County MO, was used. The soil was pH 5.9, had low organic matter (1.2 g kg-1 C) and total Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations of 92, 5022, and 18 532 mg kg-1, respectively. Amendments included lime, phosphorus (P), red mud (RM), cyclonic ashes (CA), biosolids (BIO), and water treatment residuals (WTR). Both soil solution and NH4NO3 extractable metals were decreased by all treatments. Phytotoxicity of metals was reduced, with plants grown in P treatments having the highest yields and lowest metal concentration (0.5, 7.2 and 406 mg kg-1 Cd, Pb, and Zn). Response of soil micro-organisms was similar to plant responses. Phosphorus addition reduced the physiologically based extraction test Pb from 84% of total Pb extracted in the untreated soil to 34.1%. - Addition of phosphorus to Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated mine waste was able to reduce metal toxicity for a range of biological endpoints

  11. From neural oscillations to reasoning ability: Simulating the effect of the theta-to-gamma cycle length ratio on individual scores in a figural analogy test.

    Chuderski, Adam; Andrelczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    Several existing computational models of working memory (WM) have predicted a positive relationship (later confirmed empirically) between WM capacity and the individual ratio of theta to gamma oscillatory band lengths. These models assume that each gamma cycle represents one WM object (e.g., a binding of its features), whereas the theta cycle integrates such objects into the maintained list. As WM capacity strongly predicts reasoning, it might be expected that this ratio also predicts performance in reasoning tasks. However, no computational model has yet explained how the differences in the theta-to-gamma ratio found among adult individuals might contribute to their scores on a reasoning test. Here, we propose a novel model of how WM capacity constraints figural analogical reasoning, aimed at explaining inter-individual differences in reasoning scores in terms of the characteristics of oscillatory patterns in the brain. In the model, the gamma cycle encodes the bindings between objects/features and the roles they play in the relations processed. Asynchrony between consecutive gamma cycles results from lateral inhibition between oscillating bindings. Computer simulations showed that achieving the highest WM capacity required reaching the optimal level of inhibition. When too strong, this inhibition eliminated some bindings from WM, whereas, when inhibition was too weak, the bindings became unstable and fell apart or became improperly grouped. The model aptly replicated several empirical effects and the distribution of individual scores, as well as the patterns of correlations found in the 100-people sample attempting the same reasoning task. Most importantly, the model's reasoning performance strongly depended on its theta-to-gamma ratio in same way as the performance of human participants depended on their WM capacity. The data suggest that proper regulation of oscillations in the theta and gamma bands may be crucial for both high WM capacity and effective complex

  12. Do the Kaufman tests of cognitive ability and academic achievement display construct bias across a representative sample of Black, Hispanic, and Caucasian school-age children in grades 1 through 12?

    Scheiber, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    As the demographic profile in the United States continues to change and becomes ethnically more diverse, the need for culturally appropriate test instruments has become a national concern among educators, clinicians, and researchers. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition (KABC-II) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-2nd Edition (KTEA-II) are 2 popular tests of intelligence and achievement, known to appeal to an ethnically diverse client population. The present study investigated test bias in terms of the test scores' construct validity across a nationally representative sample of Caucasian, Black, and Hispanic (N = 2,001) children in Grades 1-12. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess whether increasing sets of equality constraints fit the test scores' underlying theoretical model equally well for all 3 ethnic groups. Results showed that factorial invariance of the factor structure, based on 7 Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model broad abilities, was met for all 3 groups. Outcomes contribute to a scarce body of literature on ethnic test bias that goes beyond the simple comparison of mean score differences. Results of this study provide the evidence needed to justify continuous use of the KABC-II and KTEA-II in the assessment of minority group children and adolescents. Furthermore, findings are generalizable beyond the Kaufman tests to other popular tests of intelligence and achievement; this is because this study is based on the CHC factor structure, a universal theory of cognition that is used as the theoretical underpinning by many well-known tests of intelligence and achievement, including the most recent versions of the Wechsler scales. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26502203

  13. Neurocysticercosis: Work ability evaluation

    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the term used for human CNS involvement with T. solium cysts. Intraparenchymal cerebral cysts usually enlarge slowly, causing minimal or no symptoms, until years or decades after the onset of infection. Clinical manifestations vary from focal or generalized seisures to sensomotor deficits, intellectual impairment, psychiatric disorders and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure. Work ability was evaluated in 12 patients treated for cysticercosis during 2005 and 2006. In all patient examinations for NCC were conducted in regional health centers, and all were referred to a hospital for further diagnosis and therapy. Diagnosis was made by the following clinical criteria: neurological disorder, CT and / or MRI typical findings, followed by the test for specific antibodies. We evaluated the period from the first complaints that could be connected with the diagnosis to the moment when diagnosis was made, and severity of symptoms like vertigo, headache, vision disorders and unconsciousness. Considering neurocysticercosis as a slowly progressing infection of the CNS, with an evolution period of more than several years, and the mean period of unrecognized complaints of 28 months, we suggest that all of neurological or psychiatric complaints in our surroundings, specially where breeding of pigs is widely spread, should be evaluated for cysticercosis. .

  14. Practice of self-care ability test in patients on domestic peritoneal dialysis therapy%居家腹膜透析患者自我护理能力考核的实践

    郭玲玲; 胡雁; 费剑英; 应茉薇; 李爱夏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve self-care ability and health condition of homebased peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods A total of 86 PD patients were randomly divided into a control group and an observation group of 43 according to their even or odd admission numbers. Patients in the control group were given conventional health education, while their counterparts in the observation group received self-care ability test and stratified education. Results Compared with the control group, the incidence rate of PD-re-lated infections was significantly lower in the observation group after 3 months, and the total score and dimension scores of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of self-care ability were significantly higher (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). The scores of PD-related knowledge and skills in the observation group were significantly improved after the intervention (P<0. 01 for both). Conclusion Self-care ability test and stratified education applied to PD patients can improve their self-care ability and health condition.%目的 提高居家腹膜透析(PD)患者自我护理能力及改善其健康状况.方法 将86例居家PD患者按门诊就诊奇偶数分为对照组与观察组各43例.对照组进行常规健康教育;观察组进行自我护理能力考核和分层次健康教育.结果 3个月后观察组PD相关感染并发症发生率显著低于对照组,自我护理能力中知识、态度、行为维度及总分显著高于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.0l),观察组知识及技能评分较干预前显著提高(均P<0.01).结论 对PD患者开展自我护理能力考核及分层次教育,能提高患者的自我护理能力,从而改善患者的健康状况.

  15. Evaluation of written test and ability in private colleges English and translation%民办高校英语及翻译专业笔译测试与能力评估

    曹佶

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the private colege as background, discusses English and translation professional translation testing methods, assessment of students' translation ability and efficient translation testing positive feedback of teaching and improving teaching methods, the importance of cultivating high-quality talents in the field of translation.%本文以民办高校为背景,探讨英语及翻译专业笔译测试方法和对学生笔译能力的评估,以及高效的笔译测试对教学的积极反馈和改善教学方法,培养高素质笔译人才的重要性.

  16. 中级汉语学习者语言能力自评量表的编制与检验%Development and Test of the Language Ability Self-assessment Scale for Intermediate Mandarin Learners

    王佶旻

    2012-01-01

    语言能力自评置表是学生自我评估语言能力的评价工其;具有广泛的应用价值。本研究编制了面向中级汉语学;习者的语言能力自评量表。量表分为?听一说囊读。写四个部分。在每一个分量表中,我们都从能力概说、“能做”描述和量化指标三个层面进行评估。我们在165名中级水平汉语学习者中进行了实测,结果表明,量表题目难度适中,区分度良好,内部一致性信度较高,效标关联效度在同类量袭中处于较“高水平,说明量表质量优良。%Language ability self-assessment scales are assessment tools whereby students can evaluate their own language ability with great applicational value. This research is to the end of construction of a language ability self-assessment scale for intermediate learners of Mandarin. The scale is divided into four sub-scales: listening,speaking, reading and writing. In every sub-scale, language ability is evaluated on three levels: overall ability description, "can do" description and quantitative evaluation. In order to evaluate the scale, we gave a test to 165 intermediate Mandarin learners. The results show that the items have proper difficulty, good item discrimination and high internal consistency reliability. The criterion-related validity is on a relatively high level in comparison to similar scales, which indicates that the scale is an effective one.

  17. AgrAbility Project

    ... hours ago AgrAbility's 25 Years, 25 Stories Rosendo Ramirez is a farmworker in California, a job that ... Rosendo continues to work. www.agrability.org/25years/ramirez/ ... See More See Less Rosendo Ramirez: Ingenuity, perseverance, ...

  18. Evaluating an Integrated Approach to the Management of Cerebral Palsy. Appendix B: Field Test Report of the Eau Claire Functional Abilities Test and the Wolfe-Bluel Socialization Inventory. Volume III of IV. Final Report.

    Heal, Laird W.

    The appendix examined the measurement instruments developed in the course of the Integrated Management of Cerebral Palsy project to measure functional movements and socialization skills of severly handicapped, nonambulatory cerebral palsied children who had limited speech. The field test sample consisted of 51 cases for the Eau Claire Functional…

  19. 水迷宫实验中不同性别树鼩学习记忆能力的比较%Comparison of learning and memory abilities of male and female Tupaia tested by Morris water maze

    陆彩霞; 罕园园; 仝品芬; 江勤芳; 代解杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the differences of learning and memory abilities between male and female Tupaia tested by Morris water maze. Methods Navigation test and probe test were performed to determine the learning and memory abilities in male and female Tupaia. Result There were no significant differences in the latency and total distance (P>0. 05) between male and female tupaia, but there were significant differences in number of crossing target quadrant and search strategy ( P < 0. 05). Conclusions There is no significant difference in navigation test between males and females, but the performance of spatial probe is better in male than in female Tupaia tested by Morris water maze.%目的 研究雌雄树鼩空间学习和记忆能力的差异.方法 随机选择自繁F1代树鼩20只(雄11只,雌9只),在相同条件下进行8d的水迷宫实验,包括前7d的定位航行实验和第8天的空间探索实验.结果 定位航行实验中雌雄逃避潜伏期、游泳总路程差异无显著性(P>0.05),但不同时间水平差异有显著性(P<0.05);平均游泳速度雌雄差异无显著性(P>0.05).空间探索实验中目标象限游泳时间和总时间之比、目标象限游泳路程和总路程之比雌雄差异无显著性(P>0.05);穿越目标象限次数和搜索策略雌雄差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 水迷宫实验中树鼩在空间学习能力上雌雄无差异,但在空间探索实验中雄性的表现优于雌性.

  20. Steering Ability Testing Equipment for Backup Rotary Steering Drilling System%推靠式旋转导向钻井工具导向能力测试系统

    刘庆龙

    2014-01-01

    Basing on both strain analysis and finite element analysis of the guide ribs-assisted well bore , the strain sensor ’ s optimal distribution was simulated and the steering ability testing system for backup rotary steering drilling tools was designed , including its hardware configuration and the working process of the soft-ware.%基于导向翼肋作用下模拟井筒应变的分析和导向翼肋作用下模拟井筒的有限元分析,模拟井筒应变传感器的优化布局,设计具有自主知识产权的推靠式旋转导向钻井工具导向能力测试系统,并给出其硬件组成与软件工作流程。

  1. Comparison of the ability of the PDD-ICG clearance test, CTP, MELD, and MELD-Na to predict short-term and medium-term mortality in patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis

    Cheng, Xiang-Pu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Yu; Meng, Fan-Kun; Xu, Bin; Yu, Hong-Wei; Meng, Qing-Hua; Liu, Yan-Min; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Meng, Sha; Zhang, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Jin-Yan; Duan, Zhong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective Various methods, including the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test, the Child–Turcotte–Pugh score (CTP), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and MELD combined with serum sodium concentration (MELD-Na), have been used widely in liver function evaluation in patients with end-stage liver disease. In this study, we compared the ability of these methods to predict mortality in patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis. Methods A total of 98 patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis were included in this study and followed up for 12 months. The ICG-derived measurements (ICG-PDR, ICG-R15, EHBF), CTP, MELD, and MELD-Na were obtained within 2 days after patients’ admission and patients’ survival at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was recorded. Receiver operating curve was used to evaluate the ability of these methods to predict mortality in these patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis. Results At 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months, the cumulative number of deaths and liver transplant recipients was 12 (12.2%), 17 (17.3%), 21 (21.4%) and 25 (25.5%), respectively. The ICG-derived measurements, CTP, MELD, and MELD-Na of nonsurvivors were significantly different compared with that in survivors. All methods yielded viable values in predicting short-term and medium-term prognosis for patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis, with most area under the curve exceeding 0.8. Moreover, the ICG-derived measurements showed a significant correlation with that of CTP, MELD, and MELD-Na. Conclusion All four methods, ICG clearance test, CTP, MELD, and MELD-Na, provided reliable prediction of mortality in patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis for both short-term and medium-term prognosis. PMID:26649802

  2. 视觉反馈姿势调节能力检测系统的设计与应用%Design and application of testing system for visual-feedback-based posture adjusting ability

    程珊; 胡文东; 张利利

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a new visual feedback postural adjusting ability assessing system, and to study its application value. Methods Pressure sensor was used to determine the changes of the body weight center by tracing the pressure variation of the soles and heels, then eight target points in different directions were added into the software interface to enable the subject move his body weight center to the target point intentionally, finally the system was evaluated by loading on back.Results Program design was performed for the testing system. It's proved that posture adjusting ability might decrease with 20% load on back or the body leaning backwards. Conclusion The newly developed visual feedback postural adjusting ability testing system can be used to research standing balance function.%目的:设计一套基于视觉反馈的姿势调节能力检测程序,并探讨其应用效果.方法:首先,利用压力传感器,将双足脚掌与脚跟的压力变化转变为身体重心晃动的变化轨迹;然后,在软件测试程序中,增加了不同方位的目标点,以便被试者有目的地控制身体重心向目标点移动;最后,利用背部负重的方法考察此系统是否能够达到预期的应用效果.结果:从程序设计上初步实现了姿势调节能力检测程序的编制.20%的背部负重对机体调节能力的确产生了影响,且身体向后倾斜时,姿势调节能力下降显著.结论:新研发的视觉反馈姿势调节能力检测程序为立位平衡功能的检测提供了一种新的方法与思路.

  3. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  4. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  5. The English learning testing methods of independent ability improvement as the goal%以自主能力提高为目标的英语学习检测方式研究

    赵晖

    2012-01-01

      The teacher should through the inquiry of test to guide and cultivate the students' independent ability in foreign language learning. To understand the characteristics of the students in the university English teaching, only do a good job in the English test, can promote the students to overcome the difficulties in English learning, to promote the improvement of English learning methods, so as to cultivate the students' English learning autonomy.%  教师作为传道、解惑者,应通过对测试方式的探究来引导和培养学生外语学习的自主性。在大学英语教学中了解学生学习上的特点,只有搞好英语测试,才能促进学生克服英语学习上的困难,促进英语学习学习方法的改进,进而培养学生英语学习的自主性

  6. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  7. Cognitive ability beyond IQ

    Danner, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis investigates cognitive performance measures beyond IQ. I investigated the psychometric properties of implicit learning variables and dynamic decision making variables and their relation with general intelligence and professional success. The results suggest that dynamic decision making and implicit learning are substantially related with general intelligence and fit well into a hierarchical model of cognitive abilities. Furthermore, general intelligence is the best predicto...

  8. 钢管焊缝超声自动检测系统能力的鉴定%Identification for the Ability of Steel Pipe Weld Automatic Ultrasonic Testing System

    甘正红; 方晓东; 余洋; 苏继权

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it introduced the main contents to be detected in multichannel steel pipe weld automatic ultrasonic testing system, calibration method to detecting system(equipment), and service conditions of detecting system . Combined with steel pipe weld automatic ultrasonic testing requirements specified in API SPEC 5L/IS0 3183 standard, it discussed the main properties and identification method of multichannel steel pipe weld automatic ultrasonic testing system, provided specific requirements for linearity, horizontal linearity, dynamic range, comprehensive property and others. The feasibility of identification ability was proved through actual application.%介绍了多通道钢管焊缝超声波自动检测系统待检测的主要内容、对检测系统(设备)进行校准的方法以及检测系统的使用条件.结合API SPEC 5L/ISO 3183标准对钢管焊缝超声自动检测的要求,探讨了多通道钢管焊缝超声波自动检测系统的主要性能指标及鉴定方法,给出了主要性能指标如直线性和水平线性、动态范围、综合性能等的具体要求.并通过实际应用表明了鉴定能力的可行性.

  9. 基于指控系统的数据链战术能力测试研究%Research of Data Link's Tactics Ability Test Based on Command & Control System

    冯卫永; 张洪水; 陈永华

    2011-01-01

    文章针对现行海军舰船数据链设计鉴定测试方法的不足,基于指控系统从数据链战术应用角度出发,面向海军舰船作战系统使命任务,提出了海军舰船数据链设计鉴定的评价指标体系及其测试方法,对客观、科学、有效地评估海军舰船数据链战术数据传输能力有着重要实践参考价值。%Based on command-control system, considering the lack of the evaluation methods for navy ship data link design, facing for operation system task, this paper proposes the exam specification system and test method for the design and evaluation of navy ship data link, which has important value to evaluate the data transfers ability of navy ship data link.

  10. Design and Implementation of Paperless Examination System Based on Ability Test%一种基于能力考核的无纸化考试系统的设计与实现

    李健; 陈剑英; 郭李平

    2011-01-01

    As the starting point of professional application ability test, this paper designs a paperless examination system which can realize the automatic marking and handmade marking online using the Web technology, database technology and software technology. It also optimizes the data storage by adopting the custom tag technology. The application results indicate that the system is simple to maintain and management, high efficiency to storage, convenient to implement. It has better application.%以专业应用能力考核为出发点,运用Web技术、数据库技术、软件技术设计一种能实现自动评卷和在线评卷相结合的无纸化考试系统,并采取自定义标记技术对数据存储进行优化.应用结果表明,该系统具有维护管理简单、存储高效、实施方便等特点,具有较好的实用性.

