Sample records for abies

  1. Conociendo a Aby Warburg

    Luis Eugenio Campos


    Full Text Available Aby Warburg es la oculta figura creadora de los estudios de iconología. Personaje indiscutido, ha sido retomado en los últimos años a partir de la reedición de sus obras y de numerosos estudios que posicionan su figura intelectual y los impactos que tuvo su método de aproximación a las imágenes, específicamente aquellos que hablaban del renacimiento del paganismo. Conceptos como pathosformeln, sobrevivencias de la antigüedad, accesorios en movimiento y el análisis histórico, psicológico y contextual de la producción cultural de las imágenes, son hoy característicos de una todavía novedosa manera de entender el estudio de la iconología.

  2. Cytotoxic terpenes from Abies sibirica

    Gui Rong Wang; Yong Li Li; Wei Dong Zhang; Xian Wen Yang; Wen Cong Liu; Ji Ye; Zhi Jun Zhu; Hong Chen


    One new and 16 known compounds were isolated from Abies sibirica.Their structures were assigned mainly on the basis ofNMR and MS spectroscopic data.In bioassay for anti-proliferative activity against four human tumor cells,compound 7 exhibitedselective anti-proliferative activity against COLO-205 rumor cell with an IC50 value of 0.9 μg/mL.

  3. Potential of AbiS as defence mechanism determined by conductivity measurement

    Holubová, Jitka; Josephsen, Jytte


    either AbiS1 or the restriction modification system LlaBIII was present. Conclusions: The earliest detection of growth was observed by measuring pH, rather than conductance. The plasmid-encoded AbiS system has a potential to be used as a phage resistance mechanisms in L. lactis during milk fermentations......Aim: To compare pH and conductivity used in the determination of growth in reconstituted skim milk (RSM), to determine whether the presence of one or two plasmids in Lactococcus lactis had any influence on growth, and whether AbiS improved bacteriophages resistance of L. lactis. Methods and Results...

  4. Fire Influences in Abies-Dominated Forests

    Furyaev, V.V.; Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A.


    Abies-dominated forests have a relatively low fire hazard when compared with vegetation types dominated by Pinus or Picea species. Although large quantities of fuel are present, the humid climate of Abies-dominated areas reduces the probability of fire. When fires occur after prolonged drought periods, fir can be essentially eliminated from an area because it is not resistant to fire. Abies spp. tend to be shade-tolerant, late successional species and only in the absence of fire do they compe...

  5. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.


    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript a

  6. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona


    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  7. Aby Warburg e il dramma barocco

    Claudia Cieri Via


    Full Text Available Analogies, contaminations and  assonances between certain aspects of the thought of Aby Warburg and Walter Benjamin are still at the center of the contemporary theoretical debate. In the absence of tangible and documented exchanges, the similarities between the two scholars can be found in the structure of their most original and significant works, the Atlas of Memory and the Passagen-Werk, and in the adoption of the fragment as a conceptual language. Of particular interest is the reflection on baroque which, for  both scholars, involves the relation with the ancient tragedy and the modern drama.

  8. Somatic Embryogenesis of Abies cephalonica Loud.

    Krajňáková, Jana; Häggman, Hely


    Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon) belongs to the Mediterranean fir species and is widely distributed in the mountains of Central and Southern Greece. Considering a climatic scenario, infestation by pathogens or insects and fire episodes, it has been proposed that Mediterranean firs could be in danger in some parts of their present range but, on the other hand, could also replace other species in more northern zones with temperate humid climates (e.g., silver fir, Abies alba Mill.). As fir species are generally highly productive and therefore important for commercial forestry, they have traditionally been involved in conventional tree improvement programs. A lot of effort has been put into the development of vegetative propagation methods for firs, in order to rapidly gain the benefits of traditional breeding to be utilized in reforestation. The present paper provides up to date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation) of Greek fir. Moreover, the protocols for cryopreservation and long-term storage of embryogenic material are described as well. PMID:26619877

  9. Comparison between oscillometric- and Doppler-ABI in elderly individuals

    Takahashi I


    Full Text Available Ikuno Takahashi,1,3 Kyoji Furukawa,2 Waka Ohishi,1 Tetsuya Takahashi,3 Masayasu Matsumoto,3 Saeko Fujiwara11Department of Clinical Studies, 2Department of Statistics, Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, JapanAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD generally remains under-recognized, mainly due to the specialized technical skills required to detect the low values of the ankle-brachial index (ABI. As a simpler and faster alternative to the standard method using continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound, we evaluated automated oscillometric ABI measurement by VP-2000 with an elderly cohort of 113 subjects (age range, 61 to 88 years. The standard deviation in ABIs measured by the Doppler method was statistically greater than that measured by the oscillometric method for each of the two legs (P < 0.001. Correlations in ABIs between the two methods were 0.46 for the left leg and 0.61 for the right leg; this result appears to have been caused by interobserver variation in the Doppler ABI measurements. While the trend showing greater differences between average oscillometric- and Doppler-ABIs was significant at the lower ABI ranges, there was little indication of differences in measurements having an average ABI > 1.1. The difference between the methods was suggestively larger in subjects who were smokers than in non-smokers (P = 0.09, but the difference was not affected by other potential atherosclerotic risk factors, including age at examination (P > 0.50. A larger difference at lower ABIs led to better PAD detection by the Doppler method compared to the oscillometric method (sensitivity = 50%, specificity = 100%, although the overall agreement was not small (Cohen's Kappa = 0.65. Our findings indicate that oscillometric devices can provide more accurate estimation of the prevalence of PAD in elderly individuals than the conventional Doppler

  10. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Allison R Kermode


    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct w...

  11. Discontinuity analysis affecting the 2006 ABI employee estimates

    Jon Gough


    Three changes to Annual Business Inquiry/1 were introduced to the 2006 survey which resulted in a discontinuity when comparing with previous years. This also affected Workforce Jobs (WFJ) estimates for employment as these fi gures are benchmarked against the ABI for certain sectors of the economy.An impact assessment to measure the discontinuity has been completed. The main proposal, for users requiringa consistent time series, is to amend the back series for ABI/1 onto the new method. This c...

  12. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

    Riggins Gregory J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3 function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. Methods The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP. We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. Results We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Conclusions Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized.

  13. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

    Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3) function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP). We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized

  14. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun


    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  15. Aby M. Warburg a Vincenc Kramář

    Konečný, Lubomír


    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2003), s. 421-422. ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8033913 Keywords : Aby M. Warburg * Vincenc Kramář * art history Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo


    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:26564029

  17. The complete plastid genome sequence of Abies koreana (Pinaceae: Abietoideae).

    Yi, Dong-Keun; Yang, Jong Cheol; So, Soonku; Joo, Minjung; Kim, Dong-Kap; Shin, Chang Ho; Lee, You-Mi; Choi, Kyung


    The nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from Abies koreana is the first to have complete genome sequence from genus Abies of family Pinaceae. The circular double-stranded DNA, which consists of 121,373 base pairs (bp), contains a pair of very short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) of 264 bp each, which are separated by a small and large single-copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 54,197 and 66,648 bp, respectively. The genome contents of 114 genes (68 peptide-encoding genes, 35 tRNA genes, four rRNA genes, six open reading frames and one pseudogene) are similar to the chloroplast DNA of other species of Abietoideae. Loss of ndh genes was also identified in the genome of A. koreana like other genomes in the family Pinaceae. Thirteen genes contain one (11 genes) or two (rps12 and ycf3 genes) introns. In phylogenetic analysis, the tree confirms that Abies, Keteleeria and Cedrus are strongly supported as monophyletic. Other inverted repeat sequences located in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp) include trnS-psaM-ycf12- ψtrnG genes. PMID:25812052

  18. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita


    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. PMID:27457990

  19. ABI3 controls embryo degreening through Mendel's I locus.

    Delmas, Frédéric; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Deb, Srijani; Widdup, Ellen; Bournonville, Céline; Bollier, Norbert; Northey, Julian G B; McCourt, Peter; Samuel, Marcus A


    Chlorophyll (chl) is essential for light capture and is the starting point that provides the energy for photosynthesis and thus plant growth. Obviously, for this reason, retention of the green chlorophyll pigment is considered a desirable crop trait. However, the presence of chlorophyll in mature seeds can be an undesirable trait that can affect seed maturation, seed oil quality, and meal quality. Occurrence of mature green seeds in oil crops such as canola and soybean due to unfavorable weather conditions during seed maturity is known to cause severe losses in revenue. One recently identified candidate that controls the chlorophyll degradation machinery is the stay-green gene, SGR1 that was mapped to Mendel's I locus responsible for cotyledon color (yellow versus green) in peas. A defect in SGR1 leads to leaf stay-green phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice, but the role of SGR1 in seed degreening and the signaling machinery that converges on SGR1 have remained elusive. To decipher the gene regulatory network that controls degreening in Arabidopsis, we have used an embryo stay-green mutant to demonstrate that embryo degreening is achieved by the SGR family and that this whole process is regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3); a B3 domain transcription factor that has a highly conserved and essential role in seed maturation, conferring desiccation tolerance. Misexpression of ABI3 was sufficient to rescue cold-induced green seed phenotype in Arabidopsis. This finding reveals a mechanistic role for ABI3 during seed degreening and thus targeting of this pathway could provide a solution to the green seed problem in various oil-seed crops. PMID:24043799

  20. Henri Frankfort, Aby Warburg and “Mythopoeic Thought”

    Paul Taylor


    Full Text Available This is the text of a lunchtime lecture given at the Warburg Institute in the spring of 2004. It formed part of a series concerned with past Warburg scholars, and was devoted to the work of Henri Frankfort, Director of the Institute from 1949 to 1954. The first third of the lecture was a rapid account of his career; the remainder of the lecture was an analysis and criticism of the concept of ‘primitive thinking’ in the work of Frankfort and Aby Warburg.

  1. Aby Warburg, Images and Exhibitions. Aby Warburg, Bilderreihen und Ausstellungen edited by Uwe Fleckner and Isabelle Woldt, Akademie Verlag, 2012

    Matthew Rampley


    Full Text Available This article reviews the latest volume in the collected works of Aby Warburg published by Akademie Verlag. The volume consists of exhibitions and plates of images Warburg compiled to illustrate lectures in the period between 1925-1929. The review focuses on two key issues raised by the publication: the light it casts on the Mnemosyne Atlas Warburg was working on at the same time, and, in particular, how it helps shape perceptions of the broader intellectual direction of Warburg's thinking in the final half decade of his life.

  2. The variability of hybrid progenies within the Abies genus

    Sixteen-year-old progenies from intra- and interspecific crossing within the genus Abies are subjected to evaluation. The studied set includes the progenies of Abies alba from intraspecific crossing, progenies of the A. alba .times. A. cicilica and A. alba .times. A. nordmanniana crosses, and the control progeny of A. alba after open pollination, the progeny of A. nordmanniana after self-pollination and progenies of A. cephalonica from intraspecific crossing, including the progenies after self-pollination. In some progenies (A. alba, A. cephalonica) the pollen used for the crossing had been irradiated with different doses of gamma-radiation. All the progenies of all fir species after intraspecific as well as interspecific crossing are better than the progeny of A. alba from open pollination. The best results are obtained in the progenies of A. cephalonica, besides the progenies from self-pollination. Of the interspecific hybrids, better results are obtained in the progenies of the A. alba .times. .times. A. cilicica cross than in those of the A. alba .times. A. nordmanniana cross, which was worse than the progeny of A. nordmanniana. However, the last-mentioned progeny does not suffer from frost at all

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Abies nephrolepis (Pinaceae: Abietoideae

    Dong-Keun Yi


    Full Text Available The plant chloroplast (cp genome has maintained a relatively conserved structure and gene content throughout evolution. Cp genome sequences have been used widely for resolving evolutionary and phylogenetic issues at various taxonomic levels of plants. Here, we report the complete cp genome of Abies nephrolepis. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is 121,336 base pairs (bp in length including a pair of short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb of 139 bp each separated by a small single copy (SSC region of 54,323 bp (SSC and a large single copy region of 66,735 bp (LSC. It contains 114 genes, 68 of which are protein coding genes, 35 tRNA and four rRNA genes, six open reading frames, and one pseudogene. Seventeen repeat units and 64 simple sequence repeats (SSR have been detected in A. nephrolepis cp genome. Large IR sequences locate in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp. The A. nephrolepis cp genome is identical to Abies koreana’s which is closely related to taxa. Pairwise comparison between two cp genomes revealed 140 polymorphic sites in each. Complete cp genome sequence of A. nephrolepis has a significant potential to provide information on the evolutionary pattern of Abietoideae and valuable data for development of DNA markers for easy identification and classification.

  4. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David


    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  5. Composition of essential oils from seeds of Abies koreana.

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnik, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczak, Piotr


    The essential oils from seeds of nine Abies koreana specimens have been studied using GC-MS-FID and NMR methods, leading to the determination of 96 volatiles, which constituted over 99% of the oils. The hydrodistilled oils of fresh, resinous scent were isolated with yields in the range of 3.8-8.5%. The results showed that the essential oil of Korean fir seeds contained 70-95% monoterpenes and 1-20% oxygenated monoterpenes as the dominant groups. The numerous sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives constituted only 2-8% of the oil. The major component of the seed essential oil was limonene (41-72 g/100g); the laevorotary form of this terpene predominated. A. koreana seeds seem to be a rich source of both essential oil and (-)-limonene, whose average enantiomeric excess was above 95%. PMID:23513736

  6. [The psychiatric treatment of Aby Warburg: a historical case report].

    Theiss-Abendroth, P


    Aby Warburg, one of the leading German intellectuals in the early 20 (th) century, developed a severe psychosis towards the end of WW I. Given up as incurable, he managed to recover after 6 years most of which he spent in three different mental hospitals. Although his treatment involved some of the best known psychiatrists of that time, it was later criticized as old-fashioned. As major parts of Warburg's case history have recently been published they now enable us to reconstruct and evaluate his treatment within the context of clinical concepts and methods available in the early 1920's. Apparently German-speaking psychiatry back then held no sufficient tools to adequately consider psychological factors both in the etiology and therapeutic response for Warburg's case. Instead his own scientific work played a crucial role in the "restoration of reason". PMID:20091457

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen


    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  8. Die Variabilität des Ankle-Brachial-Index (ABI)

    Groh, Sabine


    Die Reliabilität des Knöchel- Arm- Index (Ankle- Brachial- Index, ABI) unter den Bedingungen der täglichen Praxis war bislang noch unklar. Das Ziel dieser Studie war eine genaue Einschätzung aller Faktoren, die die Variabilität des ABI beeinflussen. Drei Untersuchergruppen mit unterschiedlicher Qualifikation führten Messungen durch. Um die Reliabilität zu beurteilen, wurden die Intra- Observer- Variabilität, die Inter- Observer- Variabilität sowie die wahre Differenz des ABI zwisc...

  9. Portugal palus ELilt abi põlengutega võitlemiseks / Kajar Kase

    Kase, Kajar


    Sellel aastal on Portugali metsatulekahjudes hukkunud juba 15 inimest ja hetkel on kahjustatud 140 000 hektarit metsa. Appi on tõtanud Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa, Itaalia, Hispaania ja Hollandi helikopterid ja lennukid. Kaart: Abi Portugalile

  10. Expression of Abelson interactor 1 (Abi1 correlates with inflammation, KRAS mutation and adenomatous change during colonic carcinogenesis.

    Konrad Steinestel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abelson interactor 1 (Abi1 is an important regulator of actin dynamics during cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, our aim was to investigate the expression of Abi1 in colonic mucosa with and without inflammation, colonic polyps, colorectal carcinomas (CRC and metastases as well as in CRC cell lines with respect to BRAF/KRAS mutation status and to find out whether introduction of KRAS mutation or stimulation with TNFalpha enhances Abi1 protein expression in CRC cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We immunohistochemically analyzed Abi1 protein expression in 126 tissue specimens from 95 patients and in 5 colorectal carcinoma cell lines with different mutation status by western immunoblotting. We found that Abi1 expression correlated positively with KRAS, but not BRAF mutation status in the examined tissue samples. Furthermore, Abi1 is overexpressed in inflammatory mucosa, sessile serrated polyps and adenomas, tubular adenomas, invasive CRC and CRC metastasis when compared to healthy mucosa and BRAF-mutated as well as KRAS wild-type hyperplastic polyps. Abi1 expression in carcinoma was independent of microsatellite stability of the tumor. Abi1 protein expression correlated with KRAS mutation in the analyzed CRC cell lines, and upregulation of Abi1 could be induced by TNFalpha treatment as well as transfection of wild-type CRC cells with mutant KRAS. The overexpression of Abi1 could be abolished by treatment with the PI3K-inhibitor Wortmannin after KRAS transfection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a role for Abi1 as a downstream target of inflammatory response and adenomatous change as well as oncogenic KRAS mutation via PI3K, but not BRAF activation. Furthermore, they highlight a possible role for Abi1 as a marker for early KRAS mutation in hyperplastic polyps. Since the protein is a key player in actin dynamics, our data encourages further studies concerning the exact role of Abi1 in actin reorganization upon

  11. Future ofAbies pindrow in Swat district, northern Pakistan

    Kishwar Ali; Habib Ahmad; Nasrullah Khan; Stephen Jury


    Swat district is a biodiversity hub of Pakistan. The plant species, especially trees, in the Swat District are exposed to extinction threat from global climate change. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modelling of species distribution, using HADCM3 A2a global climate change scenario, pre-dicted a considerable change in the future distribution ofAbies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle. AUC (area under the curve)values of 0.972 and 0.983 were significant for the present and future distribution models of the species, respectively. It is clear that bioclimatic variables such as the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (bio_10) and the annual temperature range (bio_7) contribute significantly to the model and thus affect the predicted distribution and density of the species. The future model predicts that by the year 2080 population density will have decreased significantly. The highest density of the species is recorded in the eastern and western borders of the Valley in the areas of Sulatanr and Mankial. The changes in density and distribution of the species can have considerable impact, not only on the tree species itself, but on the associated subflora as well.

  12. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean


    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  13. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Venche Talgø


    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  14. Plastic responses of Abies pinsapo xylogenesis to drought and competition.

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio; Carreira, José Antonio


    Radial growth and xylogenesis were studied to investigate the influence of climate variability and intraspecific competition on secondary growth in Abies pinsapo Boiss., a relic Mediterranean fir. We monitored the responses to three thinning treatments (unthinned control -C-, 30% -T30- and 60% -T60- of basal area removed) to test the hypothesis that they may improve the adaptation capacity of tree growth to climatic stress. We also assessed whether xylogenesis was differentially affected by tree-to-tree competition. Secondary growth was assessed using manual band dendrometers from 2005 to 2007. In 2006, xylogenesis (phases of tracheid formation) was also investigated by taking microcores and performing histological analyses. Seasonal dynamics of radial increment were modeled using Gompertz functions and correlations with microclimate and radiation were performed. Histological analyses revealed it as fundamental to calibrate the dendrometer estimates of radial increment and to establish the actual onset and end dates of tracheid production. The lower radial-increment rates and number of produced tracheids were observed in the trees subjected to high competition in the unthinned plots. The growing season differed among the plots, and its duration ranged from an average of 78 days in unthinned plots to 115 days in thinned ones (T60). Variations in the beginning of the growing season (13 April to 22 May) and earlywood-latewood transition (early August) were mainly determined by the temperature pattern, while the onset and the end of the growing season were related to both annual precipitation and tree-to-tree competition. The tracheid-formation phases of radial enlargement and cell-wall thickening showed similar patterns in the trees from thinned and unthinned plots subjected to low and high competition, respectively, but the mean number of tracheids in each phase was always higher in the trees from the thinned plots. The reduction of competition through thinning

  15. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    O Parkash


    Full Text Available Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o. and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  16. Ecological environment analysis of Abies holophylla plantations under different cutting systems


    Different types of plantations were observed in Baishilazi National Nature Reserve, Liaoning Province,for 34 a. The environmental quality of Abies holophylla plantations was analyzed under different cutting systems.Analysis factors included soil erosion rate, humification degree of litters, and water hold capacity. The surface soil loss of clear cutting area was 19 000 t·km-2·a-1 more than that of selective cutting area. The content of soil organic matter in board-leaved-Abies holophylla forest was 4.62% more than that in pure stand, and the water hold capacity of the mixed forest was 1.43 time of that of pure stand. The mixed forest of board-leaved--Abies holophylla by selective cutting can upgrade the ecological environment quality.

  17. Differential regulation of macropinocytosis by Abi1/Hssh3bp1 isoforms.

    Patrycja M Dubielecka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macropinocytosis, which is a constitutive cellular process of fluid and macromolecule uptake, is regulated by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements near the plasma membrane. Activation of Rac1, which is proposed to act upstream of the actin polymerization regulatory Wave 2 complex, has been found to correlate with enhanced macropinocytosis. One of the components of the Wave 2 complex is Abi1. Multiple, alternatively spliced isoforms of Abi1 are expressed in mammalian cells, but the functional significance of the various isoforms is unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using flow cytometric assay analysis for Alexa Fluor 647, we demonstrate that Abi1 isoforms 2 and 3 differentially regulate macropinocytosis. LNCaP cells expressing isoform 3 had increased macropinocytic uptake that correlated with enhanced cell spreading and higher Rac1 activation in comparison to cells expressing isoform 2. Isoform 2 expressing cells had decreased macropinocytic uptake, but demonstrated greater sensitivity to Rac1 activation. Moreover, more isoform 2 was localized within the cytoplasm in comparison to isoform 3, which was more associated with the plasma membrane. Activated Rac1 was found to specifically bind to a site in exon 10 of isoform 2 in vitro. Because of alternative mRNA splicing, exon 10 is absent from isoform 3, precluding similar binding of activated Rac1. Both isoforms, however, bound to inactive Rac1 through the same non-exon 10 site. Thus, Abi1 isoform 3-containing Wave 2 complex exhibited a differential binding to activated vs. inactive Rac1, whereas isoform 2-containing Wave 2 complex bound activated or inactive Rac1 comparably. CONCLUSION: Based on these observations, we postulate that Abi1 isoforms differentially regulate macropinocytosis as a consequence of their different relative affinities for activated Rac1 in Wave 2 complex. These findings also raise the possibility that isoform-specific roles occur in other Abi1 functions.

  18. Estructura del bosque y arquitectura de brinzales de Abies religiosa en Tlaxco, Tlaxcala.

    Bautista Sampayo, Carolina


    Se realizó un estudio de estructura y arquitectura de brinzales en bosques de Abies religiosa y Pinus patula en la región de Tlaxco, Tlaxcala. La estructura fue enfocada a la composición de especies y distribución diamétrica en dos localidades de Abies religiosa con historias de manejo contrastantes en términos de aprovechamientos comerciales. San José el Manantial (SJM) está sujeto a Manejo Forestal persistente a través de cortas de selección; mientras que el área estudiada en el Ejido de Ma...

  19. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon


    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13...

  20. Análisis estructural y de diversidad en los bosques de Abies de Jalisco, México Structural and diversity analysis of Abies forests from Jalisco, Mexico

    Ramón Cuevas-Guzmán


    Full Text Available En 24 parcelas de 0.1 ha, distribuidas en 5 áreas del estado de Jalisco, se determinaron la estructura, composición florística y diversidad de los bosques de Abies, y sus atributos fueron comparados entre áreas. Se registraron 64 especies, 47 géneros y 35 familias. Asteraceae, Pinaceae y Fagaceae y los géneros Quercus, Pinus y Abies fueron los más ricos en especies. El 56% de los individuos tuvo alturas entre 2 y 14 m; las mayores se presentaron en Abies religiosa var. emarginata, A. guatemalensis var. jaliscana, Quercus xalapensis y A. religiosa var. religiosa. Los mayores valores de densidad, área basal, frecuencia y valor de importancia fueron para A. religiosa var. emarginata, A. religiosa var. religiosa, Pinus pseudostrobus y Podocarpus matudae. Los individuos de las especies presentaron una distribución diamétrica en forma de "J" invertida en las 5 zonas estudiadas, mientras que la riqueza y la diversidad de especies no mostraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre las áreas. La similitud promedio entre las parcelas de las 5 áreas mostró diferencias estadísticas significativas para 4 de ellas. Aunque muy diferentes en su composición florística, los bosques de Abies de Jalisco resultaron similares en riqueza, diversidad y estructura. En las 5 áreas, las comunidades mostraron buena capacidad de recuperación pues en todos los estratos se presentaron individuos altos y árboles emergentes.Structure, floristic composition and diversity in Abies forests were determined in twenty-four 0.1 ha plots in 5 areas in Jalisco State. The resulting attributes were compared between areas. Sixty four species, 47 genera and 35 families were recorded. The families Asteraceae, Pinaceae and Fagaceae, as well as the genera Quercus, Pinus and Abies had the highest species richness. More than half (56% of the individuals had a height ranging between 2 and 14 m, with Abies religiosavar. emarginata, A. guatemalensis var. jaliscana

  1. Reconstruction of crown length of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, establishment of sample methods and application in forest growth analysis

    Spathelf, Peter


    Évolution en hauteur des houppiers d'épicéa (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) et de sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, mise en œuvre de méthodes d'échantillonnage, application à l'analyse de la croissance des forêts. On a utilisé une technique permettant de dater la mortalité des branches pour estimer la régression par le bas des houppiers de l'épicéa et du sapin pectiné, dans des placettes temporaires installées dans des forêts mélangées et inéquiennes de la Forêt Noire (Allemagne). Les r...

  2. Pakistan vajab abi - kas maailma tõesti ei huvita? / Urmas Jaagant

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-


    Pakistan saab igal aastal suurt rahvusvahelist abi. Mitmed riigid on üleujutustes Pakistani toetanud nüüdki kümnete miljonite dollaritega, kuid riikide tahe annetada on erinev, sest mitte iga abidollarit ei suunata Pakistanis sinna, kus seda tegelikult vajatakse

  3. Norway spruce (Picea abies) genetic transformation with modified Cry3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Vlasák, Josef; Niedermeierová, Hana


    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2013), s. 395-400. ISSN 0001-527X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290; GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/11/1471 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cry3A gene modification * Picea abies * Agrobacterium tumefaciens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2013

  4. Produktvergleich zwischen EBSCO Business Source Premier und ABI/Inform ProQuest

    Katzmayr, Michael; Putz, Michaela; Fessler, Georg


    This report outlines a comparison between the two aggregators ABI/Inform ProQuest and EBSCO Business Source Premier. Additionally to an evaluation of the database coverage, the fields indexing, usability and use were considered. Moreover, a user survey and a consulting of experts were conducted.

