Sternberg, R J; Kaufman, J C
This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches. The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments. PMID:9496630
... hours ago AgrAbility's 25 Years, 25 Stories Rosendo Ramirez is a farmworker in California, a job that ... Rosendo continues to work. www.agrability.org/25years/ramirez/ ... See More See Less Rosendo Ramirez: Ingenuity, perseverance, ...
Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…
Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.
Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…
The present thesis investigates cognitive performance measures beyond IQ. I investigated the psychometric properties of implicit learning variables and dynamic decision making variables and their relation with general intelligence and professional success. The results suggest that dynamic decision making and implicit learning are substantially related with general intelligence and fit well into a hierarchical model of cognitive abilities. Furthermore, general intelligence is the best predicto...
Schellenberg, E G
Reports that exposure to music causes benefits in nonmusical domains have received widespread attention in the mainstream media. Such reports have also influenced public policy. The so-called "Mozart effect" actually refers to two relatively distinct phenomena. One concerns short-term increases in spatial abilities that are said to occur from listening to music composed by Mozart. The other refers to the possibility that formal training in music yields nonmusical benefits. A review of the relevant findings indicates that the short-term effect is small and unreliable. Moreover, when it is evident, it can be explained by between-condition differences in the listener's mood or levels of cognitive arousal. By contrast, the effect of music lessons on nonmusical aspects of cognitive development is still an open question. Several studies have reported positive associations between formal music lessons and abilities in nonmusical (e.g., linguistic, mathematical, and spatial) domains. Nonetheless, compelling evidence for a causal link remains elusive. PMID:11458841
Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the term used for human CNS involvement with T. solium cysts. Intraparenchymal cerebral cysts usually enlarge slowly, causing minimal or no symptoms, until years or decades after the onset of infection. Clinical manifestations vary from focal or generalized seisures to sensomotor deficits, intellectual impairment, psychiatric disorders and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure. Work ability was evaluated in 12 patients treated for cysticercosis during 2005 and 2006. In all patient examinations for NCC were conducted in regional health centers, and all were referred to a hospital for further diagnosis and therapy. Diagnosis was made by the following clinical criteria: neurological disorder, CT and / or MRI typical findings, followed by the test for specific antibodies. We evaluated the period from the first complaints that could be connected with the diagnosis to the moment when diagnosis was made, and severity of symptoms like vertigo, headache, vision disorders and unconsciousness. Considering neurocysticercosis as a slowly progressing infection of the CNS, with an evolution period of more than several years, and the mean period of unrecognized complaints of 28 months, we suggest that all of neurological or psychiatric complaints in our surroundings, specially where breeding of pigs is widely spread, should be evaluated for cysticercosis. .
Learners of English,especially beginners have troubles in understanding speechesby native speakers.Bur how to improve listening ability?Here I’d like to introduceyou some ways which might help you to improve you listening ability.
María Dolores Prieto Sánchez
This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1) Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2) Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3) Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, ...
Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.
Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian
Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500
Towler, John O.
Egocentrism was investigated as an influencing factor in the development of the perceptual abilities needed to understand and interpret topographic maps. Attainment of an adequate concept of space, and the ability to accurately perceive spatial relationships (perspectives) are considered fundamental. Piaget and Inhelder identified three stages of…
Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas
The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…
Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam
What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We ensured...... exogenous variation in -otherwise random- team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...
Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam
What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous...... variation in - otherwise random - team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...
Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam
What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...
María Dolores Prieto Sánchez
Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide positive health benefits. Bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium belong to this group. These bacteria have to meet a number of criteria so that they could be considered for probiotic. These include the ability to survive, grow, and be metabolically active in the gastrointestinal tract of the recipient. Probiotics protect the intestinal mucus from the adhesion of pathogenic organisms. The aim of this thesis was to test the ability of different ...
正Learners of English, especially beginners have troubles in understanding speeches by native speakers. Bur how to improve listening ability? Here I'd like to introduce you some ways which might help you to improve you listening ability. First of all, do things step by step. It is no good to listen to anything beyond your level. Don't choose too difficult materials. Secondly,
Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan
Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401
Klimusová, Helena; Květon, Petr
Lanškroun: GOSC Group, s.r.o., 2001. s. 185. [The Tenth European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology . 16.05.2001-19.05.2001, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Ability Testing * Computer based assessment Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.
School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…
Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.
Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…
Full Text Available The paper introduces a set of formative assessment tasks and rubrics that were developed for use in an introductory physics instruction to help students acquire and self-assess various scientific process abilities. We will describe the rubrics, tasks, and the student outcomes in courses where the tasks and rubrics were used.
Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.
O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B
In summary, our research enables us to conclude that specific talents are found in people who differ widely in general intelligence levels and such talents should therefore be regarded as at least partly intelligence-independent. However, between normal and mentally handicapped populations and even within the idiot savant group, general cognitive capacity plays some part in determining the manner in which talents manifest themselves. Idiot savant special abilities can neither be regarded as the sole consequence of practice and training, nor are such skills based only on an efficient rote memory. Instead, idiots savants use strategies which are founded on the deduction and application of rules governing the material upon which their special ability operates. They also generate novel or new examples of such rule based structures just as we do in our use of language. Because of the much greater prevalence of idiots savants in the autistic than in the mentally handicapped population, some characteristic common to both autism and specific giftedness might be assumed. An obsessional pre-occupation with a limited section of the environment might be a common factor to both. It may be this rather than autism itself which is relevant to the idiot savant phenomenon. PMID:3063716
Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.
Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam
Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…
Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan
Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...
Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Ken eNakayama; Laura eGermine
In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upo...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159988.html Alzheimer's May Hamper Ability to Perceive Pain People with ... 20, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alzheimer's disease may affect people's ability to recognize when ...
Keynote: This dissertation presents an analysis of the cause of students' low ability of writing, emphasizes the interrelations of the 4 abilities and focuses on the importance of the change of English teachers' concepts.
Solem, Per Erik
This article explores the influence of psychosocial work environment on age-related subjective changes in work ability and discusses differences between work ability and job performance. The results show age and physical health to be strong predictors of subjective decline in work ability. The age effect is independent of age-associated declining health. It is not clear what it is about age that produces the subjective decline in work ability. While primary age changes may produce decline, st...
Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija
appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....
Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne
The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…
The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)
Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken
In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673
Solem, Per Erik
Full Text Available This article explores the influence of psychosocial work environment on age-related subjective changes in work ability and discusses differences between work ability and job performance. The results show age and physical health to be strong predictors of subjective decline in work ability. The age effect is independent of age-associated declining health. It is not clear what it is about age that produces the subjective decline in work ability. While primary age changes may produce decline, stereotypes and self-stereotypes about ageing may also be important. Among psychosocial factors, options for learning and problems at work are robust predictors of subjective changes in work ability. One practical consequence is to ensure learning opportunities for workers, even for workers approaching retirement age. By giving learning opportunities to senior workers, subjective work ability may be maintained, and competence acquired through learning may in a direct way support stability or improvements in job performance.
Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.
Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…
Associations were examined between complexity of main lifetime occupation and cognitive performance in later life. Occupational complexity ratings for data, people and things were collected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) for 1066 (men= 534, women= 532) individuals in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Early life ability is one of the largest predictors of later life cognitive abilities and one of the greatest strengths of the study is the availability of early life ability measu...
Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl;
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....
There is a relation between corporate risks, risk bearing ability and equity. In order to assess the risk bearing ability of a corporation, one reference figure is equity, understood as the sum of legal capital and reserves, free reserves and accrued profits. Equity shows the risk bearing ability related to the risk of asset reduction as well as the ability of the corporation to attract new liquidity by increasing debts, in case of a negative free cash flow. Equity is the risk reserve of the ...
Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger
We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…
Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria
Neuroimaging suggests psychopaths have reduced vicarious activations when simply witnessing pain but less so when asked to empathize. This inspired us to distinguish the ability from the propensity to empathize. We argue that (i) this ability-propensity distinction is crucial to characterizing empat
Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana
The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…
Linden, van der Wim J.; Zwarts, Michel A.
For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of examine
This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…
In This Article, the writer focus on an over- all analysis of the present situation of the students' reading activities in junior middle school in the countryside and put forward some suggestions on improving the teaching arts to enhance the students' fast reading abilities . It provided some theoretical basis on the further improcement of students' reading abilities in the school
Jeremy B Wilmer
Full Text Available In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities, often labeled g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.