  11. Music and nonmusical abilities.

    Schellenberg, E G

    2001-06-01

    Reports that exposure to music causes benefits in nonmusical domains have received widespread attention in the mainstream media. Such reports have also influenced public policy. The so-called "Mozart effect" actually refers to two relatively distinct phenomena. One concerns short-term increases in spatial abilities that are said to occur from listening to music composed by Mozart. The other refers to the possibility that formal training in music yields nonmusical benefits. A review of the relevant findings indicates that the short-term effect is small and unreliable. Moreover, when it is evident, it can be explained by between-condition differences in the listener's mood or levels of cognitive arousal. By contrast, the effect of music lessons on nonmusical aspects of cognitive development is still an open question. Several studies have reported positive associations between formal music lessons and abilities in nonmusical (e.g., linguistic, mathematical, and spatial) domains. Nonetheless, compelling evidence for a causal link remains elusive. PMID:11458841

  12. Test

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  13. REIT performance and market timing ability

    Richard J. Buttimer Jr; Jun Chen; I-Hsuan Ethan Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study performance and market timing ability of equity real estate investment trusts (REITs). Design/methodology/approach - The authors use classical regression-based framework and their multi-index, multifactor, and conditional extensions to jointly detect asset selectivity and market timing ability of equity REITs and their subcategories. These results are then validated by a nonparametric test. Findings -It is found that equity REITs in aggregate ha...

  14. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Huda Hindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.

  15. IQ testing

    IQ (intelligence quotient) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation ... Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests ...

  16. How to Improve Listening Ability

    2012-01-01

    Learners of English,especially beginners have troubles in understanding speechesby native speakers.Bur how to improve listening ability?Here I’d like to introduceyou some ways which might help you to improve you listening ability.

  17. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1) Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2) Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3) Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, ...

  18. Visuo-Spatial Ability in Colonoscopy Simulator Training

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Buzink, Sonja N.; Verwey, Willem B.; Jakimowicz, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Visuo-spatial ability is associated with a quality of performance in a variety of surgical and medical skills. However, visuo-spatial ability is typically assessed using "Visualization" tests only, which led to an incomplete understanding of the involvement of visuo-spatial ability in these skills. To remedy this situation, the current study…

  19. Visuospatial Ability Factors and Performance Variables in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…

  20. Comparing masticatory performance and mixing ability

    Bilt, van der A.; Mojet, J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Abbink, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been us

  1. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  2. Triplex-forming ability of modified oligonucleotides

    Højland, Torben; Babu, Bolle Ravindra; Bryld, Torsten;

    2007-01-01

    We present our studies on the ability of several different nucleotide analogs as triplex-forming oligonucleotides. The modifications tested include 4'-C-hydroxymethyl, LNA, 2'-amino-LNA and N2'-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA. Triplexes containing monomers of N2'-glycyl-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA are...

  3. Linguistic abilities and its cognitive determinants: contemporary research perspectives

    Gavrilova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents contemporary studies of linguistic abilities in psychology. The different approaches to the linguistic abilities structure are discussed in relation to empirical results on peculiarities of the second language mastering. The special attention is paid to the cognitive determinants of linguistic abilities. So the empirical data concerning the interaction between language-aptitude test scores and different abilities, e.g. verbal intelligence and working memory, are analyzed ...

  4. Comparing Creative Thinking Abilities and Reasoning Ability of Deaf and Hearing Children

    Ebrahim, Fawzy

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on comparing the creative thinking and reasoning abilities of deaf and hearing children. Two groups of deaf (N = 210) and hearing children (N = 200) were chosen based on specific criteria. Two instruments were used in the study: the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural, Form A and Matrix Analogies Test. Canonical…

  5. The effect of education on cognitive ability

    Falch, Torberg; Sandgren, Sofia

    2006-01-01

    We analyze whether the amount of schooling influences intelligence as measured by IQ tests. By use of a novel longitudinal dataset we are able to condition on early cognitive ability to account for selection into non-compulsory schooling when estimating the effect on cognitive ability at age 20. OLS estimates indicate that one year of schooling increases IQ by 2.8–3.5 points (about 0.2 standard deviations). When family income per family member and teacher evaluations of the individuals at age...

  6. Psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzábal; Giacheti, Célia M.; Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N = 20, mean age = 8.5 years, SD = 1.62) and two typically developing groups, matched in mental (MA, N = 20, mean age = 4.92 years, SD = 1.14) and chronological age (CA, N = 19, mean age = 8.35 years, SD = 3.07)...

  7. An exploration of the uncertainty relation satisfied by BP network learning ability and generalization ability

    LI Zuoyong; PENG Lihong

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the intrinsic relationship between the BP network learning ability and generalization ability and other influencing factors when the overfit occurs, and introduces the multiple correlation coefficient to describe the complexity of samples; it follows the calculation uncertainty principle and the minimum principle of neural network structural design, provides an analogy of the general uncertainty relation in the information transfer process, and ascertains the uncertainty relation between the training relative error of the training sample set, which reflects the network learning ability,and the test relative error of the test sample set, which represents the network generalization ability; through the simulation of BP network overfit numerical modeling test with different types of functions, it is ascertained that the overfit parameter q in the relation generally has a span of 7×10-3 to 7 × 10-2; the uncertainty relation then helps to obtain the formula for calculating the number of hidden nodes of a network with good generalization ability under the condition that multiple correlation coefficient is used to describe sample complexity and the given approximation error requirement is satisfied;the rationality of this formula is verified; this paper also points out that applying the BP network to the training process of the given sample set is the best method for stopping training that improves the generalization ability.

  8. Egocentrism and Map Reading Ability.

    Towler, John O.

    Egocentrism was investigated as an influencing factor in the development of the perceptual abilities needed to understand and interpret topographic maps. Attainment of an adequate concept of space, and the ability to accurately perceive spatial relationships (perspectives) are considered fundamental. Piaget and Inhelder identified three stages of…

  9. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  10. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  11. What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

  12. Visuo-spatial abilities in chess players

    Waters, A.; Gobet, F.; Leyden, G

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which the acquisition of expertise in knowledge-rich domains, such as chess, can be influenced by general individual characteristics, such as intelligence, has remained unclear. Some previous studies with children have documented significant correlations between chess skill and performance on some psychometric tests, such as performance IQ (Frydman & Lynn, 1992). However, we found no evidence for a correlation between chess skill and visual memory ability in a group of adult che...

  13. Endurance ability characteristics of professional sportsmen

    Rozenstoka, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Cycling and kettlebell sport are cyclic kinds of sport. For sport achievement is important the development of endurance ability. In kettlebell sport high performance is based on the strength endurance. One of the conditions for success in competition is sportsman’s high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Complex cardiopulmonary exercise testing allows for simultaneous study of the responses of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to a stated physical load stress. There is direct correlation ...

  14. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  15. How to Improve Listening Ability

    2012-01-01

    正Learners of English, especially beginners have troubles in understanding speeches by native speakers. Bur how to improve listening ability? Here I'd like to introduce you some ways which might help you to improve you listening ability. First of all, do things step by step. It is no good to listen to anything beyond your level. Don't choose too difficult materials. Secondly,

  16. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  17. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability

    Ozdemir, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J.; Rebok, George W.; Montague, David R.

    2009-01-01

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between ...

  19. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  20. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  1. Ability of surface and subsurface death assemblages to track km-scale spatial and decade-scale temporal variability in living communities: Tests using the urban southern California continental shelf

    Kidwell, Susan M.; Tomasovych, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Actualistic analysis of death assemblages has always focused on quantifying, and achieving a mechanistic understanding of, the reliability of deep-time records, and is now additionally motivated to assess natural conditions before human impacts. The southern California continental shelf permits us to evaluate the ability of time-averaged death assemblages to detect known variability in urban nutrients, which increased from the early 20th Century up until the 1972 Clean Water Act. Biomonitoring since then documents strong declines in populations of pollution- and hypoxia-tolerant species, especially the chemosymbiontic lucinid bivalve Parvilucina tenuisculpta. This shelf is taphonomically challenging -- median shell ages are 50-100 y, only 1% of shells survive, the mixed-zone is ~25 cm thick, and siliciclastic accumulation is slow, in contrast to sediment-trapping estuaries and lagoons. Nonetheless, both surficial death and buried core assemblages capture first-order urban trends, albeit with significant damping of the large, spatially localized mid-20th Century pulse in Parvilucina abundance. Paleoecologists will thus detect but under-estimate the original magnitude of even strong past excursions in community composition, an important bounding condition for both recent- and deep-time analysis.

  2. The Perceptual Abilities Project. Technical Report No. 1988-4.

    Bethscheider, Janine K.

    An experimental test battery designed to measure several perceptual abilities was administered to 1,368 (51.8% male) paying clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) in an effort to identify and measure three perceptual abilities: (1) flexibility of closure; (2) speed of closure; and (3) spatial scanning. Subjects, who ranged in…

  3. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  4. Scientific abilities and their assessment

    David Rosengrant

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a set of formative assessment tasks and rubrics that were developed for use in an introductory physics instruction to help students acquire and self-assess various scientific process abilities. We will describe the rubrics, tasks, and the student outcomes in courses where the tasks and rubrics were used.

  5. Diferentes padronizações do teste da caminhada de seis minutos como método para mensuração da capacidade de exercício de idosos com e sem cardiopatia clinicamente evidente Different patterns for the 6-minute walk test as a test to measure exercise ability in elderly with and without clinically evident cardiopathy

    Clênia Oliveira Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a correlação do consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico, no teste cardiopulmonar, com a distância percorrida no teste da caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 em idosos saudáveis e com infarto do miocárdio (IM. MÉTODOS: Avaliados 30 indivíduos, idade entre 65 e 87 anos (76,03 ± 4,75, divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo I - 14 com doença cardíaca clinicamente evidente (DCCE Grupo II - 16 sem DCCE. Foram submetidos ao teste cardiopulmonar (TCP e a 2 tipos de TC6. As variáveis mensuradas foram: a freqüência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (FR, pressão arterial (PA, distância percorrida (DP, e a percepção subjetiva de esforço de BORG. RESULTADOS: O estudo mostrou uma forte correlação das distâncias percorridas, em ambas as formas do (TC6, com o VO2pico obtido no TCP, em todos idosos incluídos neste estudo. Na comparação entre os TC6, quando aplicado com acompanhamento (TC6ac e sem acompanhamento (TC6s, foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante, com maiores valores médios da DP, da FC e FR, e da percepção subjetiva de esforço no TC6ac, em ambos os grupos. Além disso, a FC atingida ao final do esforço, no TC6ac, foi semelhante à obtida no TCP máximo (p OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the correlation between peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak, from cardiopulmonary test with the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in healthy elderly and with myocardial infarction (MI. METHODS: Thirty individuals were studied, with age range 65 - 87 years (76, 03± 4,75, divided into 2 groups: Group I - 14 with clinically evident coronary heart disease (CHD and Group II - 16 without clinically evident CHD. They were submitted to cardiopulmonary test (CPT and 2 types of 6MWT, standard test 6MWTs. Variables measure at rest and exertion were heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RR, blood pressure (BP, distance covered (DC, and Borg’s rate subjective perceived exertion (RPE. RESULTS: The study showed significant, strong

  6. Spatial Ability Development in the Geosciences

    Baldwin, T. K.; Hall-Wallace, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    We designed an experiment to evaluate change in students' spatial skills as a result of completing an earth science course. Our test subjects included high school students in earth science classes, college level non-science majors enrolled in large enrollment introductory geoscience courses and introductory level geoscience majors. They also varied as to whether their course had a hand-on laboratory experience or used supplemental Geographic Information System (GIS) based activities. We measured all students' ability to mentally rotate three-dimensional objects and to construct a three-dimensional object from a two-dimensional representation before and after taking the earth science course. Results show an improvement in spatial skills for all groups after completing the science course. We also observed a consistent improvement in spatial skills overall from high school level science to courses for majors, which is possibly related to their increased exposure to science. A subgroup of the test subjects among both high school and the college non-science majors completed supplementary GIS activities. The GIS implementation at the high school level was more extensive and resulted in significant improvements in both categories of spatial ability. At the college level, the non-science majors that used the GIS curriculum showed no significant difference from those that did not, probably because the time spent on the curriculum was too short. At the college level, the geoscience majors had nearly three times the improvement of non-science majors in both categories of spatial ability. This can most likely be attributed to hands-on, weekly laboratory experiences, which were not part of the course for non-science majors. Students choosing science majors typically have much higher spatial skills than the average first or second year non-science major, however there were large variations in spatial ability within all groups. These results suggest that we evaluate teaching

  7. Linguistic abilities and its cognitive determinants: contemporary research perspectives

    Gavrilova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents contemporary studies of linguistic abilities in psychology. The different approaches to the linguistic abilities structure are discussed in relation to empirical results on peculiarities of the second language mastering. The special attention is paid to the cognitive determinants of linguistic abilities. So the empirical data concerning the interaction between language-aptitude test scores and different abilities, e.g. verbal intelligence and working memory, are analyzed in more details. In the conclusion the research perspectives in different cognitive processes which determine the efficiency of the second language mastery are discussed

  8. Testes de pista para avaliação da capacidade lática de corredores velocistas de alto nível Pruebas de pista para la evaluación de la capacidad láctica de corredores de velocidad de nivel alto Track test to assess the lactic ability in high level runners

    Fernando Roberto De-Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade anaeróbia (CAn é dada pelo somatório das capacidades alática e lática (CLa. Em cicloergômetro, tem sido utilizado teste de esforço máximo de 30 segundos (max30 para a aproximação da CAn (potência média e índice de fadiga. Atualmente, a CLa não é diretamente medida, necessitando de abordagens operacionalizáveis, como a medida de performance e a concentração sanguínea de lactato ([La]. Com corredores velocistas de alto nível, espera-se que, em esforço de maior duração, i.e. 60 segundos (max60, ocorra uma maior exigência da CLa e que, por validade ecológica, deve ser aplicado em pista. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as variáveis derivadas de max30 e max60 em velocistas. Oito atletas de nível nacional e internacional (19-27 anos foram submetidos aos testes de corrida max30 e max60, em pista sintética oficial e coleta de sangue arterializado do lóbulo da orelha, imediatamente, um, três, cinco, sete e meio e 10 minutos após o esforço. Para comparação entre max30 e max60 foi utilizado o teste t de Student e a correlação simples de Pearson para verificação da associação entre as variáveis. As concentrações de lactato foram significativamente maiores em max60 do que em max30 (20,9 ± 1,2 vs 18,2 ± 1,9mM, p 0,05. Pelas características destes atletas, que possuem grande tolerância às elevadas [La], variáveis derivadas de testes com duração/distância próximas aos 60s/500m parecem mais adequados como índices de CLa.La capacidad anaerobica (CAn se da por la suma de la capacidad aláctica y láctica (el CLa. En el cicloergómetro, la prueba de esfuerzo máximo de 30 segundos (max30 se ha usado para el acercamiento de CAn (la potencia média y el índice de fatiga. Ahora, la CLa no es directamente medido, mientras se necesitando el accionar las aproximaciones como son la medida de la actuación y la concentración sanguínea de lactato ([La]. Con corredores esprínteres de nivel alto

  9. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  10. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    ROSARIO eCABELLO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists, whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists. The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688, implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  11. Sleep loss and "divergent" thinking ability.

    Horne, J A

    1988-12-01

    Although much is known about the impact of sleep loss on many aspects of psychological performance, the effects on divergent ("creative") thinking has received little attention. Twelve subjects went 32 h without sleep, and 12 others acted as normally sleeping controls. All subjects were assessed on the figural and verbal versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. As compared with the control condition, sleep loss impaired performance on all test scales (e.g., "flexibility," the ability to change strategy, and "originality," generation of unusual ideas) for both versions, even on an initial 5-min test component. In an attempt at further understanding of whether these findings might be explained solely by a loss of motivation, two additional short and stimulating tests were also used--a word fluency task incorporating high incentive to do well and a challenging nonverbal planning test. Performance at these tasks was still significantly impaired by sleep loss. Increased perseveration was clearly apparent. Apparently, 1 night of sleep loss can affect divergent thinking. This contrasts with the outcome for convergent thinking tasks, which are more resilient to short-term sleep loss. PMID:3238256

  12. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Cándido Genovard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.

  13. Low intelligence and special abilities.

    O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B

    1988-07-01

    In summary, our research enables us to conclude that specific talents are found in people who differ widely in general intelligence levels and such talents should therefore be regarded as at least partly intelligence-independent. However, between normal and mentally handicapped populations and even within the idiot savant group, general cognitive capacity plays some part in determining the manner in which talents manifest themselves. Idiot savant special abilities can neither be regarded as the sole consequence of practice and training, nor are such skills based only on an efficient rote memory. Instead, idiots savants use strategies which are founded on the deduction and application of rules governing the material upon which their special ability operates. They also generate novel or new examples of such rule based structures just as we do in our use of language. Because of the much greater prevalence of idiots savants in the autistic than in the mentally handicapped population, some characteristic common to both autism and specific giftedness might be assumed. An obsessional pre-occupation with a limited section of the environment might be a common factor to both. It may be this rather than autism itself which is relevant to the idiot savant phenomenon. PMID:3063716

  14. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  15. Child labor, schooling, and child ability

    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  16. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed. PMID:25603581

  17. Estimation abilities of large numerosities in Kindergartners

    Sandrine eMejias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The approximate number system (ANS is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education. The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5 to 6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children’s early number competence as well as schools’ socio-economic index (SEI. This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8 to 64. In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1 to 12 at the end of the 2nd (N = 42 and the 3rd (N = 32 kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on extending far beyond children’s symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children’s estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from

  18. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Ken eNakayama; Laura eGermine

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upo...

  19. Abilities of preschoolers: comparing different tools

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong need for studies evaluating tests in terms both of psychometric properties (i.e. their efficacy or ability to be helpful in reaching a diagnosis and of their cost-effectiveness (i.e. their efficiency. These data are essential for planning a correct evaluation to identify children's needs (both educational and abilitative. Methods We evaluated 58 children attending for the first time the last year of the Scuola dell'Infanzia. Parental view was obtained with Child Behaviour Check-List and Conners' Rating Scales - Revised, and family socio-economic status was evaluated using Hollingshead's Four Factor Index; teacher compiled the IPDA questionnaire; children were administered Raven's Progressive Matrices, Modified Bell Cancellation Test, BVN 5-11 (a neuropsychological battery. Results A correlational analysis was conducted using Spearman's Rho (since variables were not normally distributed. These asymptomatic children show a good global cognitive functioning, but also a deficit of attention and of Executive Functions. Some of the tests used seem more cost-effective than others and there are some redundancies in information obtained. Conclusions Our data show that there are significant correlations between different neuropsychological and behavioural measures. It is therefore possible to rationalize diagnostic protocols without a significant information reduction. A deeper analysis will require a preliminary definition of the psychometric properties of used tools.

  20. DEVELOPMENT & STANDARDIZATION OF AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE CHILDHOOD MOTOR-ABILITY

    Syed Tariq Murtaza; Farkhunda Jabin; Mohd.Imran

    2014-01-01

    Background: To construct & standardize the Motor-Ability Test for Early Childhood Period so it would be more appropriate for that age group. Objectives: To construct the test of the Motor-Ability Test for Early Childhood Period & verify its reliability and validity and to provide percentile norms for the test for future comparison. Methods: The whole test was administered in two phases. The first phase was related to construct & standardize the preliminary motor test battery. T...