  5. Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio


    Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs. PMID:21937669

  6. Oxidative stability of cnicken thigh meat after treatment of abies alba essential oil

    Adriana Pavelková


    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the Abies alba essential oil in two different concentrations on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass which were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.10% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.20% v/w. The Abies alba essential oil was applicate on ground chicken things and immediately after dipping, each sample was packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and storage in refrigerate at 4 ±0.5 °C. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value expressed in number of malondialdehyde was measured in the process of first storage day of 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day after slaughtering and expressed on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample. The treatments of chicken things with Abies alba essential oil show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group (0.4380 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.124, A2 (0.086, A3 (0.082 and A4 (0.077 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with Abies alba essential oil positively influenced on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh

  7. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    Ehrlich S Dusko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abortive infection (Abi mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage. Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation.

  8. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2.

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio


    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  9. Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Schmitt, Uwe Schmitt; Koch, Gerald;


    The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV-microspectrophotome......The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV...

  10. Insect assemblages in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stumps in the Eastern Sudetes

    Skrzecz, Iwona; Bulka, Maria


    The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of insect assemblages colonising stumps of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in mountain conditions. Investigations were carried out in the Eastern Sudetes (south –western Poland) in forest stands situated at 600– 700 m above sea level. The observations were conducted on stumps left behind after felling 70– 90 years old Norway spruces. The analysed stumps were colonised by insects from 21 families of 3 orders: Coleopt...

  11. Use of extract of bark of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for preparing of beekeeping products

    Martinc, Nina


    The purpose of our thesis was to gain new honey analogous beekeeping product by feeding the bees with fir bark extracts (Abies alba Mill.) and to assess the suitability of the product as honey in addition to daily human consumption. In this regard, we first had to determine the appropriate concentration of the extract, by testing which concentrations would the bees prefere. After finding out an appropriate concentration, we prepared large quantities of solutions and fed...

  12. A Molecular Fraction Collecting Tool for the ABI 310 Automated Sequencer

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Rich, Roy G.; Shipley, Royce F.; Hafez, Michael J.; Tseng, Li-Hui; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Eshleman, James R.


    Several methods exist to retrieve and purify DNA fragments after agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for subsequent analyses. However, molecules present in low concentration and molecules similar in size to their neighbors are difficult to purify. Capillary electrophoresis has become popular in molecular diagnostic laboratories because of its automation, excellent resolution, and high sensitivity. In the current study, the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer was reconfigured into a fract...

  13. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies.

    Vanessa Reininger

    Full Text Available Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE. Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1.PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the 'edgeR glm approach' and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed.The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were 'metabolism', 'transport' and 'cell rescue, defense and virulence'. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis.In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction.

  14. Antifungal properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling homogenates

    Grzegorz Kozłowski; Jean P. Métraux


    The presence of antimicrobials in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon homogenates of Norway spruce was studied using in vitro assays with soil-borne pathogens. For the studies presented here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as a typical host and forest tree and Pythium as a typical soil-bome pathogen were used. The highly virulent species Pythium ultimum and the less virulent species Pythium irregulare were chosen for all experiments. They are both the causal agents of damping-off disease, w...

  15. A homeobox gene with potential developmental control function in the meristem of the conifer Picea abies

    Sundås-Larsson, A.; Svenson, M; H. Liao; Engström, P


    Many homeobox genes control essential developmental processes in animals and plants. In this report, we describe the first cDNA corresponding to a homeobox gene isolated from a gymnosperm, the HBK1 gene from the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce). The sequence shows distinct similarities specifically to the KNOX (knotted-like homeobox) class of homeobox genes known from different angiosperm plants. The deduced amino acid sequence of HBK1 is strikingly similar within the homeodomai...

  16. Abies – Circum-Mediterranean firs in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats

    Caudullo, Giovanni; Tinner, Willy


    Most European firs occur predominantly in small to medium-sized populations in the Mediterranean region, sometimes with fragmented and limited distributions, except for silver fir (Abies alba). They all are genetically closely related and can easily hybridise, perhaps as a consequence of late speciation during the late Quaternary. Circum-Mediterranean firs occur principally in mountain areas with medium to high precipitations rates which are mostly concentrated during the winter period. The s...

  17. Alteration of Water Absorption Coefficient of Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) due to Thermal Modification

    Alexander Pfriem


    The aim of the investigations was to evaluate the infl uence of a thermal modifi cation on the water absorption behaviour of spruce (Picea abies(L.) Karst.). After recording the water uptake of wood samples by partial immersion, a water absorption coefficient of the material could be determined according to EN ISO 15148:2002. The thermal modification results in an alteration of the water absorption behaviour in dependence on the sectional area. In radial and tangential direction the water abs...

  18. Oxidative stability of cnicken thigh meat after treatment of abies alba essential oil

    Adriana Pavelková; Marek Bobko; Peter Haščík; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Tkáčová


    In the present work, the effect of the Abies alba essential oil in two different concentrations on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and c...

  19. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao


    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  20. Genetic Variation among 11 Abies concolor Populations Based on Allozyme Analysis

    Zhang Jin-feng; Li Hui; Dong Jian-sheng; Wang Jun-hui


    In order to obtain information on the genetic structure of Abies concolor and the genetic variation among 11 populations introduced from America to China, allozyme analysis based on starch gel electrophoresis technology was used. 24 loci of 10allozyme systems were mensurated, and the genetic structure and genetic diversity of the 11 populations of A. concolor evaluated.The results show that the genetic variation among is significant, and the genetic variation within A. concolor populations is more important. In contrast with other conifers, the variation of A. concolor is above the average level of conifers, and higher than the same level ofAbies. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 62.5%, the number of alleles per locus (A) 2.08, the number of effective alleles per locus (Ae) was 1.37, the expected heterozygosity (H) 0.204, and the Shannon information index (I) 0.351 7. There is a short genetic distance (D=0.061) and a low gene flow (Nm=0.839 4) among the 11 introduced populations of A. concolor with high genetic variation. The genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) was 0.229 5, which is higher than that of the mean in Abies or Pinus.

  1. An SK3 channel/nWASP/Abi-1 complex is involved in early neurogenesis.

    Stefan Liebau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs. Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins.

  2. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    Finkelstein, Ruth R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  3. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar


    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  4. Early testing of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies

    Long-term climate changes have been evident in the past. In the future an increase in the rate of climate change is predicted owing to man-made emissions. Studies of adaptedness to different climatic conditions are of great importance for the design of appropriate breeding and gene conservation programmes. This thesis presents studies of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies and explores the possibilities of utilising differences in adaptedness to obtain juvenile-mature (J-M) correlations strong enough for efficient early testing. Offspring from clones in two Swedish Pinus sylvestris seed orchards and one Picea abies seed orchard were grown in growth chambers for one and two growth periods respectively. Two temperature regimes and two irrigation regimes were applied in a factorial design. Both species expressed high phenotypic plasticity and additive variance for height growth and biomass traits. This implies that these populations should be able to adapt both to short-term and to long-term climate changes. Genotype by environment (GxE) interaction indicated strong differences in adaptedness to temperature and low differences in adaptedness to water availability. Parent rank changes between treatments indicated that climate change could seriously alter the ranking of clones in breeding populations and thus decrease the genetic gain obtained in previous selections. Differences in stability among parents suggested that culling of unstable genotypes could be a way to reduce the negative effects of GxE interaction. Genetic correlations between growth chamber and 14-30 year old field progeny trials with the same parents were mainly weak for both species. The correlations were improved by the drought treatment in the Picea abies experiment suggesting that further development of early testing methods for this species should include treatments with limiting water availability

  5. Germination capacity of Picea abies L. seeds from different proveniences after gamma-rays application

    Seeds of Picea abies L. and Picea jesoensis from different locations were irradiated with gamma-rays (doses of 3,6,9,12,40,80,120 and 160 Gy). Seeds irradiated with 9 Gy had the best germination capacity (89.7%) from among all doses. A stimulation effect of the irradiation dose 9 Gy was found in seeds from location Zvolen (Slovak Republic) (L3) and the irradiation dose 12 Gy in seeds of Picea jesoensis (location Kamcatka (Siberia, Russia)). Irradiation with a dose of 40 Gy reduced the germination capacity by about 24%. A dose of 160 Gy drastically decreased germination of seeds to 1.1%

  6. Late Quaternary expansion of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Europe according to pollen data

    Latałowa, Małgorzata; van der Knaap, W. O.


    Lateglacial and Holocene expansion of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Europe is reconstructed in steps of 1000 radiocarbon years on the basis of pollen data collected from literature and databases. Pollen thresholds for the Lateglacial of 0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% and for the Holocene of 2% were used. Spruce-pollen representation and limitations of pollen data are discussed. We assume that the 2% threshold tracks the advance of the main spruce front but might fail to detect small populations or those present in low density. The history of spruce expansion was distinctly different in northern and southern parts of its range: In NE Europe spruce expanded during the Allerød, reaching southwards to N Byelorussia. During the Younger Dryas spruce populations contracted north of ca 60°N, but expanded strongly in the region approximately 53-60°N, 23-32°E where they declined at the beginning of the Holocene. We infer that the Lateglacial expansion in NE Europe concerned mainly P. abies subsp. obovata. Holocene expansion in N Europe concerned mainly P. abies subsp. abies; southward expansion within the northern range is continuing to the recent millennium. In central Europe spruce expanded vigorously during the Allerød, contracted or stagnated during the Younger Dryas, and then strongly re-expanded during the Preboreal, following the simple expectation that climatic warming had a positive impact on its development. Holocene westward and northward expansion of spruce in its southern range (central Europe) was rapid 10-8 ka 14C BP, very slow 8-6 ka 14C BP, and rapid 6-5 ka 14C BP, when the present-day western limits were reached. The 2% spruce-pollen threshold is too high to detect the fact that the northern and southern ranges of spruce have joined in the Holocene. The persistence of low spruce abundance in the transitional area is explained mainly by the strong anthropogenic deforestation ever since spruce grew there.

  7. Cytokinin profiles in the conifer tree Abies nordmanniana

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens;


    Abstract  Conifer trees are routinely manipulated hormonally to increase flowering, branching, or adjust crown shape for production purposes. This survey of internal cytokinin levels provides a background for such treatments in Abies nordmanniana, a tree of great economic interest. Reference points...... uppermost stem tissues leading to subsequent accumulation or stimulated production within the buds. Strong differential hormonal profiles between adjacent buds with different fates agree with recent evidence of localized cytokinin production. The data suggest a reduced role of root-derived cytokinins in...

  8. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz


    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from f...

  9. The afterlife of antiquity and modern art: Aby Warburg on Manet

    Dimitrios Latsis


    Full Text Available Aby Warburg’s manuscript on Édouard Manet – unpublished during his lifetime and presented here for the first time in English – constitutes one of his rare, substantial commentaries on nineteenth century art. Using “Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe” as a departure point, Warburg proceeds from his customary meticulous investigation of the central motif’s “visual archeology,” to a larger reflection on the evolution of the representation of nature in art and the image of antiquity that modernity has created for itself.

  10. Effects of irrigation, fertilization and drought on the occurrence of Lophodermium piceae in Picea abies needles

    Lehtijaervi, Asko; Barklund, Pia [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology


    Effects of irrigation, drought and fertilization on the frequency of the fungal endophyte Lophodermium piceae in green needles was assessed in a 30-year-old experimental stand of Picea abies in southern Sweden. Frequencies of needles with L. piceae were lower in irrigation and ammonium sulphate fertilization treatments than in the control. Drought treatment frequencies were similar to the control. Needles were susceptible to colonization for at least 3 years; colonization increased with needle age. The results indicate that the increased availability of water to the root system as well as ammonium sulphate fertilization indirectly delays colonization of needles by L. piceae 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  11. ELi abi ettevõtjale lükkub osaliselt edasi / Silva Männik

    Männik, Silva, 1974-


    Eesti ettevõtjatele lubatud Euroopa Liidu tõukefondide raha taotlemine Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuses viibib majandusministeeriumis vastuvõtmata määruste tõttu. Diagrammid: Struktuurifondidest saadava abi kõrval peab Eesti liikmemaksu tasuma; EAS plaanis jagada tänavu ligi 800 miljonit krooni struktuurifondide raha. Nimekiri: Põhiosa euroabist läheb töötajate arengusse ja transporti. 5 prioriteeti. Vt. samas: Raha venimine kõige hullem. AS-i E-Arsenal juht Jüri Tümanok rahade viibimisest

  12. Ozone fumigation effects on the morphology and biomass of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) saplings

    Stakenas V; Serafinaviciute B


    The study examined Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings morphological and biomass sensitivity to ozone fumigation using closed indoor chambers of controlled environment. 4-year-old potted saplings were exposed to three different ozone concentrations: 80 (micro)g/m3, 160 (micro)g/m3, and 240 (micro)g/m3 (7 h/day, 5 days/week). Half of the saplings were harvested after the exposure, and the second half of the saplings were left in the pots in open field until next autumn. The reaction of the sa...

  13. Promjena koeficijenta upijanja vode smrekovine (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) zbog njezine termičke modifikacije

    Pfriem, Alexander


    Cilj istraživanja bio je procijeniti utjecaj termičke modifikacije smrekovine (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) na svojstvo upijanja vode. Bilježenjem količine vode što ju upiju drvni uzorci nakon njihova djelomičnog uranjanja može se, prema normi EN ISO 15148:2002, odrediti koeficijent upijanja vode. Termičkom modifikacijom drva mijenja se svojstvo upijanja vode u ovisnosti o površini presjeka drva. U radijalnome i tangencijalnom smjeru upijanje vode se smanjuje u modificiranog drva. Suprotno tomu, ...

  14. Delignification of subsidiary and guard cell walls of Picea abies (L.) Karst. by fumigation with ozone

    After fumigation with ozone, the exterior periclinal walls of the stomatal apparatus of Picea abies appear to be partially delignified, as in earlier experiments with SO2. This shows up cytophotometrically as reduced UV absorption. Random samples from the stand named Wank in the Bavarian Alps clearly showed a relation between the degree of lignification of the stomatal cells and the grading of the respective trees in their damage classes. The significance of delignification for the regulatory capacity of the stomata is discussed, and a hypothesis is proposed for a specific disturbance of hydroregulation by ozone

  15. Kinetic modeling of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Picea abies bark.

    Lazar, Liliana; Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I


    In this paper, the kinetics of polyphenols extraction from spruce bark (Picea abies) under ultrasounds action was investigated. Studies were performed in order to express the effect of some specific parameters (as: ultrasounds, surface contact between solvent and solid, extraction time and temperature) on the total phenolic content (TPC). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of ultrasounds, using different contact surfaces between solvent and solid, for times from 5 to 75min and temperatures of 318, 323 and 333K. All these factors have a positive influence on the process, enhancing the extraction rate by recovering higher amounts of polyphenols. The process takes place in two stages: a fast one in the first 20-30min (first stage), followed by a slow one approaching to an equilibrium concentration after 40min (second stage). In these conditions, the second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from P. abies bark. Based on this model, values of second-order extraction rate constant (k), initial extraction rate (h), saturation concentration (Cs) and activation energy (Ea) could be predicted. Model validation was done by plotting experimental and predicted values of TPC's, revealing a very good correlation between the obtained data (R(2)>0.98). PMID:27150760

  16. Antifungal properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. seedling homogenates

    Grzegorz Kozłowski


    Full Text Available The presence of antimicrobials in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon homogenates of Norway spruce was studied using in vitro assays with soil-borne pathogens. For the studies presented here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. as a typical host and forest tree and Pythium as a typical soil-bome pathogen were used. The highly virulent species Pythium ultimum and the less virulent species Pythium irregulare were chosen for all experiments. They are both the causal agents of damping-off disease, which can affect plants at a very early stage. The strongest antimicrobial effect was observed using medium prepared from older seedlings and containing extracts from cotyledons. The influence of various treatments on antimicrobials accumulation in spruce extracts was also tested. Seed coat shedding was observed to affect mortality of Picea abies seedlings infected by Pythium. Seedlings which had shed their seed coats were more resistant to Pythium attack. This phenomenon could be correlated with antimicrobial production in well developed cotyledons.

  17. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Ioan Blada


    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill. rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p < 0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 be-tter than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively. Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  18. A weeding-duration model for Abies sachalinensis plantations in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    Masahiko Nakagawa


    I developed a weeding-duration model for Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis (Fr.Schmidt) Masters) plantations that employs a generalized linear model.The number of years following planting that weeding is necessary is the response variable,and elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,geology,soil,site index,slope aspect,and vegetation type are explanatory variables.Among the explanatory variables,geology,soil,slope aspect,and vegetation type are categorical data.A Poisson distribution is assumed for the response variable,with a log-link function.Elevation,slope steepness,maximum snow depth,annual precipitation,site index,and vegetation type had a significant effect on weeding duration.Among the eight models with the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC),I chose the model with no multicollinearity among the explanatory variables.The weeding-duration model includes site index,maximum snow depth,slope steepness (angle)and vegetation type as explanatory variables; elevation and annual precipitation were not included in the selected model because of multicollinearity with maximum snow depth.This model is useful for cost-benefit analyses of afforestation or reforestation with Abies sachalinensis.

  19. Ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of Abies alba Mill. outside its native range in Poland.

    Rudawska, Maria; Pietras, Marcin; Smutek, Iwona; Strzeliński, Paweł; Leski, Tomasz


    Abies alba (Mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of Europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. Like most forest tree species, A. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. This investigation sought to examine ECM fungal communities of A. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of Pomerania in Poland. We surveyed for ECM fungi by sampling live roots from four mature forest stands where the A. alba component ranged from 20 to 100%. Ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts were identified based on morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Thirty-five ECM fungal taxa were distinguished on root tips of A. alba from all tested stands with 22 to 27 ECM fungal taxa in the individual stand. The diversity and similarity metrics revealed a lack of statistical differences in the structure of the ECM fungal community between stands varying in overstory tree composition. Cenococcum geophilum was the most common fungal species at all investigated A. alba stands, with an abundance of 50 to 70%. The ECM community was characterized by the lack of Abies-specific fungal symbionts and a rich and diverse suite of host-generalist mycobionts that seem to be sufficient for successful growth and development of A. alba outside of its native range. PMID:26071873

  20. Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis.



    Martínez Macías, F. (2015). Nuevos genes reguladores de la tolerancia a estrés abiótico en Arabidopsis [Tesis doctoral no publicada]. Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/48560.


    Ioana Ieremia


    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  2. Koolieeliku hirmudega toimetulek kui oma probleemidega toimetuleku õppimine ja lähedaste abi selles / Merle Taimalu

    Taimalu, Merle


    Eestis ja Soomes 1993-1994.a. läbi viidud ühisuurimusest laste turvalisuse kohta, kus üheks eesmärgiks oli välja selgitada, kuidas koolieelikud oma hirmudega toime tulevad ja kuivõrd nad saavad ja kasutavad lähedaste täiskasvanute abi

  3. Fruiting characteristics and seed germination capacity of Abies fargesii in Shennongjia Nature Reserve

    Li Zou; Qingmei Li; Zongqiang Xie


    We investigated cone traits of Abies fargesii including length, width, fresh weight, seed numbers per cone, and seed traits including length, width, thickness, seed mass and seed germination capacity. The results showed that the average length and width of the cone were 5.37 ± 0.75 cm and 3.01 ± 0.32 cm, respectively, and its fresh weight was 18.93 ± 6.06 g, the seed number per cone was 59–567. The length, width and thickness of seeds were 1.08–8.68 mm, 1.16–6.42 mm and 0.66–3.48 mm, respecti...

  4. Annual variation in pollen contamination and outcrossing in a Picea abies seed orchard

    Pakkanen, Anne [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Laeyliaeinen (Finland). Haapastensyrjae Breeding Station; Nikkanen, Teijo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Punkaharju (Finland). Punkaharju Research Station; Pulkkinen, Pertti [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Plant Biology


    A mature Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] seed orchard, established in southern Finland with 67 clones from northern Finland, was analysed in three different years in order to estimate the pollen contamination ratios. Allozyme-based paternity analysis revealed that the contamination rate was high, 69-71%, and did not differ between the years studied. It appears that, in areas where spruce is the dominant tree species, the contamination rate will be very high even in mature seed orchards. However, the contamination rate in the thinned parts of the orchard was significantly lower than that in the unthinned parts in two of the three years studied. The outcrossing rate was also high, 96 - 100% in all years, even though the ramets of each clone were planted using a clonal-row design, and there were no significant differences in the outcrossing rates between the different parts of the orchard.

  5. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences


    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  6. Climatic significance of stable carbon isotope in tree rings of Abies spectabibis in southeastern Tibet

    LIU Xiaohong; Qin Dahe; SHAO Xuemei; CHEN Tuo; REN Jiawen


    The annually cross-dated stable carbon isotope of tree-ring α-cellulose of Abies spectabibis collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is used to examine its relationship with climatic parameters. The residual △13C series in treerings is constructed after removing the effects of age trend and rising CO2. We found a close relationship between △13C in tree rings and the relative humidity of September-November of the previous year measured at the nearby Nyingchi Meteorological Station, albeit a strong "lagged effect". Thus we developed a transfer function to reconstruct the autumn relative humidity for the Nyingchi region, which explained 37.9% of the total variance (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high frequency and moderate amplitude variance of the relative humidity before 1800, and the variance reversed afterwards.

  7. Ekonomiczne perspektywy rozwoju obszaru działalności Unii Izb Łaby/Odry

    Bräuninger, Michael; Stiller, Silvia; Teuber, Mark; Wedemeier, Jan


    Unia Izb Łaby/Odry to związek 15 niemieckich, 6 polskich i 9 czeskich izb przemysłowo-handlowych, który za cel stawia sobie wspólne reprezentowanie interesów przedsiębiorstw z tego obszaru na szczeblu krajowym i europejskim. W roku 2010 na obszarach działalności poszczególnych Izb mieszkało 37 mln osób, co odpowiada 7,5 % ludności Unii Europejskiej (EU). Produkt krajowy brutto (PKB) Regionu wyniósł w 2008 roku 718 mld EUR, co stanowi 6 % PKB Unii Europejskiej. The Elbe/Oder Chamber Union (...

  8. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro


    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. PMID:26812172

  9. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.


    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  10. The work of Ernst H. Gombrich on the Aby M. Warburg fragments

    Katia Mazzucco


    Full Text Available On January 1, 1936, Ernst Gombrich arrived in London from Austria. His task was to reorganize the last of Warburg’s fragments and, in particular, to revise what was left of the incomplete mnemosyne atlas. The goal of this study and inventory was to collate Warburg’s uncompleted studies with the purpose of putting together an English publication of his collected work. In 1970, the only result of this publishing endeavour was included in the pages of the famous Aby Warburg. An intellectual biography. The history of the intellectual, as well as critical, relationship between Gombrich and Warburg is, then, a posthumous one that was started on British soil. Further marking this distance are certain material and non-material aspects of Gombrich’s work in London, including his relationship with other warburgian scholars.

  11. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  12. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies.

    Nicolas Delhomme

    Full Text Available After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.

  13. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R


    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation. PMID:26413905

  14. Throughfall nutrients in a degraded indigenous Fagus orientalis forest and a Picea abies plantation in the of North of Iran

    Parisa Abbasian


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of TF (throughfall in an indigenous, but degraded, stand of Fagus orientalis and Picea abies plantation.Area of study: Forests of Kelar-Dasht region located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.Material and Methods: TF measured by twenty collectors that were distributed randomly underneath each stand. For 21 storms sampled in 2012 (August-December and 2013 (April-June, we analyzed pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and P of  gross rainfall (GR and TF.Main results: Cumulative interception (I for F. orientalis and P. abies were 114.2 mm and 194.8 mm of the total GR, respectively. The amount of K+ (13.4 mg L-1 and Ca2+ (0.9 mg L-1 were higher (for both elements, p = 0.001 in the TF of P. abies compared to those of F. orientalis (6.8 and 0.5, mg L-1, respectively and GR (3.2 and 0.37 mg L-1, respectively. Conversely, mean P concentration was doubled (p = 0.022 in the TF of F. orientalis (11.1 mg L-1 compared to GR (5.8 mg L-1.Research highlights: P. abies plantations may provide a solution for reforestation of degraded F. orientalis forests of northern Iran, yet how P. abies plantations differentially affect the quality and quantity of rainfall reaching subcanopy soils (TF compared to F. orientalis is unknown. Understanding the connection between hydrological processes and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems is crucial for choosing the appropriate species to rehabilitate the degraded indigenous forests with nonindigenous species.  Keywords: concentration; hydrological process; interception; reforestation.

  15. Regulation of actin cytoskeleton architecture by Eps8 and Abi1

    Miller Jeffrey R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The actin cytoskeleton participates in many fundamental processes including the regulation of cell shape, motility, and adhesion. The remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on actin binding proteins, which organize actin filaments into specific structures that allow them to perform various specialized functions. The Eps8 family of proteins is implicated in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling during cell migration, yet the precise mechanism by which Eps8 regulates actin organization and remodeling remains elusive. Results Here, we show that Eps8 promotes the assembly of actin rich filopodia-like structures and actin cables in cultured mammalian cells and Xenopus embryos, respectively. The morphology of actin structures induced by Eps8 was modulated by interactions with Abi1, which stimulated formation of actin cables in cultured cells and star-like structures in Xenopus. The actin stars observed in Xenopus animal cap cells assembled at the apical surface of epithelial cells in a Rac-independent manner and their formation was accompanied by recruitment of N-WASP, suggesting that the Eps8/Abi1 complex is capable of regulating the localization and/or activity of actin nucleators. We also found that Eps8 recruits Dishevelled to the plasma membrane and actin filaments suggesting that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt/Polarity signaling. Consistent with this idea, mis-expression of Eps8 in dorsal regions of Xenopus embryos resulted in gastrulation defects. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that Eps8 plays multiple roles in modulating actin filament organization, possibly through its interaction with distinct sets of actin regulatory complexes. Furthermore, the finding that Eps8 interacts with Dsh and induced gastrulation defects provides evidence that Eps8 might participate in non-canonical Wnt signaling to control cell movements during vertebrate development.

  16. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba).