Although over 77 percent of American school districts use ability grouping, or tracking, research overwhelmingly indicates that the practice benefits only the gifted. High schools commonly have two or three tracks. Regardless of the methods used to place students, the effects of ability grouping are uniform; furthermore, placement in low ability…
[Abstract]In order to provide a new theoretical perspective for the academic research, the group measured political cognition on account of Almond scale. We had found that farmers' political cognition is related to their subjective political ability but not to objective ability, at last we supposed elaborate vil age cadres'function in giving political information publicity.
As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.
A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…
Mohler, James L.
Spatial ability research has been approached from several psychological vantages since its beginnings in the late 1800s. This contribution attempts a summation of spatial ability research, beginning with a historical vignette and a major section on each psychological approach including the psychometric, developmental, differential and information…
Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.
Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob
Research has shown that expatriates’ host country language ability is positively associated with their adjustment. But does the advantage of expatriates’ language ability depend on the difficulty of the host language? To examine this issue, data were collected from expatriates in two European...... countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language as...... opposed to the host country with an easy language....
Full Text Available Results in introductory computer programming modules are often disappointing, and various individual differences have been found to be relevant. This paper reviews work in this area, with particular reference to the effect of a student's spatial ability. Data is presented on a cohort of 49 students enrolled on an MSc in Information Technology course at a university in the UK. A measure was taken of their mental rotation ability, and a questionnaire administered that focused on their previous academic experience, and expectations relating to the introductory computer programming module they were studying. The results showed a positive correlation between mental rotation ability and success in the module (r = 0.48. Other factors, such as confidence level, expected success, and programming experience, were also found to be important. These results are discussed in relation to the accessibility of programming to learners with low spatial ability.
Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation and...... ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment and...... cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings of...
Hill, A. Lewis
Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)
Richard J. Buttimer Jr; Jun Chen; I-Hsuan Ethan Chiang
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study performance and market timing ability of equity real estate investment trusts (REITs). Design/methodology/approach - The authors use classical regression-based framework and their multi-index, multifactor, and conditional extensions to jointly detect asset selectivity and market timing ability of equity REITs and their subcategories. These results are then validated by a nonparametric test. Findings -It is found that equity REITs in aggregate ha...
Yi Ting eTan; Gary E McPherson; Isabelle ePeretz; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J.
Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realisation of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music develo...
Tan, Yi Ting; Gary E McPherson; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J.
Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music develo...
Speaking and listening are important to them who wants to improve their ability in English.It is the same to reading.The paper focuses on the skills of improving reading ability.An efficient reader determines beforehand why he is reading a particular selection and he decides which strategies and skills he will use to achieve his goal.There are two basic skills: language skills and reading skills.
Speaking and listening are important to them who wants to improve their ability in English.It is the same to reading. The paper focuses on the skills of improving reading ability. An efficient reader determines beforehand why he is reading a particular selection and he decides which strategies and skills he will use to achieve his goal.There are two basic skills: language skills and reading skills.
Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P.; Kernahan, J
Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for m...
The Guiding principle for junior English teaching points out: "The aim of junior English teaching is to give the students basic training on how to listen, speak, read and write, to cultivate the students' primary ability of using English."Therefore, writing in English is one of the most important contents and requirements of junior English teaching. Since 1998, the junior students have been required to demonstrate their writing ability by writing an 80-word passage, which should be very accurate, coherent, and fluent.So "the middle school teachers must encourage the students to learn to make simple sentences with the vocabulary, grammar, sentence patterns and to write simple passages, letters, e-mails, notes, notices after the styles and models which have been learned."  English, as a most useful language and a most widely used communication means, is very important. The students must acquire the ability of speaking and writing and their all-round ability should be developed.So I write this thesis to discuss and make a research on how to develop and improve the junior students' writing ability in English.
Eastwood, Kathyrn J
Full Text Available Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations.Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved.Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects.Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting.[WestJEM. 2009;10:240-243.
Halit Hami OZ
Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.
Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.
Falch, Torberg; Sandgren, Sofia
We analyze whether the amount of schooling influences intelligence as measured by IQ tests. By use of a novel longitudinal dataset we are able to condition on early cognitive ability to account for selection into non-compulsory schooling when estimating the effect on cognitive ability at age 20. OLS estimates indicate that one year of schooling increases IQ by 2.8–3.5 points (about 0.2 standard deviations). When family income per family member and teacher evaluations of the individuals at age...
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze and explain attention to diversity measures for high ability (gifted and talented students. The model, developed in the Spanish region of Murcia, is based on cognitive psychology and aims to encourage thinking skills. The program is developed as a curriculum extension and the interests, motivations and abilities of children have been considered once these were identified. The article offers a theoretical approach, a set of objectives, and some of the activities that have been done with students.
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Wallentin, Mikkel; Vuust, Peter
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared......, we found that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate...
Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzábal; Giacheti, Célia M.; Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana
The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N = 20, mean age = 8.5 years, SD = 1.62) and two typically developing groups, matched in mental (MA, N = 20, mean age = 4.92 years, SD = 1.14) and chronological age (CA, N = 19, mean age = 8.35 years, SD = 3.07)...
Bilt, van der A.; Mojet, J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Abbink, J.H.
Masticatory performance has often been measured by determining an individual's capacity to comminute a test food. Another method to determine masticatory performance, which is now widely used, evaluates the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. Two-coloured chewing gum and paraffin wax have been us
... English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION ATTORNEY...
Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W
Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities. PMID:26401810
Falbo, Toni; Cooper, Catherine R.
Examines assumptions of the confluence model of the effects of family structure on children's intelligence. Subjects were 24 preschool children. Findings indicate that individual differences in intellectual ability are associated with the amount of time children spend in certain activities and with certain people. (Author/RH)
Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav
A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…
Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James
Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…
Halpern, Diane F.
The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…
Reading is a very important part of English teaching, and it is a very important way of gaining information in foreign language learning. English reading can help students enlarge their vocabulary, learn grammar well and accumulate the social and cultural knowledge about the English nations. It is a major task to develop students’ reading skills and to improve their reading ability in English teaching.
Ben Bouallègue, Zied; Pinson, Pierre; Friederichs, Petra
While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are ...
Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.
Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…
J.J. van den Dobbelsteen (John)
textabstractWe investigated the human ability to align visually and kinaesthetically perceived end positions of arm movements. We specifically looked at the spatial characteristics of movement endpoints and the responses of the visuomotor system to altered relationships between visual and kinaesthet
Højland, Torben; Babu, Bolle Ravindra; Bryld, Torsten;
We present our studies on the ability of several different nucleotide analogs as triplex-forming oligonucleotides. The modifications tested include 4'-C-hydroxymethyl, LNA, 2'-amino-LNA and N2'-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA. Triplexes containing monomers of N2'-glycyl-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA are...
Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja
The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326
Listening plays a fundamental role in foreign language acquisition.Though most schools have offered listening class,the effect is rather poor.This thesis will analyse some reasons that cause students weak ability in listening and explore some effective strategies to solve some issues.
Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia
Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…
Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir
Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…
Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa
This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…
Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng
The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of...
Clem, Douglas Wayne
Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and…
Bouallegue, Zied Ben; Friederichs, Petra
While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are introduced here, based on quantile forecasts being the base product for the continuous case (hence in a nonparametric framework). The relative user characteristic (RUC) curve and the quantile value plot allow analysing the performance of a forecast for a specific user in a decision-making framework. The RUC curve is designed as a user-based discrimination tool and the quantile value plot translates forecast discrimination ability in terms of economic value. The relationship between the overall value of a quantile forecast and the respective quantile skill score is also discussed. The application of these new verification approaches and tools is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global...
Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.
Baldwin, T. K.; Hall-Wallace, M. K.