  1. THE SYNTACTICAL ABILITY OF A YOUNG GIRL WITH WILLIAMS SYNDROME

    ARAPOVIKJ Diana; Vishnja PRANJIKJ

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out on a young girl with Williams syndrome, whose syntactical ability was tested longitudinally over a period of 22 months, from age 9 years and 3 months to 11 years and 1 month. The assumption was that the girl with Wil­liams syndrome would have poorer syntactical ability than children with regular development, but similar to children with specific language impair­ment (SLI) and that in all tasks she would achieve better results in the final testing. Syntax was ana­...

  2. Too hard, too easy, or just right? The relationship between effort or boredom and ability-difficulty fit

    Regine Asseburg; Andreas Frey

    2013-01-01

    Usually, it is assumed that achievement tests measure maximum performance. However, test performance is not only associated with ability but also with motivational and emotional aspects of test-taking. These aspects are influenced by individual success probability, which in turn depends on the ratio of individual ability to item difficulty (ability-difficulty fit). The impact of ability-difficulty fit on test-taking motivation and emotion is unknown and rarely considered when interpreting tes...

  3. Stomach acid test

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  4. Empirical Study of Low-grade College Students’English Autonomous Learning Ability under the Background of Inter-net-based Tests%机考背景下低年级学生英语自主学习实证研究

    陈宁; 叶若舟; 王珊珊; 张晓枚

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study the English autonomous learning ability of freshmen and sophomores under the background of internet-based college English tests, taking Beijing University of Chinese Medicine as an example. [Methods] A questionnaire was conducted to study the English autonomous learning ability of low-grade college students, and a teaching experiment with internet-based college English tests involved was used to explore the different effects of two kinds of autonomous learning:one with teacher’s guidance, and another one without teacher’s involvement. [Results] The study found that the English autono-mous learning ability of most freshmen and sophomores was low. The effect of the autonomous learning with teacher ’s guidance was better than the one without teacher’s involvement. [Conclusion] The study shows that in the process of autonomous learn-ing, the best effect can be achieved from the cooperation among recourses, teachers and students.%[目的]以北京中医药大学为例研究大学英语机考背景下的一二年级学生英语自主学习的能力。[方法]通过问卷调查的方法了解低年级学生自主学习的能力,通过教学实验研究上述学生在英语机考背景下的两种自主学习方式之下的效果:以教师为主导的自主学习和教师不参与指导的自主学习。[结果]多数一二年级学生自主学习能力低下、以教师为主导的自主学习的效果优于教师不参与指导的自主学习。[结论]研究表明,在自主学习的过程中,需要资源、教师、学生等多方面的协同合作才能达到完美的效果。

  5. Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Abilities in Rhesus Monkeys

    Jennifer Ding

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.

  6. Alzheimer's May Hamper Ability to Perceive Pain

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159988.html Alzheimer's May Hamper Ability to Perceive Pain People with ... 20, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alzheimer's disease may affect people's ability to recognize when ...

  7. How to Develop Students' Writing Ability

    ChenHuigen

    2000-01-01

    Keynote: This dissertation presents an analysis of the cause of students' low ability of writing, emphasizes the interrelations of the 4 abilities and focuses on the importance of the change of English teachers' concepts.

  8. Age Changes in Subjective Work Ability

    Solem, Per Erik

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the influence of psychosocial work environment on age-related subjective changes in work ability and discusses differences between work ability and job performance. The results show age and physical health to be strong predictors of subjective decline in work ability. The age effect is independent of age-associated declining health. It is not clear what it is about age that produces the subjective decline in work ability. While primary age changes may produce decline, st...

  9. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  10. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  11. Elliott, C. D. (2007). "Differential Ability Scales" (2nd Ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2007-01-01

    "Differential Ability Scales," Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007), was developed to measure the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents from age 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months. The test is designed to be individually administered, measuring general conceptual and reasoning ability ("g") as well as specific and diverse…

  12. Early Identification of High-Ability Students: Clinical Assessment of Behavior

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, Elissa F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of teachers to accurately rate the cognitive and academic functioning of 1,375 students in kindergarten through the third grade on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), as compared to two objective cognitive ability tests. CAB teacher ratings were compared for high-ability students who were currently…

  13. Bootstrap Standard Errors for Maximum Likelihood Ability Estimates When Item Parameters Are Unknown

    Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    When item parameter estimates are used to estimate the ability parameter in item response models, the standard error (SE) of the ability estimate must be corrected to reflect the error carried over from item calibration. For maximum likelihood (ML) ability estimates, a corrected asymptotic SE is available, but it requires a long test and the…

  14. Poorer sleep quality is associated with lower emotion-regulation ability in a laboratory paradigm

    Mauss, Iris B.; Troy, Allison S.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest a positive relationship between sleep quality and individuals' ability to regulate emotion. However, few studies have empirically tested this hypothesized link using standardized laboratory measures of emotion-regulation ability. The present research examined the relationship between sleep quality and the ability to implement a type of emotion regulation that has particularly important implications for psychological health: cognitive reappraisal (cognitively reframi...

  15. Ontogeny of numerical abilities in fish.

    Angelo Bisazza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that human adults, infants, and non-human primates share two non-verbal systems for enumerating objects, one for representing precisely small quantities (up to 3-4 items and one for representing approximately larger quantities. Recent studies exploiting fish's spontaneous tendency to join the larger group showed that their ability in numerical discrimination closely resembles that of primates but little is known as to whether these capacities are innate or acquired. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the spontaneous tendency to join the larger shoal to study the limits of the quantity discrimination of newborn and juvenile guppies. One-day old fish chose the larger shoal when the choice was between numbers in the small quantity range, 2 vs. 3 fish, but not when they had to choose between large numbers, 4 vs. 8 or 4 vs. 12, although the numerical ratio was larger in the latter case. To investigate the relative role of maturation and experience in large number discrimination, fish were raised in pairs (with no numerical experience or in large social groups and tested at three ages. Forty-day old guppies from both treatments were able to discriminate 4 vs. 8 fish while at 20 days this was only observed in fish grown in groups. Control experiments showed that these capacities were maintained after guppies were prevented from using non numerical perceptual variables that co-vary with numerosity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results suggest the ability of guppies to discriminate small numbers is innate and is displayed immediately at birth while discrimination of large numbers emerges later as a result of both maturation and social experience. This developmental dissociation suggests that fish like primates might have separate systems for small and large number representation.

  16. Artificial intelligence model for sustain ability measurement

    The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)

  17. Abstraction ability as an indicator of success for learning object-oriented programming?

    Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2006-01-01

    ability is operationalized as stages of cognitive development (for which validated tests exist). Programming ability is operationalized as grade in the final assessment of a model-based objects-first CS1. The validity of the operationalizations is discussed. Surprisingly, our study shows that there is no......Computer science educators generally agree that abstract thinking is a crucial component for learning computer science in general and programming in particular. We report on a study to confirm the hypothesis that general abstraction ability has a positive impact on programming ability. Abstraction...... correlation between stage of cognitive development (abstraction ability) and final grade in CS1 (programming ability). Possible explanations are identified....

  18. An Exploration into the Creative Abilities of Children with ADHD

    Healey, Dione; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether ADHD is associated with high creative ability. Sixty-seven children, ages 10 to 12 (33 ADHD and 34 controls) completed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), Maier's Two-String Problem, and the Block Design and Vocabulary subsets of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III).…

  19. Ability-Training-Oriented Automated Assessment in Introductory Programming Course

    Wang, Tiantian; Su, Xiaohong; Ma, Peijun; Wang, Yuying; Wang, Kuanquan

    2011-01-01

    Learning to program is a difficult process for novice programmers. AutoLEP, an automated learning and assessment system, was developed by us, to aid novice programmers to obtain programming skills. AutoLEP is ability-training-oriented. It adopts a novel assessment mechanism, which combines static analysis with dynamic testing to analyze student…

  20. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  1. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  2. The predictive ability of different customer feedback metrics for retention

    de Haan, Evert; Verhoef, Peter C.; Wiesel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    This study systematically compares different customer feedback metrics (CFMs) - namely customer satisfaction, the Net Promoter Score, and the Customer Effort Score - to test their ability to predict retention across a wide range of industries. We classify the CFMs according to a time focus (past, pr

  3. Multidimensional Scoring of Abilities: The Ordered Polytomous Response Case

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that multidimensionally scoring responses from different tests can provide better ability estimates. For educational assessment data, applications of this approach have been limited to binary scores. Of the different variants, the de la Torre and Patz model is considered more general because implementing the scoring procedure…

  4. Spatial Abilities during the Circalunar Cycle in Both Sexes

    Ostatnikova, Daniela; Hodosy, Julius; Skoknova, Martina; Putz, Zdenek; Kudela, Matus; Celec, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Spatial abilities vary during the menstrual cycle. The effects of a similar rhythm in men are unknown. Mental rotation and spatial visualization of young healthy volunteers (29 females and 31 males) were tested during the menstrual and periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle in women, and during the low-testosterone and high-testosterone phases…

  5. Speech Perception Ability in Individuals with Friedreich Ataxia

    Rance, Gary; Fava, Rosanne; Baldock, Heath; Chong, April; Barker, Elizabeth; Corben, Louise; Delatycki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate auditory pathway function and speech perception ability in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). Ten subjects confirmed by genetic testing as being homozygous for a GAA expansion in intron 1 of the FXN gene were included. While each of the subjects demonstrated normal, or near normal sound detection, 3…

  6. Knowledge and Ability Factors Underlying Simple Learning by Accretion.

    Tirre, William C.

    In this study, the relationships between simple learning by accretion and various cognitive ability variables were explored. Computerized tests of five sources of individual differences were administered to a sample of 714 Air Force recruits, along with a trigram-English word paired-associate task, which was presented as a foreign language…

  7. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  8. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    Wierike, S.C. te; Jong, M.C. de; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Lemmink, K.A.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  9. An Investigation of Ability Estimation in Gibbs Sampling.

    Kim, Seock-Ho; Cohen, Allan S.

    The ability estimates of Gibbs sampling and the magnitudes of the posterior standard deviations were investigated. Item parameters of the Q-E intelligence test (J. Fraenkel and N. Wallen, 2000) for 44 examinees were obtained using Gibbs sampling, marginal Bayesian estimation, and BILOG. Two normal priors were used in item parameter estimation.…

  10. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    Igor Stanojević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functional abilities six functional tests were used: resting heart rate, Cooper test, heart rate in the first minute after Cooper test, heart rate in the second minute after Cooper test, systolic arterial blood pressure, diastolic arterial blood pressure. For assessment of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines four tests were used: long jump, high jump, shot put and javelin. Data analysis was performed with canonical correlation and regression analysis. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between functional abilities with all of tests in jumping and throwing athletic disciplines.

  11. INFLUENCE OF MOTOR ABILITIES ON LEARNING OF ALPINE SKI TECHNIQUE

    Igor Božić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research determined influence of motor abilities on alpine ski learning. Moreover, the aim was also to estimate the contribution of some morphological characteristics to acquisition of ski knowledge. At the beginning of the study, participants were tested by tests evaluating balance, agility, explosive and static strength, movement frequency and flexibility. After evaluation of motor abilities, basic morphological characteristics were noted and then participants entered a seven days alpine ski course. Acquired alpine ski knowledge was assessed through demonstration of seven elements of alpine ski technique, by five independent judges. Data analysis showed positive influence of agility on all tested elements of alpine ski technique (traversing, β = .38; β = .26; uphill turn, β = .33; β = .23; basic turn, β = .18; parallel turn, β = .32; short turn, β = .34. Subjects’ results in squat endurance test assessing the static leg strength contribute to learning uphill turn (β = .19, basic turn (β = .35 and parallel turn (β = .27. Test used to measure balance (single leg balance test significantly influences learning of basic elements of alpine ski technique (traversing right, β = .23; traversing left, β = .28; uphill turn to the left, β = .24. Body height has a negative effect on alpine ski learning (β = -0.5, indicating that taller ski beginners tend to have more difficulties during alpine ski learning than shorter alpine ski beginners. According to our results, agility, static leg strength and balance are the motor abilities with the greatest influence on beginners’ alpine ski learning

  12. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  13. A Comparison of School Psychologists' and School Counselors' Ability to Identify Cognitive Abilities Underlying Basic Academic Tasks

    Jensen, Myriam E.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors influence the referral process and delivery of educational recommendations. Their perceptions of students' cognitive abilities are likely to influence their referral decisions as well as their interpretation and use of the results of psychological testing. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll, (CHC), model of intelligence, is gaining…

  14. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability Of Form Four Students

    Lim Hooi Lian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics researchers generally agree that algebra is a tool for problem solving, a method of expressing relationship, analyzing and representing patterns, and exploring mathematical properties in a variety of problem situations. Thus, several mathematics researchers and educators have focused on investigating the introduction and the development of algebraic solving abilities. However research works on assessing students' algebraic solving ability is sparse in literature. The purpose of this study was to use the SOLO model as a theoretical framework for assessing Form Four students' algebraic solving abilities in using linear equation. The content domains incorporated in this framework were linear pattern (pictorial, direct variations, concepts of function and arithmetic sequence. This study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, students were given a pencil-and-paper test. The test comprised of eight superitems of four items each. Results were analyzed using a Partial Credit model. In the second phase, clinical interviews were conducted to seek the clarification of the students' algebraic solving processes. Results of the study indicated that 62% of the students have less than 50% probability of success at relational level. The majority of the students in this study could be classified into unistructural and multistructural. Generally, most of the students encountered difficulties in generalizing their arithmetic thinking through the use of algebraic symbols. The qualitative data analysis found that the high ability students seemed to be more able to seek the recurring linear pattern and identify the linear relationship between variables. They were able to co-ordinate all the information given in the question to form the algebraic expression and linear equations. Whereas, the low ability students showed an ability more on drawing and counting method. They lacked understanding of algebraic concepts to express the relationship

  15. Age Changes in Subjective Work Ability

    Solem, Per Erik

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the influence of psychosocial work environment on age-related subjective changes in work ability and discusses differences between work ability and job performance. The results show age and physical health to be strong predictors of subjective decline in work ability. The age effect is independent of age-associated declining health. It is not clear what it is about age that produces the subjective decline in work ability. While primary age changes may produce decline, stereotypes and self-stereotypes about ageing may also be important. Among psychosocial factors, options for learning and problems at work are robust predictors of subjective changes in work ability. One practical consequence is to ensure learning opportunities for workers, even for workers approaching retirement age. By giving learning opportunities to senior workers, subjective work ability may be maintained, and competence acquired through learning may in a direct way support stability or improvements in job performance.

  16. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  17. Children's abilities to distinguish novel languages

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2005-04-01

    When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.

  18. Occupational Complexity and Lifetime Cognitive Abilities

    Smart, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Associations were examined between complexity of main lifetime occupation and cognitive performance in later life. Occupational complexity ratings for data, people and things were collected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) for 1066 (men= 534, women= 532) individuals in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Early life ability is one of the largest predictors of later life cognitive abilities and one of the greatest strengths of the study is the availability of early life ability measu...

  19. The Good, the Bad, and the Average: Evidence on Ability Peer Effects in Schools

    Victor Lavy; Olmo Silva; Felix Weinhardt

    2012-01-01

    We study ability peer effects in English secondary schools using data on four cohorts of students taking age-14 national tests and measuring peers' ability by prior achievements at age 11. Our identification is based on within-pupil regressions exploiting variation in achievements across three compulsory subjects tested at age 14 and age 11. Using this novel strategy, we find significant and sizable negative effects arising from bad peers at the bottom of the ability distribution but little e...

  20. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl;

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  1. Corporate risks, risk bearing ability and equity

    Handschin, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    There is a relation between corporate risks, risk bearing ability and equity. In order to assess the risk bearing ability of a corporation, one reference figure is equity, understood as the sum of legal capital and reserves, free reserves and accrued profits. Equity shows the risk bearing ability related to the risk of asset reduction as well as the ability of the corporation to attract new liquidity by increasing debts, in case of a negative free cash flow. Equity is the risk reserve of the ...

  2. Face validity of the single work ability item

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. METHODS: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18-65 years from...... the cross-sectional "New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD)" study. The workers reported their single item work ability and completed an aerobic capacity cycling test and objective measurements of heart rate reserve monitored with Actiheart for 3-4 days with...

  3. The factorial structure of cognitive abilities in childhood

    Ana Azevedo Martins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown contradictory evidence regarding cognitive abilities differentiation and organization in childhood. Cattell's investment theory postulated that during the early stages of life, the individual begins with a single and general ability (fluid intelligence, in which the relevance tends to decrease during adolescence, due to the appearance of differentiated abilities developed through the process of socialization and associated with the motivations, interests and experiences. This study analyses whether the factorial structure of the results in a battery of tests supports the existence of a general factor or, instead, a structure formed by different specific factors. A sample of 472 Portuguese children, aged between 4 and 10 years old, completed the Cognitive Competencies Scale for Children (ECCOs 4/10, and four subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R. The adjustment of some models that reflect different psychometric theories of intelligence was tested by several confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. The implications of the tested models in the organization of cognitive abilities for cognitive development and school learning in childhood are also discussed.

  4. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  5. Sex Differences in Verbal Reasoning Are Mediated by Sex Differences in Spatial Ability

    Colom, Roberto; Contreras, Ma Jose; Arend, Isabel; Leal, Oscar Garcia; Santacreu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have shown that males outperform females in overall spatial ability, while females outperform males in some verbal ability tests, but not in others. The present article measures sex differences in two computerized tests, one thought to reflect verbal reasoning and one thought to reflect dynamic spatial performance. The sample…

  6. THE SYNTACTICAL ABILITY OF A YOUNG GIRL WITH WILLIAMS SYNDROME

    Diana ARAPOVIKJ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out on a young girl with Williams syndrome, whose syntactical ability was tested longitudinally over a period of 22 months, from age 9 years and 3 months to 11 years and 1 month. The assumption was that the girl with Wil­liams syndrome would have poorer syntactical ability than children with regular development, but similar to children with specific language impair­ment (SLI and that in all tasks she would achieve better results in the final testing. Syntax was ana­lyzed on the basis of the fundamental variable of repeating sentences, which consisted of five sub-variables: literal repetition of sentences, sentences repeated with omissions, ungrammatical repetition of sentences, sentences with altered content, sen­tences not repeated. A statistical difference was found between the syntactical ability of the girl with Williams’ syndrome and children with normal development in all tested sub-variables, and her results were the same as in children with specific language impairment. Moreover, in the final test­ing the girl achieved better results than in the ini­tial test.