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon


    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), beta-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and alpha-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC(50)) against DPPH radicals (2.7 +/- 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 +/- 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity. PMID:19430614

  17. Effect of light regime on the natural regeneration of silver fir (Abies alba, Calabria, Southern Italy

    Mercurio R


    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to analyse the effect of light environment on dynamics of natural regeneration of silver fir. The study areas were located in natural silver fir (Abies alba Mill. stands of Serra San Bruno Forests (Archiforo in the Calabrian Apennine. Measurements of the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR - radiation in the 0.4-0.7 µm waveband were collected with a ceptometer (AccuPAR Decagon Devices, USA. PAR was measured monthly during the growing season. Measurements were taken: under canopy, inside natural gaps and in correspondence of escarps along forestry roads. After each measurement for each sampling point the PAR transmittance was calculated. Seedlings density was estimated in each position. Each of these seedlings was identified by species, total height was measured and the age was visually determined. Seedlings were distributed in three classes: (a class 0: to natural regeneration absence and height 10 seedlings m-2 and height between 0.30 and 1 m; (c class 2: to density > 10 seedlings m-2 and height > 1 m. Level of PAR transmittance was higher inside the gaps where a good seedlings density was observed. Further seedling density was higher in correspondence of escarps. Under canopy, seedlings were absent due to low levels of light (1.3 < T < 3.7. The results showed a diverse ecological behaviour to light environment of silver fir of Serra San Bruno compared with central-northern Abies alba population. Some comments about silvicultural treatment of silver fir stand in the Calabrian Apennine are provided, according to dynamics of natural regeneration.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal system of naturally established Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] seedlings from different microhabitats - forest floor and coarse woody debris

    Lepšová, Anna


    Roč. 2001, č. 7 (2001), s. 223-234. ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Picea abies * ectomycorrhiza * seedling * natural regeneration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Genetic and environmental characterization of Abies alba Mill. populations at its western rear edge

    Sancho-Knapik, D.


    Full Text Available The genetic structure of ten Abies alba populations at the western rear edge in the Spanish Pyrenees was characterized and compared with two German populations, looking for the role of climatic factors in the fir decline. Growth, defoliation, aridity and cumulative summer water deficit summer were also characterized. Spanish populations show a lower genetic diversity and a high genetic differentiation than German ones, mainly established by an East (higher diversity-West (lower diversity gradient. The three defoliated populations are the western ones, with higher summer aridity. Contrastingly, the southern population (Guara shows climatic variables close to western sites but without defoliation and with a higher genetic diversity, indicating a possible adaptation to the sub-Mediterranean conditions. Silver fir in the Spanish Pyrenees constitutes a “stable” rear edge because of their isolation, small sized and small genetic diversity. Western Pyrenean sites subjected to dryer conditions and presenting lower genetic diversity are prone to drought-induced mortality in the context of global warming.Se ha caracterizado la estructura genética de diez poblaciones de Abies alba en la retaguardia occidental de su distribución en el Pirineo español en comparación con dos poblaciones de Alemania, buscando la influencia de factores climáticos en el decaimiento del abeto. También se caracterizó crecimiento, defoliación, aridez y déficit acumulado de agua durante el verano. Las poblaciones españolas mostraron una menor diversidad genética y una mayor diferenciación genética que las poblaciones alemanas, establecida principalmente a través de un eje Este (mayor diversidad-Oeste (menor diversidad. Las tres poblaciones con defoliación son las del suroeste, con mayor aridez estival. Por el contrario, la población más meridional (Guara muestra variables climáticas cercanas a estas poblaciones del suroeste pero sin defoliación y con mayor

  20. Plastic and locally adapted phenology in cambial seasonality and production of xylem and phloem cells in Picea abies from temperate environments

    Gričar, Jožica; Stapleton, Larry; Prislan, Peter; Duffy, D.; Gryc, Vidmar; Lakov, D; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Jordanova, M.; Lyng, M.; de Luis, Martin; Čufar, Katarina


    Despite its major economic importance and the vulnerability of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. to climate change, how its radial growth at intra-annual resolution is influenced by weather conditions in forest stands with a high production capacity has scarcely been explored. Between 2009 and 2011, phenological variation in seasonal cambial cell production (CP) was analysed in adult P. abies trees from three contrasting sites, differing in altitude and latitude. The results indicate that the timing...

  1. Multiple pathway succession in coastal Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata and Abies amabilis forests on northeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    Weber, Adrian; Kimmins, J. P.; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lo, Yueh-Hsin; Blanco Vaca, Juan Antonio


    Sustainable forest practices are often designed to mimic natural disturbance and successional processes, yet succession is poorly understood in many ecosystems. On northeastern Vancouver Island, the ‘disturbance hypothesis’ is a widely-assumed succession model that asserts shade tolerant western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and the ericaceous shrub salal (Gaultheria shallon) invade and colonize highly productive western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) – Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) stands (HA...

  2. Profil hlapljivih tvari hrvatskih medova lipe (Tilia sp.), medljikovca jele (Abies alba) i meda kadulje (Salvia officinalis)

    Lušić, Dražen; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Ćurić, Duška; Sabatini, Anna G.; Conte, Lanfranco S.


    Profili hlapljivih tvari meda lipe (Tilia sp.), medljikovca jele (Abies alba) i meda kadulje (Salvia officinalis), proizvedeni u Hrvatskoj, istraživani su najprije metodom mikroekstrakcije na čvrstoj fazi (head space solid phase microextraction, HS-SPME), a zatim s plinskom kromatografijom i masenom spektrometrijom (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS). Botaničko porijeklo uzoraka meda potvrđeno je melisopalinološkom i senzorskom analizom. Prvi su put opisana senzorska svojstva meda o...

  3. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.; Bhuju, D.; Thapa, U.K.


    In mountainous areas including the Himalayas, tree lines are expected to advance to higher altitudes due to global climate change affecting the distribution and growth of plant species. This study aimed at identifying the tree ring variability of Abies spectabilis (D. Don) and its response to the climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed...

  4. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics


    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  5. Factors Influencing Understory Seedling Establishment of Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) and Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Southeast Wyoming

    Knapp, Alan K; Smith, William K.


    Although trees of Picea engelmannii were more abundant and had a greater basal area in the overstorey than those of Abies lasiocarpa at two study sites, saplings and seedlings of A. lasioscarpa were more numerous in the understorey. Field measurements in the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeast Wyoming showed that seedlings of A. lasiocarpa had greater photosynthetic rates at low understorey light levels and required lower levels of incident radiation for saturation of photosynthesis than thos...

  6. Evaluationsmethoden zur Bewertung von Aggregatordatenbanken am Beispiel von ProQuest ABI/Inform und EBSCO Business Source Premier

    Katzmayr, Michael; Putz, Michaela; Fessler, Georg


    At the library of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration a comparison was made between the database vendors ABI/Inform ProQuest and EBSCO Business Source Premier. This article provides the results and a practical oriented concept for the evaluation of full-text aggregator databases in relation to the library’s serial holdings. Firstly, the characteristics of full-text aggregator databases (e.g. embargoes) are outlined. This is followed by a description of quantitative ...

  7. Network Performance Evaluation of Abis Interface over DVB-S2 in the GSM over Satellite Network

    Musabekov, S. B.; Srinivasan, P. K.; A. S. Durai; Ibraimov, R. R.


    This paper deals with establishing a GSM link over Satellite. Abis interface, which is defined between Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and Base Station Controller (BSC), in a GSM network is considered here to be routed over the Satellite. The satellite link enables a quick and cost-effective GSM link in meagerly populated areas. A different scenario comparison was done to understand the impact of Satellite environment on network availability comparing to terrestrial scenario. We have implement...

  8. The influence of Ceratocystis polonica inoculation and methyl jasmonate application on terpene chemistry of Norway spruce, Picea abies

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Christiansen, Erik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin


    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study 72 Norway spruce (Picea abies) were randomly assigned to methyl jasmonate (MJ) application, inoculation with the bluestain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, or no-treatment control. We investigated terpene levels in the stem bark of the trees before treatment, 30 days and one year after treatment using GC-MS and two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) with a chiral col...

  9. Tree-ring growth and climate response of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in Basilicata (Southern Italy

    Todaro L


    Full Text Available A dendroclimatic study on silver fir (Abies alba Mill. was carried out in the Abetina of Ruoti (PZ, Basilicata - southern Italy, a nearly natural mixed Quercus cerris - Silver fir forest. Observations were made on twenty-three large size dominant silver fir trees and dendroecological analyses performed for the period 1866-2007. Results show that late spring/summer precipitations, rather than temperatures, are the most critical factor affecting silver fir growth in this area.

  10. Developmental and stress regulation on expression of a novel miRNA, Fan-miR73, and its target ABI5 in strawberry.

    Li, Dongdong; Mou, Wangshu; Luo, Zisheng; Li, Li; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a critical plant hormone for fruit ripening and adaptive stress responses in strawberry. Previous high-throughput sequencing results indicated that ABA-insensitive (ABI)5, an important transcription factor in the ABA signaling pathway, was a target for a novel microRNA (miRNA), Fan-miR73. In the present study, exogenous ABA treatment was found to accelerate fruit ripening through differentially regulating the transcripts of ABA metabolism and signal transduction related genes, including NCED1, PYR1, ABI1, and SnRK2.2. Expression of Fan-miR73 was down-regulated in response to exogenous ABA treatment in a dosage-dependent manner, which resulted in an accumulation of ABI5 transcripts in the ripening-accelerated fruits. In addition, both UV-B radiation and salinity stress reduced the transcript levels of Fan-miR73, whereas promoted ABI5 expression. Furthermore, high negative correlations between the transcriptional abundance of Fan-miR73 and ABI5 were observed during ripening and in response to stress stimuli. These results enriched the possible regulatory role of miRNA involved in the post-transcriptional modification of ABI5 during strawberry ripening, as well as responses to environmental stresses. PMID:27325048

  11. Propagation of Abies beshanzuensis by Water Cultured Medium%极度濒危植物百山祖冷杉水培繁殖

    饶龙兵; 吴友贵


    [Objective] The experiment aimed to explore the influences of phytohormones (ABT and IAA) and nutrient solution on rooting of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu by water cultured medium. [Method] The Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu were treated by water (CK), 10 mg/L ABT+ water, 10 mg/L IAA+ water, 10 mg/L ABT+ hoagland solution, 10 mg/L IAA+ hoagland solution, then the rooting process was observed and the formation rate of callus, rooting rate, number of rooting, and root length were investigated and analyzed. [Result] ABT and IAA had obvious influences on callus induction, rooting rate and the number of root of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu by water culture, so they were suitable to be used in water propagation of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu. The treatments of phytohormones had no regular influences on the longest root length and average root length. The nutrient solutions would not generate obvious influence on propagation of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu at firstly stage, but they generated influence on root growth after rooting. [Conclusion] The research provided new ideas for propagation of Abies beshanzuensis M.H.Wu, which could make it out of endangerment situation quickly.

  12. Antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic effects of an aqueous preparation of Abies alba and Viscum album se abies, on a L-1210 malignant cell line and tumor-bearing Wistar rats.

    Karkabounas, S; Assimakopoulos, D; Malamas, M; Skaltsounis, A L; Leonce, S; Zelovitis, J; Stefanou, D; Evangelou, A


    Extracts of plants have been widely tested for possible anticarcinogenic properties. In the present study a traditional remedy, consisting of an aqueous extract of mixed parts of the tree Abies alba and its mistletoe Viscum album se abies was tested on benzo(alpha)pyrene(BaP)-induced tumors in Wistar rats and on the L-1210 malignant cell line. Two main groups of male Wistar rats subcutaneously injected by 10 mg of BaP, a dose inducing 100% carcinogenesis, a control group (C-G, 15 rats) and a treatment group(TR-G, 18 rats), were used for the study. Five animals bearing BaP-induced tumors were also tested (TR-1-G). Animals of the TR-G were orally administered with the aqueous extract at doses of 50 ml/kg b.w, from the day of BaP injection and of the TR-1-G, from the 120th day of injection, till death. L-1210 malignant cells in cultivation, were administered with a powder obtained by condensation and lyophilization of the extract, at various concentrations and cytotoxicity was measured by the microculture tetrazolium assay. Autopsy of the rats, revealed metastasis in the lungs of the animals of all groups and the tumors developed were histologically identified as leiomyosarcomas. The results indicated that the extract of the above plants possess anticarcinogenic effects, documented by: a) its antiproliferative effects on L-1210 cells (IC50 = 49.6 +/- 1.4 micrograms/ml), b) the significant prolongation of life and reduction of tumor growth rate of the animals of the TR-G in comparison to the C-G, c) the inhibition by 16.6% of tumor induction in the TR-G and d) the prolongation of life and the necrotic effects of the extract on the tumors of the animals in the TR-1-G. The antiproliferative effects of the Abies alba and Viscum album se abies extract may be due to the lectins and thionins contained in Viscum album, as well as to the monoterpenes contained in Abies alba. Soft tissue tumors sensitive to the extract, are widespread among human organs, even in larynx, and are

  13. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert


    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  14. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO2

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K.-F.


    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35–40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550–700 ppm atmospheric CO2), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  15. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Sebastian eLeuzinger


    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  16. Effects of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rates in Korean Fir (Abies koreana) between Healthy and Dieback Population

    Su Young Woo; Jong-Hwan Lim; Don Koo Lee


    The present study was carried out on natural Korean fir forests (Abies koreana) growing In Mount Halla in Jeju Island, Korea (33°13-36′ N and 126° 12-57′ E). Mount Halla is the highest mountain (1950 m a.s.l.) in South Korea. On the Korean fir forests near the top of Mount Halla in Korea, we established permanent plots between dieback and healthy population. Each permanent plot includes both dieback and relatively healthy Korean fir individuals. Three sites in this study showed similar altitude, topographic position, aspects, slope, diameter at breast height, average height and ages. Net photosynthetic rates (PN) on different temperature regimes were evaluated to explain the forest dieback phenomenon on Korean fir populations. Light response curves were determined on three different temperature regimes: 15℃, 20℃and 25℃. The Irradiance response curve showed higher values in lower air temperatures. Generally, Irradiance response curves of healthy Korean fir populations were higher than the dieback population at all sites.

  17. Analysis of volatile components, fatty acids, and phytosterols of Abies koreana growing in Poland.

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Olejnika, Karol; Bonikowski, Radosław; Banaszczakb, Piotr


    Extracts and essential oils from seeds as well as essential oils from cone scales and needles with twigs of the Abies koreana population were studied. An analysis of Korean fir essential oils allowed us to determine 147 volatile compounds. The identified compounds constituted 97-99% of the seed, cone and needle oils. The main volatile in the seed and needle oils was limonene (56.6% and 23.4%, respectively), while the predominant volatile in cone oils was alpha-pinene (51.2%). Korean fir seeds provided a rich source of both essential oil (3.8-8.5%) and extract, which was isolated with a 24.5% yield and contained numerous groups of fatty acids and phytosterols (414 microg/100g extract). The most prominent fatty acids were unsaturated, among which linoleic (41.2%) and oleic (31.2%) fatty acid were the main ones while the dominant sterols were isomers of ergostadienol and beta-sitosterol. A. koreana seeds, cones and needles are a source of many volatile bioactive compounds while the seed extract, with a pleasant scent, contained not only volatiles, but also fractions rich in fatty acids and phytosterols. These facts make A. koreana essential oils and especially the seed extract potential components of cosmetics. PMID:24273870

  18. Chemical analysis of volatile oils from West Himalayan Pindrow Fir Abies pindrow.

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S


    The essential oil composition of needle and stem oils of Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle, commonly known as Pindrow or West Himalayan Fir, were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six constituents, accounting for 96.0% of needle and 83.5% of stem oil composition, were identified. The oils were characterized by a high content of monoterpenoids (68.9%-79.9%), mainly comprised by limonene (21.0%-34.4%), camphene (0.5%-19.9%), alpha-pinene (13.8%-16.8%), myrcene (6.7%-8.3%) and beta-pinene (6.5%-8.6%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both oils, but the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatile constituents was specific for each part of the tree; and considerable variations in their terpenoid production pattern were also noticed. Results were compared with earlier reported fir species from different geographic regions. PMID:25233604

  19. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero


    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  20. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Ioan Blada


    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abiesconcolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill.rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p <0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 better than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively.Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological Ceraltin® wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  1. Regeneration of Abies cephalonica Loudon after a Large Fire in Central Greece

    Yannis Raftoyannis


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Abies cephalonica Loudon (Greek fir is a dominant tree species of the mountainous Greece that forms productive forests. Wildfires in fir forests were not considered a major threat but in recent decades, fir ecosystems in Greece have experienced large crown fires with subsequent ecological and economical losses. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to aid our understanding of Greek fir recovery after fire. In Central Greece, 12 years after a large fire, fir regeneration and site factors were studied in 143 sampling plots located in 10 transects. Results: Fir regeneration density decreased abruptly with distance from the remnant stands and followed the negative exponential curve with decreasing regeneration abundance from the border of the unburned zone. Abiotic factors such as elevation, aspect, slope steepness and ground cover type could not significantly explain any variability in fir regeneration density. Conclusions: Our results showed that distance from a seed source was the most important variable in explaining fir regeneration. Moreover, the density of fir regeneration seemed adequate to provide stocking for a future fir forest.

  2. Growth and Wood/Bark Properties of Abies faxoniana Seedlings as Affected by Elevated CO2

    Yun-Zhou Qiao; Yuan-Bin Zhang; Kai-Yun Wang; Qian Wang; Qi-Zhuo Tian


    Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (=1= 25) μmol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/mz) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same.

  3. Effect of light intensities on the photosynthetic characteristics of Abies holophylla seedlings from different provenances

    Z. Yao


    Full Text Available The photosynthetic characteristics of Abies holophylla seedlings from six provenances under four artificial light intensities in a greenhouse (full light, 75.08%, 55.42%, and 30.38% of full light were studied to explore the underlying genetic differences in foliar photosynthesis. Varying light intensities significantly affected the foliar photosynthetic parameters of A. holophylla seedlings from six provenances. As the light intensity dropped, the foliar CO2 assimilation capacity of A. holophylla seedlings sharply decreased, and the foliar light utilization capacity significantly increased. Analysis of genetic variation showed highly significant differences in terms of CO2 assimilation capacity, light utilization capacity, and respiration depletion of A. holophylla seedlings among different provenances under different light intensities. The variations were mainly controlled by the genetic factors of the provenance itself. The obtained results revealed that different sensitivities of A. holophylla seedlings from different provenances in response to changed light intensities elicited significant differences in foliar photosynthesis among different provenances. The relationships between sensitivities and annual temperature difference, mean temperature in January, and mean annual evaporation of provenance were found to be the most closely related, which indicated that temperature range and effective precipitation of provenance were the main factors that affected photosynthetic plasticity of A. holophylla seedlings. 

  4. Effects of mistletoe infestation on the decline and mortality of Abies cephalonica in Greece

    Yannis Raftoyannis


    Full Text Available In recent decades, stands of Greek fir (Abies cephalonica Loudon are declining and high tree mortality has been observed in some years. The exact causes of fir decline and mortality have not been established although many have been proposed (drought, climatic change, air pollution and attacks by pathogens or insects. This study has focused on the effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L. on fir crown condition by assessing the mistletoe infestation level and its effects on fir defoliation. In the fir forests of Central Greece, the tree crown condition and the extent of mistletoe infestation were assessed and their relationships with tree height, altitude and aspect were investigated. The role of mistletoe on overall fir mortality was investigated by assessing standing trees that had died recently. The leaf water potential and chlorophyll fluorescence of mistletoe and fir were also measured during one growth season. The results showed that mistletoe infestation is related to crown defoliation. Altitude and tree height were not related with mistletoe infestation while infestation levels were lower on northern exposures. Mistletoe showed significantly lower water potentials and higher photochemical efficiencies than fir branches.

  5. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.


    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  6. Growth rhythm and frost hardiness dynamics in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Westin, Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology


    The seasonal growth rhythm and frost hardiness development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Northern Sweden were characterised in trees from local seed sources and transferred seed sources of natural and selected origins. The main aim was to clarify whether the growth performance of selected populations of local origin had a similar physiological basis to the growth performance of southern natural populations. Populations of southern origins tended to initiate growth and dehardening later in spring, and start growth cessation and hardening later in autumn, than populations of northern origins. Populations transferred more than approximately 3 deg in latitude showed poor growth performances due to lower numbers of stem-units. Southern populations showed prolonged apical mitotic activity compared with those of northern and local origins. Progenies of selected plus-trees showed a later start of growth and slightly later dehardening in spring. Growth cessation occurred later in juvenile seedlings of selected populations than in natural populations of similar origin. Furthermore, in non-juvenile trees of selected populations prolonged mitotic activity was observed. Needle frost hardiness levels in selected populations were similar to those of natural populations of similar origin. Selected populations of northern origins tended to produce more stem-units than natural populations of similar origin. Throughout the studies, variation in duration of mitotic activity appeared to be unrelated to the number of stem-units produced. This was evident both among populations and among clones of similar origins. Furthermore, variation in the ability to produce stem-units could not explain variation in accumulated height growth among natural populations. Growth and hardiness performances of southern populations and of selected populations of local origin appeared, at least in part, to have a similar physiological basis i.e. delayed spring and autumn phenology.

  7. Ozone fumigation effects on the morphology and biomass of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. saplings

    Stakenas V


    Full Text Available The study examined Norway spruce (Picea abies saplings morphological and biomass sensitivity to ozone fumigation using closed indoor chambers of controlled environment. 4-year-old potted saplings were exposed to three different ozone concentrations: 80 (microg/m3, 160 (microg/m3, and 240 (microg/m3 (7 h/day, 5 days/week. Half of the saplings were harvested after the exposure, and the second half of the saplings were left in the pots in open field until next autumn. The reaction of the saplings of different timing of bud burst was also investigated. The terminal shoot length and the total current year shoot length of Norway spruce saplings after one month of ozone fumigation were significantly (p < 0.05 suppressed in all the treatments comparing to the control saplings. The needles of saplings fumigated with ozone were smaller than the needles of control saplings. No significant changes of the biomass of different fractions of Norway spruce saplings were determined right after the fumigation, as well as, in 14 month after the cessation of the fumigation. Norway spruce saplings of early and late timing of bud burst reacted differently to ozone fumigation during the active growth period. The formation of new needles and shoots of the saplings of late bud burst stage was more suppressed comparing to the saplings of the early bud burst stage. The results suggest that the generatively younger organs during their formation are more susceptible to ozone stress. The differences of the needle age between ozone affected and control saplings decreased in one year after the end of fumigation keeping affected Norway spruce saplings in the open field and thus indicating the start of the recovery process.

  8. As fotografias de Aby Warburg na América: índios, imagens e ruinas

    Claudia Mattos


    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a importância e os usos que Aby Warburg faz do meio fotográfico durante sua viagem para o sudoeste americano. Partindo de uma análise da importância da fotografia para a construção do próprio campo da História da Arte, procuraremos demostrar que ela funcionou como um instrumento fundamental também para Warburg ao longo de toda sua carreira, mas especialmente em seu processo de imersão na cultura dos Índios Hopi durante sua estada na América. Ao longo do texto, mostraremos como no encontro com a realidade dessas populações americanas, Warburg usou a fotografia como elemento de mediação e distanciamento com relação a seu objeto de pesquisa. Por último, levantaremos algumas questões políticas implicadas neste encontro, produzido essencialmente através das lentes de sua máquina fotográfica. Em sintonia com a crítica de David Freedberg ao autor, nos perguntamos sobre a capacidade de Warburg de debruçar-se verdadeiramente sobre a cultura Hopi, indagando se, em última instância, na distante América, ele não teria simplesmente produzido um encontro consigo mesmo.

  9. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene


    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  10. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)


    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  11. 拟南芥PKS5激酶磷酸化ABI5参与植物ABA响应%PKS5 Kinase is Involved in ABA Response through Phosphorylating ABI5 in Arabidopsis

    赵菲佚; 焦成瑾; 陈荃; 王太术; 田春芳; 高雅梅


    植物激素脱落酸(abscisic acid, ABA)在植物生长、发育及环境胁迫中起着重要的作用。本研究发现拟南芥PKSes (SOS2-like protein kinases)蛋白激酶家族成员PKS5(SOS2-like protein kinase 5)参与植物ABA响应。PKS5功能获得性点突变体pks5-3与pks5-4表现出对ABA的敏感表型。在外源ABA处理下, pks5-3与pks5-4种子萌发率降低,幼苗生长矮小、黄化。体外磷酸化测试显示, PKS5特异磷酸化ABA响应元件ABI5(ABA-insensitive 5) N末端多肽(1~211 aa)。qRT-PCR分析表明pks5-3与pks5-4突变体中ABI5下游ABA响应基因RAB18(RESPONSIVE TO ABA18)与EM6(LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT 6)表达均发生改变。这些研究结果表明,拟南芥PKS5通过磷酸化ABI5的N末端参与植物ABA响应过程。%The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in plant growth and development as well as abiotic stress responses. In this study, we found that PKS5 (SOS2-like protein kinase 5), a family mem-ber of PKSes (SOS2-like protein kinases), involved in ABA response inArabidopsis.PKS5 gain-of-function point mutantspks5-3andpks5-4 exhibited hypersensitive to ABA in the phenotypic test. Additionally, seed ger-minations ofpks5-3andpks5-4 decreased and seedlings of them showed stunted growth and leaf chlorotic symptoms under exogenous ABA treatment.In vitro phosphorylation assay indicated that PKS5 speciifcally phosphorylates the ABA-responsive component ABI5 (ABA-insensitive 5) N terminus fragment range from 1 to 211 amino acids. Moreover, the relative expression levels ofRAB18 andEM6, which are the downstream ABA-responsive genes of ABI5, signiifcantly altered inpks5-3andpks5-4 mutants compared with the wild-type plants by quantitative real-time PCR using gene-speciifc primers. Taken together, the results of this study revealed that PKS5 involves in ABA response via phosphorylating the N-terminus of ABI5 in Arabidopsis.

  12. Streamwater chemistry and flow dynamics along vegetation-soil gradient in a subalpine Abies fabri forest watershed, China.