We designed an experiment to evaluate change in students' spatial skills as a result of completing an earth science course. Our test subjects included high school students in earth science classes, college level non-science majors enrolled in large enrollment introductory geoscience courses and introductory level geoscience majors. They also varied as to whether their course had a hand-on laboratory experience or used supplemental Geographic Information System (GIS) based activities. We measured all students' ability to mentally rotate three-dimensional objects and to construct a three-dimensional object from a two-dimensional representation before and after taking the earth science course. Results show an improvement in spatial skills for all groups after completing the science course. We also observed a consistent improvement in spatial skills overall from high school level science to courses for majors, which is possibly related to their increased exposure to science. A subgroup of the test subjects among both high school and the college non-science majors completed supplementary GIS activities. The GIS implementation at the high school level was more extensive and resulted in significant improvements in both categories of spatial ability. At the college level, the non-science majors that used the GIS curriculum showed no significant difference from those that did not, probably because the time spent on the curriculum was too short. At the college level, the geoscience majors had nearly three times the improvement of non-science majors in both categories of spatial ability. This can most likely be attributed to hands-on, weekly laboratory experiences, which were not part of the course for non-science majors. Students choosing science majors typically have much higher spatial skills than the average first or second year non-science major, however there were large variations in spatial ability within all groups. These results suggest that we evaluate teaching
Terebova Svetlana Viktorovna; Pleshakov Pavel Sregeevitch
The expansion of the small and medium entrepreneurship sector is one of the main factors of the economic and society welfare development. The development of entrepreneurship is formed not only by external conditions, but by population abilities also. The main goal of the article is to determine the “entrepreneurship abilities” conception and to form an approach to its estimation. In the issue several interpretations of the “entrepreneurship abilities” have been considered; existing approaches...
Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.
Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for...
Purpose – The financial crisis 2007-2009 calls for a regulatory response. A crucial element of this task is the treatment of systemic risk. Basel III gains centre stage in this process. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate Basel III, examining its ability to reduce systemic risk. Design/methodology/approach – The paper highlights the importance of reducing systemic risk to achieve the goal of overall financial stability. By first focusing on the theoretical foundations of systemic r...
Waters, A.; Gobet, F.; Leyden, G
The extent to which the acquisition of expertise in knowledge-rich domains, such as chess, can be influenced by general individual characteristics, such as intelligence, has remained unclear. Some previous studies with children have documented significant correlations between chess skill and performance on some psychometric tests, such as performance IQ (Frydman & Lynn, 1992). However, we found no evidence for a correlation between chess skill and visual memory ability in a group of adult che...
Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta
This study focuses on the concept Managing Emotions from Emotional Intelligence (I.E.), (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), also identified as Emotional Regulation (Bisquerra, 2000), to obtain recognition and practical use of this concept, through the use of Emotional Fitness charts (Bimbela-Pedrola, 2008), to develop these abilities and manage emotions in contexts of practical life. Objective: To train preschool teachers, as well as primary and lower secondary sc...
Carlos Alberto Scapim; Ronald José Barth Pinto; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior; Freddy Mora; Thatiana Silva Dandolini
The objectives of this study were to indicate the best improvement strategy and select parents to begin animprovement program of white grain popcorn based on the combining ability and heterosis of eight populations selected inexperiments in the northwestern region of Paraná. The traits plant and ear height, grain yield and popping expansion wereevaluated. The base populations, the F1 and five controls were evaluated in Maringá, state of Paraná, over the course of twoyears. Heterosis for poppi...
Agarwal, Sumit; Mazumder, Bhash
We analyze the effects of cognitive abilities on two examples of consumer financial decisions where suboptimal behavior is well defined. The first example refers to consumers who transfer the entire balance from an existing credit card account to a new account, but use the new card for convenience transactions, resulting in higher interest charges. The second example refers to consumers who face higher APRs because they inaccurately estimate their property value on a home equity loan or line ...
Full Text Available Combining ability was estimated for six diverse okra genotypes or varieties by diallel analysis. The combininganalysis revealed that Arka Anamika was found to be a good general combiner for fruit number, fruit weight and fruit length.KL9 showed high gca for days to first flowering, internode number and fruit weight. In this study, it was observed thatpresence of overdominance for most of the yield contributing traits
Yuk Ying Chang; Sudipto Dasgupta; Gilles Hilary
Do chief executive officers (CEOs) really matter? Do cross-sectional differences in firm performance and CEO pay reflect differences in CEO ability? Examining CEO departures over 1992-2002, we first find that the stock price reaction upon departure is negatively related to the firm's prior performance and to the CEO's prior pay. Second, the CEO's subsequent labor market success is greater if the firm's predeparture performance is better, the prior pay is higher, and the stock market's reactio...
Cycling and kettlebell sport are cyclic kinds of sport. For sport achievement is important the development of endurance ability. In kettlebell sport high performance is based on the strength endurance. One of the conditions for success in competition is sportsman’s high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Complex cardiopulmonary exercise testing allows for simultaneous study of the responses of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to a stated physical load stress. There is direct correlation ...
Interpersonal relations are shaped by the judgements associated with the social categories that individuals perceive in their social contacts. I develop a model of how those judgments form based on a theory of symbolic values. The model depicts the interaction between two values, one associated with an inherited ethnic trait (nationality) and one with an endogenous achievement trait (income). Individuals with lower cognitive ability are predicted to invest more value on nationalism and to hav...
One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information an...
Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists, whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists. The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688, implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.
With the opening-up of China,English teaching has been getting more and more attention.People are enthusiastic about learning English.As a result,English teaching and reform are coming to a turning point,which predicts a bright future in English education in China.Now,a 9-year voluntary education program is put forward in China.A Standard English course is being used to replace the former teaching outline.The new standard adopts the international system according to which English language education is divided into 9 levels.This has changed the old style of teaching,which attaches importance to grammar and vocabulary.Adopting the new standard helps to develop the senior students’ability to use English in their daily life,by focusing on arousing their interest,and encouraging their participation. The new method will place less stress on“reading and writing”,in favor of“listening”and“speaking”.So now,speaking is getting more and more important in middle high school English teaching. This paper discuss how to improve students’speaking ability and expound the theme through three aspects as follows:⒈The importance of speaking.⒉Some barriers in the process of speaking communication.⒊Essential methods for improving students’speaking ability. The issue will be discussed from the perspective of a teacher of English in junior middle school and a possible conclusion will bereached with the help of some theoretical and practical support.
Full Text Available The approximate number system (ANS is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education. The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5 to 6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children’s early number competence as well as schools’ socio-economic index (SEI. This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8 to 64. In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1 to 12 at the end of the 2nd (N = 42 and the 3rd (N = 32 kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on extending far beyond children’s symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children’s estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from
Nuthall, Peter L.
The key resource in efficient production is the management input used to coordinate the land, labour and capital. Yet, our understanding of this resource is still somewhat limited, especially the factors involved in improving the managerial ability of farmers. This paper summarises three tests developed to help assess managers, and uses the data collected through random surveys of all types of farmers to explain the origins of managerial ability. Survey data on the competencies farmers' belie...
Godskesen, Mirjam Irene
The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get a...... theoretical approach to teamwork and a language in which they can talk about their own and each others strengths and weaknesses. There are indications that it has positive effect on their subsequent teamwork....
Dilermando Perecin; Antonio Orlando Di Mauro; Eduardo Antonio Gavioli
Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina) werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “n...
Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong
The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.
LI Zuoyong; PENG Lihong
This paper analyses the intrinsic relationship between the BP network learning ability and generalization ability and other influencing factors when the overfit occurs, and introduces the multiple correlation coefficient to describe the complexity of samples; it follows the calculation uncertainty principle and the minimum principle of neural network structural design, provides an analogy of the general uncertainty relation in the information transfer process, and ascertains the uncertainty relation between the training relative error of the training sample set, which reflects the network learning ability,and the test relative error of the test sample set, which represents the network generalization ability; through the simulation of BP network overfit numerical modeling test with different types of functions, it is ascertained that the overfit parameter q in the relation generally has a span of 7×10-3 to 7 × 10-2; the uncertainty relation then helps to obtain the formula for calculating the number of hidden nodes of a network with good generalization ability under the condition that multiple correlation coefficient is used to describe sample complexity and the given approximation error requirement is satisfied;the rationality of this formula is verified; this paper also points out that applying the BP network to the training process of the given sample set is the best method for stopping training that improves the generalization ability.
Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine
Inflectional spelling abilities have been less extensively studied than lexical spelling abilities and the relationship between these two types of spelling abilities is poorly understood. In this study, we compared lexical and inflectional spelling abilities in 12-year-old children, by hypothesizing that attentional load may be particularly detrimental for sentence context-dependent inflectional spelling abilities, in contrast to sentence context-independent lexical spelling abilities. Ninety...
Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather
We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.
Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L
Purpose: To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods: Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark......: Visual impairment is a common condition in students with severe DD. Despite increased awareness of VI in the school and health care system, we continued to find a considerable number of students with hitherto undiagnosed decreased vision.......Purpose: To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods: Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results: Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom...