  7. Experimental Study of Rock Drill-ability Anisotropy by Acoustic Velocity

    2006-01-01

    Rock drill-ability anisotropy has significant effects on directional drilling and deviation control. Its evaluation is an important but difficult research subject. Definitions of drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of rock are given in this paper. The acoustic velocities and the drill-ability parameters of several rock samples from the Engineering Center for Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) are respectively measured with the device for testing the rock drill-ability and the ultrasonic testing system in laboratory, so that their drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy are respectively calculated and discussed in detail by using the experimental data. On the basis of these experimental results and calculations, correlations between drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of the rock samples are illustrated through regression analyses. Thus, a mathematical model developed may be used to evaluate the rock drill-ability anisotropy with the acoustic logging or seismic data to a certain extent.

  8. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  9. DEVELOPING STUDENTS' READING ABILITIES IN JUNIOR SCHOOL

    Duan Bixi

    2001-01-01

    In This Article, the writer focus on an over- all analysis of the present situation of the students' reading activities in junior middle school in the countryside and put forward some suggestions on improving the teaching arts to enhance the students' fast reading abilities . It provided some theoretical basis on the further improcement of students' reading abilities in the school

  10. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Jeremy B Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities, often labeled g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  11. Overview of Research on Ability Grouping.

    Raze, Nasus

    Although over 77 percent of American school districts use ability grouping, or tracking, research overwhelmingly indicates that the practice benefits only the gifted. High schools commonly have two or three tracks. Regardless of the methods used to place students, the effects of ability grouping are uniform; furthermore, placement in low ability…

  12. Dissociating the ability and propensity for empathy

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish the ability from the propensity to empathize. We argue that (i) this ability-propensity distinction is crucial to characterizing empat

  13. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  14. A Review of Spatial Ability Research

    Mohler, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial ability research has been approached from several psychological vantages since its beginnings in the late 1800s. This contribution attempts a summation of spatial ability research, beginning with a historical vignette and a major section on each psychological approach including the psychometric, developmental, differential and information…

  15. Farmers’Political Cognition and Political Ability

    曾子成

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract]In order to provide a new theoretical perspective for the academic research, the group measured political cognition on account of Almond scale. We had found that farmers' political cognition is related to their subjective political ability but not to objective ability, at last we supposed elaborate vil age cadres'function in giving political information publicity.

  16. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  17. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  18. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students

    Mansour Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

  19. Characterization of autochthonous Lactobacillus paracasei strains on potential probiotic ability

    Zorica Radulović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from traditional made cheeses constitute a reservoir of unexplored potential in biotechnology. In this study four autochthonous lactobacilli strains, isolated from traditional white brined cheeses and identified as Lactobacillus paracasei (08, 564, 05 and 02, were investigated on potential probiotic ability. The investigation comprised sensitivity to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity against wide range of pathogens, antibiotic resistance as well as autoaggregation ability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was used as referent strain. Three tested strains grew well in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, but their sensitivity was greater on bile acids and pancreatin compared with pepsin low pH 2.5. The examined strains had different sensitivity to antibiotics, but three strains showed very good antimicrobial activity to pathogens. All strains demonstrated very good autoaggregation ability. For three of four examined strains of Lb. paracasei probiotic potential was similar with referent strain Lb. rhamnosus GG, determined in vitro

  20. Avaliação de habilidades de linguagem e pessoal-sociais pelo Teste de Denver II em instituições de educação infantil Evaluacion de habilidades de lenguaje y personal-sociales por el Test de Denver II em instituiciones de educacion infantil Evaluation of language and personal social abilities by the Denver Test II in institutions of infantile education

    Magda Andrade Rezende

    2005-03-01

    jardines infantiles y pré-escolares brasileñas esa ación és poco realizada. OBJETIVO: evaluar por el segundo año consectivo, habilidades de las áreas de lenguaje y personal-social de uma cohorte de niños que frecuentan 3 jardines infantiles de la ciudad de São Paulo. METODO: el grupo estudiado fué conformado por 30 niños desde los cero hasta los cuatro años, de nivel-sócio econômico homogeneo según instrumento para evaluación de nivel de pobreza urbana. Según este instrumento todas las famílias estaban en la faja superior de clasificación. Para evaluación del desarollo fué utilizado el Test de Triage de Desarollo de Denver II, empleado en dos momentos distintos en el primer año de acompanhamiento de la cohorte y una vez en el segundo año. RESULTADOS: en el área personal-social la mejora fué significativa de la 1ª para la 2ª evaluación, lo que no ocurrió en el área de lenguaje a lo largo de las 2 evaluaciones. Por lo tanto, a partir de los 3 años de edad los niños pasaron a obtener resultados peores. En cuanto a los sexos no hubo diferencias significativas en los desempenhos de las dos áreas. CONCLUSIÓN: és possible que las habilidades de los niños en el área personal-social hayan sido incrementadas por las condiciones de las instituiciones, lo que no ocurrió en el área de lenguaje. No se puede afirmar la causa de estos acontecimientos, aunque sea intrigante la proporción adulto/niño que disminuye después de que los niños cumplen 3 años de edad, pero otras investigaciones son necesárias aun la continuidad de esta cohorte.Supervision and promotion of development are important care given to children enrolled in day-care centers and pre-schools. International and national organisms have systematized strategies to supervise child development but in Brazilian day-care centers this action is not well performed. OBJECTIVE: To assess, after a two-year follow-up, personal and social language abilities in a cohort of children enrolled in

  1. Effects of Reasoning Ability on Field Goal Shooting Skills of Female Basketball Players

    Virendra Kumar Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, field goal shooting skills of female basketball players were assessed in the background to their reasoning ability. The sample consists of 100 female intercollegiate basketball players (age = 21.05±1.67 yrs.. Shooting skills reasoning ability were assessed by Johnson’s “Basketball Field Goal Speed Shooting Test” and Mixed Type Group Test of Intelligence prepared by Mehrotra (1984, respectively. Results reveal that field goal shooting ability of female basketball players exhibiting superior reasoning ability was found to be significantly better as compared to field goal shooting ability of female basketball players with low and average reasoning ability. It was concluded that shooting skills of female basketball players is influenced by their cognitive ability i.e. ability to rationalize problems in proper sequence.

  2. Cognitive abilities in children in contexts of poverty

    Silvina Cohen Imach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies of cognitive abilities were conducted on a group of children at a context of poverty, in reason of learning about the quality of such capabilities, and in direct relationship to low school performance and subsequent risk of academic underachievement. Fifty three 4th year EGB-2 (Elementary School children of both sexes participated. They attend a suburban school outside the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Tests of Analogies and Building with Cubes of Wechsler ́s Intelligence Scale III (WISCIII were used in the process. Additionally, a register protocol was prepared by the research team. Outcomes were articulated with a demographic poll inquiring on the social-economic context of the children. Results reveal a proportion of 18.9 % of the children showing below standard records in cognitive abilities related to the aptitude in forming verbal concepts, and of 13.2 % in non- verbal concepts. Verbal abilities refer to the faculty of classifying and categorizing, for which the subject needs to organize, abstract and find relationship between facts or ideas and the comprehension of oral/audio assignments. Non- verbal abilities submit to the aptitude of making processes of analysis- synthesis and applying non- verbal reasoning to spatial relationships. This group of children was selected to receive – in second stage- training in these abilities through the Instrumental Enrichment Program. 

  3. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  4. Water-resisting ability of cemented broken rocks

    Yu Bangyong; Chen Zhanqing; Yu Linli

    2016-01-01

    Using the self-designed testing system, the seepage tests for cemented broken rocks were conducted, and the impact of different factors on water-resisting ability was analyzed. The results show that (1) seepage process of the cemented broken rocks can be divided into two categories:in one category, seepage insta-bility occurs after a period of time, in the other, the permeability decreases slowly and tends to be stable, and seepage instability does not occur;(2) cementing performance of cementing agent and grain size dis-tribution are the decisive factors for water-resisting ability, with the increase of cementing performance and the mass percentage of large grains, the water-resisting ability of the specimen strengthens; (3) aggregate type has little effect on seepage stability, for the specimens with different aggregate types, the permeability and the duration of seepage instability have small difference; (4) initial porosity has a certain effect on the water-resisting ability of the specimen, but has no decisive role. With the increase of the initial porosity, the duration of seepage instability decreases.

  5. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  6. The commonality of extreme discrepancies in the ability profiles of academically gifted students

    DAVID F. LOHMAN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme discrepancies in abilities are more common among the most and least able students than among average ability children. Therefore, procedures for identifying gifted children that deliberately or inadvertently rely on a composite score that averages across ability domains will exclude many children who reason exceptionally well in particular symbol systems. In this article, we first discuss general issues in the measurement of ability profiles. We then introduce a method for categorizing score profiles and finally document the reliability and stability of score profiles using the 2000 standardization data of the Cognitive Abilities Test (Lohman & Hagen, 2001a.

  7. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that expatriates’ host country language ability is positively associated with their adjustment. But does the advantage of expatriates’ language ability depend on the difficulty of the host language? To examine this issue, data were collected from expatriates in two European...... countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language as...... opposed to the host country with an easy language....

  8. Test quality

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  9. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    Dora Cortat Simonetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and higher amplitude what was not observed in the group without any superior intellectual ability. Even taking into account methodological limitations, this study may contribute to the understanding of a relationship between the intellectual quotient (IQ and alpha waves frequency and amplitude, as observed during performance on cognitive tasks. Such results may suggest a possibility to complement psychometric measures with encephalic registers in giftedness research studies.

  10. Estimating combining ability in popcorn lines using multivariate analysis

    Leandro Simôes Azeredo Gonçalves; Silverio de Paiva Freitas Júnior; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Rosana Rodrigues; Caillet Dornelles Marinho; Eduardo Stefani Pagliosa

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to estimate the combining ability in tropical and temperate popcorn (Zea mays L. var. everta Sturt.) lines using multivariate analysis, ten popcorn lines were crossed in a complete diallel without reciprocals and the lines and hybrids were tested in two randomized complete block experiments with three replicates. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate ANOVA, principal component analysis, and univariate and multivariate diallel analysis. For multivariate diallel analysis, va...

  11. The returns to cognitive abilities and personality traits in Germany

    Heineck, Guido; Anger, Silke

    2008-01-01

    We provide the first joint evidence on the relationship between individuals' cognitive abilities, their personality and earnings for Germany. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we employ scores from an ultra-short IQ-test and a set of measures of personality traits, namely locus of control, reciprocity and all basic items from the Five Factor Personality Inventory. Our estimates suggest a positive effect of so-called fluid intelligence or speed of cognition on males' wages...

  12. Basic Timing Abilities Stay Intact in Patients with Musician's Dystonia

    van der Steen, M. C. (Marieke); Floris T van Vugt; Peter E Keller; Eckart Altenmüller

    2014-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control ...

  13. Keratinolytic abilities of Micrococcus luteus from poultry waste

    Wojciech Laba; Anna Choinska; Anna Rodziewicz; Michal Piegza

    2015-01-01

    Keratinolytic microorganisms have become the subject of scientific interest due to their ability to biosynthesize specific keratinases and their prospective application in keratinic waste management. Among several bacterial classes, actinobacteria remain one of the most important sources of keratin-degrading strains, however members of the Micrococcaceae family are rarely scrutinized in regard to their applicatory keratinolytic potential. The tested Micrococcus sp. B1pz isolate from poultry f...

  14. Olfactory Discrimination Ability and Odor Structure Activity Relationships in Honeybees

    Laska, Matthias; Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni; Giurfa, Martin; Menzel, Randolf

    1999-01-01

    Using the training procedure introduced by von Frisch in 1919, we tested the ability of free-flying honeybees to discriminate a conditioning odor from an array of 44 simultaneously presented substances. The stimuli included homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, isomeric forms of some of these substances, as well as several terpenes and odor mixtures, and thus comprised stimuli of varying degrees of structural similarity to any conditioning odor. We found (i) that the...

  15. Cognitive Ability, Principled Reasoning and Political Tolerance

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation and...... ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment and...... cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings of...

  16. Spatial Ability And Learning To Program

    Sue Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results in introductory computer programming modules are often disappointing, and various individual differences have been found to be relevant. This paper reviews work in this area, with particular reference to the effect of a student's spatial ability. Data is presented on a cohort of 49 students enrolled on an MSc in Information Technology course at a university in the UK. A measure was taken of their mental rotation ability, and a questionnaire administered that focused on their previous academic experience, and expectations relating to the introductory computer programming module they were studying. The results showed a positive correlation between mental rotation ability and success in the module (r = 0.48. Other factors, such as confidence level, expected success, and programming experience, were also found to be important. These results are discussed in relation to the accessibility of programming to learners with low spatial ability.

  17. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  18. The genetic basis of music ability

    Yi Ting eTan; Gary E McPherson; Isabelle ePeretz; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realisation of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music develo...

  19. The genetic basis of music ability

    Tan, Yi Ting; Gary E McPherson; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music develo...

  20. The Skills of Improving Reading Ability

    汤瑷宁; 程丽州

    2015-01-01

    Speaking and listening are important to them who wants to improve their ability in English.It is the same to reading.The paper focuses on the skills of improving reading ability.An efficient reader determines beforehand why he is reading a particular selection and he decides which strategies and skills he will use to achieve his goal.There are two basic skills: language skills and reading skills.

  1. The Skills of Improving Reading Ability

    汤瑷宁; 程丽州

    2015-01-01

    Speaking and listening are important to them who wants to improve their ability in English.It is the same to reading. The paper focuses on the skills of improving reading ability. An efficient reader determines beforehand why he is reading a particular selection and he decides which strategies and skills he will use to achieve his goal.There are two basic skills: language skills and reading skills.

  2. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P.; Kernahan, J

    1999-01-01

    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for m...

  3. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  4. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia. PMID:27490164

  5. The consequence of combined pain and stress on work ability in female laboratory technicians

    Jay, Kenneth; Friborg, Maria Kristine; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    the neck-shoulders, perceived stress, and work ability. In a cross-sectional survey at a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark 473 female laboratory technicians replied to questions about stress (Perceived Stress Scale), musculoskeletal pain intensity (scale 0-10) of the neck and shoulders, and work......Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain in...... ability (Work Ability Index). General linear models tested the association between variables. In the multi-adjusted model, stress (p < 0.001) and pain (p < 0.001) had independent main effects on the work ability index score, and there was no significant stress by pain interaction (p = 0.32). Work ability...

  6. Emotional Intelligence in Consumer Behavior: Ability, Confidence and Calibration as Predictors of Performance

    Kidwell, Blair L

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this research is to examine the impact of emotional intelligence on consumer decision making. Several research goals are presented: 1) to develop and test a practical domain-specific scale of emotional ability, 2) to identify the influence of emotional ability on behavioral individual and group level performance in a consumer context, 3) and to identify how performance is further influenced by cognitive ability, cognitive and emotional confidence and calibration between perceive...

  7. Development of Writing Ability in English

    赵光存

    2009-01-01

    The Guiding principle for junior English teaching points out: "The aim of junior English teaching is to give the students basic training on how to listen, speak, read and write, to cultivate the students' primary ability of using English."[1]Therefore, writing in English is one of the most important contents and requirements of junior English teaching. Since 1998, the junior students have been required to demonstrate their writing ability by writing an 80-word passage, which should be very accurate, coherent, and fluent.So "the middle school teachers must encourage the students to learn to make simple sentences with the vocabulary, grammar, sentence patterns and to write simple passages, letters, e-mails, notes, notices after the styles and models which have been learned." [2] English, as a most useful language and a most widely used communication means, is very important. The students must acquire the ability of speaking and writing and their all-round ability should be developed.So I write this thesis to discuss and make a research on how to develop and improve the junior students' writing ability in English.

  8. Paramedics’ Ability to Perform Drug Calculations

    Eastwood, Kathyrn J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations.Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved.Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects.Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting.[WestJEM. 2009;10:240-243.

  9. Evaluation of cutting ability and plastic deformation of reciprocating files.

    Kowalczuck, Alexandre; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow; Martinez, Elizabeth Ferreira; Cardoso, Rielson José Alves

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the cutting ability of reciprocating files and the deformations caused by their multiple use. Five Reciproc® R25 files were divided into five groups for 10 simulated root canal preparations each. The resin blocks were weighed and photographed (12.5X and 20X) before and after preparation. The canals were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Enlargement of the root canals was evaluated by comparison of pre- and post-preparation images using a computer software. The preoperative and postoperative weight differences determined the cutting ability of repeatedly used instruments. The data were analyzed using Lilliefors and Friedman statistical tests. The cutting ability and enlargement of the canals gradually decreased after each use, with significant differences observed at the 8th and 9th repetitions, respectively. There was no evidence of file deformation. The cutting ability and enlargement of the simulated canals gradually decreased when a reciprocating file was used up to 10 times. PMID:26676196

  10. Looking ahead: anticipatory gaze and motor ability in infancy.

    Ettore Ambrosini

    Full Text Available The present study asks when infants are able to selectively anticipate the goals of observed actions, and how this ability relates to infants' own abilities to produce those specific actions. Using eye-tracking technology to measure on-line anticipation, 6-, 8- and 10-month-old infants and a control group of adults were tested while observing an adult reach with a whole hand grasp, a precision grasp or a closed fist towards one of two different sized objects. The same infants were also given a comparable action production task. All infants showed proactive gaze to the whole hand grasps, with increased degrees of proactivity in the older groups. Gaze proactivity to the precision grasps, however, was present from 8 months of age. Moreover, the infants' ability in performing precision grasping strongly predicted their ability in using the actor's hand shape cues to differentially anticipate the goal of the observed action, even when age was partialled out. The results are discussed in terms of the specificity of action anticipation, and the fine-grained relationship between action production and action perception.

  11. Evaluation of cutting ability and plastic deformation of reciprocating files

    Alexandre KOWALCZUCK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This in vitro study evaluated the cutting ability of reciprocating files and the deformations caused by their multiple use. Five Reciproc® R25 files were divided into five groups for 10 simulated root canal preparations each. The resin blocks were weighed and photographed (12.5X and 20X before and after preparation. The canals were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Enlargement of the root canals was evaluated by comparison of pre- and post-preparation images using a computer software. The preoperative and postoperative weight differences determined the cutting ability of repeatedly used instruments. The data were analyzed using Lilliefors and Friedman statistical tests. The cutting ability and enlargement of the canals gradually decreased after each use, with significant differences observed at the 8th and 9th repetitions, respectively. There was no evidence of file deformation. The cutting ability and enlargement of the simulated canals gradually decreased when a reciprocating file was used up to 10 times.

  12. Typical Intellectual Engagement, Big Five Personality Traits, Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Academic Performance

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Both ability (measured by power tests) and non-ability (measured by preference tests) individual difference measures predict academic school outcomes. These include fluid as well as crystalized intelligence, personality traits, and learning styles. This paper examines the incremental validity of five psychometric tests and the sex and…

  13. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  14. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Creativity, synthetic intelligence and high ability

    Marta Sainz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.