    Shan, Bao-Qing; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing


    Streamwater chemistry and spatial flow dynamics from a subalpine Abies fabri forest in an experimental watershed located in the east slope of Gongga Mountain were analyzed to gain insights into the gradient effect of primary community succession on the stream biogeochemical process. Results showed that high sand content (exceeding 80%) and porosity in the soil(exceeding 20% in A horizon and 35% in B horizon), as well as a thick humus layer on the soil surface, made the water exchange quickly in the Huangbengliu (HBL) watershed. Consequently, no surface runoff was observed, and the stream discharge changed rapidly with the daily precipitation. The flow trends of base ions in the stream water were influenced by the Abies fabri succession gradient. Ca2+ , HCO- and SO4(2-) were the dominant anions in the streamwater in this region. A significant difference of Ca2+, HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentration exported between the succession stages in the watershed can be found. But they had the similar temporal change in the stream flow. Ca2+, HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) showed significantly negative correlations with the daily precipitation and the stream discharge. Concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were low in all streamwaters monitored and we observed no differences along the Abies fabri succession gradient. Low ratios of Na: (Na + Ca) (range from 0.1 to 0.2) implied cations were from bedrock weathering (internal source process in the soil system) in this region. But, a variance analysis showed there were almost no differences between rainwater and streamwaters for Mg2+ , Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. This indicated that they might be come from rainfall inputs(external source). The highly mobile capacity, rapid water exchange between precipitation and discharge, and long-term export lead to this observed pattern were suggested. PMID:15559799

  13. Streamwater chemistry and flow dynamics along vegetation-soil gradient in a subalpine Abies fabri forest watershed,China

    SHAN Bao-qing; WANG Wei-dong; YIN Cheng-qing


    Streamwater chemistry and spatial flow dynamics from a subalpine Abies fabri forest in an experimental watershed located in the east slope of Gongga Mountain were analyzed to gain insights into the gradient effect of primary community succession on the stream biogeochemical process. Results showed that high sand content(exceeding 80%) and porosity in the soil(exceeding 20% in A horizon and 35% in B horizon), as well as a thick humus layer on the soil surface, made the water exchange quickly in the Huangbengliu(HBL) watershed. Consequently, no surface runoff was observed, and the stream discharge changed rapidly with the daily precipitation. The flow trends of base ions in the stream water were influenced by the Abies fabri succession gradient. Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- were the dominant anions in the streamwater in this region. A significant difference of Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- concentration exported between the succession stages in the watershed can be found. But they had the similar temporal change in the stream flow. Ca2+, HCO3- and SO42- showed significantly negative correlations with the daily precipitation and the stream discharge. Concentrations of Cl-, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ were low in all streamwaters monitored and we observed no differences along the Abies fabri succession gradient. Low ratios of Na:(Na+Ca) (range from 0.1 to 0.2) implied cations were from bedrock weathering(internal source process in the soil system) in this region. But, a variance analysis showed there were almost no differences between rainwater and streamwaters for Mg2+, Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. This indicated that they might be come from rainfall inputs (external source). We suggest that the highly mobile capacity, rapid water exchange between precipitation and discharge, and long-term export lead to this observed pattern.

  14. Mid-winter ultrastructural changes in the vegetative embryonic shoot of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    Guzickainsta, Marzenna; Woźny, Adam


    Changements ultrastructuraux de la tige embryonnaire végétative de Picea abies en hiver. Les changements ultrastructuraux de la tige embryonnaire végétative d'épicéa durant l'hiver sont décrits. En janvier, on n'observe pas de changements morphologiques ni anatomiques. On observe par contre, en l'espace de quelques jours seulement, des changements considérables au niveau cellulaire. Ceux-ci concernent avant tout les plastes (accumulation d'amidon) et les vacuoles à tanins (disparition des gro...

  15. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Products Derived from the Thermolysis of Waste Abies alba Mill. Wood

    López, Félix A.; Rodríguez, Olga; Urien, Andrea; Lobato Ortega, Belén; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Alguacil, Francisco José


    [EN] This paper reports the physico-chemical characteristics of the products derived from the thermolysis (thermolytic distillation) of waste silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) wood at different temperatures (400℃- 600℃) in a pilot scale plant. Depending on the thermolysis temperature, the procedure yielded 45 - 53 wt% pyroligneous acid with a high water content (80 - 86 wt%) and pH ≈ 3.6. The process also produced a carbonaceous solid or biochar (23 - 26 wt%), its properties strongly dependent on...

  16. Early genetic evaluation of growth rhythm and tolerance to frost in Picea abies (L.) Karst

    Danusevicius, Darius [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products


    Main objectives of the thesis were to estimate geographical and genetic variation in growth rhythm and tolerance to frost-related stresses in seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and to assess juvenile-mature (J-M) relationships after frost desiccation simulated at the juvenile stage. Phenology and susceptibility to spring frosts of 108 Swedish and 16 eastern European provenances were studied in a short-term field trial. Frost hardiness of one-year-old seedlings of 91 provenances from the Baltic region was assessed by an artificial freezing test. Variation in response to simulated frost desiccation were studied in 36 open-pollinated families in growth chambers. Genetic correlations were calculated between growth traits assessed after frost desiccation and growth traits of progenies of the same maternal clones in two field trials. Spring frost damage was strongly related to flushing stage. With increasing latitude and altitude, bud set and flushing started earlier, while height growth and occurrence of proleptic growth decreased. North of latitude 60 deg phenology varied more among populations and was more attributable to clinal latitudinal variation than south of latitude 60 deg. Three Baltic provenances exhibited clinal variation in frost hardiness over latitude and longitude. Latitude had the major influence. Subdivision of the provenances within the Baltic states and the adjacent regions was suggested. Frost desiccation resulted in severe damage or reduced leader elongation. Families with early bud burst and bud set were less damaged than families with late bud burst and bud set. The J-M genetic correlations were weak, only 14 of 266 correlation coefficients being significant for the treated material, and 5 of 126 for the controls. Possible reasons for the weak correlations are: (1) the selective effects of the simulated and natural frost desiccation may have had different strengths, (2) the effect of frost desiccation may have been reduced by the effect of

  17. Final cutting of shelterwood. Harvesting techniques and effects on the Picea abies regeneration

    During the last decade, environmental and biological aspects have grown increasingly important in forestry. At the same time conventional planting after clear-cutting has failed on many sites with a high ground water table, abundant competitive vegetation and frequent frosts. Therefore, on these sites the use of the shelterwood system for regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has increased in Sweden. The main objective of the thesis is to study if it is possible to final-cut shelterwoods at acceptable harvesting costs, logging damage and release effects in the regeneration. Final cutting of three shelterwoods (180-200 m3/ha) in Sweden were carried out with single- and double-grip harvester systems in 1-1.5 m high regeneration (6 400-26 700 seedlings/ha). In a fourth shelterwood (140-165 m3/ha), also situated in Sweden, conventional felling with a single-grip harvester was compared with a more concentrated felling according to a method named 'tossing the caber', where the trees were felled top-end first over the 1.2-1.3 m high regeneration (9 530-11 780 seedlings/ha) and into the striproad. No differences in productivity and cost between single- and double-grip harvesters in final cutting of shelterwood were found. Despite few stems/ha and extensive regeneration the harvesting cost was considered low (33.5 SEK/m3). Approximately one third of the seedlings suffered mortal logging damage, which was considered acceptable. No differences between conventional felling and the tossing the caber method were found regarding productivity, cost and damage to the regeneration. However, tossing the caber may be a more productive alternative in final cutting of pine-dominated shelterwood or seed tree stands. Seedling growth and survival after shelterwood removal was not influenced by the choice of harvester system. Seedling height and vitality were found to be good estimators of post-release survival and growth which, in total, was found to be acceptable in the

  18. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang


    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  19. Reciprocal regulation of Abl kinase by Crk Y251 and Abi1 controls invasive phenotypes in glioblastoma

    Kumar, Sushil; Lu, Bin; Dixit, Updesh; Hossain, Sajjad; Liu, Yongzhang; Li, Jing; Hornbeck, Peter; Zheng, Weiming; Sowalsky, Adam G.; Kotula, Leszek; Birge, Raymond B.


    Crk is the prototypical member of a class of Src homology 2 (SH2) and Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing adaptor proteins that positively regulate cell motility via the activation of Rac1 and, in certain tumor types such as GBM, can promote cell invasion and metastasis by mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that Crk, via its phosphorylation at Tyr251, promotes invasive behavior of tumor cells, is a prominent feature in GBM, and correlating with aggressive glioma grade IV staging and overall poor survival outcomes. At the molecular level, Tyr251 phosphorylation of Crk is negatively regulated by Abi1, which competes for Crk binding to Abl and attenuates Abl transactivation. Together, these results show that Crk and Abi1 have reciprocal biological effects and act as a molecular rheostat to control Abl activation and cell invasion. Finally, these data suggest that Crk Tyr251 phosphorylation regulate invasive cell phenotypes and may serve as a biomarker for aggressive GBM. PMID:26473374

  20. Impact Of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. And Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Bark Extracts On Important Strawberry Pathogens

    Minova Sandra


    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi induced considerable economic losses in strawberry production industry; therefore, more attention should be paid to development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. Coniferous trees produce a wide variety of compounds, such as terpenoids and phenolics. Several studies are known on fungicidal activity of different components of coniferous tree bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. bark ethanol extracts impact on pathogenous fungi causing diseases of strawberries. Products of processed pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies bark were tested. During 2011 to 2013, several in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effectiveness of pine and spruce bark extracts against various phytopathogenic fungi isolated from strawberries: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora cactorum and Mycosphaerella fragariae. Radial growth tests showed that coniferous bark extracts inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. cactorum and M. fragariae. Extracts had the highest antifungal effect on B. cinerea two and five days after inoculation (p < 0.05. Bark extracts can reduce the sporulation of B. cinerea, C. acutatum and P. cactorum.

  1. Network Performance Evaluation of Abis Interface over DVB-S2 in the GSM over Satellite Network

    S. B. Musabekov


    Full Text Available This paper deals with establishing a GSM link over Satellite. Abis interface, which is defined between Base Transceiver Station (BTS and Base Station Controller (BSC, in a GSM network is considered here to be routed over the Satellite. The satellite link enables a quick and cost-effective GSM link in meagerly populated areas. A different scenario comparison was done to understand the impact of Satellite environment on network availability comparing to terrestrial scenario. We have implemented an Abis interface over DVB S2 in NS2 and evaluated the performance over the high delay and loss satellite channel. Network performance was evaluated with respect to Satellite channel delay and DVB S2 encapsulation efficiency under different amount of user traffic and compared with the terrestrial scenario. The results clearly showed an increased amount of SDCCH and TCH channels required in the case of satellite scenario for the same amount of traffic in comparison to conventional terrestrial scenario. We have optimized the parameters based on the simulation results. Link budget estimation considering DVB-S2 platform was done to find satellite bandwidth and cost requirements for different network setups.

  2. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming


    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding. PMID:25344442

  3. A postal survey of data in general practice on the prevalence of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in patients aged 18-65 in one county in the west of Ireland.

    Finnerty, Fionnuala


    BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the prevalence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ireland. ABI prevalence has previously been obtained from Belgian general practitioners using a postal survey. We attempted to ascertain the prevalence of ABI in County Mayo through a postal survey of all general practitioners in the county.The specific objectives of this project were to:1. identify whether general practitioners are a. aware of patients with ABI aged 18-65 in their practices b. able to provide prevalence data on ABI in patients aged 18-65 c. able to provide data on age, gender and patient diagnosis 2. analyse prevalence of ABI from any available data from general practitioners. METHODS: A pilot postal survey was performed initially in order to assess the feasibility of the study. It was established that general practitioners did have the necessary information required to complete the questionnaire. A main postal survey was then undertaken. A postal questionnaire was administered to all general practices in County Mayo in the west of Ireland (n = 59). The response rate was 32.2% (n = 19). RESULTS: General practitioners who replied on behalf of their practice could provide data on patient age, gender and diagnosis. In the nineteen practices, there were 57 patients with ABI. The age-specific prevalence of ABI in the area surveyed was estimated at 183.7 per 100,000. The mean patient population per practice was 2,833 (SD = 950). There were found to be significantly more patients with ABI in rural areas than urban areas (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences in the ages of patients in the different ABI categories. Patients whose ABI was of traumatic origin were significantly younger than those patients with ABI of haemorrhagic origin (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Although this is a small-scale study, we have ascertained that general practitioners do have data on patients with ABI. Also, some prevalence data now exist where none was available before. These can

  4. Variations of wood delta 13C and water-use efficiency of Abies alba during the last century

    Variations of intrinsic water-use efficiency during the last century were investigated based on analysis of δ13C in tree rings of Abies alba from the Jura Mountains (eastern France). To separate the effects related to the age of the tree at the time the tree ring was formed from effects due to environmental changes, analyzed wood samples were extracted from a very large sample set including different tree ages and calendar dates of wood formation. For the first 75 yr of the life of Abies alba, δ13 of wood holocellulose increases with the age of the tree from -24.4%o at age 15 to approximately -22.5%o at age 75. Between the ages of 75 and 150 values remain constant at -22.5%. Consequently, the effect of the tree age on isotopic discrimination has to be taken into account in studies on the long-term environmental effects on δ13 in tree rings. Divergent trends of δ13 during the last century were observed between tree rings formed at age 40 and bulk air data. The isotopic discrimination Δ varied insignificantly around a mean of 17.3%o between the 1860s and the 1930s. It then decreased to 15.8%o from the 1930s to the 1980s. Using these results and classical models of carbon discrimination, we calculated that the intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/gw, the ratio of CO2 assimilation rate to stomatal conductance for water vapor), integrated over the year, has increased by 30% between the 1930s and the 1980s. These results, obtained at the level of mature trees, are consistent with the physiological effects of increasing CO2 concentrations as observed in controlled experiments on young seedlings. They are consistent with the strong increases in radial growth observed for Abies alba in western Europe over the past decades. However, other long-term environmental changes such as increasing nitrogen deposition could cause similar effects. (author)

  5. Preparative Isolation of Polar Antioxidant Constituents from Abies koreana Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Guided by DPPH center dot-HPLC Experiment

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Chae Lee; Kim, Chul Young


    Preparative separation of antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Abies koreana Wilson (Pinaceae) was performed by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system of ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (9:1:10, v/v) target-guided by DPPH•-HPLC experiment. In DPPH•-HPLC exp

  6. Liming effects on the chemical composition of the organic surface layer of a mature Norway spruce stand (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    Rosenberg, W.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Knicker, H.; Jager, de P.A.; Kreutzer, K.; Weiá, T.


    The application of lime in a mature Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) forest in southern Germany induced major changes in the activity of soil organisms and root growth. Since this may influence the chemical compostion of the soil organic matter (SOM) of the organic surface layer, its composit


    Ioana Anca Ieremia


    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  8. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  9. Lactococcal Abortive Infection Protein AbiV Interacts Directly with the Phage Protein SaV and Prevents Translation of Phage Proteins

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Samson, J.E.; Labrie, S.J.;


    proteins suggested that AbiV blocks the activation of late gene transcription, probably by a general inhibition of translation. Using size exclusion chromatography coupled with on-line static light scattering and refractometry, as well as fluorescence quenching experiments, we also demonstrated that both...

  10. Functions for biomass and basic density of stem, crown and root system of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Denmark

    Skovsgaard, Jens Peter; Bald, Caroline; Nord-Larsen, Thomas


    Models for predicting the biomass of forest trees are becoming increasingly important for assessing forest resources and carbon sequestration in forests. We developed functions for predicting the biomass and basic density of above- and below-ground parts of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst...

  11. Bacterial and abiotic decay in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst studied by confocal Raman imaging and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Gierlinger, Notburga; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht


    Waterlogged archaeological Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] poles were studied by means of confocal Raman imaging (CRI) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis to determine lignin and polysaccharide composition and distribution in the cell...

  12. Compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides como marcadores bioquímicos de la respuesta a estrés abiótico en plantas tolerantes



    Calatayud Vaello, P. (2010). Compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides como marcadores bioquímicos de la respuesta a estrés abiótico en plantas tolerantes. Archivo delegado

  13. Isoenzymatic variability in some of the Polish populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies in the IUFRO-1972 provenance trial

    Jerzy Modrzyński


    Full Text Available The isoenzymatic studies performed on nine Picea abies H. Karst populations from Poland, indicated considerable genetic variation among investigated stands. Genetic similarities have demonstrated a clear pattern of geographic variability. Three of the nine studied populations (Zwierzyniec, Nowe Ramuki and Orawa have shown markedly diverse characteristics compared to the remaining populations. The mountain populations have formed one group with two related subgroups. The mean number of alleles per locus (A / L = 2,22 and level of heterozygosity (Hp = 0,194 for the lowland populations are within the range of these parameters for other Norway spruce populations from Finland and Lithuania. The populations from Carpathians and Sudety mountains are geneticaly more polymorphic (Ho = 0,221, A / L = 2,34 than the others. This pattern of genetic variation suggests the existance of two gene pools, one from southern and one from northern Poland formed during the glacial period and differentiated further in southern Poland into two subpools.

  14. [Preparation and evaluation of the oral gel containing the essential oil from Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.)].

    Ajupova, Rizvangul; Masteiková, Ruta; Nejezchlebová, Marcela; Zemlička, Milan; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Vetchý, David


    Essential oil of the Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) ranks among the substances with potential use in prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis. Therefore, the aim of the study was the formulation, preparation and evaluation of an oral gel containing 0.3% of this essential oil. Carbopol 974P NF in 1% concentration was used as the gelling agent, some samples were additionally stabilized by an addition of polysorbate 80 (0.1-0.5%). Xylitol in concentrations of 10% or 20% was added with the aim to modify the taste properties of the gel. Following microscopic evaluation (mean oil droplet size, degree of dispersity) immediately after preparation and after 6-month storage, it has been found that the optimal concentration of polysorbate 80 is 0.3%. The results of the experiment also demonstrated that xylitol was not only an excipient adjusting the organoleptic properties of the preparation - its use enabled significant improvement of the quality parameters and stability. PMID:25115663

  15. Electronic structure and photocatalytic properties of ABi2Ta2O9 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    A new series of layered perovskite photocatalysts, ABi2Ta2O9 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba), were synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method and the crystal structures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the structure of ABi2Ta2O9 (A=Ca, Sr) is orthorhombic, while that of BaBi2Ta2O9 is tetragonal. First-principles calculations of the electronic band structures and density of states (DOS) revealed that the conduction bands of these photocatalysts are mainly attributable to the Ta 5d+Bi 6p+O 2p orbitals, while their valence bands are composed of hybridization with O 2p+Ta 5d+Bi 6s orbitals. Photocatalytic activities for water splitting were investigated under UV light irradiation and indicated that these photocatalysts are highly active even without co-catalysts. The formation rate of H2 evolution from an aqueous methanol solution is about 2.26 mmol h-1 for the photocatalyst SrBi2Ta2O9, which is much higher than that of CaBi2Ta2O9 and BaBi2Ta2O9. The photocatalytic properties are discussed in close connection with the crystal structure and the electronic structure in details. - Graphical abstract: The valence band of the photocatalysts is consisted of O 2p, Ta 5d and Bi 6s orbitals and the conduction band is from Bi 6p, Ta 5d and O 2p orbitals. Photocatalytic properties of the photocatalyst for H2 evolution without using other co-catalysts from CH3OH/H2O solution and O2 evolution from AgNO3/H2O solution were observed under Hg lamp irradiation

  16. Fiziološke adaptacije bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.), smrče (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) i jele (Abies alba Mill.) na sezonsko variranje abiotičkih činilaca u četiri zaštićena planinska staništa Republike Srbije

    Horak, Rita


    Tokom tri vegetacione sezone mereni su fiziološkiparametri: fotosinteza, transpiracija,  efikasnostiskorištavanja  vode (WUE), kao i parametribioprodukcije na odabranim šumskimpopulacijama bukve  (Fagus sylvatica  L.), smrče(Picea abies (L.) Kartsen) i jele (Abies alba Mill.),čija su staništa na različitim nadmorskim visinamasa različitom  dostupnošću vode u zemljištu.Određivana je i zavisnost između položaja šumskezaje...

  17. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes.

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni


    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better

  18. Fungistatic efficiency of phenolic compounds in spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. ) and influence of SO[sub 2]. Fungistatische Wirksamkeit phenolischer Inhaltsstoffe der Fichte Picea abies (L. ) Karst. und Einfluss von SO[sub 2

    Beyer, U. (TU Dresden, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Forstzoologie, Tharandt (Germany)); Tesche, M. (TU Dresden, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Forstzoologie, Tharandt (Germany)); Heller, W. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie); Sandermann, H. (GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie)


    The paper deals with fungistatic phenols in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Phenolic substances were isolated from several tissues and chromatographed by TLC. Detected by bioassay using Cladosporium cucumerinum, the most fungistatic compound was isolated and identified by UV-, mass- and NMT-spectra as the stilbenglucoside isorhapontin. The highest amounts of isorhapontin were found in a 15-year-old spruce in the bark of root (1.3%) and stem (0.4%), and also in fine roots (0.3%). Sapwood contained between 0.001 and 0.01% of this stilbene (all values related to green weight). The brown-rot fungi Phaeolus schweinitzii and Fomitopsis pinicola showed a depression of growth related to the concentration of isorhapontin on malt agar. Growth reduction of 50% was reached at a concentration of 1.25 mM (F. pinicola) and 3 mM (P. schweinitzii). The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Heterobasidion annosum, and Armillaria ostoyae were not inhibited. First investigation results 6 months after long-term SO[sub 2]-treatment (0.28-0.34 ppm) of cloned spruces showed a reduction of fungistatic stilbenes in fine roots and bark compared with untreated controls (indirect effect). (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of SA 333 Gr.6, AISI 304 and Zr-2.5% Nb through Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) technique has been employed in evaluating the tensile property data on three materials, namely SA333 Gr.6 carbon steel (used as PHT piping), AISI 304 (used as calandria vessel) and Zr-2.5% Nb (used as coolant tube) in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) with a view to exploring the applicability of ABI technique in providing reliable mechanical property data. The exercise was carried out in cooperation with a second laboratory where conventional tension tests alone were conducted such that the output of the study could be independently monitored and evaluated in an unbiased manner. The results generated in the authors' laboratory were found to be fully in agreement with what were obtained through conventional tension tests. Thus the study has been successful in establishing the reliability of the data obtained through miniature route especially in the case of coolant tube which has immense applications. (author)

  20. Composition and Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposing Systems in Extracellular and Total Extracts from Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L., Karst.)

    Polle, A.; Chakrabarti, K.; Schurmann, W.; Renneberg, H.


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging systems of spruce (Picea abies) needles were investigated in both extracts obtained from the extracellular space and extracts of total needles. As assessed by the lack of activity of symplastic marker enzymes, the extracellular washing fluid was free from intracellular contaminations. In the extracellular washing fluid ascorbate, glutathione, cysteine, and high specific activities of guaiacol peroxidases were observed. Guaiacol peroxidases in the extracellu...

  1. Influence of different particle sizes in the bark chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pinus sylvestris L. e Pinus pinea L.

    Mirra, Inês Martins Pereira


    Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The goal of this report is to characterize the bark of five industrially important forest species in Europe - Eucalyptus globulus, Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris e Pinus pinea and to define their potential use as a source of value added chemical products. It was performed the anatomical characterization of bark tissues (dissociated elements), the selective fractionation (si...

  2. Analysis of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX gene family in the conifer picea abies reveals extensive conservation as well as dynamic patterns

    Hedman, Harald; Zhu, Tianqing; Von Arnold, Sara; Sohlberg, Joel J.


    Background Members of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) gene family have important functions during all stages of plant development and have been implicated in the development of morphological novelties during evolution. Most studies have examined the function of these genes in angiosperms and very little is known from other plant species. Results In this study we examine the presence and expression of WOX genes in the conifer Picea abies. We have cloned 11 WOX genes from both mRNA and genom...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal communities associated with silver fir seedlings (Abies alba Mill.) differ largely in mature silver fir stands and in Scots pine forecrops

    Ważny, Rafał


    & Context The requirement for rebuilding forecrop stands besides replacement of meadow vegetation with forest plants and formation of soil humus is the presence of a compatible ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community. & Aims This study aims to assess ectomycorrhizal fungi di-versity associated with silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) seedlings regenerating in silver fir stands and Scots pine forecrops. & Methods One-year-old seedlings were sampled in six study sites: three mature fir forests and thr...

  4. Genetic control of susceptibility to fungal symbionts of juvenile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karsten) in relation to long-term growth performance

    Velmala, Sannakajsa


    This study was carried out in order to reveal the degree to which host-tree factors influence the interaction between Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and the endophytic (EN) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) found in their needles and roots, respectively. We also explored how susceptibility to fungal infection and the composition and functionality of associated fungal communities relates to seedling growth performance. In multiple glasshouse experiments, we challenged Norway spruce...

  5. Erstellung des internetbasierten Antibiotika-Informationssystems "VetAbis" für einen verantwortungsvollen Umgang mit Antibiotika in der Rinderpraxis

    Gooß, Barbara


    The objective of the internet based informationsystem ýVetAbisý was to support the bovine practitioners within the implementation of a prudent use of antibiotics by presenting the current knowledge in the internet. Various sources of information have been compiled and analysed. It became obvious that relevant information is scattered over multiple sources (e.g. textbooks, journals, drug guides). They are rarely up to date and not easily accesible to veterinarians without timely and financi...

  6. Space-related Resource Investments and Gains of Adult Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Spruce (Picea abies) as a Quantification of Aboveground Competitiveness

    Reiter, Ilja Marco


    In a field study, cost-benefit relationships of aboveground resource allocation were analysed in branches of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The study identified response patterns in allocation of resources under different light conditions in both species. It was postulated that resource investment and gains based on crown volume have the potential to quantitatively describe the plant’s competitive ability (i.e. competitiveness). Three cost-ben...

  7. Contrasting local and regional Holocene histories of Abies alba in the Czech Republic in relation to human impact. Evidence from forestry, pollen and anthracological data

    Kozáková, Radka; Šamonil, P.; Kuneš, P.; Novák, J.; Kočár, P.; Kočárová, R.


    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 431-444. ISSN 0959-6836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Abies alba * charcoal analysis * forest management * human impact * Medieval * pollen analysis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.595, year: 2011

  8. Differences between sapwood and heartwood of thermally modified Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) under water and decay exposure

    Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini


    Thermal modification methods have been developed to increase the biological durability and dimensional stability of wood. The aim of this research was to study the differences between sapwood and heartwood of thermally modified Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) under water and decay exposure. The effects of the modification temperature and wood coating were also examined. Several tests were carried out in the laboratory and field with three different complemen...

  9. Disentangling the Roles of History and Local Selection in Shaping Clinal Variation of Allele Frequencies and Gene Expression in Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

    J. Chen; Kallman, T.; Ma, X.; Gyllenstrand, N; Zaina, G.; M. Morgante; Bousquet, J; Eckert, A; Wegrzyn, J.; Neale, D.; Lagercrantz, U.; Lascoux, M


    Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We...

  10. Influence du type de nutrition azotée sur le déclenchement de la chlorose du sapin de Nordmann (Abies nordmanniana, Spach, 1842)

    Khalil, N.; Leyval, C.; Bonneau, M.; Guillet, B.