Milanović-Nahod Slobodanka S.
Full Text Available The present paper sets out to consider cognitive abilities development depending on learning and educational goals. Three standpoints and their effects on the quality of cognition are opposed: determination of tasks and goals beforehand, non-determination of tasks and goals beforehand, and alternative models where general and specific goals are planned specification being left to curriculum executors. Thereafter, consideration is given to the learning theories where it is insisted either upon learner’s individual activities or upon planning of learning context which contains interrelations between teachers, learners and contents. Emphasis is placed on a discrepancy between theoretical ideas providing good reasons for independently constructed knowledge evaluation, on the one hand, and school practice that commonly does not attribute great importance to such knowledge on the other hand. How the development of cognitive abilities will proceed in teaching depends largely on teachers themselves - their understanding of tasks and goals, qualifications they possess for school subject they teach manner of executing instruction, and familiarity with student personality needs. We can accept the standpoint that we need the theory focusing straight on education, but must be broad enough to embrace both individual and contextual perspective as well as activities of both teachers and students.
Carlos Alberto Scapim
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to indicate the best improvement strategy and select parents to begin animprovement program of white grain popcorn based on the combining ability and heterosis of eight populations selected inexperiments in the northwestern region of Paraná. The traits plant and ear height, grain yield and popping expansion wereevaluated. The base populations, the F1 and five controls were evaluated in Maringá, state of Paraná, over the course of twoyears. Heterosis for popping expansion was very low and the best improvement strategy is to raise the values of poppingexpansion up to commercial levels through intrapopulation improvement of the populations BRS Angela and SC 002. Intenseselection must be applied to reduce plant and ear height; interpopulation selection must not be initiated at this moment.
Full text: Two potential varieties of sorghum were mutagenised by using MMS. F1 seeds were produced by crossing M1 or M2 plants of the two varieties as males with the ruling male sterile line 296A as female. The mutant cross F1s were grown in the field along with control F1s. The variability in the M- derived F1 populations was higher. This was accompanied by an increase in mean yield. Dependent upon the genotypes treated with MMS, there was a greater increase in variability for grain yield or a greater increase in variability for days to flowering. The mutagen seems to have induced variability for combining ability of the two varieties of sorghum, the nature of induced variability depending upon the genotype of the variety. (author)
Full Text Available Eight soybean cultivars (Doko, Bossier, Ocepar-4, BR-15, FT-Cometa, Savana, Paraná and Cristalina werecrossed in a diallel design. Plants of the F1 generation and their parents were evaluated under short-day conditions for thedetermination of the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability. The estimated GCA and SCA values were significantfor the evaluated traits except for the “total cycle”. Highest GCA effects for the traits “days to flowering”, “plant height”,“insertion height”, “number of branches” and “total cycle” were estimated for the cultivars Doko, Cristalina and Savana.The variability observed in the trait “days to flowering” can, for the most part, be explained by additive effects.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that human adults, infants, and non-human primates share two non-verbal systems for enumerating objects, one for representing precisely small quantities (up to 3-4 items and one for representing approximately larger quantities. Recent studies exploiting fish's spontaneous tendency to join the larger group showed that their ability in numerical discrimination closely resembles that of primates but little is known as to whether these capacities are innate or acquired. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the spontaneous tendency to join the larger shoal to study the limits of the quantity discrimination of newborn and juvenile guppies. One-day old fish chose the larger shoal when the choice was between numbers in the small quantity range, 2 vs. 3 fish, but not when they had to choose between large numbers, 4 vs. 8 or 4 vs. 12, although the numerical ratio was larger in the latter case. To investigate the relative role of maturation and experience in large number discrimination, fish were raised in pairs (with no numerical experience or in large social groups and tested at three ages. Forty-day old guppies from both treatments were able to discriminate 4 vs. 8 fish while at 20 days this was only observed in fish grown in groups. Control experiments showed that these capacities were maintained after guppies were prevented from using non numerical perceptual variables that co-vary with numerosity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our results suggest the ability of guppies to discriminate small numbers is innate and is displayed immediately at birth while discrimination of large numbers emerges later as a result of both maturation and social experience. This developmental dissociation suggests that fish like primates might have separate systems for small and large number representation.
Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.
In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…
Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
Previous research shows that children's ability to estimate numbers of items using their Approximate Number System (ANS) predicts later math ability. To more closely examine the predictive role of early ANS acuity on later abilities, we assessed the ANS acuity, math ability, and expressive vocabulary of preschoolers twice, six months apart. We…
Davison, Mark L.
The answer to the question, "Ability, speed, or both?" may be "both at once" if speed is simply a manifestation of ability. If differences in speed are manifestations of differences in ability, then both speed and ability may reflect a single dimension best characterized by a single score. While measurement of speed has proven…
Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU
Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.
Ma, Chishun; Yu, Jintian
Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovat...
Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.
The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…
This study focuses on comparing the creative thinking and reasoning abilities of deaf and hearing children. Two groups of deaf (N = 210) and hearing children (N = 200) were chosen based on specific criteria. Two instruments were used in the study: the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural, Form A and Matrix Analogies Test. Canonical…
Herman, Amanda; Chatfield, Steven
In the 1960s a visible shift in the ideology of contemporary dancers and choreographers took place. A desire for a dance language that rejected the need for the classical dancerly body paved the way for dance that was open to a more diverse population of participants. DanceAbility emerged in that late 1980s as a method of making dance accessible…
This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong need for studies evaluating tests in terms both of psychometric properties (i.e. their efficacy or ability to be helpful in reaching a diagnosis and of their cost-effectiveness (i.e. their efficiency. These data are essential for planning a correct evaluation to identify children's needs (both educational and abilitative. Methods We evaluated 58 children attending for the first time the last year of the Scuola dell'Infanzia. Parental view was obtained with Child Behaviour Check-List and Conners' Rating Scales - Revised, and family socio-economic status was evaluated using Hollingshead's Four Factor Index; teacher compiled the IPDA questionnaire; children were administered Raven's Progressive Matrices, Modified Bell Cancellation Test, BVN 5-11 (a neuropsychological battery. Results A correlational analysis was conducted using Spearman's Rho (since variables were not normally distributed. These asymptomatic children show a good global cognitive functioning, but also a deficit of attention and of Executive Functions. Some of the tests used seem more cost-effective than others and there are some redundancies in information obtained. Conclusions Our data show that there are significant correlations between different neuropsychological and behavioural measures. It is therefore possible to rationalize diagnostic protocols without a significant information reduction. A deeper analysis will require a preliminary definition of the psychometric properties of used tools.
The purpose of this article is to introduce some approaches to develop students' communicative ability. The authors first lypresents some problems in traditional teaching of intensive reading; e g., present vocabulary' items one by one; analyse the text sentence by sentence; the stage of teachers' teaching method is fixed, teachers usually present vocabulary in the text,then explain the text by' analyzing structure first, meaning second;teachers completely' take the charge of the class and speak a lot,they forget to involve the students' participation. Then,the paper presents the practical ways of teaching based on the learner-centered approach in classrooms to show how students' initiative is given fully play, including 1) Design some questions that will lead students into the core materials of a lesson. 2) Ask students to anticipate the content of the text judging from the title or ask students some guiding questions related to the text. 3) Working on the text by means of text analysis, ask students to find topic sentences, make sound judgment and inference, recognize denotation and connotation, understand figurative language,draw conclusions and work out the organization of the text and features of its style. 4)Create a friendly' learning environment and provide more opportunities for students to practise. Finally,the paper presents some cautions to be taken in teaching.
Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acids (CFA have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1% in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid. Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer.
Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)
Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna
When adults hear spoken samples of a language which they do not know, they can often identify it and discriminate between languages even when produced by the same talkers. Children have much less experience making metalinguistic judgments. How do children respond to languages which they do not know? We have conducted three experiments examining the abilities of 4-year old and 8-year old children to discriminate between spoken samples of different languages produced by bilingual talkers. We constructed listening tests from 5-second phrases excerpted from fluent reading provided by the talkers. In the three experiments, we progressively simplified the response mode employed by the children as well as the cognitive load of the task. Even in the simplest version, only a third of the 4-year-olds could do the task while the 8-year old children performed above chance in all three experiments. The younger children tended to respond different more than same, as if their criterion for same was identify.