  16. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Wallentin, Mikkel; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared......, we found that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate...

  17. Extracurricular enrichment workshops for high ability students

    Ángela Rojo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze and explain attention to diversity measures for high ability (gifted and talented students. The model, developed in the Spanish region of Murcia, is based on cognitive psychology and aims to encourage thinking skills. The program is developed as a curriculum extension and the interests, motivations and abilities of children have been considered once these were identified. The article offers a theoretical approach, a set of objectives, and some of the activities that have been done with students.

  18. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  19. Associations between Private Speech, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Abilities

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…

  20. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  1. Psychosocial Experiences and Adjustment among Adult Swedes with Superior General Mental Ability

    Stalnacke, Jannica; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, special needs of high-ability individuals have received little attention. For this purpose, adult Swedes with superior general mental ability (GMA; N = 302), defined by an IQ score greater than 130 on tests of abstract reasoning, answered a questionnaire regarding their views of themselves and their giftedness. The participants also…

  2. The Relationship between Creative Thinking Ability and Creative Personality of Preschoolers

    Lee, Kyung-Hwa

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between creative thinking ability and creative personality of preschoolers. Prior research showed that the correlation coefficient between creative thinking ability and creative personality of teenagers was very low (Hah, 1999), so this research was undertaken to validate the test and to examine how…

  3. Improving the Quality of Ability Estimates through Multidimensional Scoring and Incorporation of Ancillary Variables

    de la Torre, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    For one reason or another, various sources of information, namely, ancillary variables and correlational structure of the latent abilities, which are usually available in most testing situations, are ignored in ability estimation. A general model that incorporates these sources of information is proposed in this article. The model has a general…

  4. Sealing ability of a new polydimethylsiloxane-based root canal filling material

    A.R. Özok; L.W.M. van der Sluis; M.K. Wu; P.R. Wesselink

    2008-01-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the sealing ability of GuttaFlow, RoekoSeal, and AH26 in root canals. Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were filled with AH26 (lateral compaction), RoekoSeal, or GuttaFlow (modified single-cone). The sealing ability of the root canal fi

  5. The Asymptotic Distribution of Ability Estimates: Beyond Dichotomous Items and Unidimensional IRT Models

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the ability parameter of an item response theory model with known item parameters was proved to be asymptotically normally distributed under a set of regularity conditions for tests involving dichotomous items and a unidimensional ability parameter (Klauer, 1990; Lord, 1983). This article first considers…

  6. Evaluation of freshmen coordination abilities on practical training in gymnastics

    Tereschenko I.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measured coordination abilities (baseline to the static and dynamic equilibrium of the body, the space-time orientation on the support and in unsupported position, proprioception sense, vestibular stability, vestibular sensitivity, coordination limbs symmetrical and asymmetrical. Coordination abilities were also measured under difficult conditions. The study involved 238 students aged 17 - 18 years. Registered a positive trend of improving performance motor tests, development of educational material. Students who specialize in difficult to coordinate sports had significantly better performance. Found that the content of the material work programs of sports and educational disciplines helps improve sensorimotor coordination tasks students. It is noted that the content of the training material is the basis for efficient formation of motor skills and motor skills development of gymnastic exercises. Recommended ways to increase sports and technical and professional skills of students.

  7. Do drivers have a realistic view of their driving ability?

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two......The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ and......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...

  8. Infants' ability to associate motion paths with object kinds.

    Baker, Rachel K; Pettigrew, Tamara L; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2014-02-01

    The goal of the present research was to examine whether infants associate different paths of motion with animate beings and inanimate objects. An infant-controlled habituation procedure was used to examine 10-20-month-old infants' ability to associate a non-linear motion path (jumping) with animals and a linear (rebounding) motion path with vehicles (Experiment 1) and furniture (Experiment 2). During the habituation phase, infants saw a dog jumping over a barrier and either a vehicle or a piece of furniture rebounding off the barrier. In the test phase, infants looked longer when another inanimate object jumped rather than rebounded, but showed no such differential looking in the case of another animate object. The ability to restrict the animate motion path of jumping to animate beings was present by 10 months of age. The present findings support the hypothesis that motion path is associated with the animate-inanimate distinction early in infancy. PMID:24486789

  9. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  10. Teaching Strategies for Improving Students’ Reading Ability

    孙静

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a very important part of English teaching, and it is a very important way of gaining information in foreign language learning. English reading can help students enlarge their vocabulary, learn grammar well and accumulate the social and cultural knowledge about the English nations. It is a major task to develop students’ reading skills and to improve their reading ability in English teaching.

  11. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    Ben Bouallègue, Zied; Pinson, Pierre; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are ...

  12. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  13. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    2010-10-01

    ... English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION ATTORNEY...

  14. Development of Network Synchronization Predicts Language Abilities.

    Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities. PMID:26401810

  15. Young Children's Time and Intellectual Ability.

    Falbo, Toni; Cooper, Catherine R.

    1980-01-01

    Examines assumptions of the confluence model of the effects of family structure on children's intelligence. Subjects were 24 preschool children. Findings indicate that individual differences in intellectual ability are associated with the amount of time children spend in certain activities and with certain people. (Author/RH)

  16. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  17. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  18. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  19. The Ability to Align Vision and Kinaesthesia

    J.J. van den Dobbelsteen (John)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the human ability to align visually and kinaesthetically perceived end positions of arm movements. We specifically looked at the spatial characteristics of movement endpoints and the responses of the visuomotor system to altered relationships between visual and kinaesthet

  20. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  1. How to Improve Students' English Listening Ability

    韦妙

    2011-01-01

    Listening plays a fundamental role in foreign language acquisition.Though most schools have offered listening class,the effect is rather poor.This thesis will analyse some reasons that cause students weak ability in listening and explore some effective strategies to solve some issues.

  2. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  3. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of...

  4. Considerations on Writing Test Construction

    王欣

    2005-01-01

    Writing test , wins its popularity in measuring the mastery of one's language ability. In view of the significant role writing playing in a test , some considerations on writing test construction are presented in this paper which anticipates the effective ways for measuring one's complex language ability of application.

  5. Investigation of Cognitive Abilities Related to Reading and Spelling in Korean: Readers with High, Average, and Low Skill Levels

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive…

  6. Ability Emotional Intelligence, Trait Emotional Intelligence, and Academic Success in British Secondary Schools: A 5 Year Longitudinal Study

    Qualter, Pamela; Gardner, Kathryn J.; Pope, Debbie J.; Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of ability- and trait EI on academic performance for British adolescents. The sample comprised 413 students from three secondary schools in the North-West of England. Students completed tests of ability EI, trait EI, personality, and cognitive ability in Year 7 (mean age = 11 years 2 months). Performance…

  7. Exploring the Different Trajectories of Analytical Thinking Ability Factors: An Application of the Second-Order Growth Curve Factor Model

    Saengprom, Narumon; Erawan, Waraporn; Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Sakulku, Jaruwan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Compare analytical thinking ability by testing the same sets of students 5 times 2) Develop and verify whether analytical thinking ability of students corresponds to second-order growth curve factors model. Samples were 1,093 eighth-grade students. The results revealed that 1) Analytical thinking ability scores…

  8. Learning of Content Knowledge and Development of Scientific Reasoning Ability: A Cross Culture Comparison

    Bao, Lei; Cai, Tianfang; Wang, Jing; Yang, Lijia; Cui, Lili; Han, Jing; Ding, Lin; Luo, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Student content knowledge and general reasoning abilities are two important areas in education practice and research. However, there hasn't been much work in physics education that clearly documents the possible interactions between content learning and the development of general reasoning abilities. In this paper, we report one study of a systematic research to investigate the possible interactions between students' learning of physics content knowledge and the development of general scientific reasoning abilities. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the research question of whether and to what extent content learning may affect the development of general reasoning abilities. College entrance testing data of freshman college students in both USA and China were collected using three standardized tests, FCI, BEMA, and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (Lawson Test). The results suggest that years of rigorous training of physics knowledge in middle and high schools have made significant impac...

  9. Comparison of dynamic balance ability in healthy university students according to foot shape

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance ability according to foot shape, defined as normal, pronated, or supinated on the basis of the height of the medial arch. [Subjects] In this study, 14 subjects for the pronated foot group, 14 for the supinated foot group, and 14 for the normal foot group were selected from among 162 healthy university students by using the navicular drop test proposed by Brody. To measure dynamic balance ability, a star excursion balance test (SEBT) was co...

  10. Development of Adolescent Individual Attention Focus Abilities during Vocal Ensemble Sessions

    Trubina, Irena; Sile, Maruta

    2015-01-01

    In 21st Century, music playing as an activity for attention development is one of the direction in the fast developing field of research in music pedagogy. The issue of adolescent attention focus ability development is urgent both in psychology, as well as pedagogy and specifically in music pedagogy. With the use of digital tests (VTS - Vienna Test System), adolescent attention focus ability development was determined in dynamic during vocal ensemble sessions. Upon analysing the individual ad...

  11. Alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability: a gene × environment interaction study

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C; Corley, Janie; McNeill, Geraldine; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C.; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive ability are often confounded. One approach to avoid confounding is the Mendelian randomization design. Here, we used such a design to test the hypothesis that a genetic score for alcohol processing capacity moderates the association between alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability. Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed the same test of intelligence at age 11 and 70 years. They were assessed for recent a...

  12. Predicting Student Performance in Sonographic Scanning Using Spatial Ability as an Ability Determinent of Skill Acquisition

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and…

  13. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students’ Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Reviandari Widyatiningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by using two ways ANOVA and t-test. The research found that the problem based learning approach has significant impact to the ability of students’ mathematics critical thinking in terms of school level and students’ prior mathematical abilities. Furthermore. This research also found that there is no interaction between learning approach and school level, and learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability to students’ mathematics critical thinking ability.

  14. Rhythm perception and production predict reading abilities in developmental dyslexia.

    Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Zoia, Stefania; Buda, Sonia; Tilli, Sara; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Sila, Alessandra; Ronfani, Luca; Schön, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm organizes events in time and plays a major role in music, but also in the phonology and prosody of a language. Interestingly, children with developmental dyslexia-a learning disability that affects reading acquisition despite normal intelligence and adequate education-have a poor rhythmic perception. It has been suggested that an accurate perception of rhythmical/metrical structure, that requires accurate perception of rise time, may be critical for phonological development and subsequent literacy. This hypothesis is mostly based on results showing a high degree of correlation between phonological awareness and metrical skills, using a very specific metrical task. We present new findings from the analysis of a sample of 48 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia, without comorbidities. These children were assessed with neuropsychological tests, as well as specifically-devised psychoacoustic and musical tasks mostly testing temporal abilities. Associations were tested by multivariate analyses including data mining strategies, correlations and most importantly logistic regressions to understand to what extent the different auditory and musical skills can be a robust predictor of reading and phonological skills. Results show a strong link between several temporal skills and phonological and reading abilities. These findings are discussed in the framework of the neuroscience literature comparing music and language processing, with a particular interest in the links between rhythm processing in music and language. PMID:24926248

  15. Rhythm perception and production predict reading abilities in developmental dyslexia

    Elena eFlaugnacco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm organizes events in time and plays a major role in music, but also in the phonology and prosody of a language. Interestingly, children with developmental dyslexia - a learning disability that affects reading acquisition despite normal intelligence and adequate education - have a poor rhythmic perception. It has been suggested that an accurate perception of rhythmical/metrical structure, that requires accurate perception of rise time, may be critical for phonological development and subsequent literacy. This hypothesis is mostly based on results showing a high degree of correlation between phonological awareness and metrical skills, using a very specific metrical task. We present new findings from the analysis of a sample of 48 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia, without comorbidities. These children were assessed with neuropsychological tests, as well as specifically-devised psychoacoustic and musical tasks mostly testing temporal abilities. Associations were tested by multivariate analyses including data mining strategies, correlations and most importantly logistic regressions to understand to what extent the different auditory and musical skills can be a robust predictor of reading and phonological skills. Results show a strong link between several temporal skills and phonological and reading abilities. These findings are discussed in the framework of the neuroscience literature comparing music and language processing, with a particular interest in the links between rhythm processing in music and language.

  16. The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men - A Nationwide Study

    Benros, Michael E; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections and activated immune responses can affect the brain through several pathways that might also affect cognition. However, no large-scale study has previously investigated the effect of infections on the general cognitive ability in the general population. METHODS: Danish...... nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100.00 and with a...... ability. A prior infection was associated with significantly lower cognitive ability by a mean of 1.76 (95%CI: -1.92 to -1.61; corresponding to 0.12 SD). The cognitive ability was affected the most by the temporal proximity of the last infection (P<0.001) and by the severity of infection measured by days...

  17. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-04-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g. PMID:21562615

  18. Perceived ability and actual recognition accuracy for unfamiliar and famous faces

    Markus Bindemann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In forensic person recognition tasks, mistakes in the identification of unfamiliar faces occur frequently. This study explored whether these errors might arise because observers are poor at judging their ability to recognize unfamiliar faces, and also whether they might conflate the recognition of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Across two experiments, we found that observers could predict their ability to recognize famous but not unfamiliar faces. Moreover, observers seemed to partially conflate these abilities by adjusting ability judgements for famous faces after a test of unfamiliar face recognition (Experiment 1 and vice versa (Experiment 2. These findings suggest that observers have limited insight into their ability to identify unfamiliar faces. These experiments also show that judgements of recognition abilities are malleable and can generalize across different face categories.

  19. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players

    Baláková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches’ assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: “kinetic finesse”; component 2: “mental strength” was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players’ cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM, a reaction test (RT, a determination test (DT, a visual pursuit test (LVT, a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI, a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA, and a peripheral perception test (PP. To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019. A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 (“kinetic finesse” was a more significant factor than component 2 (“mental strength”. Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required.

  20. Confrontation Naming and Reading Abilities at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    Chiara Luoni

    2015-01-01

    naming (i.e., the Boston Naming Test (BNT in a nonclinical sample of Italian primary school children was conducted (n=126, testing them at the end of each school year, to assess nonverbal intelligence, confrontation naming, and reading abilities. Results. Performance on the BNT emerged as a function of IQ and SES. Significant correlations between confrontation naming and reading abilities, especially comprehension, were found; BNT scores correlated better with reading fluency than with reading accuracy. Conclusions. The longitudinal data obtained in this study are discussed with regard to reading abilities, intelligence, age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

  1. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    Bouallegue, Zied Ben; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are introduced here, based on quantile forecasts being the base product for the continuous case (hence in a nonparametric framework). The relative user characteristic (RUC) curve and the quantile value plot allow analysing the performance of a forecast for a specific user in a decision-making framework. The RUC curve is designed as a user-based discrimination tool and the quantile value plot translates forecast discrimination ability in terms of economic value. The relationship between the overall value of a quantile forecast and the respective quantile skill score is also discussed. The application of these new verification approaches and tools is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global...

  2. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  3. Managing emotions - an ability of emotional intelligence.

    Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the concept Managing Emotions from Emotional Intelligence (I.E.), (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), also identified as Emotional Regulation (Bisquerra, 2000), to obtain recognition and practical use of this concept, through the use of Emotional Fitness charts (Bimbela-Pedrola, 2008), to develop these abilities and manage emotions in contexts of practical life. Objective: To train preschool teachers, as well as primary and lower secondary sc...

  4. WhyareEnglishSpeakingandListeningAbilitiesLimited

    高凤莲

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,?there?is?a?higher?claim?to?the?people’s?English?standard?from?the?society,?and?to?be?able?to?communicate?in?English?fluently?has?become?the?aim?of?English?learning.?But?the?phenomenon?of?deaf?and?dumb?English?is?very?common.?This?paper?will,?from?five?aspects,?discuss?the?reasons?why?students’?abilities?of?listening?and?speaking?are?too?poor?in?Junior?Middle?School.

  5. Combining ability of white grain popcorn populations

    Carlos Alberto Scapim; Ronald José Barth Pinto; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior; Freddy Mora; Thatiana Silva Dandolini

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to indicate the best improvement strategy and select parents to begin animprovement program of white grain popcorn based on the combining ability and heterosis of eight populations selected inexperiments in the northwestern region of Paraná. The traits plant and ear height, grain yield and popping expansion wereevaluated. The base populations, the F1 and five controls were evaluated in Maringá, state of Paraná, over the course of twoyears. Heterosis for poppi...

  6. Cognitive Abilities and Household Financial Decision Making

    Agarwal, Sumit; Mazumder, Bhash

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the effects of cognitive abilities on two examples of consumer financial decisions where suboptimal behavior is well defined. The first example refers to consumers who transfer the entire balance from an existing credit card account to a new account, but use the new card for convenience transactions, resulting in higher interest charges. The second example refers to consumers who face higher APRs because they inaccurately estimate their property value on a home equity loan or line ...

  7. ENTREPRENEURSHIP ABILITIES OF POPULATION: CONCEPTION AND MEASURING

    Terebova Svetlana Viktorovna; Pleshakov Pavel Sregeevitch

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the small and medium entrepreneurship sector is one of the main factors of the economic and society welfare development. The development of entrepreneurship is formed not only by external conditions, but by population abilities also. The main goal of the article is to determine the “entrepreneurship abilities” conception and to form an approach to its estimation. In the issue several interpretations of the “entrepreneurship abilities” have been considered; existing approaches...

  8. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for...

  9. Basel III's ability to mitigate systemic risk

    Stefan Schwerter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The financial crisis 2007-2009 calls for a regulatory response. A crucial element of this task is the treatment of systemic risk. Basel III gains centre stage in this process. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate Basel III, examining its ability to reduce systemic risk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper highlights the importance of reducing systemic risk to achieve the goal of overall financial stability. By first focusing on the theoretical foundations of systemic r...

  10. CEO Ability, Pay, and Firm Performance

    Yuk Ying Chang; Sudipto Dasgupta; Gilles Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Do chief executive officers (CEOs) really matter? Do cross-sectional differences in firm performance and CEO pay reflect differences in CEO ability? Examining CEO departures over 1992-2002, we first find that the stock price reaction upon departure is negatively related to the firm's prior performance and to the CEO's prior pay. Second, the CEO's subsequent labor market success is greater if the firm's predeparture performance is better, the prior pay is higher, and the stock market's reactio...

  11. Nationalism, cognitive ability, and interpersonal relations

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Interpersonal relations are shaped by the judgements associated with the social categories that individuals perceive in their social contacts. I develop a model of how those judgments form based on a theory of symbolic values. The model depicts the interaction between two values, one associated with an inherited ethnic trait (nationality) and one with an endogenous achievement trait (income). Individuals with lower cognitive ability are predicted to invest more value on nationalism and to hav...