    Cases of chlorosis have been frequently mentioned in the Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) growing on calcareous soils. Symptoms appear during the early stages of growth and are diagnosed by a needle yellowing. Among the factors implicated in triggering chlorosis, the soil carhonates, bicarbonate-carbonate ionic activity of the soil solution, structure and texture of the soils and the kind of nitrogen nutrition are frequently cited. The characteristics of chlorosis have been studied in ...

  11. Expression of the gene encoding transcription factor PaVP1 differs in Picea abies embryogenic lines depending on their ability to develop somatic embryos

    Fischerová, Lucie; Fischer, L.; Vondráková, Zuzana; Vágner, Martin


    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2008), s. 435-441. ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB6038402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ABI3/VP1 transcription factor * Alternative splicing * Anatomy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.946, year: 2008

  12. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina


    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website. PMID:19941194

  13. Albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel (Abraxane® ABI-007 in the treatment of breast cancer

    Evelina Miele


    Full Text Available Evelina Miele1, Gian Paolo Spinelli1, Ermanno Miele2, Federica Tomao1, Silverio Tomao11Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy diagnosed in women. In the metastatic setting this disease is still uncurable. Taxanes represent an important class of antitumor agents which have proven to be fundamental in the treatment of advanced and early-stage breast cancer, but the clinical advances of taxanes have been limited by their highly hydrophobic molecular status. To overcome this poor water solubility, lipid-based solvents have been used as a vehicle, and new systemic formulations have been developed, mostly for paclitaxel, which are Cremophor-free and increase the circulation time of the drug. ABI-007 is a novel, albumin-bound, 130-nm particle formulation of paclitaxel, free from any kind of solvent. It has been demonstrated to be superior to an equitoxic dose of standard paclitaxel with a significantly lower incidence of toxicities in a large, international, randomized phase III trial. The availability of new drugs, such as Abraxane®, in association with other traditional and non-traditional drugs (new antineoplastic agents and targeted molecules, will give the oncologist many different effective treatment options for patients in this setting.Keywords: paclitaxel, Abraxane, breast cancer, nanotechnology

  14. Comparison of the Calibration Algorithms and SI Traceability of MODIS, VIIRS, GOES, and GOES-R ABI Sensors

    Raju Datla


    Full Text Available The radiometric calibration equations for the thermal emissive bands (TEB and the reflective solar bands (RSB measurements of the earth scenes by the polar satellite sensors, (Terra and Aqua MODIS and Suomi NPP (VIIRS, and geostationary sensors, GOES Imager and the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI are analyzed towards calibration algorithm harmonization on the basis of SI traceability which is one of the goals of the NOAA National Calibration Center (NCC. One of the overarching goals of NCC is to provide knowledge base on the NOAA operational satellite sensors and recommend best practices for achieving SI traceability for the radiance measurements on-orbit. As such, the calibration methodologies of these satellite optical sensors are reviewed in light of the recommended practice for radiometric calibration at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The equivalence of some of the spectral bands in these sensors for their end products is presented. The operational and calibration features of the sensors for on-orbit observation of radiance are also compared in tabular form. This review is also to serve as a quick cross reference to researchers and analysts on how the observed signals from these sensors in space are converted to radiances.

  15. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.


    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  16. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases:Characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture

    Sanna Koutaniemi; Heli A Malmberg; Liisa K Simola; Teemu H Teeri; Anna Karkonen


    Secondarily thickened cel wal s of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cel s contain lignin that makes the cel wal s water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five ful-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracel ular lignin-forming cel culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemical y characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cel culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8–4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 mM;however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  17. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar


    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste. PMID:25711043

  18. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils. - Dry years, especially in combination with calcium-poor soils, have a strong negative effect on the Ca status of silver fir trees

  19. Good manufacturing practice production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens


    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting 68Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use. PMID:27186441

  20. Structural studies of arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides from Abies sibirica L. Biological activity of pectins of A. sibirica.

    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Toukach, Philip V; Michailowa, Capital Ie Cyrilliclena А; Makarova, Elena N


    Highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, containing 84% of arabinose, was extracted from wood greenery of Abies sibirica L. The structure of arabinan was studied by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The macromolecule backbone was represented mainly by RG-I (molar ratio GalA:Rha ∼ 1.3:1) patterns with high degree of rhamnose branching. Side chains were comprised of 1,5-linked α-L-Araf residues (the major part of polymer mass), 1,3,5-di-O- and 1,2,3,5-tri-O-linked α-L-Araf residues, confirming the presence of highly branched 1,5-α-L-arabinan. Although most L-Araf were in α-anomeric form, minor terminal β-L-Araf-(1 →... was detected. 1,4-β-D-linked Galp residues found in the side chains account for minor AG-I or 1,4-galactan, as compared to arabinan. A tentative structure was proposed. Polysaccharides obtained from Siberian fir greenery were screened for biological activity. Galacturonan had a strongest stimulating effect on germination and growth rate of seeds, germs and roots of Triticum aestivum, Avena sativa, and Secale cereale. PMID:25256514

  1. First results on early post-fire succession in an Abies cephalonica forest (Parnitha National Park, Greece

    Ganatsas P


    Full Text Available Due to climate changes, the interest in the post-fire recovery of forest communities not adapted to wildfires, such as Greek fir (Abies cephalonica forests, has increased. In this study, the post-fire recovery of the burned A. cephalonica forest of Parnitha National Park (central Greece was investigated after a stand-replacing fire occurred in summer 2007, as well as the performance of A. cephalonica plantings in the post-fire conditions. The research focused on the estimation of the A. cephalonica stand reproductive capacity without fire, the evaluation of the post-fire regeneration of the burned stands, and the monitoring of the plantations performance after the fire in the area. Then, based on the field and laboratory data, the post-fire recovery process of A. cephalonica was evaluated by application of a simplified form of the comprehensive causal framework for ecological succession estimation in open site, developed by Pickett et al. (1987, adapted to the study conditions. According to the findings of the study, stand seed crop without fire was high, while seed quality was found extremely low. In the burned area, no A. cephalonica seedling recruitment was observed during the three years after the fire. A. cephalonica plantings exhibited a medium overall survival rate (65.3%, while seedlings growth was very slow. Thus, we can suppose that an ecological succession process may occur in the burned area, if no human interventions applied, and species adapted to wildfires (mainly shrubs and herbaceous will dominate in the area. However, planting of A. cephalonica seedlings could contribute to the species participation in the post-fire communities.

  2. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B


    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude that changes in bark thickness are not indicative of changes in either phloem water capacitance or xylem sap flow. PMID:12069917

  3. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner


    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  4. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies at a dry distribution limit

    Walter eOberhuber


    Full Text Available We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria. Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW, maximum daily shrinkage (MDS and radial growth (RG were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7 and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6 during 2014. ΔW, MDS and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA. Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests.

  5. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)


    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  6. [Spatial point pattern analysis of Abies georgei var. smithii in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China].

    Xie, Chuan-qi; Tian, Min-xia; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zheng, Wei-lie; Wang, Guo-yan


    In this study, based on a 4 hm2 stem-mapping plot, we analyzed spatial distributions of Abies georgei var. smithii, the dominant species in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China. Pair-correlation function was used to characterize univariate spatial point patterns of three size classes of the population and bivariate spatial patterns between those and different sizes of dead wood. A. georgei var. smithii population was characterized by reverse J-shaped DBH distribution, indicating an increasing population. Saplings of the population were spatially obviously aggregated at the small scales (0-7 m), and mid-sized trees and large-sized trees of the population were randomly or uniformly distributed. The aggregation intensities of A. georgei var. smithii decreased with the increasing diameter classes and spatial scales. Saplings and mid-sized trees were significantly and negatively associated with large-sized trees at the small scales (0-35 and 0-30 m), but the associations reversed at the large scales (45-100 and 80-100 m). In addition, with the increasing age difference between diameter classes of the population, the intensities of positive or negative correlations increased. Spatial associations between saplings and dead large-sized trees, and between mid-sized trees and dead large-sized trees were negative at the small scales (0-34 and 5-27 m), but positive at the large scales (49-100 and 73-100 m). This suggested that released niche space due to dead large-sized trees is not enough to weaken their negative impacts on saplings. We concluded that self-thinning effect and Janzen-Connell hypothesis may be the main mechanisms for the spatial pattern formation of A. georgei var. smithii population. PMID:26572011

  7. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)


    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  8. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan


    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature. PMID:26342621

  9. KnowIedge Teaching:An Effective Way to Promote the DeveIoPment of Thinking AbiIity%知识教学促进思维能力发展的有效方式



    KnowIedge and abiIity are restricted and Promoted reciProcaIIy. KnowIedge teaching may infIuence the deveIoPment of the abiIity in four ways of Positive and negative of baIance and imbaIance. KnowIedge can scarceIy naturaIIy changes into abiIity. Conscious Iearning and teaching are effective ways to Promote the deveIoPment of the abiIity to baIance and imbaIance. Thinking abiIity is the core comPetence of understanding and of PracticaI abiIity;knowIedge teaching,first of aII,can Promote the deveIoPment of thinking abiIity;we shouId choose effective teaching methods to Promote the Positive baIance and imbaIance deveIoPment of thinking abiIity,IogicaI thinking abiIity,thinking in images and imagination,diaIecticaI thinking and converse thinking,thinking of induction,and,deduction and reasoning.%知识与能力相互制约和促进。知识教学对能力发展的影响可能产生正负向平衡和不平衡的四种状态。知识自然而然地转化为能力的程度很有限,自觉的求知和教学方式是知识促进能力发展达到正向平衡和不平衡的有效方式。思维能力是认识和实践能力的核心能力,知识教学促进能力的发展首先是促进思维能力的发展,应选择有效教学方式促进探究思维能力、逻辑思维能力、形象思维和想象力、辩证思维和逆向思维能力、思维的归纳、演绎和推理能力实现正向平衡和不平衡的发展。

  10. The run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms may serve as a valid scoring system in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and correlates with the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI)

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the hemodynamic parameter ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and the run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms (MRA) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) Fontaine Stage I and II and its potential as reliable reporting system in clinical routine. Methods: Contrast-enhanced MRA was performed in 321 PAD patients using a 1.5 T MR scanner with moving bed technique. The ROR and resting ABI were determined in each patient's leg and correlation analysis was performed using the Pearson test. Results: A significant negative correlation (r = −.513; p < .001) between ROR (mean 11.03 ± 5.42) and resting ABI (mean .81 ± .26) was identified. An even more pronounced correlation was found in patients younger than median age who had higher ABI values (r = −.608; p < .001). Conclusion: The ROR scoring system evaluated in this series correlates better with the ABI than previously published scoring systems and could be suggested as reporting system for routine MRA evaluation.


    Visočnik, Metka


    Osmerozobi smrekov lubadar (Ips typographus L.) je med podlubniki eden najpomembnejših škodljivcev navadne smreke [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst] v Evropi. Dovzetnost dreves za škodljivce je v veliki meri odvisna od sistemsko pridobljene odpornosti (SAR). Ta izzove kvalitativne in kvantitativne spremembe v kemični sestavi gostitelja in predstavlja trajnejši način obrambe. Vodilna signalna molekula, ki izzove sistemsko pridobljeno odpornost (SAR) je salicilna kislina (SK), saj je preko različnih m...

  12. Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values

    van der Knaap, W. O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Finsinger, Walter; Gobet, Erika; Pini, Roberta; Schweizer, Astrid; Valsecchi, Verushka; Ammann, Brigitta


    Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101 pollen sequences are improved or created. Data from the area delimited by 45.5-48.1°N and 6-14°E are summarized in three ways: (1) in a selection of pollen-percentage threshold maps (thresholds 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 32% of land pollen); (2) in graphic summaries of 250-year time slices and geographic segments (lengthwise and transverse in relation to the main axis of the Alps) as pollen-percentage curves, pollen-percentage difference curves, and pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP graphed against both the length and the transverse Alpine axes; and (3) in tables showing statistical relationships of either pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP or pollen expansion durations (=time lapse between different pollen-percentage threshold ages cal BP) with latitude, longitude, and elevation; to establish these relationships we used both simple linear regression and multiple linear regression after stepwise-forward selection. Results: The statistical results indicate that (a) the use of pollen-percentage thresholds between 0.5% and 8% yield mostly similar directions of tree migration, so the method is fairly robust, (b) Abies migrated northward, Fagus southward, Picea westward, and Quercus northward; more detail does not emerge due to an extreme scarcity of high-quality data especially along the southern foothills of the Alps and in the eastern Alps. This scarcity allows the reconstruction of one immigration route only of Abies into the southern Alps. The speed of population expansion (following arrival) of Abies increased and of Picea decreased during the Holocene, of Fagus it decreased especially during the later Holocene, and of Quercus it increased especially at the

  13. Influence of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings

    Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] seedlings were grown in greenhouses with two supplemental levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and vitality index were determined monthly. At the end of the experiment, growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates were measured. The data indicate that low temperature in winter affected light dependent processes in experimental plants including control, while the rise of ambient temperatures, moderate this effect. The synergistic effects of UV-B radiation and low temperatures could only be observed in the second winter period. Measurements of net photosynthetic activity in the second winter period showed significant differences between treated and untreated plants. (author)

  14. Micorriza arbuscular y estrés abiótico en el contenido de alcaloides (vinblastima y vincristina) de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    Rosa Mera, Claudia Janette de la


    Este estudio evaluó el incremento de vinblastina y vincristina en plantas micorrizadas de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., establecidas en invernadero, sometidas a estrés abiótico causado por aplicaciones de bicarbonato de potasio (2.5 y 7.5 mM) y cloruro de sodio (40 mM). El presente trabajo fue dividido en tres fases experimentales. La primera fase describe la propagación de consorcios e identificación de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA) obtenidos de la rizósfera ...

  15. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    M.R. Pineda Lopez; L. R. Sanchez-Velasquez; G. Vazquez-Dominguez; Rojo Alboreca, A.


    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa).Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground ...

  16. Estudio de los hongos que fructifican en la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss., en España peninsular. II. Ascomycotina. II

    Larios, Juana M.ª; Honrubia, Mario; Moreno, Gabriel


    Se citan 41 taxones de la subdivisión Ascomycotina procedentes de la vegetación relicta de Abies pinsapo Boiss. en las provincias de Málaga y Cádiz. Es de resaltar la presencia de Aphiorhynchostoma curreyi (Rabenh.) MUller, Cucurbitaria berberidis (Pers.: Fries) Gray, Sydowia polispora (Bref. C v. Tavel) MUller, Glonium graphicum (Fries) Duby, Caloscypha fulgens (Pers.) Boudier, Coronophora abietina Fuck. y Rosellinia tassiana De Not.Se incluyen observaciones de tipo morfológico y taxonómico ...

  17. Respuestas fenotípicas en larvas de anuros a situaciones cambiantes en los factores bióticos y abióticos

    Gómez, Valeria Isabel


    Las respuestas fenotípicas son, comúnmente, respuestas adaptativas de los organismos que por lo general se mantienen por selección natural. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento de la estructura de una población exige saber cómo influyen los diferentes factores bióticos y abióticos -grado de cambio ambiental, presencia de predadores y competidores- sobre los organismos, teniendo en cuenta sus ciclos de vida y las estrategias evolutivas involucradas. Las larvas de anfibios son organismos muy intere...

  18. Early testing of growth rhythm in Picea abies for prediction of frost damage and growth in the field

    Hannerz, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics


    The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate methods for the early testing of adaptive traits in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in order to predict growth and damage in the field. The work was based on studies of growth rhythm, growth and damage in short-term tests and in 9-14- year-old field trials. The reliability of different test methods for predicting field performance was evaluated using (i) temperature models for predicting date of bud burst and associated frost risk in the field, (ii) estimates of clinal variation in traits describing growth cessation and (iii) estimates of genetic correlations between farm-field and field trials. Timing of bud burst was under strong genetic control, and had an important influence on field performance. Selection of families for late bud burst was shown to increase height in the field and reduce the frequency of frost damage, ramicorns and double-stems. The date of bud burst could be accurately predicted with a temperature-sum model. Simulations with this model demonstrated that seedlings of local provenances planted in central Sweden would be exposed to frosts after bud burst twice as often as seedlings of Belorussian provenances. A strong latitudinal clinal variation in timing of budset, lignification, height growth cessation and frost hardiness in first-year seedlings indicated that the traits reflect autumn-frost hardiness in the field, at least at the population level. Growth cessation, measured as leader lignification on 24-year-old seedlings, was under less genetic control than bud burst. Furthermore, the correlation between lignification and field performance was lower than that for bud burst. Seedlings with free growth tended to be shorter and sustain more damage in the field. A testing strategy for evaluating adaptive traits in the Norway spruce breeding programme was suggested. One key component is the infusion of a thoroughly evaluated reference set in the tests. This would enable the results to be

  19. General practitioner advice on physical activity: Analyses in a cohort of older primary health care patients (getABI

    Thiem Ulrich


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of physical activity for health and functioning are recognized to extend throughout life, the physical activity level of most older people is insufficient with respect to current guidelines. The primary health care setting may offer an opportunity to influence and to support older people to become physically active on a regular basis. Currently, there is a lack of data concerning general practitioner (GP advice on physical activity in Germany. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate and characteristics of older patients receiving advice on physical activity from their GP. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data collected at 7 years of follow-up of a prospective cohort study (German epidemiological trial on ankle brachial index, getABI. 6,880 unselected patients aged 65 years and above in the primary health care setting in Germany were followed up since October 2001. During the 7-year follow-up telephone interview, 1,937 patients were asked whether their GP had advised them to get regular physical activity within the preceding 12 months. The interview also included questions on socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, medical conditions, and physical activity. Logistic regression analysis (unadjusted and adjusted for all covariables was used to examine factors associated with receiving advice. Analyses comprised only complete cases with regard to the analysed variables. Results are expressed as odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of the 1,627 analysed patients (median age 77; range 72-93 years; 52.5% women, 534 (32.8% stated that they had been advised to get regular physical activity. In the adjusted model, those more likely to receive GP advice on physical activity were men (OR [95% CI] 1.34 [1.06-1.70], patients suffering from pain (1.43 [1.13-1.81], coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction (1.56 [1.21-2.01], diabetes mellitus (1

  20. Modeling effects of temperature and precipitation on carbon characteristics and GHGs emissions in Abies fabric forest of subalpine

    LU Xuyang; CHENG Genwei; XIAO Feipeng; FAN Jihui


    Abies fabric forest in the eastern slope of Gongga mountain is one type of subalpine dark coniferous forests of southwestern China.It is located on the southeastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and is sensitive to climatic changes,A process-oriented biogeochemical model,Forest-DNDC,was applied to simulate the effects of climatic factors,temperature and precipitation changes on carbon characteristics,and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions inA.fabric forest.Validation indicated that the Forest-DNDC could be used to predict carbon characteristics and GHGs emissions with reasonable accuracy.The model simulated carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,soil CO2,N2O,and NO emissions with the changes of temperature and precipitation conditions.The results showed that with variation in the baseline temperature from-2℃ to+2℃,the gross primary production (GPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC)increased,and the net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) decreased because of higher respiration rate.With increasing baseline precipitation the GPP and NPP increased slightly,and the NEP and SOC showed decreasing trend.Soil CO2 emissions increased with the increase of temperature,and CO2 emissions changed little with increased baseline precipitation.With increased temperature and decreased baseline temperature,the total annual soil N2O emissions increased.With the variation of baseline temperature from -2℃ to +2℃,the total annual soil NO emissions increased.The total annual N2O and NO emissions showed increasing trends with the increase of precipitation.The biogeochemical simulation of the typical forest indicated that temperature changes strongly affected carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,and soil GHGs emissions.The precipitation was not a principal factor affecting carbon fluxes,soil carbon dynamics,and soil CO2 emissions,but changes in precipitation could exert strong effect on soil N2O and NO emissions.

  1. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China

    Chen Lei; Wu Feihua; Liu Tingwu; Chen Juan; Li Zhenji [Key Laboratory for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, Ministry of Education of China, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Pei Zhenming [Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 87705 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng Hailei, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, Ministry of Education of China, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)


    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations. - Tree ring information of Abies fabri is suitable to reconstruct soil acidity caused by acid deposition.

  2. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    Hofer, Nora; Alexou, Maria [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Heerdt, Christian [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Loew, Markus [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Rennenberg, Heinz [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Haberer, Kristine [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail:


    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O{sub 3}), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years.

  3. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China

    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations. - Tree ring information of Abies fabri is suitable to reconstruct soil acidity caused by acid deposition.

  4. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K


    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are likely in the event of continued climate warming. To assess the impact of this trend on the regeneration of high altitude spruce-fir forests and the migration of plant communities, in particular the encroachment of spruce-fir forests and Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. islands into adjacent grass bald communities, we investigated effects of cloud immersion on photosynthetic parameters of seedlings of Abies fraseri and R. catawbiense in a grass bald site and A. fraseri in a forest understory. Although photosynthetic photon flux was 4.2 to 19.4-fold greater during clear conditions, cloud immersion had no effect on photosynthesis in A. fraseri at either site, whereas it reduced photosynthesis of R. catawbiense by about 40%. However, cloud immersion increased mean leaf fluorescence by 7.1 to 12.8% in both species at both sites. Cloud immersion increased mean relative humidity from 65 to 96%, reduced transpiration by 95% and reduced mean leaf-to-air temperature difference from 6.6 to 0.5 degrees C. PMID:18171662


    Hadi Dashti,


    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of pre-steaming on mass transfer properties, including air permeability and water vapor diffusivity of fir wood (Abies alba L., a gymnosperm species with torus margo pit membrane, was evaluated. The pre-steaming was performed at temperatures of 120, 140, and 160°C for 1 hour under a pressure of 2-3 bars. Then, the pre-steamed specimens were conventionally dried at a constant temperature of 160°C and a relative humidity of 50% to the final moisture content of 10%. Subsequently, the mass transfer properties of the dried specimens were measured in longitudinal and radial directions. Overall, the pre-steaming was found to be an effective modification method to improve the mass transfer properties of Abies alba L. The improvement was more remarkable for the air permeability as well as through the radial direction. The specimens steamed at the temperature of 160°C had higher mass transfer rates than those steamed at the temperatures of 120 and 140°C. Results of chemical analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM imaging provide some explanations for the effects of pre-steaming.

  6. Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: Bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio

    P. Torres-Cañabate


    Full Text Available Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: Bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio. Tradicionalmente, los estudios biogeoquímicos consideraban el suelo como una "caja negra", conectada con el resto del ecosistema mediante flujos de entrada y de salida de nutrientes, en la que éstos experimentan transformaciones mediadas engran parte por microorganismos desconocidos. El desarrollo de nuevas técnicas moleculares ha incrementado el conocimiento sobre lascomunidades microbianas del suelo. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto correspondencias entre la variabilidad de la disponibilidad de nutrientes y la estructura de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales. A este respecto, hemos empleado bosques de Abies pinsapo como modelo ya que muestran una gran variabilidad biogeoquímica asociada a diferencias litológicas y sucesionales, mientras que la estacionalidad mediterránea provoca una alta variabilidad intra-anual en la disponibilidad de nutrientes. Además, existen pinsapares sujetos alimitación o a saturación de nitrógeno. Mediante análisis del polimorfismo de longitud de fragmentos de restricción terminal (T-RFLP, hemos puesto de manifiesto que los patrones de variabilidad biogeoquímica descritos en los pinsapares se corresponden con cambios en la composición y estructura de sus comunidades bacterianas.

  7. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten;


    uptake capacity of Rb+ and NH4+ by these fine roots under standardized conditions in the laboratory. The study was performed in monocultures of oak (Quercus robur L.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] on sandy soil in a tree species trial in Denmark. The...

  8. On the causality of the predisposition of conifers to the attack by needle eating insects with reference to Picea abies L. (Karst. ) and Gilpinia hercyniae Htg. (Hym. , Diprionidae). Zur Kausalanalyse der Disposition von Nadelbaeumen fuer den Befall durch nadelfressende Insekten am Beispiel Picea abies (L. ) Karst. und Gilpinia hercyniae Htg. (Hym. , Diprionidae)

    Schopf, R.


    On the basis of biochemical needle analysis the predisposition of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (Karst.)) to the attack by a needle eating insect (Gilpinia hercyniae Htg.; Hym., Diprionidae) is quantified. The physiological bond between the sawfly and spruce is divided in three different experimental levels: Synthesis of insect biomass by plant born nutrients; Physiological potency of the plant to inhibit the insect metabolism by allelochemicals; Physiological potency of the insect to break the plant defense. The importance of the predisposition of trees on the stability of forest ecosystems is discussed.

  9. Aby Warburg, Homo victor’ [A translation (back into English, and with some revisions of the article that appeared in French: ‘Aby Warburg, Homo victor’, in Cahiers du Musée national d’art moderne 118, 2011/12, 81-101

    Christopher S. Wood


    Full Text Available This essay reflects on the reception of Aby Warburg’s writings in the last several decades. A common theme of the recent literature is that Warburg was misunderstood or misread by the scholars who looked after the library and the legacy in London, in particular Ernst H. Gombrich. Here it is proposed that Gombrich, with his mistrust of traditional aesthetics, his affirmative humanism, and his hopes for a convergence of humanistic studies with the natural sciences, grasped aspects of Warburg’s thought that much of the recent literature has missed.

  10. Histological studies on the bundle sheath in needles of Picea abies (L. ) Karst. , diseased or fumigated with SO/sub 2/

    Maier-Maercker, U.


    The paper reports disorganisations within the bundle sheath in current year needles of diseased Picea abies. Similar symptoms were produced by fumigation of young trees for 20 days with 0.3 ppm SO/sub 2/. The lignified radial walls of the sheath cells were in a state of partial delignification and the lumina contained granular substances which absorbed UV light at 280 nm. While autofluorescence of the radial walls was weak in injured material the granular cell contents were heavily fluorescent. Studies of structural features and the outcome of feeding experiments using berberine sulfate and Tl/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ suggest that the bundle sheath is involved in the water transport from the vascular system towards the evaporating surfaces of the needle. The activity of wall bound peroxidase was localized histochemically; the possible role of this enzyme complex is discussed.

  11. Fotosíntesis, fotoprotección, productividad y estrés abiótico: algunos casos de estudio

    Tambussi, Eduardo Alberto


    En la presente Tesis se han analizado diferentes casos de estudio acerca del estrés abiótico en plantas, cuyos objetivos fueron: (a) estudiar la vinculación entre daño oxidativo y la fotoinhibición en plantas de soja sometidas a bajas temperaturas; (b) la fotoprotección en plantas de trigo duro sometidas a déficit hídrico (c) el daño oxidativo al aparato fotosintético del trigo blando bajo déficit hídrico (d) la respuesta fotosintética de la espiga y la hoja bandera de trigo duro bajo estrés ...