Horne, J A
Although much is known about the impact of sleep loss on many aspects of psychological performance, the effects on divergent ("creative") thinking has received little attention. Twelve subjects went 32 h without sleep, and 12 others acted as normally sleeping controls. All subjects were assessed on the figural and verbal versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. As compared with the control condition, sleep loss impaired performance on all test scales (e.g., "flexibility," the ability to change strategy, and "originality," generation of unusual ideas) for both versions, even on an initial 5-min test component. In an attempt at further understanding of whether these findings might be explained solely by a loss of motivation, two additional short and stimulating tests were also used--a word fluency task incorporating high incentive to do well and a challenging nonverbal planning test. Performance at these tasks was still significantly impaired by sleep loss. Increased perseveration was clearly apparent. Apparently, 1 night of sleep loss can affect divergent thinking. This contrasts with the outcome for convergent thinking tasks, which are more resilient to short-term sleep loss. PMID:3238256
Newcomb Richard D
Full Text Available Abstract The combined senses of taste, smell and the common chemical sense merge to form what we call ‘flavor.’ People show marked differences in their ability to detect many flavors, and in this paper, we review the role of genetics underlying these differences in perception. Most of the genes identified to date encode receptors responsible for detecting tastes or odorants. We list these genes and describe their characteristics, beginning with the best-studied case, that of differences in phenylthiocarbamide (PTC detection, encoded by variants of the bitter taste receptor gene TAS2R38. We then outline examples of genes involved in differences in sweet and umami taste, and discuss what is known about other taste qualities, including sour and salty, fat (termed pinguis, calcium, and the ‘burn’ of peppers. Although the repertoire of receptors involved in taste perception is relatively small, with 25 bitter and only a few sweet and umami receptors, the number of odorant receptors is much larger, with about 400 functional receptors and another 600 potential odorant receptors predicted to be non-functional. Despite this, to date, there are only a few cases of odorant receptor variants that encode differences in the perception of odors: receptors for androstenone (musky, isovaleric acid (cheesy, cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy, and the urinary metabolites of asparagus. A genome-wide study also implicates genes other than olfactory receptors for some individual differences in perception. Although there are only a small number of examples reported to date, there may be many more genetic variants in odor and taste genes yet to be discovered.
The thesis expounds that constructing new socialist village in western regions needs to foster internal developmental ability,external support ability,environmental gestation ability and incentive ability.In terms of internal developmental ability,we should foster new type of farmers and realize the transformation of rural industry and management model;in terms of external support ability,we should strengthen infrastructure construction and reinforce the role of industrialization and urbanization in supporting and promoting village;in terms of environmental gestation ability,we should deepen the transformation of rural economic system,social security system,register census and employment system;in terms of incentive ability,we should take the sustainable development as objective to foster new advantage,use the income of resources industry to support agriculture and connect industry,and foster advantageous agricultural products.
The evaluation of “Marketing planning” curriculum in higher vocational colleges should pay attention to planning ability of students which requires a set of scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability, however, there is less in-depth study in this field, especially the quantitative research. Scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability should divide the elements of marketing planning ability reasonably, and should give them reasonable weight. C...
The article presents contemporary studies of linguistic abilities in psychology. The different approaches to the linguistic abilities structure are discussed in relation to empirical results on peculiarities of the second language mastering. The special attention is paid to the cognitive determinants of linguistic abilities. So the empirical data concerning the interaction between language-aptitude test scores and different abilities, e.g. verbal intelligence and working memory, are analyzed ...
Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measur...
Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic languag...
The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Existing representations of cognitive ability structure are exclusively based on linear patterns of interrelations. However, a number of developmental and cognitive theories predict that abilities are differentially related across ages (age differentiation-dedifferentiation) and across levels of functioning (ability differentiation). Nonlinear…
Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Buzink, Sonja N.; Verwey, Willem B.; Jakimowicz, J. J.
Visuo-spatial ability is associated with a quality of performance in a variety of surgical and medical skills. However, visuo-spatial ability is typically assessed using "Visualization" tests only, which led to an incomplete understanding of the involvement of visuo-spatial ability in these skills. To remedy this situation, the current study…
Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke
Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus complexity, in their emphasis on identifying…
Norma Contini de González
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to refer to social abilities in early adolescence. Personal success and social success seem to be more related to interpersonal abilities than with those cognitive abilities expressed in synthetic measures of IQ. Social abilities are also one of the major sources of self esteem and personal well-being. The concepts of social intelligence, social abilities, social competence, assertiveness and adaptative behaviour are differentiated. Social abilities are characterized. The different types of social abilities founded are described and the theories which explain those types of abilities are referred. Possible interaction between social abilities, personality and psychosocial adjustment are analyzed. Positive Psychology is defined. It is explained why the Social Abilities are part of child and adolescent’s psychological capital. It is also treated why is important to study those aspects recently mentioned in early adolescence. Opportune diagnosis of those types of adolescent resources –or their dysfunctions like aggressiveness or isolation- would allow tracing a lay out intervention programs which promote protective abilities for its development which also would help the permanence in the scholar system as a way of social inclusion. Finally, it is explained how social abilities work as a salugenic resource in early adolescence within the frame of Positive Psychology.
Campion, Michael A.
Measured multiple approaches to job design and examined relationships with ability requirements, using two distinctly different samples (total N=213 jobs), different measures of job design, and ability requirements. Found that motivational attributes of jobs related positively to mental ability requirements; other approaches to job design related…
Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; van Ewijk, Lizet
Purpose: The authors investigated expressive and receptive intonation abilities in children with Williams syndrome (WS) and the relation of these abilities to other linguistic abilities. Method: Fourteen children with WS, 14 typically developing children matched to the WS group for receptive language (LA), and 15 typically developing children…
W. Joel Schneider
Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.
Sato, Susumu; Demura, Shinichi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Kasuga, Kohsho; Kobayashi, Hidetsugu
Age and gender differences in ADL ability were investigated using 568 Japanese partially dependent older people (PD, Mean age=82.2±7.76 years) living in welfare institutions. The subjects were asked about 17 ADL items representing 7 ADL domains by the professional staff working at subjects' institutions. Each item was assessed by a dichotomous scale of “possible” or “impossible”. Item proportions of “possible” response were calculated for gender and age groups (60s, 70s, 80s and 90s). Two-way...
Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert
The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of…
McCallum, R. Steve; And Others
Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)
Taking the mechanism of technological construction guidance theory and mode which consists of "objective-construction-evaluation-construction-objective" as a starting point, on the basis of county agricultural technological innovation ability and its index definition, this paper researches the constructing system of county agricultural technological innovation ability. Firstly, on the basis of defining county agricultural technological innovation ability and the definition of index, according to the principle of purposefulness, scientificity, systematicness, integration of dynamic state and static state, integration of quantitativeness and qualitativeness and so on, we construct the multi-level measuring system of county agricultural technological innovation ability, including 4 first-level indices, namely technological innovation environment, technological innovation basis, technological innovation ability, and technological innovation efficiency; 15 second-level indices, such as technological policy, technological system mechanism, technological institution construction, ability of innovation subject, ability of industrial expansion, scale merit, technological contribution rate. Moreover, this system has 45 third-level indices. Then, by using unascertained mathematics method and AHM method, we establish the multi-level unascertained composite measuring model of county agricultural technological innovation ability index. Finally, by using the survey data of one county in Hebei Province, and the established county agricultural technological innovation ability index model, we get the county agricultural technological innovation ability index of 0.711 by calculation, that is, the innovation ability is at the intermediate level, namely the modern agricultural sub-stage. The empirical research proves the correctness and applicability of this model.
Angela E. John
Full Text Available Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic language abilities of 14 children with WS at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-minute play-session with their mothers (Time 1 and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2. Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity and expressive vocabulary ability were related to the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was expected within a social interaction. Finally, the ability to verbally contribute new information to a social interaction beyond what was required to answer a question and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity at age 4 years predicted the ability to verbally contribute new information beyond what was required to answer a question at age 9 – 12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed.
Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf
The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N=133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement. PMID:26637947
Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley
To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25989316
Full Text Available The evaluation of “Marketing planning” curriculum in higher vocational colleges should pay attention to planning ability of students which requires a set of scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability, however, there is less in-depth study in this field, especially the quantitative research. Scientific evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability should divide the elements of marketing planning ability reasonably, and should give them reasonable weight. Combined with document and the interview data, this paper will carry on the construction and analysis of the evaluation index system of marketing planning ability with Analytic Network Process (ANP, and use Super Decisions Software (SD to carry on the corresponding calculation and verification. Finally a set of more scientific and reasonable evaluation indicator system of marketing planning ability will be summed up.