  12. Combining ability in bhindi [ Abelmoschus spp.

    Divya Balakrishnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits

  13. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-01-01

    One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information an...

  14. Language Ability and Adjustment: Western Expatriates in China

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Although the standard of English proficiency is rising in China, using English in conversations with Chinese host nationals may be difficult. Therefore, proficiency in the Chinese language, may promote the adjustment of foreign business expatriates in China. To test this proposition, a mail survey...... was directed to Western business expatriates assigned to China. Controlling for the time expatriates had spent in China, results showed that their language ability had a positive association with their sociocultural adjustment. Not surprisingly, this positive relationship was strongest for interaction...

  15. Ice Adhesion Testing Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Uses Evaluate and compare the relative performance of materials and surfcae coating based on their ability to aid in ice removal Test the effectiveness of de-icing...

  16. Growth hormone stimulation test

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  17. The Tyranny of Testing.

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Standardized tests which measure a narrow span of intelligence unfairly penalize students whose strengths don't fall within that range. Three kinds of intelligence (analytical, creative, practical) are discussed. Sternberg's Triarchic Abilities Test, currently being test-piloted, assesses all three aspects of intelligence in contrast to current…

  18. Assessment of Abilities and Comorbidities in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Gabis, Lidia V; Tsubary, Netta Misgav; Leon, Odelia; Ashkenasi, Arie; Shefer, Shahar

    2015-10-01

    This study examines major comorbidities in children with severe cerebral palsy and the feasibility of psychological tests for measuring abilities in a more impaired population. Eighty psychological evaluations of children with cerebral palsy aged 1.8 to 15.4 years (mean = 5.6) were analyzed. Major comorbid disorders were correlated with severity of motor disability. More than half of the cohort were diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Multiple subtests were combined in order to assess the intellectual level. Normal intelligence was found in 22.5%, and 41.3% had moderate or severe intellectual impairment. Epilepsy occurred in 32.5% and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 22.5%. Intellectual disability correlated with motor ability and with epilepsy. In a logistic regression model, epilepsy and motor ability score predicted 29.9% of IQ score variance. Intellectual impairment and epilepsy are common comorbidities. Subtests from different scales should be applied and interpreted with caution. PMID:25855688

  19. Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children's motor abilities.

    Chiodera, P; Volta, E; Gobbi, G; Milioli, M A; Mirandola, P; Bonetti, A; Delsignore, R; Bernasconi, S; Anedda, A; Vitale, M

    2008-04-01

    Physical activity in schools is declining in many countries and inactivity in childhood has become a recognized risk factor. Data from a program of professionally guided physical exercise in primary school children were collected before and after the academic year of training. Four thousand five hundred children (6-10 years) were enrolled, and conditional and coordinative motor abilities (speed, trunk flexibility, long jumping, somersault, Harre circuit test) were measured. Anthropometric measurements were focused on body mass index (BMI), weight and height. Females never showed a significant variation of BMI, whereas males in the first and fourth grades showed significant differences. On the contrary, when considering the motor abilities studied, all the comparisons were highly significant. At the end of training, both males and females did better than at the beginning, and males were constantly faster than females. Our data, generated on a large number of children, show that professionally guided programs of physical education in the primary school lead to significant progresses in the development of conditional and coordinative abilities, without altering BMI values, thus not interfering with the balanced progression of body weight and height. PMID:17490452

  20. Features of development of coordination abilities features of athletes in sports aerobics in initial training

    Bodrenkova I.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop theoretically and experimentally justify the methodology of development of coordination abilities of athletes aged 7-9 years involved in sports aerobics. Material : the study involved 20 participants (7-9 years. 8 athletes performed the test tasks. The choice of tests carried out on the basis of the analysis of the dominant motor mode competition exercises. Results : It was found that the coordination abilities are necessary in the development of speed, density, and the number of running technical elements. With more than a significant increase in performance test tasks that characterize: musicality, coordination, dynamic balance. The basic tools, methods, techniques, and requirements for the exercises. The level of development of coordination abilities. Conclusions : the author's method of development of coordination abilities include: rational choice of means and methods of training impact on their similarities and differences with the target competitive activity.

  1. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students’ Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Reviandari Widyatiningtyas; Yaya S. Kusumah; Utari Sumarmo; Jozua Sabandar

    2015-01-01

    The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by us...

  2. White matter microstructural properties correlate with sensorimotor synchronization abilities.

    Blecher, Tal; Tal, Idan; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) to an external auditory rhythm is a developed ability in humans, particularly evident in dancing and singing. This ability is typically measured in the lab via a simple task of finger tapping to an auditory beat. While simplistic, there is some evidence that poor performance on this task could be related to impaired phonological and reading abilities in children. Auditory-motor synchronization is hypothesized to rely on a tight coupling between auditory and motor neural systems, but the specific pathways that mediate this coupling have not been identified yet. In this study, we test this hypothesis and examine the contribution of fronto-temporal and callosal connections to specific measures of rhythmic synchronization. Twenty participants went through SMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements. We quantified the mean asynchrony between an auditory beat and participants' finger taps, as well as the time to resynchronize (TTR) with an altered meter, and examined the correlations between these behavioral measures and diffusivity in a small set of predefined pathways. We found significant correlations between asynchrony and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left (but not right) arcuate fasciculus and in the temporal segment of the corpus callosum. On the other hand, TTR correlated with FA in the precentral segment of the callosum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that relates these particular white matter tracts with performance on an auditory-motor rhythmic synchronization task. We propose that left fronto-temporal and temporal-callosal fibers are involved in prediction and constant comparison between auditory inputs and motor commands, while inter-hemispheric connections between the motor/premotor cortices contribute to successful resynchronization of motor responses with a new external rhythm, perhaps via inhibition of tapping to the previous rhythm. Our results indicate that auditory

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  4. Too hard, too easy, or just right? The relationship between effort or boredom and ability-difficulty fit

    Regine Asseburg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Usually, it is assumed that achievement tests measure maximum performance. However, test performance is not only associated with ability but also with motivational and emotional aspects of test-taking. These aspects are influenced by individual success probability, which in turn depends on the ratio of individual ability to item difficulty (ability-difficulty fit. The impact of ability-difficulty fit on test-taking motivation and emotion is unknown and rarely considered when interpreting test results. N = 9,452 ninth-graders in Germany (PISA 2006 completed a mathematics test and a questionnaire on test-taking effort (motivation and boredom/daydreaming (emotion. Overall, mean item difficulty exceeded individual ability. Ability-difficulty fit was positively linear related with effort and boredom/daydreaming.The results suggest that low ability students may not show maximum performance in a sequential achievement test. Thus, test score interpretation for this subsample may be invalid. As a solution to this problem the application of computerized adaptive testing is discussed.

  5. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p < 0.001). The comparison of gustatory sensitivity indicated significantly higher sensitivity to sweet, sour and salty in hunger (p < 0.001), but significantly higher sensitivity to bitter tastant in satiety (p < 0.001). With this prospective study, we were able to show that both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity were affected by hunger state. PMID:25744049

  6. Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis?

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of ethyl and butyl paraben on steroidogenesis were evaluated in rats exposed in utero. Pregnant Wistar rats were dosed from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD 21, followed by examination of the dams, and the fetuses. Additionally, both parabens were tested in vitro in the H295R...... steroidogenesis assay and in the T-screen assay, the later to test for their ability to act as thyroid hormone receptor agonist or antagonist. In the in utero exposure toxicity study, neither ethyl nor butyl paraben showed any treatment-related effects on testosterone production, anogenital distance......, or testicular histopathology. However, butyl paraben caused a significant decrease in the mRNA expression level of estradiol receptor-beta in fetal ovaries, and also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in the adrenal glands...

  7. Left hemispheric advantage for numerical abilities in the bottlenose dolphin.

    Kilian, Annette; von Fersen, Lorenzo; Güntürkün, Onur

    2005-02-28

    In a two-choice discrimination paradigm, a bottlenose dolphin discriminated relational dimensions between visual numerosity stimuli under monocular viewing conditions. After prior binocular acquisition of the task, two monocular test series with different number stimuli were conducted. In accordance with recent studies on visual lateralization in the bottlenose dolphin, our results revealed an overall advantage of the right visual field. Due to the complete decussation of the optic nerve fibers, this suggests a specialization of the left hemisphere for analysing relational features between stimuli as required in tests for numerical abilities. These processes are typically right hemisphere-based in other mammals (including humans) and birds. The present data provide further evidence for a general right visual field advantage in bottlenose dolphins for visual information processing. It is thus assumed that dolphins possess a unique functional architecture of their cerebral asymmetries. PMID:15686828

  8. ENTEROCOCCI AND THEIR ABILITY LIVE OUT ACTIVITY OF SANITATION DETERGENTS

    Miroslav Kročko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of temperature decrease of sanitation solutions (35 °C in condition of organic load (1% reconstituted powdered milk and varying hardness of the water used for solution preparation (0 °, 15 °, 30 ° and 45 ° on the ability to randomly selected strains of enterococci survive exposure to acidic and alkaline sanitation solution (0.5% concentration, contact time 15 minutes in model experiments. Increasing water hardness also increases the number surviving enterococci. Presence of organic loads and lower temperatures decreased the sanitation effect of the test solutions. The tested strains showed different tolerances to applied sanitation solutions. We found a weaker powerful of acid sanitation solution on base phosphoric acid after its application.doi: 10.5219/166

  9. On improving senior students’speaking ability

    马俊海

    2015-01-01

    With the opening-up of China,English teaching has been getting more and more attention.People are enthusiastic about learning English.As a result,English teaching and reform are coming to a turning point,which predicts a bright future in English education in China.Now,a 9-year voluntary education program is put forward in China.A Standard English course is being used to replace the former teaching outline.The new standard adopts the international system according to which English language education is divided into 9 levels.This has changed the old style of teaching,which attaches importance to grammar and vocabulary.Adopting the new standard helps to develop the senior students’ability to use English in their daily life,by focusing on arousing their interest,and encouraging their participation. The new method will place less stress on“reading and writing”,in favor of“listening”and“speaking”.So now,speaking is getting more and more important in middle high school English teaching. This paper discuss how to improve students’speaking ability and expound the theme through three aspects as follows:⒈The importance of speaking.⒉Some barriers in the process of speaking communication.⒊Essential methods for improving students’speaking ability. The issue will be discussed from the perspective of a teacher of English in junior middle school and a possible conclusion will bereached with the help of some theoretical and practical support.

  10. Emotional intelligence as a cognitive-emotional ability

    Andreja Avsec

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we analyse Mayer and Salovey's model of emotional intelligence. The authors have defined it for the first time in the 90's, delimited its relation to the social intelligence and formed two tests for its measurement, which are unique published tests of their kind. The authors try to separate their approach towards the measurement of emotional intelligence from the self-report measures and from defining emotional intelligence as a set of personality traits. Besides the measurement of emotional intelligence with the tests of maximum performance, authors try to prove that correlation between emotional abilities indicate similar hierarchical structure as is characteristic for other kinds of intelligence. Since the first test for measuring the emotional intelligence was published in 1997 and there have been no other published tests of this kind yet, it is very difficult to evaluate its metric characteristics and the validity of the model. Anyhow, in defining and measuring the emotional intelligence researchers face similar problems as in social intelligence research.

  11. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Patrícia Vanzella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  12. Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

    Dilermando Perecin; Antonio Orlando Di Mauro; Eduardo Antonio Gavioli

    2006-01-01

    Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina) werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “n...

  13. Improving teamwork abilities across cultural differences

    Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get a...... theoretical approach to teamwork and a language in which they can talk about their own and each others strengths and weaknesses. There are indications that it has positive effect on their subsequent teamwork....

  14. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  15. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool. PMID:20433337

  16. Lexical and inflectional spelling abilities in French : Same or different ?

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Inflectional spelling abilities have been less extensively studied than lexical spelling abilities and the relationship between these two types of spelling abilities is poorly understood. In this study, we compared lexical and inflectional spelling abilities in 12-year-old children, by hypothesizing that attentional load may be particularly detrimental for sentence context-dependent inflectional spelling abilities, in contrast to sentence context-independent lexical spelling abilities. Ninety...

  17. Improving Perceived Entrepreneurial Abilities through Education

    Karlsson, Tomas; Moberg, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of an entrepreneurship program. Two pre-test/post-test surveys were performed among students attending the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 classes. A third pre-post survey was sent to students enrolled in an innovation management course, who served as the control group. We...

  18. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark......:  Visual impairment is a common condition in students with severe DD. Despite increased awareness of VI in the school and health care system, we continued to find a considerable number of students with hitherto undiagnosed decreased vision.......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom...

  19. Development of cognitive abilities as educational goal

    Milanović-Nahod Slobodanka S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sets out to consider cognitive abilities development depending on learning and educational goals. Three standpoints and their effects on the quality of cognition are opposed: determination of tasks and goals beforehand, non-determination of tasks and goals beforehand, and alternative models where general and specific goals are planned specification being left to curriculum executors. Thereafter, consideration is given to the learning theories where it is insisted either upon learner’s individual activities or upon planning of learning context which contains interrelations between teachers, learners and contents. Emphasis is placed on a discrepancy between theoretical ideas providing good reasons for independently constructed knowledge evaluation, on the one hand, and school practice that commonly does not attribute great importance to such knowledge on the other hand. How the development of cognitive abilities will proceed in teaching depends largely on teachers themselves - their understanding of tasks and goals, qualifications they possess for school subject they teach manner of executing instruction, and familiarity with student personality needs. We can accept the standpoint that we need the theory focusing straight on education, but must be broad enough to embrace both individual and contextual perspective as well as activities of both teachers and students.

  20. Detection of high ability children by teachers and parents: Psychometric quality of new rating checklists for the assessment of intellectual, creative and social ability

    ULRIKE SOMMER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we devised scales for teachers’ and parents’ estimation of intellectual, creative and social abilities of fourth grade elementary school pupils. Their scores were related to psychometrically determined ability scores. Ninety-three school pupils in the age range between 9.3 and 11.2 years, as well as their parents and teachers took part. The new rating checklists proved as sufficiently reliable (particularly the teachers’ version. Analyses of validity showed a high correspondence in parents’ and teachers’ estimations of cognitive intelligence, but much lower correspondence for creativity and social ability. Correlating teachers’ and parents’ estimates with the respective psychometric tests shows that teachers and parents were better at identifying intellectual (highability than detecting creative and social abilities. With the exception of social (highability, where girls were usually regarded as highly socially gifted by their parents, there were no differences in parents’ and teachers’ estimations of boys and girls.

  1. The influence of cognitive reasoning level, cognitive restructuring ability, disembedding ability, working memory capacity, and prior knowledge on students' performance on balancing equations by inspection

    Staver, John R.; Jacks, Tom

    Eighty-three (83) high school chemistry students were administered tests of cognitive reasoning level, cognitive restructuring ability, disembedding ability, working memory capacity, and prior knowledge before a learning segment on balancing chemical equations by inspection. After a four-day instructional segment utilizing direct teaching methodology, participants were given a posttest on balancing equations. Initial regression analysis indicated that a multicollinearity problem existed. Factor analysis and correlational data indicated that the reasoning, restructuring, and disembedding variables could be collapsed and redefined as a single restructuring variable. A hierarchial regression analysis was then performed, and the following conclusions were derived: (1) when prior knowledge alone is considered, students' understanding of chemical formulas significantly (p restructuring, and working memory are considered, only restructuring ability significantly (p restructuring ability also significantly (p restructuring and the absence of working memory capacity as a significant influence on overall performance.

  2. The Examination of Self - Talk Ability of Elite Fencers

    Yusuf BARSBUĞA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to measure and evaluate self - talk ability. 100 athletes ch osen randomly from 23 countries , who attended the Heracles Junior World Cup competition (29 held in Budapest, Hungary between the dates of 15 - 16/02/2014, junior and cadet fencing championship held in Plovdiv, Bulgaria (38 between the dates of 3 - 12/04/2014 which was included in the 2014 activity calendar of FIE (International Fencing Federation and athletes among elite fencers (33 representing our country abroad attended in our research. In this performed study based on the scanning (survey method; the Self - Talk Questionnaire (S - TQ which was improved by Zervas, Stavrau and Psychountaki (2007 , whose validity and reliability in Turkish were performed by Engür (2011 , was used . In order to evaluat e the data and find the estimated values, the SPSS 16.0 statistical package program was used. The data were summarised giving averages and standard deviations. Since the data show ed a normal distribution , for the dual group comparisons, independent group t - test was used for the determination of the difference between independent parameters, the error level was regarded to be 0,05 in this study. Within the result s of the survey, no statistically meaningful difference s were observed. When the sub - dimensions of both motivational function s were evaluated in terms of age and experience time concerning self - talk abilities in the athletes attended in the survey . When self - talk ability was eval u ated due to the gender parameter; while not seeing a sta tistically meaningful difference in the cognitive , functional sub - dimension among the athletes, a statistically meaningful difference was observed on the motivational , functional sub - dimension in favor of sportswoman . Furthermore , there was not a signifi cant difference when comparing the self - talk ability of Turkish athletes and other countries' athletes who attended in the research in

  3. Is Education Associated with Improvements in General Cognitive Ability, or in Specific Skills?

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability ("g"), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive…

  4. Similarity in General Mental Ability in Bedouin Full and Half Siblings.

    Elbedour, Salman; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A battery of "g" loaded mental ability tests was administered to 274 Bedouin children and adolescents, full and half siblings from 106 families. Results demonstrate internal validity for the tests in this cultural context and support the idea that shared family environment is a strong determinant of sibling similarity for children in the given age…

  5. Importance of Assessing Spatial Ability in Intellectually Talented Young Adolescents: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Shea, Daniel L.; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P.

    2001-01-01

    At age 13, students scoring at the top 0.5% in general intelligence completed the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), Mathematics and Verbal subtests, and the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) Space Relations (SR) and Mechanical Reasoning (MR) subtests. It appears that spatial ability assessments can complement contemporary talent search procedures.…

  6. Tips and Techniques: Ability Grouping and Performance Evaluation in Physical Education.

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Equal Educational Opportunity Section.

    This monograph presents a discussion of the problems involved in implementing sex-fair coeducational classes in physical education. Suggestions, which grew out of a symposium on coeducational physical education, are offered on procedures that may be used for ability grouping, such as what type of test(s) are appropriate and when to use single or…

  7. Long-Term Impact of Improving Visualization Abilities of Minority Engineering and Technology Students: Preliminary Results

    Study, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies found that students enrolled in introductory engineering graphics courses at a historically black university (HBCU) had significantly lower than average test scores on the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT) when it was administered during the first week of class. Since the ability to visualize is…

  8. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect.