  12. Levantamento de doenças bióticas e abióticas em Eucalyptus Benthamii Maiden nos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina

    Schultz, Bruno


    Dentre as espécies de Eucalyptus plantadas na região Sul do Brasil, Eucalyptus benthamii encontra-se em expansão por sua produtividade e resistência à geadas. Contudo, além das geadas, pouco se conhece sobre os fatores limitantes à produção desta espécie. Desse modo, foi realizado um levantamento em viveiros, plantios comerciais e áreas experimentais com E. benthamii, nos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina com o objetivo de identificar as doenças bióticas e abióticas nesta espécie. O levantam...

  13. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the photosynthetic characteristics of Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees growing in field conditions

    A group of five-year-old cloned Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were grown in field conditions. Half of them were exposed to elevated levels of UV-B radiation that simulated a 25% decrease of the stratospheric ozone layer. Photosynthetic characteristics were estimated by examining current shoots after one month and three months of exposure, respectively. Using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, A/Ci and A/I response curves, and biochemical model parameters, the photorespiration and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II was estimated. Electron transport, Rubisco activity, and enzymes from the Calvin cycle appeared to be the most sensitive to UV-B or the synergic influence of the other stresses, especially low temperatures, that affect the CO2 fixation level

  14. Gradients of the content of photosynthetic pigments and radiation as manifestations of the health condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    The distribution and quantities of chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids were determined in a sample tree of Picea abies in order to evaluate its health condition. The content of photosynthetic pigments (PhP) was determined by spectrophotometric analysis. The sample tree was situated at the Rajec nad Svitavou locality, the Drahany Upland, Czech Republic (altitude 625 to 640 m). It was shown that the inner coordination of the content of PhP in the crown in relation to the age of needles and their insolation was sufficient. Thus, the tree did not show impaired health condition and its growth retardation resulted from the short crown. The extent of the photosynthetic apparatus and stability of the tree would be increased particularly after elongation of the lower part of a crown, the so-called compensating part. (author)

  15. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    Jensen, D.B.


    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled C0{sub 2} climates was estimated.

  16. The relationship between the arrangement of rays in secondary phloem and grain inclination in the wood of Pinus silyestris L. and Picea abies Karst

    Władysław Pyszyński


    Full Text Available The arrangement of rays in cross sections of secondary phloem and the wood grain on the tangential and radial surfaces of wood columns from Pinus silvestris and Picea abies was studied. It was found that in most cases the rays were slanted and deviated from the geometric radius in either the S-direction (to the left or in the Z-direction (to the right when the cross section of the stem was observed from above. The S-type deviation dominated in those stems in which the wood grain in the peripheral parts was of the S-type (left-oriented, whereas the deviation of rays in the Z-direction was found to dominate in those objects, in which the wood grain in the peripheral parts of the stem was of the Z-type (right-oriented.

  17. La mort d’Orphée ou le retour de la bestialité : Aby Warburg et l’antisémitisme1

    Schoell-Glass, Charlotte


    L’examen précis des carnets de notes, manuscrits et fichiers d’Aby Warburg permet de montrer comment le projet warburgien d’une science culturelle et la Bibliothèque sur laquelle ce projet s’appuyait sont nés d’une confrontation aiguë avec l’antisémitisme de son époque, sans que ce dernier ne soit généralement nommé dans les textes publiés. En suivant les analyses warburgiennes du motif de la mort d’Orphée dans une gravure de Durer, l’article se propose de montrer le lien étroit qui existe en...

  18. Przewozy towarów między portem w Hamburgu i Polską - perspektywy rozwoju Unii Izb Łaby i Odry (KEO)

    Teuber, Mark-Oliver; Wedemeier, Jan; Wilke, Christina Benita; Yadegar, Edesa


    Unia Izb Łaby i Odry (KEO) jest transgranicznym zrzeszeniem należących do niej izb, działającym na rzecz wzmocnienia potencjału gospodarczego regionów objętych ich działaniem. W unii tej współpracuje ze sobą 17 niemieckich, 7 polskich i 10 czeskich izb przemysłowo-handlowych oraz izb rzemieślniczych. Celem inicjatywy jest wspólne reprezentowanie interesów firm z tego regionu na szczeblu krajowym i europejskim. Chodzi przy tym zwłaszcza o dalszy rozwój infrastruktury transportowej w obszarze K...

  19. The impact of long-term CO2 enrichment on sun and shade needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies): Photosynthetic performance, needle anatomy and phenolics accumulation

    Lhotáková, Z.; Urban, Otmar; Dubánková, M.; Cvikrová, Milena; Tomášková, Ivana; Kubínová, Lucie; Zvára, K.; Marek, Michal V.; Albrechtová, J.

    188-189, JUN (2012), s. 60-70. ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600110507; GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Elevated CO2 * Mesophyll structure * Phenolic compounds * Photosynthesis * Picea abies * Stereological methods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; ED - Physiology (FGU-C); EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.922, year: 2012

  20. Past and future evolution of Abies alba forests in Europe - comparison of a dynamic vegetation model with palaeo data and observations.

    Ruosch, Melanie; Spahni, Renato; Joos, Fortunat; Henne, Paul D; van der Knaap, Willem O; Tinner, Willy


    Information on how species distributions and ecosystem services are impacted by anthropogenic climate change is important for adaptation planning. Palaeo data suggest that Abies alba formed forests under significantly warmer-than-present conditions in Europe and might be a native substitute for widespread drought-sensitive temperate and boreal tree species such as beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) under future global warming conditions. Here, we combine pollen and macrofossil data, modern observations, and results from transient simulations with the LPX-Bern dynamic global vegetation model to assess past and future distributions of A. alba in Europe. LPX-Bern is forced with climate anomalies from a run over the past 21 000 years with the Community Earth System Model, modern climatology, and with 21st-century multimodel ensemble results for the high-emission RCP8.5 and the stringent mitigation RCP2.6 pathway. The simulated distribution for present climate encompasses the modern range of A. alba, with the model exceeding the present distribution in north-western and southern Europe. Mid-Holocene pollen data and model results agree for southern Europe, suggesting that at present, human impacts suppress the distribution in southern Europe. Pollen and model results both show range expansion starting during the Bølling-Allerød warm period, interrupted by the Younger Dryas cold, and resuming during the Holocene. The distribution of A. alba expands to the north-east in all future scenarios, whereas the potential (currently unrealized) range would be substantially reduced in southern Europe under RCP8.5. A. alba maintains its current range in central Europe despite competition by other thermophilous tree species. Our combined palaeoecological and model evidence suggest that A. alba may ensure important ecosystem services including stand and slope stability, infrastructure protection, and carbon sequestration under significantly warmer

  1. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham. forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    M.R. Pineda Lopez


    Full Text Available Aim of study. Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa.Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs were used: (UTM; GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa was estimated using an equation specific to species.Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%. The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41; the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1 was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico.Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit.Key words: Aboveground biomass; carbon storage; ecological corridors; fir forest.

  2. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Pineda-Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez-Velasquez, L. R.; Vazquez-Dominguez, G.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.


    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa). Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, ortho photographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa) was estimated using an equation specific to species. Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%). The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41); the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1) was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico. Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration) and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit. (Author) 55 refs.

  3. Simulating Carbon Sequestration and GHGs Emissions in Abies fabric Forest on the Gongga Mountains Using a Biogeochemical Process Model Forest-DNDC

    LU Xuyang; CHENG Genwei; XIAO Feipeng; HUO Changfu


    The process-oriented model Forest-DNDC describing biogeochemical cycling of C and N and GHGs (greenhouse gases) fluxes (CO2, NO and N2O) in forest ecosystems was applied to simulate carbon sequestration and GHGs emissions in Abies fabric forest of the Gongga Mountains at southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that the simulated gross primary production (GPP) of Abies fabric forest was strongly affected by temperature. The annual total GPP was 24,245.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 26,318.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2006, respectively. The annual total net primary production (NPP) was 5,935.5 and 4,882.2 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, and the annual total net ecosystem production (NEP) was 4,815.4 and 3,512.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively. The simulated seasonal variation in CO2 emissions generally followed the seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation. The annual total CO2 emissions were 3,109.0 and 4,821.0 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, the simulated annual total N2O emissions from forest soil were 1.47 and 1.36 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, and the annual total NO emissions were 0.09 and 0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively.

  4. The impact of Site Changes and Management Methods on Dieback of Common Spruce (Picea abies Karst. in Croatia

    Slavko Matić


    Full Text Available Common spruce (Picea abies Karst. is a tree species that occurs naturally in the valleys and other frost sites in high mountain regions, where it is free of serious competition of other tree species. Being resistant to frost, the winter colds of the continental and mountainous climate suit it. It is highly tolerant of winter chills of the continental and mountainous climate, it likes areas with abundant precipitation and snow in particular and avoids those with little precipitation and low relative air humidity. In Croatia, it naturally occurs in high mountain areas of Gorski Kotar, Velebit and other parts of Lika, and especially in frost spots where it is free of competition with other tree species. In Europe, spruce is a favourite tree species for the establishment of forest cultures. It has the properties of both pioneer and transitional tree species. It is highly sensitive to summer droughts. During its growth, in its habitats it creates the conditions for the development of tree species of a climatogenous forest. It develops in regular and uneven-aged stands, while its percentage in selection stands with stable structural and stand conditions is lower. The total growing stock amounts to 13,200,000 m³, which accounts for 5.57 m³/ha of the forested area in Croatia. Its volume share in the highest age and diameter classes is 80%, which indicates its advanced age and physiological weakening. Regular and uneven-aged spruce forests of high silvicultural form cover an area of 6,300 ha, of which spruce accounts for 52% in the composition mixture, silver fir for 35%, common beech for 11%, and other species for 2%. Spruce is currently significantly affected by dieback; at the level of Croatia, the percentage of defoliated crowns is 59.3%, while in the Gorski Kotar area alone it is 96.2%. Droughts are one of the most important factors contributing to the physiological weakening and dieback of spruce in Croatia, while in Europe they are the major

  5. Índice Tornozelo-Braquial (ITB determinado por esfigmomanômetros oscilométricos automáticos Assessing Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI by using automated oscillometric devices

    Takao Kawamura


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Índice Tornozelo-Braquial (ITB é essencial na prática clínica, mas dificuldades técnicas na sua execução pelo padrão de referência Doppler vascular (DV tornam-no ainda pouco utilizado. OBJETIVO: Avaliar aplicabilidade da determinação do ITB com uso de esfigmomanômetros oscilométricos automáticos (EOA e sugerir a utilização dos índices delta-Bráquio-Braquial (delta-BB e delta-ITB como marcadores de risco cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e observacional de 247 pacientes ambulatoriais (56,2% feminino, média 62,0 anos submetidos à determinação do ITB com aferição simultânea da pressão arterial (PA em membros superiores (MMSS e inferiores (MMII utilizando-se dois EOA (OMRON-HEM705CP. Nos casos em que não foi possível aferir PA em pelo menos um dos MMII utilizou-se DV. Os pacientes divididos em Grupo N (ITB normal: 0,91 a 1,30 e Grupo A (ITB alterado: 1,30 tiveram comparados entre si os valores de delta-ITB (diferença absoluta ITB/MMII e delta-BB (diferença absoluta PAS/MMSS. RESULTADOS: Utilizando-se EOA foi possível determinar ITB em 90,7%. Com dados do Grupo N determinaram-se valores de referência (VR no percentil 95 de delta-ITB (0-0,13 e delta-BB (0-8 mmHg. Quando comparado com o Grupo N, o Grupo A apresentou prevalência mais elevada tanto de delta-ITB (30/52 contra 10/195; Razão de Chances: 25,23; pBACKGROUND: Assessing Ankle-Brachial Index is an essential procedure in clinical settings, but since its measurement by the gold standard Doppler Ultrasonic (DU technique is impaired by technical difficulties, it is underperformed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an automated oscillometric device (AOD by performing Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI assessments and to suggest delta brachial-brachial (delta-BB and delta-ABI as markers of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: In this observational and descriptive study, 247 patients (56.2% females, mean age 62.0 years had their

  6. Establecimiento de una red de equilibrios biológicos en ecosistemas con presencia de pinsapo (Abies pinsapo Boiss. en Andalucía.

    Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.


    Full Text Available In 2001, the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía established a Monitoring Network on ecosystems of Abies pinsapo Boiss.for evaluating the phytosanitary state in the natural range areas of A. pinsapo in the Iberian Península: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Spain, Sierra de Grazalema (Cadiz, Spain and Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Spain. This network is based on a 1 x 1 Km grid established throughout the forest stands where Abies pinsapo is present, given by the Mapa Forestal de España (Spanish land cover map, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. The Network has been constructed from 35 sample plots, which will be visited annually (in summer in order to assess the state of trees. This article describes the network design process and the main results from the first campaign of sampling.

    En mai 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente-Junta de Andalucía a mis sur pied un Réseau pour la surveillance systématique et multitemporelle de l'état de santé et vitalité des forets de Abies pinsapo Boiss. dans ses aires de répartition naturelle dans la Péninsule Ibérique: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Espagne, Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz, Espagne et Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Espagne. Cet inventaire a été réalisé à partir d'un réseau d'échantillonnage systématique selon un maillage de 1 x 1 kilomètres couvrant la surface des forêts avec présence de Abies pinsapo, d'après la Mapa Forestal de España (Carte Forestière Espagnole, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. Après Rétablissement, l'inventaire a été constitué par 35 parcelles d'observation, qui seront visitées annuellement (en été pour évaluer l'état des arbres. Cette note présente le dessin de ce réseau et les résultats de la première campagne de terrain.
    En la primavera del año 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía estableció una Red de Equilibrios Biol

  7. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing.

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano


    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3-5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1-3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1-1.5% in the >0.5-1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5-1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  8. Height Extraction and Stand Volume Estimation Based on Fusion Airborne LiDAR Data and Terrestrial Measurements for a Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] Test Site in Romania

    Apostol, Bogdan; Adrian LORENT; Marius PETRILA; Gancz, Vladimir; Ovidiu BADEA


    The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of individual tree identification and stand volume estimation from LiDAR data. The study was located in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stands in southwestern Romania and linked airborne laser scanning (ALS) with terrestrial measurements through empirical modelling. The proposed method uses the Canopy Maxima algorithm for individual tree detection together with biometric field measurements and individual trees positioning. Fiel...

  9. Structure determination at room temperature and phase transition studies above $T_c$ in ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb)

    G Nalini; T N Guru Row


    The room temperature structure of three compounds belonging to the Aurivillius family ( = 4), ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb) has been analysed. BaBi4Ti4O15 crystallizes in a tetragonal 4/ space group whereas SrBi4Ti4O15 and PbBi4Ti4O15 crystallize in the orthorhombic space group $A2_1am$. The starting model for the Sr and Pb analogues was derived from ab initio methods and refined using the Rietveld method. The cations Ba and Sr are disordered over the Bi sites while the Pb cation is found exclusively in the [Bi2O2]2+ layers. The TiO6 octahedra are tilted with the Ti–O bonds forming zigzag chains along the `’ axis. The displacement of Bi atoms along the `’ axis might be responsible for ferroelectricity in these compounds. The high temperature X-ray data above $T_c$ indicate no structural transition for A = Ba and Pb while A = Sr transforms to the tetragonal structure.

  10. Comparative expression pattern analysis of WUSCHEL-related homeobox 2 (WOX2) and WOX8/9 in developing seeds and somatic embryos of the gymnosperm Picea abies.

    Palovaara, Joakim; Hallberg, Henrik; Stasolla, Claudio; Hakman, Inger


    • In seed plants, current knowledge concerning embryonic pattern formation by polar auxin transport (PAT) and WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene activity is primarily derived from studies on angiosperms, while less is known about these processes in gymnosperms. In view of the differences in their embryogeny, and the fact that somatic embryogenesis is used for mass propagation of conifers, a better understanding of embryo development is vital. • The expression patterns of PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9 were followed with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) during seed and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies), and in somatic embryos treated with the PAT inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). • Both PaWOX2 and PaWOX8/9 were highly expressed at the early growth stages of zygotic and somatic embryos, and shared a similar expression pattern over the entire embryo. At later embryo stages, high expression of PaWOX8/9 became restricted to cotyledon primordia, epidermis, procambium and root apical meristem (RAM), which became most evident in NPA-treated somatic embryos, while expression of PaWOX2 was much lower. • Our results suggest an ancestral role of WOX in seed plant embryo development, and strengthen the proposed connection between PAT, PIN-FORMED (PIN) and WOX in the regulation of embryo patterning in seed plants. PMID:20561212

  11. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina


    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families. PMID:24117652

  12. An interlaboratory comparison of ITS2-PCR for the identification of yeasts, using the ABI Prism 310 and CEQ8000 capillary electrophoresis systems

    Verschraegen Gerda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, most laboratories identify yeasts routinely on the basis of morphology and biochemical reactivity. This approach has quite often limited discriminatory power and may require long incubation periods. Due to the increase of fungal infections and due to specific antifungal resistence patterns for different species, accurate and rapid identification has become more important. Several molecular techniques have been described for fast and reliable identification of yeast isolates, but interlaboratory exchangeability of identification schemes of molecular techniques has hardly been studied. Here, we compared amplified ITS2 fragment length determination by an ABI Prism 310 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system with that obtained by a CEQ8000 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, Ca. capillary electrophoresis system. Results Although ITS2 size estimations on both systems differed and separate libraries had to be constructed for each system, both approaches had the same discriminatory power with regard to the 44 reference strains, identical identifications were obtained for 39/ 40 clinical isolates in both laboratories and strains from 51 samples were correctly identified using CEQ8000, when compared to phenotypic identification. Conclusion Identification of yeasts with ITS2-PCR followed by fragment analysis can be carried out on different capillary electrophoresis systems with comparable discriminatory power.

  13. Disturbed regeneration of saplings of Korean fir (Abies koreana Wilson, an endemic tree species, in Hallasan National Park, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, Jeju Island, Korea

    Eun-Shik Kim


    Full Text Available Limited knowledge is available on the regeneration of Korean fir (Abies koreana Wilson, an endemic plant species, growing on the upper part of Mt. Hallasan, a volcanic mountain, located in the central part of Jeju Island, Korea. A forest stand with the size of 1 ha dominated by Korean fir trees was established and all the trees with DBH 2 cm or larger were mapped and surveyed. Initial analysis indicated that the numbers of saplings with their DBHs between 2 cm and 10 cm were very small and that there was a big gap in the frequency of the number of saplings regenerated from the forest stand. It seems clear that the regeneration of the Korean fir trees was disturbed for longer than the last two decades, potentially by the browsing of the seedlings by ungulate including Siberian roe deer and by the physical hindrance of the dwarf bamboo to the development of the saplings of the Korean fir. Urgent measures and extensive studies are needed to promote the natural regeneration of the tree species on the dynamics of the forest regeneration and the mechanism of forest development of the forests on the Mt. Hallasan, Jeju Island, Korea.

  14. Occurrence and impact of the root-rot biocontrol agent Phlebiopsis gigantea on soil fungal communities in Picea abies forests of northern Europe.

    Menkis, Audrius; Burokienė, Daiva; Gaitnieks, Talis; Uotila, Antti; Johannesson, Hanna; Rosling, Anna; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Vasaitis, Rimvydas


    The aim of this study was to assess belowground occurrence, persistence and possible impact of the biocontrol agent Phlebiopsis gigantea (Fr.) Jülich on soil fungi. Sampling of soil and roots of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. was carried out at 12 P. gigantea-treated and five nontreated control sites representing 1- to 60-month-old clear-cuts and thinned forest sites in Finland and Latvia. The 454-sequencing of ITS rRNA from fine roots, humus and mineral soil resulted in 8626 high-quality fungal sequences. Phlebiopsis gigantea represented 1.3% of all fungal sequences and was found in 14 treated and nontreated sites and in all three substrates. In different substrates, the relative abundance of P. gigantea at stump treatment sites either did not differ significantly or was significantly lower than in nontreated controls. No significant correlation was found between the time elapsed since the tree harvesting and/or application of the biocontrol and abundance of P. gigantea in different substrates. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that P. gigantea occasionally occurs belowground in forest ecosystems but that stump treatment with the biocontrol agent has little or no impact on occurrence and persistence of P. gigantea belowground, and consequently no significant impact on soil fungi. PMID:22443512

  15. Effects of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut.

    Menkis, Audrius; Uotila, Antti; Arhipova, Natalija; Vasaitis, Rimvydas


    The objectives of this study were to investigate impact of stump and slash removal on growth and mycorrhization of Picea abies seedlings outplanted on a forest clear-cut. Four non-replicated site preparation treatments included: (1) mounding (M), (2) removal of stumps (K), (3) mounding and removal of logging slash (HM) and (4) removal of logging slash and stumps (HK). Results showed that height increment of the seedlings was highest in K and lowest in M after the third growing season, and similar pattern remained after the fourth season. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation of seedling roots was highest in M (96.6%) and lowest in K (72.3%), and even in HK (76.0%) and HM (76.3%). Morphotyping and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA revealed a total of 13 ECM species. Among those, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum were the most common, found on 27.4% and 26.3% of roots, respectively. The rest of species colonised 26.6% of roots. Richness of ECM species was highest in M (10 species) and lowest in K (three species). Consequently, stump and slash removal from clear-felled sites had a positive effect on growth of outplanted spruce seedlings, but negative effect on their mycorrhization. This suggests that altered soil conditions due to site disturbance by stump and slash removal might be more favourable for tree growth than more abundant mycorrhization of their root systems in less disturbed soil. PMID:20174952

  16. The MADS-box gene DAL1 is a potential mediator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Tandre, Karolina; Johanson, Urban; Englund, Marie; Engström, Peter


    Progression through the plant life cycle involves change in many essential features, most notably in the capacity to reproduce. The transition from a juvenile vegetative and non-reproductive to an adult reproductive phase is gradual and can take many years; in the conifer Norway spruce, Picea abies, typically 20-25 years. We present a detailed analysis of the activities of three regulatory genes with potential roles in this transition in Norway spruce: DAL1, a MADS-box gene related to the AGL6 group of genes from angiosperms, and the two LEAFY-related genes PaLFY and PaNLY. DAL1 activity is initiated in the shoots of juvenile trees at an age of 3-5 years, and then increases with age, whereas both LFY genes are active throughout the juvenile phase. The activity of DAL1 further shows a spatial pattern along the stem of the tree that parallels a similar gradient in physiological and morphological features associated with maturation to the adult phase. Constitutive expression of DAL1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants caused a dramatic attenuation of both juvenile and adult growth phases; flowers forming immediately after the embryonic phase of development in severely affected plants. Taken together, our results support the notion that DAL1 may have a regulatory role in the juvenile-to-adult transition in Norway spruce. PMID:15500470

  17. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L


    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. PMID:27155532

  18. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V


    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers. PMID:27169226

  19. The seasonal variation of arthropods living on forest soil at different altitudes in fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana ecosystem in Bolu-Aladağ

    Ahmet Duyar


    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems, soil arthropods (Arthropoda, as primary and secondary consumers, have a significant role in litter decay and decomposition processes. The abundance, diversity and community structure of arthropods in soil ecosystem; give rapid response to change of site characteristics. The current study was aimed to determine of seasonal variation of soil arthropods on forest floor at different altitudes in Uludağ Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana Mattf. ecosystem which is an important forest tree species in Turkey. The study was conducted in pure fir stands at 1200-1600 m altitudes (4 elevation gradients in Aladağ, Bolu. The sampling was carried out for each winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons. The samples were collected from forest floor by pitfall traps. Variations of abundance and diversity of arthropods were evaluated according to seasons and altitudes. The distributions in trophic levels and biological diversity of arthropods were also determined. During the study, the maximum abundance of arthropods was 7576 individuals/m² in summer among seasons, and was 7854 individuals/m² at 1200 m altitude. Shannon-Wiener Index (H′ and Species Richness (S′ values were detected in the pitfall traps (H′= 2.22; S′= 22.

  20. Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn applied on foliage and bark surfaces on balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings

    Uptake and translocation of 54Mn and 65Zn in balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] seedlings were studied with the radioisotopes applied directly on shoot or main-stem surfaces in a growth chamber. Concentration and distribution of the absorbed radioisotopes in different plant parts depended on distances between source (the application site) and sink (the rest of the seedling), as well as on tissue growth activity. Acidic wetness significantly enhanced radioisotope absorption. 54Mn and 65Zn were found to be concentrated primarily in 1-year old needles at the middle and top levels of the seedling crown. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences in accumulation (Bq g−1) between 54Mn and 65Zn in needles and twigs from foliar uptake. The absorption by seedlings (including the washed application shoot) 70 days after application was 24–32% of the remaining activities for 54Mn and 25–30% for 65Zn. Less than 1% of the absorbed isotopes was translocated from the bark application sites to other plant organs, whereas more than 54% of the activity absorbed at 1-year old shoots moved to the rest of the seedling. (author)

  1. Stand structure and regeneration of a mixed forest (Abies alba-Fagus sylvatica in the Central Pyrenees, Ordesa National Park, Spain

    Doležal, J.


    Full Text Available The locations and biometrical characteristics of 2391 living and dead trees > 1.3 m tall of Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, and the 378 understory shrubs o/Buxus sempervirens, were mapped in a 1.4 ha plot on the northern slope of Ordesa Valley to evaluate several hypotheses about stand structural development, tree species regeneration and coexistence. The plot is located in relatively undisturbed old-growth forest, but contains areas at low elevation which were formerly pasture. Abies is typically represented by many young trees and gradually declining numbers of trees in successively older size classes, whereas Fagus has greater numbers of trees in larger size and older age classes. This would imply a shift in dominance from beech to fir if the two species have similar mortality rates. We tested two hypotheses about the coexistence of ecologically similar species: (1 based on differentiation of regeneration niches, and (2 by means of different life history strategies (preference for survivorship or fecundity. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to determine if the two species prefer different habitats. The analysis of spatial patterns and interspecific associations by Ripley's K-function was used to estimate the role of competition among trees in forest dynamics. The data provide empirical support for both tested hypotheses, although it has been shown that their importance varies depending on the degree of environmental heterogeneity along the slope across the plot. Different life history strategies appear critical to the success of coexistence in moderate environment at lower elevations, where co-dominant species have overlapping regeneration niches.