Jennifer eZuk; Andrade, Paulo E.; Olga VCA Andrade; Martin Frederick Gardiner; Nadine eGaab
Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that prese...
Zuk, Jennifer; Andrade, Paulo E.; Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Gardiner, Martin; Gaab, Nadine
Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that prese...
Tsamis, Vasiliki J.; Rebok, George W.; Montague, David R.
While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between ...
Wenya eNan; Feng eWan; Mang I eVai; Agostinho eRosa
Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the tr...
The results of the present study demonstrate that reading habits influence reading ability greatly. Students, who have good reading habits such as guessing the meaning of the new words, looking for the topic sentences and key words, inference and prediction, will foster advanced reading ability. Moreover, teachers should pay more attention to help students to develop their good reading habits to improve the reading ability.
Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)
Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)
A.K.M. Aminul Islam; Nurina Anuar; Zahira Yaakob; Jaharah A. Ghani; Mohamad Osman
Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F 1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P 1 and P 2 were the best general combiner for most o...
Makris, Stergios; Urgesi, Cosimo
The ability to form anticipatory representations of ongoing actions is crucial for effective interactions in dynamic environments. In sports, elite athletes exhibit greater ability than novices in predicting other players’ actions, mainly based on reading their body kinematics. This superior perceptual ability has been associated with a modulation of visual and motor areas by visual and motor expertise. Here, we investigated the causative role of visual and motor action representations in exp...
In order to investigate the situation of political cognition and ability, the research group had surveyed some rural areas by the methods of questionnaires, literature review and case interviews. The data results showed that farmers had an independent ability of political judgment, but on the other hand the actual voting rate was very low. In a word, there is a long way to improve farmers'political cognition and ability.
Heikkila, V; Turkka, J; Korpelainen, J; Kallanranta, T; Summala, H
BACKGROUND—Driving is a complex form of activity involving especially cognitive and psychomotor functions. These functions may be impaired by Parkinson's disease. The relation between Parkinson's disease and driving ability is still obscure and clinicians have to make decisions concerning the driving ability of their patients based on insufficent information. Until now no studies have compared different methods for evaluating the driving ability of patients with Parkinson...
Yang Ruping; Qiu Shifeng
As the mode of college English teaching is gradually transformed from the teacher-centered into the student-centered teaching mode, the cultivation of college English autonomous learning ability has become increasingly important. This paper, starting from the theory of autonomous learning, makes an analysis of current situation of college English teaching and points out the necessity of this ability-cultivation for English learning. In the end, it puts forward several strategies of cultivating the ability of college English autonomous learning.
Ana Azevedo Martins; Ana Filipa Alves; Almeida, Leandro S.
Recent studies have shown contradictory evidence regarding cognitive abilities differentiation and organization in childhood. Cattell's investment theory postulated that during the early stages of life, the individual begins with a single and general ability (fluid intelligence), in which the relevance tends to decrease during adolescence, due to the appearance of differentiated abilities developed through the process of socialization and associated with the motivations, interests and experie...
The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...
Full Text Available The article presents contemporary studies of linguistic abilities in psychology. The different approaches to the linguistic abilities structure are discussed in relation to empirical results on peculiarities of the second language mastering. The special attention is paid to the cognitive determinants of linguistic abilities. So the empirical data concerning the interaction between language-aptitude test scores and different abilities, e.g. verbal intelligence and working memory, are analyzed in more details. In the conclusion the research perspectives in different cognitive processes which determine the efficiency of the second language mastery are discussed
Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....
Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...
te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i
McKee, Barbara G.; And Others
Approximately 290 deaf college freshmen participated in a study of the relationship between perceived and actual abilities in eight communication modes (including reading, writing, speech reading with and without sound, and reception of manual and simultaneous communication). Ss rated their abilities before and after a communication course. Actual…
A few studies have appeared in the literature suggesting that team learning might be an effective means for developing emotional intelligence (EI) abilities in the workplace. This study investigated the effects of attending a one-day emotional intelligence training session followed by participating in team-based learning on ability-based measures…
Crossan, Donna; Olson, David R.
A two-part experiment was conducted to determine if consistent, predictable differences exist in teacher encoding ability (composed of the ability to formulate messages containing the essential information, to anticipate information needs of the listener, and to modify or recode the message from listener feedback). Twenty-eight teacher-encoders…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an individual to be able to work during the week of unemployment claimed if the individual is able to work...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...
Crop variety effect on herbicide performance is not well characterized, particularly for sweet corn, a crop that varies greatly among hybrids in competitive ability with weeds. Field studies were used to determine the effect of crop competitive ability on season-long herbicide performance in sweet c...
Botting, Nicola; Adams, Catherine
Background: Semantic and inferencing abilities have not been fully examined in children with communication difficulties. Aims: To investigate the inferential and semantic abilities of children with communication difficulties using newly designed tasks. Methods & Procedures: Children with different types of communication disorder were compared with…
Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and…
Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J. M. C.; Miedema, H. A. T.; Broeders, I. A. J. M.
Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general…
Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Miedema, H.A.T.; Broeders, I.A.M.J.
Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spati
Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.
Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…
Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea
The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…
Tella, Adeyinka; Tella, Adedeji; Adika, L. O.; Toyobo, Majekodunmi Oluwole
Introduction: Pupils reasoning ability is a sine-qua-non to the evaluation of their performance in learning and an indicator of their potential predictors of future performance. Method: The study examined the relationship among demographic variables and reasoning ability of primary school pupils. It drew four hundred pupils from ten (10)…
Han Baoling; Luo Qingsheng
Graphic education should have full scope for developing and training students abilities of image thinking and innovatorythinking, and should integrate pedagogy with scientism, and should combine imparting knowledge with training capacity. This paper unites graphics science, engineering science with creative education, and introduce the graphic education methods and results based on training students abilities of thinking innovation and improving students qualities of engineering innovation.
With the development of the society, more and more people start to study English. Reading ability can help students to know the current events at present in the whole world. Here I will discus the methods of how to cultivate students＇ the reading ability in secondary school.
Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas
The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than with…
Goldhammer, Frank; Klein Entink, Rinke H.
The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying abilities, the predictive validities of two…
Luis Alberto Corona Martinez
Full Text Available This article includes a review aimed at strengthen the theoretical basis of medicine professors regarding the most important didactic aspects related with abilities and its acquisition in the teaching-learning process. In addition to the conceptual analysis, it is important to take into account many psychological and methodological elements that are indispensable to create and develop abilities.
张国民; 刘杰; 石耀霖
The scientific idea of earthquake prediction in China is introduced in this paper. The various problems on evaluation of earthquake prediction ability are analyzed. The practical effect of prediction on annual seismic risk areas in 1990～2000 in China is discussed based on R-value evaluation method, and the ability of present earthquake prediction in China is reviewed.
Richard Akresh; Emilie Bagby; Daien de Walque; Harounan Kazianga
Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this working paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. The analysis uses variations in rainfall experienced in utero or early childhood to measure ability. It finds that rainfall shocks experienced in utero have direct negative impacts on a child's education and increase labor hours compared with the child's siblings.
Presents a set of 22 sequentially structured statements on the nature and origin of human abilities, gifts, and talents. The statements are grouped into three sections: the nature of human abilities, individual differences and their origins, and the specific case of gifts and talents. (Author/CR)
Bethscheider, Janine K.
An experimental test battery designed to measure several perceptual abilities was administered to 1,368 (51.8% male) paying clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) in an effort to identify and measure three perceptual abilities: (1) flexibility of closure; (2) speed of closure; and (3) spatial scanning. Subjects, who ranged in…
English speaking ability is one of the most direct ways and standards to judge whether one ’s English is good or not. How to improve English speaking ability is always a heated topic among English learners. Many educators have examined that reading English aloud has been attested to be an effective method of learning English, especially improving English speaking abili-ty. This paper, through a questionnaire survey, is to analyze the relationship between students ’oral English outcome and their reading aloud, followed by the reasons why reading aloud affects English speaking ability, attempting to find out effective strate-gies to help English learners to improve their English speaking ability.