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Hallam, Susan

    2005-12-01

    The spatial abilities of a large sample of 10 and 11 year olds were tested after they listened to contemporary pop music, music composed by Mozart, or a discussion about the present experiment. After being assigned at random to one of the three listening experiences, each child completed two tests of spatial abilities. Performance on one of the tests (square completion) did not differ as a function of the listening experience, but performance on the other test (paper folding) was superior for children who listened to popular music compared to the other two groups. These findings are consistent with the view that positive benefits of music listening on cognitive abilities are most likely to be evident when the music is enjoyed by the listener. PMID:16597767

  9. Does ability to establish sound-symbol pairings mediate the RAN reading relationship?

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    -items, so it is unclear whether it is the experience or the ability to take advantage of the experience that is responsible for the correlation between RAN and reading. Paired associate learning tasks have been shown to differentiate dyslexics from controls, and to correlate with reading in unselected......Performance on tests to rapidly name letters and digits has been shown to correlate with reading. One possible reason is that these tests probe the ability to learn and automatise symbol-sound associations. However, most studies have not controlled for the amount of experience with the RAN...... samples. We tested whether the ability to learn and/or established letter knowledge mediated the correlation between RAN and reading in a sample of preschool beginning readers. Method 105 preschoolers were administered traditional reading, letter knowledge, and RAN tests, and taught novel names for...

  10. Olfactory identification ability in anorexia nervosa.

    Kopala, L C; Good, K; Goldner, E M; Birmingham, C L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis tested was that patients with severe eating disorders would demonstrate olfactory identification deficits as a result of zinc deficiency or malnutrition. METHOD: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 27 hospitalized female patients with anorexia nervosa and 50 normal control female subjects. For a subgroup of patients, serum zinc levels and body mass indices were obtained at pre- and post-nutritional repletion phases. RE...

  11. Ability of Laboratory Methods To Predict In-Use Efficacy of Antimicrobial Preservatives in an Experimental Cosmetic

    Farrington, J. K.; Martz, E L; Wells, S. J.; Ennis, C C; Holder, J.; Levchuk, J. W.; Avis, K. E.; Hoffman, P. S.; Hitchins, A. D.; Madden, J M

    1995-01-01

    The abilities of nine antimicrobial systems to preserve an experimental water-based cosmetic formulation were evaluated by six microbiological challenge tests: the U.S. Pharmacopeia test; the British Pharmacopeia test; the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association test; the rapid screen test; the sequential challenge test; and the post-use test. The antimicrobial systems contained various combinations and amounts of two parabens and a quaternary compound in order to provide a broad range ...

  12. Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Self Regulation Learning of Yunior High Students by Using Reciprocal Teaching

    Abdul Qohar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings from a posttest experiment controlgroup design by using reciprocal teaching, conducted in IndonesiaUniversity of Education to investigate students’ ability in mathematical communication and self regulated learning. Subject of the study were 254 of 9th grade students from three junior high schools of high, medium, and low level in Bojonegoro, East Java. The instruments of the study were an essay mathematical communication test, and a selfregulated learning scale. The study found that reciprocal teaching took the best role among school cluster and students’ prior mathematics ability on students’ mathematical communication ability and self regulated learning as well. The other finding were there was interaction between school cluster and teaching approaches, but was no interaction between students’ prior mathematics ability and teaching approaches on mathematical communication ability and self regulated learning. Moreover, there was association between mathematical communication and self regulated learning.

  13. Application of a test of basic gymnastic ability to identify potential talents y artistic gymnastics in the generic phase of adaptation and initiation to the physical activity Aplicación de una prueba gimnástica básica para la detección de talentos en gimnasia artística en la fase genérica de adaptación e iniciación a la actividad físico deportiva

    López J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The fundamental objective of this study consists of a test of basic gymnastic ability (in the form of a closed circuit, that could be certified as the starting point that identifies the potential subject sportsman / woman in power, with the specific motor motor profile. The test of ability designed was valued in function of the time and also through systematic observation by means of an expert that would issue a subjective valuation. The test was applied to a total of 592 subjects of both sexes from the province of Granada (Spain between the ages of 6 and 12. Furthermore, the motor skills section of the Eurofit battery test was undertaken for several cineanthrometric measurements. The results seem to confirm the reliability of the time test and an important correlation with the expert´s valuation. These tests require means very elemental and, at the same time, the coach the can apply this test in a simple and effective way.
    KEY WORDS: Artistic Gymnastics, Detection, Talent, Eurofit.

    El objetivo fundamental de este estudio consiste en el diseño de una prueba de habilidad gimnástica básica (en forma de recorrido, que pueda conformarse como el punto de partida que identifica al sujeto deportista en potencia, con las acciones motrices específicas de la gimnasia artística como base del perfil motor de la especialidad. La prueba de habilidad diseñada se valoró en función del tiempo y también mediante la observación sistemática por medio de un experto que emitiría una valoración subjetiva. La prueba se aplicó a un total de 592 sujetos de ambos sexos de la provincia de Granada, con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y 12 años. Además, a una muestra de 201 sujetos se les administraron las pruebas motoras de la batería Eurofit y se les realizaron diversas mediciones cineantropométricas. Los resultados parecen confirmar la fiabilidad de la prueba cronometrada y una importante correlación con la

  14. Induced variability for combining ability in Sorghum

    Full text: Two potential varieties of sorghum were mutagenised by using MMS. F1 seeds were produced by crossing M1 or M2 plants of the two varieties as males with the ruling male sterile line 296A as female. The mutant cross F1s were grown in the field along with control F1s. The variability in the M- derived F1 populations was higher. This was accompanied by an increase in mean yield. Dependent upon the genotypes treated with MMS, there was a greater increase in variability for grain yield or a greater increase in variability for days to flowering. The mutagen seems to have induced variability for combining ability of the two varieties of sorghum, the nature of induced variability depending upon the genotype of the variety. (author)

  15. Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

    Dilermando Perecin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “number of branches” and “total cycle” were estimated for the cultivars Doko, Cristalina and Savana.The variability observed in the trait “days to flowering” can, for the most part, be explained by additive effects.

  16. Combining ability of white grain popcorn populations

    Carlos Alberto Scapim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to indicate the best improvement strategy and select parents to begin animprovement program of white grain popcorn based on the combining ability and heterosis of eight populations selected inexperiments in the northwestern region of Paraná. The traits plant and ear height, grain yield and popping expansion wereevaluated. The base populations, the F1 and five controls were evaluated in Maringá, state of Paraná, over the course of twoyears. Heterosis for popping expansion was very low and the best improvement strategy is to raise the values of poppingexpansion up to commercial levels through intrapopulation improvement of the populations BRS Angela and SC 002. Intenseselection must be applied to reduce plant and ear height; interpopulation selection must not be initiated at this moment.

  17. Tubing weld cracking test

    A tubing weld cracking (TWC) test was developed for applications involving advanced austenitic alloys (such as modified 800H and 310HCbN). Compared to the Finger hot cracking test, the TWC test shows an enhanced ability to evaluate the crack sensitivity of tubing materials. The TWC test can evaluate the cracking tendency of base as well as filter materials. Thus, it is a useful tool for tubing suppliers, filler metal producers and fabricators

  18. Spatial ability, motivation, and attitude of students as related to science achievement

    Bolen, Judy Ann

    Understanding student achievement in science is important as there is an increasing reliance of the U.S. economy on math-, science-, and technology-related fields despite the declining number of youth seeking college degrees and careers in math and science. A series of structural equation models were tested using the scores from a statewide science exam for 276 students from a suburban north Texas public school district at the end of their 5th grade year and the latent variables of spatial ability, motivation to learn science and science-related attitude. Spatial ability was tested as a mediating variable on motivation and attitude; however, while spatial ability had statistically significant regression coefficients with motivation and attitude, spatial ability was found to be the sole statistically significant predictor of science achievement for these students explaining 23.1% of the variance in science scores.

  19. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34

  20. Resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis.

    Kholodnaya, M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173 included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old: with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and with delayed intellectual development (DID. We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles. The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration.

  1. Is Approximate Number Precision a Stable Predictor of Math Ability?

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that children's ability to estimate numbers of items using their Approximate Number System (ANS) predicts later math ability. To more closely examine the predictive role of early ANS acuity on later abilities, we assessed the ANS acuity, math ability, and expressive vocabulary of preschoolers twice, six months apart. We…

  2. Comment on Goldhammer's "Measuring Ability, Speed, or Both"

    Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…

  3. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  4. Temporal Resolution Ability in Students with Dyslexia and Reading and Writing Disorders

    Chaubet, Juliana; Pereira, Liliane; Perez, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test assesses the hearing ability of temporal resolution. The development of this ability can be considered essential for learning how to read. Objective Identify temporal resolution in individuals diagnosed with reading and writing disorders compared with subjects with dyslexia. Methods A sample of 26 subjects of both genders, age 10 to 15 years, included 11 diagnosed with dyslexia and 15 diagnosed with reading and writing disorders. Subjects did not disp...

  5. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Jeffery, S; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This study tested the impact of a biochar on the competitive ability of legumes through alterations to soil pH and/or nutrient availability. Biochar was produced from aboveground plant biomass from a specie...

  6. Factors Influencing Mathematic Problem-Solving Ability of Sixth Grade Students

    Sakorn Pimta; Sombat Tayruakham; Prasart Nuangchalerm

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aims to investigate factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students. One thousand and twenty eight of sixth grade students, studying in the second semester of academic year 2007 were sampled by stratified random sampling technique. Approach: The research instruments used in the study included mathematic problem-solving ability test and questionnaires. Data was analyzed by Path Analysis. Results: Factors influencing mathematic proble...

  7. The Influence of School Ability Measures on Accounting Competencies: A Path Analysis

    Cimafranca, Jan Linster; Capuyan, Beverly; Cabilla, Fabien; Cansancio, Angelique; Villaflor-Balacy, Garnette Mae

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of school ability measures and accounting competencies of fourth year BS in Accounting Technology students of UM Digos College. It also investigates which of the two school ability measures such as verbal and non-verbal significantly influence to accounting competencies. Quantitative correlational research was used, and primary data were gathered through the use of Accounting Competency Test questionnaire distributed to 32 fourth year BSAT students for the...

  8. Learning ability and longevity: a symmetrical evolutionary trade-off in Drosophila

    Burger, Joep M. S.; Kolss, Munjong; Pont, Juliette; Tadeusz J Kawecki

    2008-01-01

    Learning ability can be substantially improved by artificial selection in animals ranging from Drosophila to rats. Thus these species have not used their evolutionary potential with respect to learning ability, despite intuitively expected and experimentally demonstrated adaptive advantages of learning. This suggests that learning is costly, but this notion has rarely been tested. Here we report correlated responses of life-history traits to selection for improved learning in Drosophila melan...

  9. Paternal age and general cognitive ability-a cross sectional study of Danish male conscripts.

    John McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Offspring of older men have impaired cognitive ability as children, but it is unclear if this impairment persists into adulthood. The main objective of this study was to explore the association between paternal age at offspring birth and general cognitive ability as young adults. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study with prospectively collected data on obstetric factors and parental education. SETTING: Nationwide Danish sample. PARTICIPANTS: Male conscripts (n = 169,009. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: General cognitive ability as assessed by the Børge Priens test score, an intelligence test with components related to logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning. RESULTS: We observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and general cognitive ability (slightly lower test scores in the offspring of fathers aged less than 25 years and older than 40 years, compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. However, after adjustment for maternal age, parental education and birth order the shape of the association changed. Offspring of fathers younger than 20 still showed slightly lower cognitive ability (-1.11 (95% CI -1.68 to -0.54, but no significant impairments were identified in the men whose fathers were older than 29 years at the time of their birth (e.g. the mean difference in test score in the offspring of fathers aged 40 to 44 years were -0.03 [95% CI (-0.27 to 0.20] compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find that the offspring of older fathers had impaired cognitive ability as young adults. Whereas, we found a tendency that the offspring of teen fathers have lower cognitive ability. Thus, our results suggest that any potentially deleterious effects of older fathers on general cognitive ability as young adults may be counter-balanced by other potentially beneficial factors.

  10. Group Innovation Ability of Agricultural Technological Innovation Strategic Alliance

    Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.

  11. Development and Validation of a Multimedia-based Assessment of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    Kuo, Che-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-09-01

    The potential of computer-based assessments for capturing complex learning outcomes has been discussed; however, relatively little is understood about how to leverage such potential for summative and accountability purposes. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a multimedia-based assessment of scientific inquiry abilities (MASIA) to cover a more comprehensive construct of inquiry abilities and target secondary school students in different grades while this potential is leveraged. We implemented five steps derived from the construct modeling approach to design MASIA. During the implementation, multiple sources of evidence were collected in the steps of pilot testing and Rasch modeling to support the validity of MASIA. Particularly, through the participation of 1,066 8th and 11th graders, MASIA showed satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate students with different levels of inquiry abilities in 101 items in 29 tasks when Rasch models were applied. Additionally, the Wright map indicated that MASIA offered accurate information about students' inquiry abilities because of the comparability of the distributions of student abilities and item difficulties. The analysis results also suggested that MASIA offered precise measures of inquiry abilities when the components (questioning, experimenting, analyzing, and explaining) were regarded as a coherent construct. Finally, the increased mean difficulty thresholds of item responses along with three performance levels across all sub-abilities supported the alignment between our scoring rubrics and our inquiry framework. Together with other sources of validity in the pilot testing, the results offered evidence to support the validity of MASIA.

  12. Group Innovation Ability of Agricultural Technological Innovation Strategic Alliance

    Ma, Chishun; Yu, Jintian

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovat...

  13. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984

  14. Factors Influencing Mathematic Problem-Solving Ability of Sixth Grade Students

    Sakorn Pimta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to investigate factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students. One thousand and twenty eight of sixth grade students, studying in the second semester of academic year 2007 were sampled by stratified random sampling technique. Approach: The research instruments used in the study included mathematic problem-solving ability test and questionnaires. Data was analyzed by Path Analysis. Results: Factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were represented as following: (1 direct factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were described that direct and indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were attitude towards mathematics, self-esteem and teachers’ teaching behavior. Indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were motivation and self-efficacy (2 factor models influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students was associated with visual data (3 The developed model could describe variance of skill in mathematic problem-solving at 63.00 % (R2 = 0.63. Conclusion: Teacher’s behaviors took both direct and indirect effects on the students’ mathematic problem solving. The teachers are supposed to study the methods to develop this ability deeply and then bring them to manage the activities in class that encourage students to be enthusiastic to learn and have good attitude toward mathematic learning or to get students’ concentration.

  15. Genetic analysis of milking ability in Lacaune dairy ewes

    Barillet Francis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The milking ability of Lacaune ewes was characterised by derived traits of milk flow patterns, in an INRA experimental farm, from a divergent selection experiment in order to estimate the correlated effects of selection for protein and fat yields. The analysis of selected divergent line effects (involving 34 616 data and 1204 ewes indicated an indirect improvement of milking traits (+17% for maximum milk flow and -10% for latency time with a 25% increase in milk yield. Genetic parameters were estimated by multi-trait analysis with an animal model, on 751 primiparous ewes. The heritabilities of the traits expressed on an annual basis were high, especially for maximum flow (0.54 and for latency time (0.55. The heritabilities were intermediate for average flow (0.30, time at maximum flow (0.42 and phase of increasing flow (0.43, and low for the phase of decreasing flow (0.16 and the plateau of high flow (0.07. When considering test-day data, the heritabilities of maximum flow and latency time remained intermediate and stable throughout the lactation. Genetic correlations between milk yield and milking traits were all favourable, but latency time was less milk yield dependent (-0.22 than maximum flow (+0.46. It is concluded that the current dairy ewe selection based on milk solid yield is not antagonistic to milking ability.

  16. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  17. Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection: Effects on Levels of Cognitive Ability and Adverse Impact

    Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…

  18. Judgments in Language Testing

    J.Charles Alderson

    2009-01-01

    Language testing is an area linguistics that combines the professional judgment and the nature of the of applied exercise of about language, learning, achievement of language learning with empirical data about students' performances and, by inference, their abilities. This paper addresses the relationship between judgments and empirical data in language testing by reporting on three studies.

  19. A Detailed Analysis of DanceAbility's Contribution to Mixed-Abilities Dance

    Herman, Amanda; Chatfield, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960s a visible shift in the ideology of contemporary dancers and choreographers took place. A desire for a dance language that rejected the need for the classical dancerly body paved the way for dance that was open to a more diverse population of participants. DanceAbility emerged in that late 1980s as a method of making dance accessible…

  20. Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship?

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We use a natural experiment in Denmark to test the hypothesis that aspiring entrepreneurs face financial constraints because of low entrepreneurial quality. We identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs who start a business after receiving windfall wealth and examine the performance of these marginal...

  1. Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship?

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    We use a natural experiment in Denmark to test the hypothesis that aspiring entrepreneurs face financial constraints because of low entrepreneurial quality. We identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs who start a business after receiving windfall wealth and examine the performance of these marginal...

  2. DISCUSSION ON DEVELOPING STUDENTS' COMMUNICATIVE ABILITY

    OuyangQin; TangChongwen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce some approaches to develop students' communicative ability. The authors first lypresents some problems in traditional teaching of intensive reading; e g., present vocabulary' items one by one; analyse the text sentence by sentence; the stage of teachers' teaching method is fixed, teachers usually present vocabulary in the text,then explain the text by' analyzing structure first, meaning second;teachers completely' take the charge of the class and speak a lot,they forget to involve the students' participation. Then,the paper presents the practical ways of teaching based on the learner-centered approach in classrooms to show how students' initiative is given fully play, including 1) Design some questions that will lead students into the core materials of a lesson. 2) Ask students to anticipate the content of the text judging from the title or ask students some guiding questions related to the text. 3) Working on the text by means of text analysis, ask students to find topic sentences, make sound judgment and inference, recognize denotation and connotation, understand figurative language,draw conclusions and work out the organization of the text and features of its style. 4)Create a friendly' learning environment and provide more opportunities for students to practise. Finally,the paper presents some cautions to be taken in teaching.

  3. Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids

    Kazuo Miyashita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acids (CFA have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1% in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid. Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer.