    [fr] Dans une parcelle de 1, 4 Ha au versant nord de la vallée d'Ordesa nous avons cartographie à petite échelle et pris des données biométriques sur 2391 hêtres (Fagus sylvatica et sapins (Abies alba vivants ou morts mais tous s'élevant à plus de 1,3 m, ainsi

  2. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.


    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  3. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin


    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west. PMID:27087633

  4. The effect of tree architecture on conduit diameter and frequency from small distal roots to branch tips in Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

    Lintunen, Anna; Kalliokoski, Tuomo


    We studied the effect of tree architecture on xylem anatomy in three Betula pendula Roth., three Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and three Pinus sylvestris (L.) trees (mean age 35 years). First, the analysis of conduit anatomy in different tree parts showed that conduits tapered and their frequency increased from roots (≥ 2 mm) to stem, from stem to branches and further to leaf petioles in B. pendula. Conduit anatomy in lateral and main roots, as well as lateral and main branches, significantly differed from each other in all the studied species. The increase in conduit diameter and decrease in frequency from the pith to the bark were clear aboveground, but variable patterns were observed belowground. In the leaf petioles of B. pendula, conduit diameter increased and conduit frequency decreased with increasing individual leaf area. Second, the results concerning the scaling of conduit diameter were compared with the predictions of the general vascular scaling model (WBE model) and Murray's law. The scaling parameter values at the tree level corresponded with the predictions of the WBE model in all the studied trees except for one tree of both conifer species. However, the scaling parameter values changed from one tree compartment to another rather than remaining uniform inside a tree, as assumed by the WBE model. The assumptions of the WBE model of a constant conductivity ratio, constant tapering and an unchanged total number of conduits were not fulfilled. When the conductivity ratio and relative tapering were plotted together, the results aboveground corresponded quite well with Murray's law: the conductivity ratio increased when relative tapering decreased. Our results support the theory that trees adjust both their macro- and microstructure to maximize their water transport efficiency, but also to prevent embolism and ensure mechanical safety. PMID:21030407

  5. Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps.

    Roschanski, Anna M; Csilléry, Katalin; Liepelt, Sascha; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Huard, Frédéric; Ullrich, Kristian K; Postolache, Dragos; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Fady, Bruno


    Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east-west transect. The analysis of 267 SNP loci from 175 candidate genes suggested a neutral pattern of east-west isolation by distance among mountain sites. F(ST) outlier tests revealed 16 SNPs that showed patterns of divergent selection. Plot climate was characterized using both in situ measurements and gridded data that revealed marked differences between and within mountains with different trends depending on the season. Association between allelic frequencies and bioclimatic variables revealed eight genes that contained candidate SNPs, of which two were also detected using F(ST) outlier methods. All SNPs were associated with winter drought, and one of them showed strong evidence of selection with respect to elevation. Q(ST)-F(ST) tests for fitness-related traits measured in a common garden suggested adaptive divergence for the date of bud flush and for growth rate. Overall, our results suggest a complex adaptive picture for A. alba in the southern French Alps where, during the east-to-west Holocene recolonization, locally advantageous genetic variants established at both the landscape and local scales. PMID:26676992

  6. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten


    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change. PMID:26016682

  7. Interactive effects of ozone and low UV-B radiation on antioxidants in spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    To study the role of low UV-B radiation in modulating the response of antioxidants to ozone, 4-year-old pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies L.) seedlings potted in natural soil, were exposed in phytochambers to fluctuating ozone concentrations between 9 and 113 nl 1−1 according to field data recorded at Mt Wank (1175 m above sea level, Bavaria, Germany) and two-times ambient O3 levels. UV-B radiation was either added at a biologically effective level of ca 1.2 kJ m−2 day−1 , which is close to that found in March at Mt Wank, or was excluded by filters (<0.08 kJ m−2 day−1). After one growth phase current-year needles were collected and analysed for antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD, EC; catalase, CAT, EC; guaiacol peroxidase, POD, EC and soluble antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione). CAT, POD, ascorbate and glutathione, but not SOD, were increased in needles of both species in response to twice ambient O3 levels. UV-B radiation in the presence of ambient O3 caused an increase in total SOD activity in spruce but had no effects on antioxidants in pine. Twice ambient O3 levels together with low UV-B radiation counteracted the O3-induced increases in ascorbate and CAT in pine but not in spruce. Under these conditions spruce needles showed the highest antioxidative protection and revealed no indication of lipid peroxidation. Pine needles exposed to UV-B and elevated O3 levels showed elevated lipid peroxidation and a 5-fold increase in dehydroascorbate, suggesting that this species was less protected and suffered higher oxidative stress than spruce. (author)

  8. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.


    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  9. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris


    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  10. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata


    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  11. Impacto del ozono troposférico sobre la anatomía foliar de Abies pinsapo Boiss. I: estudio de la distribución de daños

    Lázaro Gimeno, David; Ibars, Ana María


    Impacto del ozono troposférico sobre la anatomía foliar de Abies pinsapo Boiss. I: Estudio de la distribución de daños. Con el fin de elaborar unos criterios unificados para la evaluación del impacto del ozono troposférico y compararlos con la respuesta de las poblaciones naturales de Sierra Bermeja y Sierra de las Nieves, se han reproducido en cámaras Open Top, ambientes filtrados y enriquecidos con ozono para realizar una caracterización microscópica del daño que produce el ozono troposféri...

  12. Evolution saisonnière des phosphates et des composés minéraux dissous de l'azote en lagune Aby (Côte d'Ivoire)

    Métongo, B.S.


    Cette étude présente le cycle annuel des variations des orthophosphates (P-PO4) et des composés minéraux dissous de l'azote (N-NO3, N-N02 and N-NH4) dans la colonne d'eau de juillet 1984 à juillet 1985 en lagune Aby... Les valeurs maximales des sels nutritifs sont enregistrées en saison de pluies et de crues et leur distribution est fonction de la stratification physique des eaux

  13. Cambio climático y control biológico de plagas: efecto de las condiciones abióticas en las interacciones entre enemigos naturales presentes en el agro-ecosistema del aguacate

    Guzmán, Celeste


    En el contexto del cambio climático y sus implicaciones en el control biológico de plagas, en esta tesis doctoral se estudió el efecto de las condiciones abióticas (temperatura y humedad relativa) sobre parámetros relacionados con la eficacia biológica y sobre las interacciones (competencia y depredación) entre dos especies de ácaros fitoseidos presentes en el agro-ecosistema del aguacate del sureste español: Euseius stipulatus y E. scutalis, depredadoras de Oligonychus perseae, especie plaga...

  14. Irradiance in young stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. and the possibilities to prevent suckers of broad-leaved trees

    Incoming shortwave global radiation (Qg) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR;Qpa) as a fraction of full daylight, relative irradiance (%Q), were measured at the same time in young stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Measurements were made on three levels above ground: 20 cm above ground and 50 and 75% of stand height. Stands of three heights (75, 150 and 300 cm) were studied during two months. The stands were created by arranging young trees cut from natural stands, in nine quadratic spacings: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, and 2.0 m. The leaf area index (L) was estimated. Differences in %Q-values for Qpa and Qg in the same species at the same stand height and level of light measurements above ground were significant only in 150 and 300 cm stands. In 75 cm high stands of Scots pine, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.2 m and in 75 cm high stands of Norway spruce, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.3 m. Only at 0.1 x 0.1-0.3 x 0.3 m, %Q was less than 20% in Norway spruce stands. In 150 cm stands %Q less than 20% was measured at spacings less than 0.7 m in Norway spruce and less than 0.5 in Scots pine. In 300 cm stands of Norway spruce it was measured up to 1.2 and in Scots pine less than 1.1 m. Light extinction coefficients, K and Kg for spruce and pine stands were 0.17-0.40 and 0.16-0.31 respectively. Some practical implications of the study are presented. Lack of light (%Q less than 10%) as a single factor of seriously suppressed growth and development of broad-leaved plants and suckers by competition in young stands of spruce and pine only occur in dense stands 0.3 x 0.3-1.1 x 1.1 m (8000-100000 stems per hectare). Competition by light on a regenerated area generally occurs in the level of 50% of tree height (150-300 cm) and higher due to the rapid growth of broad-leaved trees (sprouts) compared with planted conifers but the light intensity at these levels %Q greater

  15. Development of an Advanced Technique for Mapping and Monitoring Sea and Lake Ice in Preparation for GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI)

    Nazari, R.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Romanov, P.


    In recent years, the uniqueness of the Earth's ice covered regions and their importance to the world is being increasingly recognized. They are considered vital and valuable for a variety of economic, environmental, and social reasons. Ice information can also improve weather and climate predictions. Observations show that Arctic ice is decreasing in both thickness and extent which will lead to the change in absorption of solar radiation and temperature of the earth. The increasing activity in ice-affected waters has led to a growing requirement for ice information and better mapping systems with improvements in both time and spatial resolution. A variety of Earth Observation sensors are used to map ice covered areas. Visible-Infrared sensors at moderate-resolution from polar orbiting satellites (NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS Aqua/ Terra) have been used extensively because of their easy accessibility. However, clouds, fog and low time resolutions limit the use of this type of sensor to fully meet operational ice mapping requirements, particularly in cloud- and fog ice zones. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potentials of mapping ice with the geostationary satellites which can provide a reasonably good time resolution and satisfactory spatial resolutions. The aim of this ongoing project is to develop an automated ice-mapping algorithm, which would make maximum use of GOES-R ABI's improved observing capabilities and to be the pioneer of creating daily ice maps from a geostationary satellite. Data collected by SEVIRI instrument onboard of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite have been used as a prototype. The Northern region of the Caspian Sea has been selected for algorithm development and calibration. The approach used in the algorithm development includes daily cloud-clear image compositing as well as pixel-by-pixel image classification using spectral criteria. All available spectral channels (reflectance and temperature) have been tested and used

  16. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel


    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  17. Allocation of freshly assimilated carbon into primary and secondary metabolites after in situ ¹³C pulse labelling of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela A; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno


    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways at various ecophysiological stages. We used compound-specific stable isotope analysis to investigate C partitioning of freshly assimilated C into tree compartments (needles, branches and stem) as well as into needle water-soluble organic C (WSOC), non-hydrolysable structural organic C (stOC) and individual chemical compound classes (amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following in situ (13)C pulse labelling 15 days after bud break. The (13)C allocation within the above-ground tree biomass demonstrated needles as a major C sink, accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C 6 h after labelling. In needles, the highest allocation occurred not only into the WSOC pool (44.1% of recovered needle (13)C) but also into stOC (33.9%). Needle growth, however, also caused high (13)C allocation into pathways not involved in the formation of structural compounds: (i) pathways in secondary metabolism, (ii) C-1 metabolism and (iii) amino acid synthesis from photorespiration. These pathways could be identified by a high (13)C enrichment of their key amino acids. In addition, (13)C was strongly allocated into the n-alkyl lipid fraction (0.3% of recovered (13)C), whereby (13)C allocation into cellular and cuticular exceeded that of epicuticular fatty acids. (13)C allocation decreased along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways: the allocation was highest for precursor fatty acids, lower for elongated fatty acids and lowest for the decarbonylated n-alkanes. The combination of (13)C pulse labelling with compound-specific (13)C analysis of key metabolites enabled tracing relevant C allocation pathways under field conditions. Besides the primary metabolism synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex

  18. Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L. reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Chen Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed knowledge about spatial and temporal gene expression is important for understanding both the function of genes and their evolution. For the vast majority of species, transcriptomes are still largely uncharacterized and even in those where substantial information is available it is often in the form of partially sequenced transcriptomes. With the development of next generation sequencing, a single experiment can now simultaneously identify the transcribed part of a species genome and estimate levels of gene expression. Results mRNA from actively growing needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. In total, close to 70 million fragments with a length of 76 bp were sequenced resulting in 5 Gbp of raw data. A de novo assembly of these reads, together with publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST data from Norway spruce, was used to create a reference transcriptome. Of the 38,419 PUTs (putative unique transcripts longer than 150 bp in this reference assembly, 83.5% show similarity to ESTs from other spruce species and of the remaining PUTs, 3,704 show similarity to protein sequences from other plant species, leaving 4,167 PUTs with limited similarity to currently available plant proteins. By predicting coding frames and comparing not only the Norway spruce PUTs, but also PUTs from the close relatives Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis to both Pinus taeda and Taxus mairei, we obtained estimates of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence among conifer species. In addition, we detected close to 15,000 SNPs of high quality and estimated gene expression differences between samples collected under dark and light conditions. Conclusions Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 × 10

  19. Spatial distribution of lead and lead isotopes in soil B-horizon, forest-floor humus, grass (Avenella flexuosa) and spruce (Picea abies) needles across the Czech Republic

    Highlights: → Pb-concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios are provided for four different sample materials for the Czech Republic. → The paper demonstrates the local impact of a number of different contamination sources. → The data provide clear evidence that traffic emissions are no major source of Pb to the Czech environment. → The data demonstrate that the B-horizon provides no valid 'background' for Pb-concentration or the 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratio. → Pb isotope ratios change during soil weathering and at the interface biosphere/pedosphere. - Abstract: Lead concentrations were determined in samples of soil B-horizon (N = 258), forest-floor humus (O-horizon, N = 259), grass (Avenella flexuosa, N = 251) and spruce (Picea abies, N = 253) needles (2nd year) collected at the same locations evenly spread over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average density of 1 site/300 km2. Median Pb concentrations differ widely in the four materials: soil B-horizon: 27 mg/kg (3.3-220 mg/kg), humus: 78 mg/kg (19-1863 mg/kg), grass: 0.37 mg/kg (0.08-8 mg/kg) and spruce needles: 0.23 mg/kg (0.07-3 mg/kg). In the Pb distribution maps for humus, grass and spruce a number of well-known Pb-contamination sources are indicated by unusually high concentrations (e.g., the Pb smelter at Pribram, the metallurgical industry in the NE of the Czech Republic and along the Polish border, as well as the metallurgical industry in Upper Silesia and Europe's largest coal-fired power plant at Bogatynia, Poland). The ratio 206Pb/207Pb was determined in all four materials. The median value of the 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratio in the soil B-horizon is 1.184 (variation: 1.145-1.337). In both humus and grass the median value for the 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratio is 1.162 (variation: 1.130-1.182), in spruce needles the median ratio is 1.159 (variation: 1.116-1.186). In humus, grass and spruce needles the known contamination sources are all marked by higher 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in the

  20. Morphometric traits of Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L. on the copper dump-field Maximilián in Špania Dolina (Starohorské vrchy Mts., Slovakia

    Tomáš Štrba


    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to determine difference in length of needles and annual wood increments of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies L. on the dump-field and for comparison on referential site. We performed 500 measurements of needles for each tree species and for each study area. The annual wood increments were measured on wood bores from five tree individuals from each species and from both study areas – dump-field and referential site. Student t-test and indicators of central values evaluated differences of the measured attributes. The results show statistically significant difference at 99% level of confidence for both attributes – length of needles and annual wood increments. The results support the hypothesis about influence of heavy metals on the plants growing.

  1. La vulnérabilité du sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill.) à la sécheresse en milieu méditerranéen selon les propriétés hydriques du sol

    Nourtier, Marie


    De nombreux cas de mortalité de Sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill.) sont constatés en limite sud de son aire de répartition en Provence et semblent être liés aux sécheresses successives de la dernière décennie et à la répartition des propriétés hydriques du sol. L’enjeu est alors de mieux évaluer l’impact du stress hydrique sur le fonctionnement écophysiologique de cette espèce et de pouvoir caractériser et cartographier les zones les plus vulnérables à la sécheresse. Sur le Mont Ventoux, une ex...

  2. Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani

    Raquel Ghini


    s propriedades abióticas (pH, condutividade elétrica, teor de matéria orgânica, N total, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, capacidade de troca catiônica, soma de bases e saturação de bases e bióticas (atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pelo desprendimento de CO2 e hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína; comunidades de bactérias, fungos, actinomicetos, protozoários, Pseudomonas fluorescentes e Fusarium spp.. A contribuição e relação dessas variáveis para a supressividade a R. solani foram quantificadas por análise de coeficientes de trilha. Quando se avaliaram todas as amostras em conjunto, somente variáveis abióticas apresentaram correlação com a supressão a R. solani, mas o conjunto das variáveis explicou somente 51% da variação total. Entretanto, quando as amostras foram agrupadas e analisadas considerando o tipo de cobertura vegetal, o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 90% da variação da supressividade. Para as áreas de floresta e pasto/pousio, as quais foram classificadas como as mais supressivas, algumas variáveis abióticas e a hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína apresentaram correlação com a supressão de R. solani e o conjunto de variáveis explicou mais de 98% da supressividade nesses solos.

  3. Variabilité spatio-temporelle de la reproduction chez une espèce pérenne monoïque: le cas du sapin pectiné, Abies alba Miller, en limite sud de son aire de répartition

    Restoux, Gwendal


    This study focuses on the spatio-temporal varibility of reproduction in silver fir (Abies alba), in its French rear edge populations in the Mont Ventoux and Lure mountain. Usually, marginal populations contrast from core populations with lower and more variable densities. In our populations of firs, we found that lower densitiy leads to higher selfing rates through a mass-action law at both population and individual levels. As a consequence, germinative abilities were lower for...

  4. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    Kim, Junhyeok


    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Seasonal dynamics in the stable carbon isotope composition δ¹³C from non-leafy branch, trunk and coarse root CO₂ efflux of adult deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees.

    Kuptz, Daniel; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E


    Respiration is a substantial driver of carbon (C) flux in forest ecosystems and stable C isotopes provide an excellent tool for its investigation. We studied seasonal dynamics in δ¹³C of CO₂ efflux (δ¹³C(E)) from non-leafy branches, upper and lower trunks and coarse roots of adult trees, comparing deciduous Fagus sylvatica (European beech) with evergreen Picea abies (Norway spruce). In both species, we observed strong and similar seasonal dynamics in the δ¹³C(E) of above-ground plant components, whereas δ¹³C(E) of coarse roots was rather stable. During summer, δ¹³C(E) of trunks was about -28.2‰ (Beech) and -26.8‰ (Spruce). During winter dormancy, δ¹³C(E) increased by 5.6-9.1‰. The observed dynamics are likely related to a switch from growth to starch accumulation during fall and remobilization of starch, low TCA cycle activity and accumulation of malate by PEPc during winter. The seasonal δ¹³C(E) pattern of branches of Beech and upper trunks of Spruce was less variable, probably because these organs were additionally supplied by winter photosynthesis. In view of our results and pervious studies, we conclude that the pronounced increases in δ¹³C(E) of trunks during the winter results from interrupted access to recent photosynthates. PMID:21054435

  6. Indução de resistência do mamoeiro à podridão radicular por indutores bióticos e abióticos Resistance induction to root rot in papaya by biotic and abiotic elicitors

    Giltembergue Macedo Tavares


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial do uso de indutores de resistência bióticos e abióticos na redução da podridão radicular em mamoeiro. Mudas de mamoeiro foram pulverizadas com os fungicidas fosetil-Al, metalaxil e Mancozeb (2 g L-1, com os indutores abióticos fosfito de potássio (2,5 e 5 mL L-1, ácido salicílico 0,15 e 0,30%, Reforce (indutor comercial + ácido salicílico a 5%, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM (0,15 e 0,30 g L-1, e com o indutor biótico Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3 e 6 mL L-1, três e seis dias antes da pulverização de 1 mL de suspensão de 10(5 zoósporos mL-1 de Phytophthora palmivora. Todos os tratamentos tiveram efeito no controle da podridão de raízes em relação à testemunha, com exceção do Reforce + ácido salicílico a 5% (3 mL L-1, seis dias antes da inoculação. Os tratamentos com ASM, com exceção da dosagem 0,15 g L-1 seis dias antes da inoculação, apresentaram resultados similares aos dos fungicidas metalaxil e Mancozeb. Plantas pulverizadas com ASM apresentaram aumento de atividade da peroxidase e beta-1,3-glucanase e maior concentração de lignina que a testemunha. No entanto, esses tratamentos não tiverem efeito sobre a atividade da quitinase. O ASM é um potencial indutor de resistência a P. palmivora em mamoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential use of biotic and abiotic elicitors of resistance in the reduction of root rot in papaya. Papaya seedlings were sprayed with the fosetil-Al and metalaxyl and Mancozeb (2 g L-1 fungicides, with the potassium phosphite (2.5 and 5 mL L-1, salicylic acid 0.15 e 0.30%, Reforce (commercial product + salicylic acid 5%, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM (0.15 and 0.30 g L-1 abiotic elicitors, and with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3 and 6 mL L-1 biotic elicitor, applied three and six days before the inoculation with 1 mL of 10(5 zoospores mL-1 suspension of Phytophthora palmivora. All treatments were effective in controlling

  7. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200 System: A comparative study of its performance with Maxwell(®) DNA IQ™/Identifiler(®) Plus/ABI 3500xL workflow.

    Thong, Zhonghui; Phua, Yong Han; Loo, Eileen Shuzhen; Goh, Sze Kae; Ang, Jiatian; Looi, Woan Foon; Syn, Christopher Kiu Choong


    RapidHIT(™) System is a rapid DNA instrument that is capable of processing forensic samples from extraction through to capillary electrophoresis and profile generation within two hours. Evaluation of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was conducted to examine several key performance indicators of the instrument, including reproducibility, contamination, sensitivity, versatility and the possibility of sample re-extraction. Results indicated that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was capable of generating high quality DNA profiles which were comparable to those from the standard protocol comprising of Maxwell(®) 16 DNA IQ(™) System, Identifiler(®) Plus and ABI 3500xL. No contamination was detected during the studies. Results also showed that the instrument was able to generate DNA profiles from samples containing lower amounts of DNA (0.5 μl of blood) albeit with more allele and locus dropouts when compared to the standard protocol. The ability to process blood swabs, blood-stained FTA punches, semen swabs, buccal swabs, product of conception (POC), bone marrow, fingernail clippings and cigarette butts at a good success rate indicated the robustness and versatility of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System. Furthermore, additional alleles could be recovered via re-analysis of the failed samples using the standard protocol. In summary, our results showed that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was able to process casework samples for the purpose of providing rapid intelligence through DNA database searches and reference matching. Confirmative DNA results can be obtained through either concurrent processing of duplicate samples via standard protocol or re-extraction of samples retrieved from the RapidHIT(™) sample cartridge. PMID:26051364

  8. Gene expression profiles of different breast cancer cells compared with their responsiveness to fermented mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador from oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus), white fir (Abies) and apple tree (Malus) in vitro.

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; Patrignani, Andrea; Wagner, Ulrich; Rehrauer, Hubert; Schlapbach, Ralph; Rist, Lukas; Ramos, Mac H; Viviani, Angelika


    Cytotoxicity assays in vitro (MTT test) showed that the different breast cancer cell lines Kpl-1, MCF-7 and Mfm-223 respond differently to the mistletoe (Viscum album L.) preparations Iscador. Quercus (Qu), Abies (A), Malus (M) and Pinus (P). In order to determine the differences in the responsiveness of the cells more exactly, the gene expression profiles were determined by cells, which were treated with Mistletoe extracts, compared with untreated control cells. Such differences can be analysed in more detail by looking at the gene expression using Human Whole Genome microarray chips (41,000 genes). The results of the transcriptome analyses suggested that Iscador preparations influenced the overregulation of genes regarding immune defense, stress response, apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion pathways. Within the Mfm-223-Zellen was the Genexpression in MCF-7 and Kpl-1. The MCF-7 cells were affected on the genes which are involved in cell-cell contacts whereas Kpl-1 responded to the mistletoe extracts by changing the mRNA levels of the immune and stress response pathways. Concerning the effects of the mistletoe extract, we conclude that Iscador Qu and M have a greater influence on the immune defense and stress response genes whereas Iscador A tends to affect the cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton pathways. In summary, cDNA microarray analyses give us information on whether a cancer cell is sensitive to mistletoe extracts in relation to how many genes are significantly overrepresented after mistletoe treatment, and whether a particular mistletoe extract is more effective on a specific cancer cell than the other preparation. PMID:16927530

  9. Heterologous Array Analysis in Pinaceae: Hybridization of Pinus TaedacDNA Arrays With cDNA From Needles and Embryogenic Cultures of P. Taeda, P. Sylvestris or Picea Abies

    David H. Clapham


    Full Text Available Hybridization of labelled cDNA from various cell types with high-density arrays of expressed sequence tags is a powerful technique for investigating gene expression. Few conifer cDNA libraries have been sequenced. Because of the high level of sequence conservation between Pinus and Picea we have investigated the use of arrays from one genus for studies of gene expression in the other. The partial cDNAs from 384 identifiable genes expressed in differentiating xylem of Pinus taeda were printed on nylon membranes in randomized replicates. These were hybridized with labelled cDNA from needles or embryogenic cultures of Pinus taeda, P. sylvestris and Picea abies, and with labelled cDNA from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The Spearman correlation of gene expression for pairs of conifer species was high for needles (r2 = 0.78 − 0.86, and somewhat lower for embryogenic cultures (r2 = 0.68 − 0.83. The correlation of gene expression for tobacco leaves and needles of each of the three conifer species was lower but sufficiently high (r2 = 0.52 − 0.63 to suggest that many partial gene sequences are conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms. Heterologous probing was further used to identify tissue-specific gene expression over species boundaries. To evaluate the significance of differences in gene expression, conventional parametric tests were compared with permutation tests after four methods of normalization. Permutation tests after Z-normalization provide the highest degree of discrimination but may enhance the probability of type I errors. It is concluded that arrays of cDNA from loblolly pine are useful for studies of gene expression in other pines or spruces.

  10. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Noeli Zanella; Sonia Z. Cechin


    A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis ...

  11. Avaliações bioquímicas da parede celular e morfológicas de folhas de café (Coffea arabica L. E coffea canephora Pierre) associadas a condições de estresses abióticos

    Lima, Rogerio Barbosa, 1940-


    Resumo: A parede celular é uma estrutura dinâmica e complexa, com papéis centrais no crescimento, desenvolvimento, fisiologia e defesa vegetal. Sua composição é alterada no crescimento, desenvolvimento e em condições de estresse. Os estresses abióticos são decorrentes de alterações nas condições químicas e físicas do ambiente da planta, diminuindo seu crescimento e podendo causar até sua morte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações dos componentes da parede celular de folhas de ...