Kay, L; Avlund, K
Data concerning a random cohort of 1,119 70-year-old subjects were analyzed to evaluate the association between Upper Dyspepsia and Irritable Bowel Syndrome and functional ability. Seven hundred and thirty-four subjects were interviewed about abdominal symptoms and were visited at home by an...... occupational therapist who evaluated their functional ability. Among the survivors, 94% participated in a follow-up study five years later. Functional ability was registered on validated scales constructed for its measurement in a normal elderly population. It was found that both syndromes occurred more often...... among subjects with reduced functional ability. A significant association was found between the occurrence of Upper Dyspepsia and a reduction of mobility and lower limb function, and between reduced functional ability and Irritable Bowel Syndrome at the five-year follow-up. It is concluded that...
Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta
We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed. PMID:25603581
张风华; 谢礼立; 范立础
Cities′ ability reducing earthquake disasters is a complex system involving numerous factors, moreover the re-search on evaluating cities′ ability reducing earthquake disasters relates to multi-subject, such as earthquake sci-ence, social science, economical science and so on. In this paper, firstly, the conception of cities′ ability reducingearthquake disasters is presented, and the ability could be evaluated with three basic elements - the possible seis-mic casualty and economic loss during the future earthquakes that are likely to occur in the city and its surround-ings and time required for recovery after earthquake; based upon these three basic elements, a framework, whichconsists of six main components, for evaluating city′s ability reducing earthquake disasters is proposed; then thestatistical relations between the index system and the ratio of seismic casualty, the ratio of economic loss and re-covery time are gained utilizing the cities′ prediction results of earthquake disasters which were made during theninth five-year plan; at last, the method defining the comprehensive index of cities′ ability reducing earthquakedisasters is presented. Thus the relatively comprehensive theory frame is set up. The frame can evaluate cities′ability reducing earthquake disasters absolutely and quantitatively and consequently instruct the decision-makingon reducing cities′ earthquake disasters loss.
Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl;
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation may be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....
In modern society, good communicative ability is very important;it plays an important part in communication. But as college students, who enter into the society newly, their interpersonal range is expanded constantly;to a certain extent, there are some communication disorders which many students’worries in life and study are relevant to. So this text will analyze the poor communicative ability from internal and external factors. And then give several suggestions about how to cultivate the college stu⁃dents’communicative ability.
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.
Peterson, Rachel D; Klein, Jenny; Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly
The suppression of intrusive thoughts, which have been related significantly to depressive and anxious symptoms (Blumberg, 2000), has become an area of interest for those treating individuals with psychological disorders. The current study sought to extend the findings of Luciano, Algarabel, Tomas, and Martínez (2005), who developed the Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and found that scores on this measure were predictive of psychopathology. In particular, this study examined the relationship between scores on the TCAQ and the Personality Assessment Inventory. Findings suggested that individuals' perceived thought control ability correlated significantly with several dimensions of commonly-occurring psychological symptoms (e.g. anxiety) and more severe and persistent psychological symptoms (e.g. schizophrenia). Regression analyses also showed that perceived thought control ability predicted significantly a range of psychological symptoms over and above individuals' sex and perceived stress. Findings suggested that thought control ability may be an important future research area in psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:19235599
Argues that stage fright is a function of the speaker's perception that ability falls short of audience expectation. Discusses the implications of this theory for future investigations and interventions. (MS)
Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W
The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies. PMID:25896420
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158296.html Alzheimer's Can Steal Ability to Know Loved Ones' Faces ... often called one of the cruelest effects of Alzheimer's disease -- the patient's inability to recognize loved ones. ...
... html Tanning May Limit Skin's Ability to Produce Vitamin D: Study Even those with significant sun exposure can have low levels of this essential vitamin, research shows To use the sharing features on ...
J Gordon Millichap
Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.
The article discusses the key findings in recent research dealing narrative abilities in children with and without language implications. The implications of research findings for narrative assessment and intervention are discussed.
Can We Really Measure Problem Solving Ability? The answer to this question may depend on how we define problem solving ability. But, if we care about students' ability to solve novel textbook style problems, the answer to this question seems to be ``yes.'' In this talk I will discuss a pre-/post- instruction assessment that was recently developed to assess students' ability to solve fairly standard textbook style problems within the domains of Newton's second law, conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. The instrument is designed for large-scale use in typical university classrooms, has already been used in a variety of institutions and appears to be both valid and robust. Data collected with this instrument can help guide curricular improvements and provide important insights relevant to most departments for program review.
Zhou, Jie; Jiang, Yuhong; YAO, YUAN
The present mixed-method study aims to find out the status quo of critical thinking ability of university non-English majors by investigating 224 non-English majors from a university in China (105 male and 119 female students, 114 art and 110 science majors, 109 freshmen and 115 sophomores were included respectively) through questionnaires and interviews. Specifically, it compares critical thinking ability in English reading between students of different genders, majors as well as grades. The...
Elesandro Bornhofen; Giovani Benin; Gilvani Matei; Cristiano Lemes da Silva; Eduardo Beche; Eduardo Stefani Pagliosa; Thaís Raquel Hagemann; Cilas Pinnow
The objective of this study were to estimate the general ability and specific combining ability in ten wheat genotypes in two generations (F1 and F2) to indicate parents and hybrid combinations that are promising to achieve new favorable combinations. Ten wheat genotypes were hybridized in a complete diallel, without reciprocals, totaling 45 hybrid combinations. F1 hybrids and the F2 populations and parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates in spaced plant. The...
(CCL), Center for Creative Leadership
Active listening is a person's willingness and ability to hear and understand. At its core, active listening is a state of mind that involves paying full and careful attention to the other person, avoiding premature judgment, reflecting understanding, clarifying information, summarizing, and sharing. By learning and committing to the skills and behaviors of active listening, leaders can become more effective listeners and, over time, improve their ability to lead.
Gregory, Eileen; Staley, James T.
Manganese-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria were found to comprise a significant proportion of the bacterial community of Lake Washington (Seattle, Wash.) and Lake Virginia (Winter Park, Fla.). Identification of these freshwater bacteria showed that members of a variety of genera are capable of oxidizing manganese. Isolates maintained in the laboratory spontaneously lost the ability to oxidize manganese. A direct correlation was found between the presence of plasmid DNA and the ability of the ...
Reza Andam; Nooshin Benar; Mozhgan Aliabadi; Asieh Ghorbanian Rajabi; Ghorbanian A.; Kazem Danesh Sani
The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80). The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average ...
Communication is a very impomnt purpose in language learning.Today.with more information and more frequent international communication,as one of the ways of communication,Iistening ability becomes increasingly important.Therefore,how to improve listening skills is particularly important To master a foreign language,we must improve our listening level quickly.English teachers should teach students the methods and draw up a strategy accordingly as well as focus on cultivating and improving students'listening comprehension abilities.
Botting, N.; Adams, C.
Background: Semantic and inferencing abilities have not been fully examined in children with communication difficulties. Aims: To investigate the inferential and semantic abilities of children with communication difficulties using newly designed tasks. Methods & Procedures: Children with different types of communication disorder were compared with each other and with three groups of typically developing children: those of the same chronological age and two groups of younger children. ...
In  Yamauchi and Beer explored the abilities of continuous time recurrent neural networks (CTRNNs) to display reinforcement-learning like abilities. The investigated tasks were generation and learning of short bit sequences. This "learning'' came about without modifications of synaptic strengths, but simply from internal dynamics of the evolved networks. In this paper this approach will be extended to two embodied agent tasks, where simulated robots have acquire and retain "k...
Leeway incompatibilism is the view that (a) no one is morally responsible for what they do unless they could have done (or had the ability to do) something other than what they did and (b) the ability to do otherwise is incompatible with the obtaining of causal determinism. In this dissertation I attempt to defend the plausibility of leeway incompatibilism by investigating a variety of philosophical issues. I respond to arguments against leeway incompatibilism and develop accounts of certain ...
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equ...
Persson, Roland S.
Intellectually gifted individuals are increasingly seen as the problem solvers of the future who are to secure societal prosperity and welfare. However, little attention has been paid to the fact that there may exist cultural obstacles in promoting intellectual giftedness in any given culture when setting such educational targets. If certain abilities are not highly valued in a given culture, it seems unlikely that increasing an interest in education focused on excellence in these abilities w...
de Bruin, Natalie; Bryant, Devon C.; MacLean, Jessica N.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.