  4. Adjusting ability and sensibility for an accident

    Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)

  5. Human development of the ability to learn from bad news.

    Moutsiana, Christina; Garrett, Neil; Clarke, Richard C; Lotto, R Beau; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Sharot, Tali

    2013-10-01

    Humans show a natural tendency to discount bad news while incorporating good news into beliefs (the "good news-bad news effect"), an effect that may help explain seemingly irrational risk taking. Understanding how this bias develops with age is important because adolescents are prone to engage in risky behavior; thus, educating them about danger is crucial. We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9-26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs. The results are important for understanding how belief formation develops and might help explain why adolescents do not respond adequately to warnings. PMID:24019466

  6. Does cerebellar neuronal integrity relate to cognitive ability?

    Full text: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows the non-invasive measurement of metabolite levels in the brain. One of these is N-acetylaspartate (NA), a molecule found solely in neurones, synthesised there by mitochondria. This compound can be considered as a marker of 1) neuronal density and 2) neuronal mitochondria function. We recently completed a joint MRS and neuropsychological investigation of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a rare (1/20,000) autosomal dominant disorder caused by a deletion which includes the elastin locus and LIM-kinase. The syndrome has an associated behavioural and cognitive profile which includes hyperactivity, hyperacusis and excessive sociability. Spatial skills are severely affected, while verbal skills are left relatively intact Our investigation showed loss of NA from the cerebellum in WBS compared with normal controls, with the subject population as a whole displaying a continuum of cerebellar NA concentration. Ability at cognitive tests, including the Weschler IQ scale and various verbal and spatial tests, was shown to correlate significantly and positively with the concentration of NA in the cerebellum. This finding can be interpreted in one of two ways: 1. Our sampling of cerebellar metabolite levels represents a 'global' sampling of total brain neuronal density and, as such, is independent of cerebellar integrity. 2. Cerebellar neuronal integrity is associated with performance at cognitive tests. If the latter interpretation is shown to be the case, it will have important implications for our current understanding of cerebellar function. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  7. Combining ability and heterosis effect in hexaploid wheat group

    Titan Primož

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of hybrid wheat breeding is the identification of parents with high specific combining ability for grain yield and other agronomic traits. This kind of data facilitate the development of hybrid combinations with high level of heterosis in first filial generation (F1 generation. The use of species from the hexaploid wheat group (e.g. Triticum spelta L. Triticum compactum HOST... is representing an opportunity for the increase of heterosis level in the germplasm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study of combining ability and heterosis effect in hexaploid wheat group was carried out using crosses between thirteen inbred lines of common wheat (6 lines x 7 testers and inter-species crosses (T. aestivum L. × T. spelta L., T. aestivum L. × T. compactum HOST, T. aestivum L. × T. sphaerococcum PERCIV., T. aestivum L. × T. macha DEKAPR. et MENABDE, T. aestivum L. × T. petropavlovskyi UDACZ. et MIGUSCH, T. aestivum L. × T. vavilovii (THUM. JAKUBZ.. The 42 common wheat F1 hybrids were tested during two seasons (2010/11 and 2011/12 on the Selection center Ptuj. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications. The 43 interspecies F1 hybrids were tested on the same location in the season 2011/12 and the experiment was designed as an randomized block with three replications. The results were analyzed using statistical package AGROBASE generation II and STATGRAPHICS Centurion XVI. The analysis of variance was significant for both, GCA and SCA variances (P < 0,01. Generally, SCA variances were lower than GCA variances. We could state, that the improvement of heterosis level in the common wheat germplasm through the use of relatives with the same genome (genome BAD is possible. As an example we can point out the interspecies F1 hybrid between common wheat variety Garcia and an accession of the Triticum sphaerococcum PERCIV. species (accession number 01C0201227.

  8. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Ruckstuhl Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.

  9. On Reading Test

    孙健

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long discussion over the construct validity of reading tests. In china's reading tests, multiple choice is the main test method in view of the4 long controversy over the validity of multiple choice, construct validation is called for to empirically test the hypothesized relationships between test scores and abilities. The national CET committee conducted a comprehensive validation study. As part of the project, the specialists studied the reading comprehension test's validity by qualitative means, namely "introspective verbal reports". The analysis revealed that an overwhelming majority of the questions items were handled through "expected reading operations".

  10. The Effect of Storytelling Technique on Speaking Ability of Female Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Esmail Zare-Behtash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present quasi-experimental study is to investigate the effect of storytelling technique on writing ability of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, 40 female intermediate EFL learners with the age range of 14-16 attending Chabahar Maritime University High School were initially selected. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the Paper-Based Test proficiency test. Then they were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. A speaking test was administered to female subjects of both groups at the beginning of the study. The experimental group used storytelling technique two times a week while the control group was not trained on this technique. At the end of the study, a speaking test was administered to all subjects for examining their ability in speaking skill. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were performed for data analysis. The results showed that storytelling technique had a significant effect on improving the speaking ability of intermediate EFL learners.Keywords: storytelling technique, speaking ability, EFL learners 

  11. : MAP6 dosage controls cognitive abilities

    Volle, Julien; Brocard, Jacques,; Saoud, Mohamed; Gory-Faure, Sylvie; Brunelin, Jérôme; Andrieux, Annie; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise

    2012-01-01

    International audience Background: STOP/MAP6 null (KO) mice recapitulate behavioral abnormalities related to positive and negative symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether decreased expression of STOP/MAP6 proteins in heterozygous mice (only one allele expressed) would result in abnormal behavior related to those displayed by STOP null mice. Methods : Using a comprehensive test battery, we investigated the behavioral phenotype of STOP heterozygous (He...

  12. Personal Knowledge Abilities and Knowledge Management Success

    Iftikhar Hussain; Shakeel Ahmed; Steven Si

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge management success is a hot issue in SMEs. It is obvious that several important factors must be considered for successful implementation, but most small and medium firms have no idea what factors should be considered most heavily. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to expand the base of knowledge in that area, and empirically test the relationship between personal capabilities within SMEs and knowledge management system success. Six factors related to personal capabilities were...

  13. Narrative ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    Holck, Pernille; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD) children on a narrative task, in order to search for possible underlying causes to the problems in the CP group. The results of the BST for 10 childre...

  14. Mouse Ability to Perceive Subjective Contours.

    Okuyama-Uchimura, Fumi; Komai, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    In contrast to the previously held notion that mice have a weak visual system, it is now generally accepted that mice can perceive rather complicated figures in various contexts such as in cognitive experiments and in social settings. Here, we show that mice could even be capable of perceiving a visual illusion--subjective contours. This illusion requires the visual system to compensate for a lack of visual information in compressed 2D images on the retina. In this experiment, we trained mice to respond appropriately to a rectangle-shaped rewarded figure of specific orientation in a two-choice visual discrimination task with a touchscreen monitor. In Transfer Test 1, mice could discriminate illusory rectangle-shaped figures significantly as compared with a figure, which did not induce illusory figures. In Transfer Test 2, the choice rate of targets decreased with imperfect illusory figures, which produced weak perception of rotated or deficient inducers. Moreover, in Transfer Test 3, mice could not discriminate the low-resolution illusory figure, which also induced weak perception. These results demonstrated the possibility that mice might be useful for investigating fundamental properties of the neural visual system. PMID:26562875

  15. Communicative Language Testing of Speaking

    姚小菊

    2007-01-01

    Testing speaking ability offers plenty of scope for meeting the criteria for communicative testing.The article describes the model of CLA,analyzes basic factors involved in speaking competence,discusses what is a communicative language test of speaking,and suggests some factors that should be taken into consideration when designing a communicative language test of speaking.

  16. Communicative Language Testing of Speaking

    姚小菊

    2007-01-01

    Testing speaking ability offers plenty of scope for meeting the criteria for communicative testing. The article describes the model of CLA,analyzes basic factors involved in speaking competence,discusses what is a communicative language test of speaking,and suggests some factors that should be taken into consideration when designing a communicative language test of speaking.

  17. Video Games as Psychological Tests.

    Jones, Marshall B.

    1984-01-01

    Briefly describes the characteristics of video games and discusses some advantages and disadvantages of their use to measure individual abilities. Relevant research is cited in the areas of stabilization with practice, predictive testing, performance testing, testing under extreme conditions, testing brain-injured persons, and differential…

  18. Heritable differences in chemosensory ability among humans

    Newcomb Richard D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The combined senses of taste, smell and the common chemical sense merge to form what we call ‘flavor.’ People show marked differences in their ability to detect many flavors, and in this paper, we review the role of genetics underlying these differences in perception. Most of the genes identified to date encode receptors responsible for detecting tastes or odorants. We list these genes and describe their characteristics, beginning with the best-studied case, that of differences in phenylthiocarbamide (PTC detection, encoded by variants of the bitter taste receptor gene TAS2R38. We then outline examples of genes involved in differences in sweet and umami taste, and discuss what is known about other taste qualities, including sour and salty, fat (termed pinguis, calcium, and the ‘burn’ of peppers. Although the repertoire of receptors involved in taste perception is relatively small, with 25 bitter and only a few sweet and umami receptors, the number of odorant receptors is much larger, with about 400 functional receptors and another 600 potential odorant receptors predicted to be non-functional. Despite this, to date, there are only a few cases of odorant receptor variants that encode differences in the perception of odors: receptors for androstenone (musky, isovaleric acid (cheesy, cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy, and the urinary metabolites of asparagus. A genome-wide study also implicates genes other than olfactory receptors for some individual differences in perception. Although there are only a small number of examples reported to date, there may be many more genetic variants in odor and taste genes yet to be discovered.

  19. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both grou...

  20. Investigating the Spatial Abilities of Students Taking Physics in Community College

    Hossu, M. R.; Cid, X.; Lopez, R.

    2010-10-01

    Two independent tests that involve spatial visualization abilities, the PFT (Paper Folding Test) and the MRT (Mental Rotation Test) were given to different sections of introductory level physics students. The results show a strong correlation between the results of the two tests regardless of the different level of mathematics used in instruction (algebra or calculus). A statistically significant difference was found for both tests between the summer semester students (mostly 4-year university students) and the fall semester students (mostly community college students). No correlation was found between the PFT or MRT and FCI (Force Concept Inventory).

  1. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests adm...

  2. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  3. Masticatory ability with depression, anxiety, and stress: Does there exist any association?

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Afshar, Hamid; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Shirani, Mohamad Javad; Afghari, Parastu; Vali, Amrita; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Masticatory ability as a subjective response to masticatory function indicates patients’ perception of their mastication. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no study on association between masticatory ability and psychological status. This study investigated the association between self-assessed masticatory ability (SAMA) and psychological status among a large sample of Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were extracted from 4135 adults who had been completed information in 20 counties across Isfahan province regarding masticatory ability and psychological statuses (depression, anxiety, and stress). An SAMA questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure masticatory ability, depression and anxiety, and stress of study population. To analyze the data, ANOVA, χ2 test, and multinomial regression were applied at 0.05 for the significance level. Results: Masticatory ability was significantly correlated with depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), and stress (P < 0.001). The participants in high masticatory ability group reported lower scores for presence of these psychological variables. Furthermore, males reported significantly higher level for masticatory ability than females (P = 0.025). In addition, there were significant association between low and moderate masticatory ability with anxiety (1.09, 1.08), depression (1.15, 1.13), and stress (1.11, 1.09), respectively. The association was still significant after adjusting for age, sex, educational level, and marital status. Conclusion: Despite study limitations, the results of this study provide evidence that participants with higher score of depression, anxiety, and stress suffer lower masticatory ability. PMID:27274340

  4. The Stability of Individual Differences in Mental Ability from Childhood to Old Age: Follow-up of the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey.

    Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Lemmon, Helen; Crawford, J. R.; Starr, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Tested 101 adults, aged 77, who had completed psychometric intelligence testing in 1932, with the same test of mental ability. Results of this study, the longest follow-up study reported to date, show substantial stability in mental ability differences from childhood to late life. (SLD)

  5. Cognitive ability and self-control in relation to dietary habits, physical activity and bodyweight in adolescents

    van Kampen Margit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that cognitive ability is related to health and mortality. The cause of this relationship remains largely unknown. One plausible explanation is that cognitive ability is related to behaviours that affect health. This study investigates whether cognitive ability is related to healthy dietary habits, physical activity and appropriate bodyweight in adolescents and examines whether self-control mediates the relationship between cognitive ability and health behaviour. Methods In total 201 high-school students aged between 15 and 20 participated in the study. They completed three cognitive tests, measuring cognitive ability, reaction time and memory span, and completed a questionnaire on self-control, dietary habits, physical activity and bodyweight. Results Results show that adolescents scoring high on the cognitive ability test have healthier dietary habits and engage more often in physical activity. Adolescents with high self-control have a healthier eating pattern, are more often physically active and have lower BMI's. Both reaction time and memory span were not related to dietary habits and physical activity. Self-control was not related to cognitive ability and could not, therefore, mediate the relationship between cognitive ability and health in this study. Conclusion In conclusion, the link between cognitive ability and health behaviour could explain - in part - the relationship between cognitive ability and health. Self-control cannot explain this link.

  6. Joint Modeling of Ability and Differential Speed Using Responses and Response Times.

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Marianti, Sukaesi

    2016-01-01

    With computerized testing, it is possible to record both the responses of test takers to test questions (i.e., items) and the amount of time spent by a test taker in responding to each question. Various models have been proposed that take into account both test-taker ability and working speed, with the many models assuming a constant working speed throughout the test. The constant working speed assumption may be inappropriate for various reasons. For example, a test taker may need to adjust the pace due to time mismanagement, or a test taker who started out working too fast may reduce the working speed to improve accuracy. A model is proposed here that allows for variable working speed. An illustration of the model using the Amsterdam Chess Test data is provided. PMID:27269482

  7. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  8. Ability Fostering of Constructing New Socialist Village in Western Regions

    2011-01-01

    The thesis expounds that constructing new socialist village in western regions needs to foster internal developmental ability,external support ability,environmental gestation ability and incentive ability.In terms of internal developmental ability,we should foster new type of farmers and realize the transformation of rural industry and management model;in terms of external support ability,we should strengthen infrastructure construction and reinforce the role of industrialization and urbanization in supporting and promoting village;in terms of environmental gestation ability,we should deepen the transformation of rural economic system,social security system,register census and employment system;in terms of incentive ability,we should take the sustainable development as objective to foster new advantage,use the income of resources industry to support agriculture and connect industry,and foster advantageous agricultural products.

  9. Cognitive ability, acquiescence, and the structure of personality in a sample of older adults.

    Lechner, Clemens M; Rammstedt, Beatrice

    2015-12-01

    Acquiescence, or the tendency to respond to descriptions of conceptually distinct personality attributes with agreement/affirmation, constitutes a major challenge in personality assessment. The aim of this study was to shed light on cognitive ability as a potential source of individual differences in acquiescent responding. We hypothesized that respondents with lower cognitive ability exhibit stronger acquiescent response tendencies than respondents with higher cognitive ability and that this leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure by means of principal component analyses (exploratory factor analysis was not applicable to these data) in the former group. Further, we hypothesized that after controlling for acquiescence by using mean-corrected instead of raw item scores, the Big Five structure holds even among respondents with lower cognitive ability. Analyses in a sample of 1,071 German adults aged 56 to 75 years using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test as a measure of cognitive ability and the BFI-10, a 10-item abbreviated version of the Big Five Inventory, as a measure of personality, corroborated these hypotheses. These findings suggest that lower cognitive ability and age-related declines in cognitive functioning more specifically are associated with higher acquiescence, which in turn leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure among individuals with lower cognitive ability that should be addressed by controlling for acquiescence. PMID:26011482

  10. Integrating mathematical abilities and creativity in the assessment of mathematical giftedness

    Katerina Kontoyianni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the structure of the relationship between intelligence and mathematical giftedness and build a comprehensive model to describe this relationship and the nature of mathematical giftedness. This study also purports to clarify the structure of components of mathematical ability. The third objective is to examine whether students who were identified by two different instruments – (a mathematical ability and creativity instrument and (b intelligence instrument – have statistically significant differences across the components of mathematical ability. That is, we want to investigate if variance in identification may be explained by variance in mathematical abilities exhibited by these individuals. To achieve these goals, this study proposes a new domain-specific identification instrument for the assessment of mathematical giftedness, assessing mathematical abilities and creativity. The study was conducted among 359 4th, 5th and 6th grade elementary school students in Cyprus, using two instruments measuring mathematical ability and mathematical creativity and fluid intelligence. The results revealed that mathematical giftedness can be described in terms of mathematical ability and mathematical creativity. Moreover, the analysis illustrated that intelligence is a predictor of mathematical giftedness. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that different groups of students are identified by each type of testing; that is, through the mathematical instrument and the intelligence instrument. This variance may be explained by performance in specific categories of tasks.

  11. Impact of Literacy Influences and Perceived Reading Ability on Self-Rated Health of Public Middle School Students

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of literacy influences and perceived reading ability on the self-rated health (SRH) of 244 middle school students. Five literacy influences and reading ability independent variables resulted in moderate to substantial test-retest reliability [Kappas 46.6 to 63.8] over a two-week period. SRH served as the…

  12. The Sensitivity of Parameter Estimates to the Latent Ability Distribution. Research Report. ETS RR-11-40

    Xu, Xueli; Jia, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of item response model parameters and ability distribution parameters has been, and will remain, an important topic in the educational testing field. Much research has been dedicated to addressing this task. Some studies have focused on item parameter estimation when the latent ability was assumed to follow a normal distribution,…

  13. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua

    2015-01-01

    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  14. Shared-Environmental Contributions to High Cognitive Ability

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measur...

  15. Evaluation Indicator System of Marketing Planning Ability Based on ANP

    Min Jin

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of “Marketing planning” curriculum in higher vocational colleges should pay attention to planning ability of students which requires a set of scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability, however, there is less in-depth study in this field, especially the quantitative research. Scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability should divide the elements of marketing planning ability reasonably, and should give them reasonable weight. C...

  16. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    AngelaE.John

    2012-01-01

    Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic languag...

  17. Testing the Product Test

    Brea, H.; Grifell-Tatjé, Emili; Lovell, C.A. Knox

    2010-01-01

    The product test asks the product of a quantity index number and a price index number to equal the corresponding value change. The literature treats the product test as being so important that it is used to identify acceptable index number pairs, and to construct implicit index numbers when an otherwise desirable pair fails the test. We treat the product test as a hypothesis to be tested, and we provide an empirical application.

  18. Beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits in social support: the role of ability based emotional intelligence.

    Fabio, Annamaria Di

    2015-01-01

    Social support represents an important individual resource that has been associated with multiple indices of adaptive functioning and resiliency. Existing research has also identified an association between emotional intelligence (EI) and social support. The present study builds on prior research by investigating the contributions of ability based EI to social support, beyond the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI test (MSCEIT), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were administered to 149 Italian high school students. The results showed that ability based EI added significant incremental variance in explaining perceived social support, beyond the variance due to fluid intelligence and personality traits. The results underline the role of ability based EI in relation to perceived social support. Since ability based EI can be increased through specific training, the results of the present study highlight new possibilities for research and intervention in a preventive framework. PMID:25904886

  19. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p < 0.05). Between ages 75 and 85, participation in leisure activities and cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure...

  20. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. PMID:25460380