This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18–25 years) and older adults (60–82 years) to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualization abilities were assessed. The...
While reading in deaf children has been the object of a number of studies, the reading abilitiesof children with mild and moderate hearing impairment and their relation to cognitiveprocessing have not received very much attention. Predictive factors of reading ability inhearing children are well known, with phonological and working memory abilities beingnecessary prerequisites for reading development. Existing studies suggest, however, thatcertain hearing-impaired children achieve a reading l...
Ali Margir; Vahied Regie; Zakaria Surizehi; Nahid Tereh Eiduzehi
This research deals with studying effect of technology based abilities and its aspect on organizational innovation and evaluates the relationship between these 2 variables for better compatibility of service organizations with environment and society. In order to collect data upon determining validity and reliability, it was applied from technology ability questionnaire of Lal 2001 and organizational innovation questionnaire of Choupani et al 2012. Statistical universe of this research is all...
Suprabha B; Sudha.P; Vidya M
The importance of apical seal has always been stressed in endodontic therapy. Root canal sealers have been used along with gutta percha to enhance the seal. The apical sealing ability of AH26/silverfree, a modified version of AH26, a resin based sealer was compared with tubliseal, a zincoxide eugenol based sealer using methylene blue dye penetration method. AH26/silverfree showed superior sealing ability.
Avlund, K; Holstein, B E
The purpose is to assess the discriminatory power of the Avlund scales: (1) by assessing the ability of the scales to discriminate between three different populations of elderly people, and (2) by studying groups with a poor fit between use of formal home care and functional ability. The study...... memory abilities; they gave more help to others, had higher social participation, and lived alone (only the women). A somewhat lager group of poor functioning non-users of home care (n = 266) had the opposite characteristics. In addition, they were older, had a poor social network and poor social support....
Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins
Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.
Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections by a variety of pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during perinatal period. The susceptibility of neonates to bacterial infections has been attributed to immaturity of innate immunity. It is considered that one of the impaired mechanisms is the phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phagocytic ability of neonates at birth. Methods The phagocytic ability of neutrophils and monocytes of 42 neonates was determined using the Phagotest flow cytometry method, that assesses the intake of E. Coli by phagocytes, in cord blood and in peripheral blood 3 days after birth. Fifteen healthy adults were included in the study as controls. Results The phagocytic ability of neutrophils in the cord blood of neonates was significantly reduced compared to adults. The 3rd postnatal day the reduction of phagocytic ability of neutrophils was no longer significant compared to adults. The phagocytic ability of monocytes did not show any difference from that of adults either at birth or the 3rd postnatal day. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the intake of E. Coli by phagocytes is impaired at birth in both preterm and full term neonates compared to adults. This defect is transient, with the phagocytic ability in neonates reaching that of the adults 3 days after birth.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the
Lim Hooi Lian
Full Text Available Mathematics researchers generally agree that algebra is a tool for problem solving, a method of expressing relationship, analyzing and representing patterns, and exploring mathematical properties in a variety of problem situations. Thus, several mathematics researchers and educators have focused on investigating the introduction and the development of algebraic solving abilities. However research works on assessing students' algebraic solving ability is sparse in literature. The purpose of this study was to use the SOLO model as a theoretical framework for assessing Form Four students' algebraic solving abilities in using linear equation. The content domains incorporated in this framework were linear pattern (pictorial, direct variations, concepts of function and arithmetic sequence. This study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, students were given a pencil-and-paper test. The test comprised of eight superitems of four items each. Results were analyzed using a Partial Credit model. In the second phase, clinical interviews were conducted to seek the clarification of the students' algebraic solving processes. Results of the study indicated that 62% of the students have less than 50% probability of success at relational level. The majority of the students in this study could be classified into unistructural and multistructural. Generally, most of the students encountered difficulties in generalizing their arithmetic thinking through the use of algebraic symbols. The qualitative data analysis found that the high ability students seemed to be more able to seek the recurring linear pattern and identify the linear relationship between variables. They were able to co-ordinate all the information given in the question to form the algebraic expression and linear equations. Whereas, the low ability students showed an ability more on drawing and counting method. They lacked understanding of algebraic concepts to express the relationship
Listening is a life skill that is often developed during early childhood.it is one of the most important life skills that helps people become effective communicators for the rest of their lives.Listening ranks first among are the four basic skills that English learners in middle school should develop. The improvement of middle school students' listening ability is very helpful to the development of their abilities. However, the training of listening has not been placed in its proper position in traditional teaching for a long time and hence listening has long been a weak point. Many students think that listening is one of the most difficult things in English study. As the development of students' listening ability has become the demand of middle school's New English Curriculum Standard, nowadays the training of listening has drawn unprecedented attention than before. How to increase the students' ability in listening and how to improve students' listening comprehension in the examination has been the common concern of many English teachers'. this thesis tries to probe into middle school students' problems into listening and to seek solutions for these problems so as to improve their listening ability.
Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.
Silvina Cohen Imach
Full Text Available A series of studies of cognitive abilities were conducted on a group of children at a context of poverty, in reason of learning about the quality of such capabilities, and in direct relationship to low school performance and subsequent risk of academic underachievement. Fifty three 4th year EGB-2 (Elementary School children of both sexes participated. They attend a suburban school outside the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Tests of Analogies and Building with Cubes of Wechsler ́s Intelligence Scale III (WISCIII were used in the process. Additionally, a register protocol was prepared by the research team. Outcomes were articulated with a demographic poll inquiring on the social-economic context of the children. Results reveal a proportion of 18.9 % of the children showing below standard records in cognitive abilities related to the aptitude in forming verbal concepts, and of 13.2 % in non- verbal concepts. Verbal abilities refer to the faculty of classifying and categorizing, for which the subject needs to organize, abstract and find relationship between facts or ideas and the comprehension of oral/audio assignments. Non- verbal abilities submit to the aptitude of making processes of analysis- synthesis and applying non- verbal reasoning to spatial relationships. This group of children was selected to receive – in second stage- training in these abilities through the Instrumental Enrichment Program.
Full Text Available The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80. The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01. Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers. Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport. According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers under his management. At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.
The improvement of flow ability characteristics of uranium dioxide powder has been done using sol-gel process. To anticipate a pellet mass production with uniform pellet dimension, the uranium dioxide powder must be have a spherical form. Uranium dioxide spherical powder has been diluted in acid transformed into sol colloidal solution. To obtain uranium dioxide spherical form, the uranium sol-colloidal solution has been dropped in a hot paraffin ( at the temperature of 900C) to form gelatinous colloid and then dried at 8000C, and sintered at the temperature of 17000C. The flow ability of spherical uranium dioxide powder has been examined by using Flowmeter Hall (ASTM. B. 213-46T). The measurement result reveals that the spherical uranium dioxide powder has a flow ability twice than that of unprocessed uranium dioxide powder
Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from traditional made cheeses constitute a reservoir of unexplored potential in biotechnology. In this study four autochthonous lactobacilli strains, isolated from traditional white brined cheeses and identified as Lactobacillus paracasei (08, 564, 05 and 02, were investigated on potential probiotic ability. The investigation comprised sensitivity to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity against wide range of pathogens, antibiotic resistance as well as autoaggregation ability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was used as referent strain. Three tested strains grew well in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, but their sensitivity was greater on bile acids and pancreatin compared with pepsin low pH 2.5. The examined strains had different sensitivity to antibiotics, but three strains showed very good antimicrobial activity to pathogens. All strains demonstrated very good autoaggregation ability. For three of four examined strains of Lb. paracasei probiotic potential was similar with referent strain Lb. rhamnosus GG, determined in vitro
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pstudents (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066
Shiv Mohan Singh,
Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.
Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.
The biodegradated abilities of 13 edible fungi to straw were studied. The results showed that all the experimental fungi except Tricholama mongolicum had definite biodegradated abilities to the lignin and cellulose of straw. The Ideal fungus for straw degradation was screened out as Pleurotus ostreatus, which showed a higher degradation ability for lignin (17.86%) and lower degradation rate for cellulose (2.24%), with a Selection Factor (SF) of 7.97. The degradation rates of lignin and cellulose for other fungi ranged from 2.30% to 16.54% and 5.60% to 17.32%, respectively, and the SF was very low in range of 0.14 to 2.24.The ratio of colony's diameters to the color-zone (d1/d2) and SF are negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.1476.
Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability. PMID:27512260