  12. 外源NO供体SNP对欧洲云杉插穗生根的效应%Effects of Exogenous NO Donor SNP on Cuttage Rooting of Picea abies

    安三平; 王丽芳; 王美琴; 马建伟; 张宋智; 王军辉


    对SNP处理欧洲云杉的最适浓度、最佳处理时间、不同插穗年龄和侧枝类型以及SNP、IBA、NAA促进生根效果的比较等方面进行了系统研究.结果表明:一定浓度SNP均能显著促进欧洲云杉的生根和侧根的发生,50 mg· L-1SNP处理5h是SNP促进欧洲云杉生根的最佳浓度和最佳时长;SNP和IBA处理,均可明显促进欧洲云杉的生根,SNP的生根数量、平均根长均最佳;SNP处理的插穗年龄和侧枝类型对欧洲云杉的响应较大,1龄和一级侧枝可明显提高扦插成活率,内源NO在侧根发生及其形成中可能起着重要作用.%Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on cottage rooting of Picea abies were systemically examined from the aspects of optimal concentration, optimal treatment time, age of cuttings, and lateral branch types. The results were compared with those of IBA and NAA. It was found that SNP in certain concentrations could significantly promote rooting and lateral roots development. The optimal concentration and optimal treatment time were 50 mg · L-1 and 5 h, respectively. Treated by SNP and IBA, the rooting could significantly be promotes, the number of rooting, average root length were optimal after treated by SNP. Differences were observed among the cuttings with different ages and lateral branches with different types after treated by SNP. Higher survival rates were found in one-age cuttings and I -lateral branches. Exogenous NO had an important role in lateral roots development.

  13. Height Extraction and Stand Volume Estimation Based on Fusion Airborne LiDAR Data and Terrestrial Measurements for a Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] Test Site in Romania

    Bogdan APOSTOL


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of individual tree identification and stand volume estimation from LiDAR data. The study was located in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] stands in southwestern Romania and linked airborne laser scanning (ALS with terrestrial measurements through empirical modelling. The proposed method uses the Canopy Maxima algorithm for individual tree detection together with biometric field measurements and individual trees positioning. Field data was collected using Field-Map real-time GIS-laser equipment, a high-accuracy GNSS receiver and a Vertex IV ultrasound inclinometer. ALS data were collected using a Riegl LMS-Q560 instrument and processed using LP360 and Fusion software to extract digital terrain, surface and canopy height models. For the estimation of tree heights, number of trees and tree crown widths from the ALS data, the Canopy Maxima algorithm was used together with local regression equations relating field-measured tree heights and crown widths at each plot. When compared to LiDAR detected trees, about 40-61% of the field-measured trees were correctly identified. Such trees represented, in general, predominant, dominant and co-dominant trees from the upper canopy. However, it should be noted that the volume of the correctly identified trees represented 60-78% of the total plot volume. The estimation of stand volume using the LiDAR data was achieved by empirical modelling, taking into account the individual tree heights (as identified from the ALS data and the corresponding ground reference stem volume. The root mean square error (RMSE between the individual tree heights measured in the field and the corresponding heights identified in the ALS data was 1.7-2.2 meters. Comparing the ground reference estimated stem volume (at trees level with the corresponding ALS estimated tree stem volume, an RMSE of 0.5-0.7 m3 was achieved. The RMSE was slightly lower when comparing the ground

  14. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A


    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  15. Abi Ida-Euroopale / Sirje Rank

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-


    Ida-Euroopast on saamas riskikoht ning koos nende riikide langusega kannataks ka laenuandja Lääne-Euroopa. Suurbritannia peaminister ja Prantsusmaa president arutasid ka Ida-Euroopa abistamist. Lisa: EL plaanib kahekordistada abilaenude mahtu

  16. Omavalitsused ootavad eelarvest abi / Toomas Varek

    Varek, Toomas, 1948-


    Ilmunud ka: Valgamaalane, 2.okt. 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 27. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 28. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Sakala, 28. sept 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 28. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Koit, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 6; Vooremaa, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Lõunaleht, 4. okt. 2007, lk. 2. Riigieelarve kontrolli komisjoni esimehe hinnangul pole koalitsioonilepingus kohaliku omavalitsuse tulubaasi süsteemselt käsitletud ning valitsuse positsioon ja eelarveläbirääkimiste senine käik ei anna lootust kiireteks lahendusteks

  17. Tudengid otsivad abi õiguskantslerilt / Dannar Leitmaa

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-


    Õppemaksu tõstmisest Tallinna ja Tartu Ülikoolis ja ülikooliseaduse vastava regulatsiooni tõlgendamisest ning üliõpilaste märgukirjast õiguskantslerile. Lisatud advokaat Ramon Raski kommentaar. Seisukoha avaldavad ka Tallinna Ülikooli akadeemiline prorektor Heli Mattisen, Tartu Ülikooli prorektor Birute Klaas ja Eesti Üliõpilaskondade Liidu juhatuse esimees Eimar Veldre

  18. ‘”Cannon fodder for respectable question marks”: Fritz Saxl and the history of the Warburg Library’. Review of: Dorothea McEwan, Fritz Saxl – Eine Biografie: Aby Warburgs Bibliothekar und Erster Direktor des Londoner Warburg Institutes, Wien, Köln, Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2012

    Mark A. Russell


    Full Text Available As the first Archivist of The Warburg Institute, University of London, from 1993 until her retirement in 2006, Dorothea McEwan compiled the database of the Aby Warburg Correspondence. McEwan has published and lectured widely on Warburg and Fritz Saxl. The present book is preceded by two previous volumes treating the Warburg-Saxl correspondence: Das Ausreiten der Ecken, Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 1998; and Wanderstrassen der Kultur, München und Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, 2004. Based largely on Fritz Saxl’s correspondence in his various capacities as Aby Warburg’s principal aid and successor, this recounting of the Austrian scholar’s life and work is presented as a narration of the events of his professional career, and not as an intellectual biography per se. Saxl is situated within a history of the Warburg Library, is pictured as devoted to Warburg and his work, and is shown to have been critical to the functioning and survival of the Library in its various forms. As such, the book suggests that Saxl’s greatest achievement was his administrative and organizational contribution to what became the Warburg Institute. Surveying and integrating a large body of material, the author provides the necessary outlines of a career and corpus of scholarship worthy of further exploration.

  19. 康定木格措冷杉林土壤有机质水平及其预测%Study on Soil Organic Matter and Predict its Storage of Abies faxoniana Forest in MuGecuo, Kangding

    陈颖; 雷波; 罗承德; 汪航玉; 马丹; 刘丽


    采用分解袋法,在土壤表层按发生土层定位研究康定木格措冷杉林土壤有机质分解与积累特征,构建土壤有机质储量随时间变化模型.研究结果表明:定位研究区凋落物年产量2.82×103 kg,折算有机质归还量2.54×103 kg;土壤有机质储量A1层77.14×103 kg,A2层84.89×103 kg,土壤有机物质氧化系数A1层0.044,A2层o.034,折算有机物质年矿化量分别为A1层3.39×103 kg,A2层2.88×103 kg,凋落物有机质归还量远小于矿化量;凋落物腐殖化系数A1层0.597,A2层0.493,对土壤有机质的贡献量分别为A1层1.52×103 kg,A2层0.75×103 kg,土壤固碳潜力大;土壤表层有机质总储量162.03×103 kg,相对较高,但不稳定,随时间推移逐渐减少.提高森林生态系统的固碳能力将是进一步研究的重点.%To predict the change of the storage of soil organic matter (SOM) over time in study areas,litter bag method was applied to simulate the decomposition and accumulation characteristics of SOM in the surface layer,a mathematical model of the SOM storage changes over time was built in the case of the soil genetic layers of Abies faxoniana forest located in Mugecuo,Kangding.The results showed that the amount of litter in the study areas was 2.82×103 kg,the amount of which turned to be SOM was 2.54× 103 kg.The SOM storage in layer A1 was 77.14× 103 kg and in layer A2 was 84.89 × 103 kg,respectively.The oxidation coefficient was 0.044 and 0.034 in A1 layer and A2 layer respectively.The mineralization amount of A1 layer was 3.39 × 103 kg and that of A2 layer was 2.88× 103 kg.As we can see,the amount of the returned SOM was far less than the mineralization.The litter humification coefficients were 0.597(A1) and 0.493(A2),which led to the return of SOM were 1.52 × 103 kg (A1) and 0.75 × 103 kg (A2) respectively,which showed that the soil carbon sequestration potential of the study areas was high.The total SOM storage in the surface of soil layer was relatively

  20. 利用无人机遥感测定岷江冷杉单木树干生物量%Estimation of stem biomass of individual Abies faxoniana through unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing

    何游云; 张玉波; 李俊清; 王卷乐


    无人机获取的高分辨率遥感影像,已成为单木生物量估算的有效手段。本文以四川省王朗自然保护区岷江冷杉为研究对象,利用本项目组自行研制的无人机获取无阴影遥感影像。设置2块样地,其中plot 1为建模样本, plot 2为验证样本。通过人机交互的方式提取单木树冠面积( CA)数据,并结合野外实测的胸径( DBH),建立DBH遥感估算模型。最后基于CA-DBH模型的有效性,结合已有DBH-SB(树干生物量)经验方程,计算plot 2岷江冷杉单木树干生物量。结果表明:基于无人机遥感影像提取的单木CA与实测DBH存在较好的非线性相关关系,所建立的模型有较好的拟合度,R2达到0.752(P0.05),其皮尔森相关系数可达0.879,证明利用无人机获取的遥感影像,通过提取的CA估算DBH是可行的。本次实验表明:利用无人机遥感获取影像,通过提取的单木CA进行树干生物量的估算是有效的。%Fast and accurate quantification of biophysical parameters of trees is essential for forest management, assessment of carbon sequestration and evaluation of regional ecosystem services value. Unmanned aerial vehicle ( UAV ) is a promising tool to estimate biomass of individual trees due to its extremely high resolution. In this study, we used self-developed UAV to obtain shadow-free remote sensing images, taking Abies faxoniana in Wanglang Nature Reserve of Sichuan Province as an example. There were two plots, one for model training and the other for model validation. Crown area (CA) of individual trees was delineated through man-computer interpretation. Meanwhile, the field inventory was conducted to record the diameter at breast height ( DBH) of individual trees, and to establish CA-DBH regression model. Based on the validity of CA-DBH model, the stem biomass ( SB) of individual A. faxoniana trees in plot 2 was derived according to the existing empirical DBH-SB equation. There was a strong nonlinear

  1. Función de las especies de Nitrógeno reactivo en la modulación de respuesta de plántulas de girasol (Helianthus annuus L.) frente a procesos de estrés biótico y abiótico

    Chaki, M


    El óxido nítrico (NO) es la especies de nitrógeno reactivo más relevante, tiene un papel importamte en la regulación de funciones de planta. Así, se mostró su participación en los mecanismos de respuesta de planta frente al estrés biótico y abiótico. Sin embargo, poco es conocido sobre la participación de otras moléculas derivadas de NO como S-nitrosotioles, S-nitrosoglutation, peroxinitrito y 3-nitrotirosina. Por lo tanto, este trabajo se ha enfocado en el estudio del metabolismo de NO y mo...

  2. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de apoio à decisão para a diagnose de doenças, pragas e distúrbios abióticos dos citros Development of a decision support system for the diagnosis of citrus diseases, pests, and abiotic factors

    Cleilson do Nascimento Uchôa


    Full Text Available A preocupação com a diagnose dos problemas que afetam as plantas cítricas proporcionou ao longo dos anos o acúmulo de conhecimento, que precisava ser organizado e divulgado de forma eficiente e rápida. Dessa forma, objetivou-se com esse trabalho construir uma base de conhecimentos para diagnóstico de doenças bióticas e abióticas dos citros, desenvolver e implementar o sistema de apoio à decisão (SAD e avaliar o sistema. O SAD foi construído utilizando a ferramenta 'Borland Delphi' versão 5. Foram formuladas 562 perguntas, 322 regras e anexadas fotografias para facilitar o diagnóstico de 34 doenças, 40 pragas e 34 distúrbios abióticos dos citros. A avaliação do SAD foi dividida em verificação e validação. Na verificação, o SAD foi submetido a uma análise por meio de questionário a 5 especialistas em citros. A validação do programa foi realizada com quatro grupos, de diferentes níveis de conhecimento (10 pessoas/grupo, tentando diagnosticar corretamente. Obteve-se um acerto de 45,6% dos usuários e 93,6% do SAD. O sistema foi denominado Dr. Citrus (protótipo com registro no INPI n° 014070009188.The concern about the diagnosis of problems affecting citrus led to an accumulation of knowledge over the years. However, such accumulated knowledge needed to be organized and efficiently disseminated. Thus, the aims of this work were to build a knowledge basis for the diagnosis of abiotic and biotic citrus diseases to develop and implement a Decision Support System (DSS and to test and evaluate this system. DSS was built by using the tool 'Borland Delphi' version 5. A total of 562 questions were formulated, including 322 rules, besides photographs to help in the diagnosis of 34 diseases, 40 pests and 34 abiotics disturbances in citrus. DSS evolution was divided into verification and validation. In the verification phase, DSS was analyzed by means of a questionnaire applied to citrus specialists. The program validation phase

  3. 中国亚热带地区4种极危冷杉属植物的地理分布特征及其与气候的关系%Characteristics of geographic distribution of four critically endangered species of Abies in subtropical China and its relationship with climate

    李晓笑; 陶翠; 王清春; 崔国发


    通过野外实地调查和文献调研,分析4种极危冷杉属(Abies)植物的地理分布现状和特征,构建其分布区的气候数据库,采用国际上常用的研究植被与气候关系的指标和方法,定量分析冷杉属地理分布与水热条件的关系,并通过因子分析方法确定影响冷杉属地理分布的限制性气候因子.结果表明:1)百山祖冷杉(Abies beshanzuensis)、梵净山冷杉(A.fanjingshanensis)、元宝山冷杉(A.yuanbaoshanensis)和资源冷杉(A.beshanzuensis var.ziyuanensis)零星分布于我国亚热带地区,水平分布范围为25°25'-27°55′N,108.42′-119°12′E,分布范围狭窄;垂直分布范围为1 363-2 390 m,均分布于山体上部.海拔上限高度随着经度的减小而增加.2)整个分布区的气温较低,年平均气温为7.4-11.2℃;降水较为充沛,年降水量为1 265.4-1 945.7 mm,其中生长季降水量占74.78%;湿度较大,年相对湿度为77%-86%.气候指标范围狭窄,表明对水热条件要求很高.分布区寒冷指数较低,限制其垂直向下扩散,呈现局限分布于山体上部的现状.3)4种冷杉各分布区的气候条件基本相近,梵净山冷杉分布区气温相对偏低,元宝山冷杉分布区湿度相对偏大.4)3个气候因子对这4种冷杉的地理分布影响较大,其作用排序为:低温因子>极端低温因子>湿度因子.在全球气候变暖的大背景下,这4种冷杉自然分布区的适宜生境将进一步缩小,直至物种灭绝,急需开展迁地保护工作.%Aims Our objectives were to analyze the geographic distribution characteristics of four critically endangered species of Abies in China's subtropical regions, clarify their relationship with climatic conditions and determine the climatic factors that restrict the geographic distributions. Methods Geographic distribution information was collected from field survey and literature materials. Climate information was collected from China's meteorological stations

  4. Efeito de fatores abióticos na larvicultura de pintado amarelo Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède, 1803): salinidade e cor de tanque - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1859 The effect of abiotic factors on the larviculture of pintado amarelo Pimelodus maculatus (Lacépède 1803): salinity an tank color - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1859

    Marcos Weingartner; Evoy Zaniboni Filho


    Fatores abióticos podem determinar o sucesso na larvicultura de algumas espécies de peixes. A cor do tanque e salinidade da água de criação podem promover alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia das pós-larvas de peixes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a influência das salinidades 0,0‰; 0,7‰; 1,4‰; 2,0‰; 2,5‰ e 5,0‰ da água e das cores branca e preta dos tanques na larvicultura de Pimelodus maculatus. A sobrevivência foi afetada pela sali...

  5. Variação do número de estômatos e micropêlos em Paspalum vaginatum Sw: em relação às condições abióticas numa marisma do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS-Brasil Variation in the number of stomata and microhairs of Paspalum vaginatum Sw: en relation to abiotic conditions in a breakwater in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary, RS-Brazil

    Eleci de Oliveria Bastos; Mara Perazzolo; Jusseli Maria Rocha Baptista


    Paspalum vaginatum Sw., gramínea perene, estolonífera, com folhas anfistomáticas e pequenas é característica de pântanos salgados, crescendo em condições estressantes na marisma da lagoa dos Patos, molhe oeste da Barra do Rio Grande, RS. Foram feitas contagens mensais de estômatos e micropêlos nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial das lâminas e relacionadas às características abióticas do ambiente. O número de micropêlos da superfície foliar abaxial variou significativamente e diretamente com a t...

  6. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Noeli Zanella


    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  7. Indução de resistência a doenças foliares em tomateiro por indutores biótico (Bacillus subtilis e abiótico (Acibenzolar-S-Metil Induction of resistance in tomato by biotic (Bacillus subtilis and abiotic (Acibenzolar-S-Metil inducers

    Fabio Fernando de Araujo


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se doenças foliares do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum podem ser afetadas pela indução de resistência proporcionada pela aplicação de Bacillus subtilis, no solo e nas folhas e aplicação via foliar de acibenzolar-S-metil. A fim de investigar o modo de ação envolvido no controle foi avaliada a atividade de peroxidases nas folhas do tomateiro tratado com os indutores biótico e abiótico. Para se avaliar a severidade das doenças foliares foi avaliado o número de folhas de tomate com algum sintoma de doença e determinado o percentual de folhas doentes em relação ao total de folhas por planta. O aumento significativo da concentração de peroxidases nas plantas tratadas com os indutores, assim como a ausência de controle das doenças no tratamento com pulverização direta de B. subtilis nas folhas, são evidências que sugerem que o mecanismo de controle das doenças em questão está relacionado à resistência induzida.This study was conduced to investigate whether the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum leaf diseases may be affected by the induction of resistance provided by the application of Bacillus subtilis, soil and leaf and foliar application of Acibenzolar-S-Methyl. In order to investigate the mode of action involved in the control was measured the peroxidases activity in the leaf of tomato treated with inducers biotic and abiotic. To evaluate the severity of foliar diseases has been estimated the number of leaf of tomatoes with symptoms of disease and determinate the percent of disease leaf in the total of leaf per plant. The significant increase in levels of peroxidase activity in plants exposed to treatment with inducers and lack of control of leaf diseases, in direct spray of B. subtilis in the leaves, are evidence that suggest that the mechanism of control diseases in question is related to induction resistance.

  8. Tööturuamet pakub rohkem abi / Illar Mõttus

    Mõttus, Illar


    Tööturuameti Lääne-Virumaa osakonna programmi "Kvalifitseeritud tööjõu pakkumise suurendamine 2007-2009" juht Tiiu Säberi sõnul on programmiga lisandunud võimalus täiendkoolituseks ja praktikaks ka vanemaealistele (vanuses 50-74)

  9. Nordmanns fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach) - From research to production

    Find, Jens Iver


    The main focus of the research on somatic embryogenesis in nordmanns fir has until recently been on improving the basic protocols in each step of the process. However, with recent developments, one single set of methods has shown to be effective for production of plants from more than 500 differe...

  10. Acetylation and characterization of spruce (Picea abies) galactoglucomannans.

    Xu, Chunlin; Leppänen, Ann-Sofie; Eklund, Patrik; Holmlund, Peter; Sjöholm, Rainer; Sundberg, Kenneth; Willför, Stefan


    Acetylated galactoglucomannans (GGMs) are the main hemicellulose type in most softwood species and can be utilized as, for example, bioactive polymers, hydrocolloids, papermaking chemicals, or coating polymers. Acetylation of spruce GGM using acetic anhydride with pyridine as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale, whereas, as a classic method, it can be potentially transferred to the industrial scale. The effects of the amount of catalyst and acetic anhydride, reaction time, temperature and pretreatment by acetic acid were investigated. A fully acetylated product was obtained by refluxing GGM for two hours. The structures of the acetylated GGMs were determined by SEC-MALLS/RI, (1)H and (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. NMR studies also indicated migration of acetyl groups from O-2 or O-3 to O-6 after a heating treatment in a water bath. The thermal stability of the products was investigated by DSC-TGA. PMID:20144827

  11. Volatile monoterpenes in a stand of Picea abies (L.) Karst

    Natural emissions of terpene and their fate in the atmosphere were investigated in a forest stand of the Bayerischer Wald mountains. Terpenes are volatile hydrocarbons whose relevance for air chemistry has increased considerably in the past few years. The investigation compared different sources of terpene in order to determine their strength as a function of meteorological, air-chemical and biological parameters. (orig./BBR)

  12. Enzyme activities of fungi associated with Picea abies needles

    Žifčáková, Lucia; Dobiášová, Petra; Kolářová, Zuzana; Koukol, O.; Baldrian, Petr


    Roč. 4, č. 6 (2011), s. 427-436. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA ČR GA526/08/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Ascomycetes * Decomposition * Basidiomycetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.507, year: 2011

  13. Väikese Eesti abi suure katastroofi lahendamiseks / Annika Lall

    Lall, Annika, 1962-


    31. jaanuaril 2005 saabus Kagu-Aasia looduskatastroofi piirkonnast tagasi Eesti politsei kolmeliikmeline suurõnnetuste ohvrite identifitseerimise meeskond. Abibrigaadi tööst Tais Phuketi piirkonnas

  14. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.


    ... participation. (a) Fraud or misstatement of material fact. If it is determined at any time that participation in the system was obtained through fraud or the misstatement of a material fact, the Executive...

  15. Aby Warburg’s Pathosformel as methodological paradigm’

    Colleen Becker


    Full Text Available This paper explores the differing positions Warburg occupies within Humanities and Social Sciences fields to demonstrate his cross-disciplinary relevance. While the Bilderatlas Mnemosyne, his major work concerning Pathosformeln, was never complete and his conceptualization of the Pathosformel was fairly indefinite, his theoretical paradigms nonetheless provide models for scholars working with visual culture. As a case study, the national personification ‘Germania’ is used to test the applicability of his ideas within an interdisciplinary context.

  16. Walter Benjamin: un melanconico allievo di Aby Warburg

    Marco Bertozzi


    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin tried to get in touch with Panofsky and the Warburg’s circle, but the attempt failed. This article examines the chapter on melancholy of Benjamin’s The Origin of the German Tragic Drama (1928 and his main sources, i. e. Warburg’s essay Pagan-Antique Prophecy in Words and Images in the Age of Luther (1920 and Panofsky-Saxl’s work Dürers Melencolia I (1923. Benjamin interpreted the melancholy of the German Tragic Drama as a jump back to the deadly sin of sloth: he saw the saturnine melancholy under the sign of the medieval acedia.

  17. Aby Warburg e Walter Benjamin. Il metodo della memoria

    Guglielmo Bilancioni


    Full Text Available Many words extracted from the electric-electronic dictionary could be useful to understand a nexus between Warburg and Benjamin. Memory as accumulator is the link that connects these two collectors –and coordinators- of impressions. Science of Art, Mythology of Life, allegorical distance and mimetical proximity, traces of memory and power of interpretation: hence overflow Pathosformel and Dialectical Image. Here are the sparks of Polarisation.

  18. Naine ootab ettevõtluses abi / Signe Kalberg

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-


    Mittetulundusühing ETNA e. Ettevõtlikud Naised Eestimaal juhatuse esimees Kaja Keskküla selgitas Järvamaa naisettevõtjaile FEM-kavandit, mille eesmärgiks on luua kolme aasta jooksul Balti mere riikides võrgustik ja jätkusuutlik infrastruktuur naisettevõtluse toetuseks. Diagramm: FIEde arv Eestis ja Järvamaal 01.11.2004. Tabel: Naiste osa (%) ettevõtjate hulgas 2004. a.

  19. Changes of Anatomical Characteristics and Cellulose Activity in Xylem Tissue of European Spruce (Picea abies ) after Inoculation with the Blue-Stain Fungus Ceratocystis polonica%蓝变真菌引起的欧洲云杉木质部解剖学特征及纤维素酶活性的变化

    谢寿安; 吕淑杰; Axel Shopf; 何惠勇


    选择奥地利境内阿尔卑斯山健康欧洲云杉为对象,研究室内接种蓝变真菌(Ceratocystis polonica)引起的寄主树木韧皮部和木质部解剖学特征的变化,揭示蓝变真菌引起欧洲云杉枯萎的机制.结果表明:接种1周后的4株欧洲云杉的木质部组织内,蓝变区域显著增加,4~6周后蓝变区域不再增加;而在接种无菌琼脂的2株对照欧洲云杉的木质部组织内,没有检测到蓝变区域.采用生物化学分析和组织定位技术,确定接种真菌和无菌琼脂的欧洲云杉木质部区域纤维素酶的分布和活性变化.接种2周后剥皮取样检测,接种真菌的4株欧洲云杉的木质部组织内纤维素酶含量大幅度增加,其等电聚焦电泳显示明显的纤维素酶酶带;而在接种无菌琼脂的欧洲云杉木质部区域,纤维素酶含量分布较少,其等电聚焦电泳显示微弱的纤维素酶酶带.进一步证明蓝变真菌分泌的纤维素酶能利用寄主欧洲云杉木质部的纤维素,蓝变真菌是致死阿尔卑斯山境内欧洲云杉的重要病原菌.%The blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, a virulent fungal associate of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, is pathogenic to European spruce ( Picea abies) in Europe. The wilting mechanism in P. abies after inoculation with C. polonica was examined based on anatomical studies of the phloem and xylem of periodically harvested trees. In a field experiment, the blue-stained sapwood area of European spruce was measured in response to inoculation with C. polonica, four vigorous, mature European spruce trees were mass-inoculated with C. polonica at a density of four inoculations per dm2 within a 120-cm-wide band on the lower bole. Two other trees were inoculated with sterile agar and served as controls. In four trees that had been inoculated with the fungus, blue-stained sapwood area increased dramatically within the first weeks after inoculation until no bluestained sapwood area was


    赵常明; 陈庆恒; 乔永康; 潘开文


    岷江冷杉(Abies faxoniana)是青藏高原东缘亚高山顶极森林植被的优势种之一,主要分布于岷江、大渡河和白龙江的上游地区.该文研究了岷江冷杉天然原始群落的种群结构和空间分布格局.样方大小为100 m ×60 m.测定了所有个体的坐标及其胸径、高度和冠幅.将岷江冷杉按大小级分为5级,即幼苗:H(高度)<0.33 m; 幼树: H≥0.33 m, 且 DBH(胸径)<2.5 cm; 小树: 2.5 cm≤DBH<7.5 cm; 中树: 7.5 cm≤DBH <22.5 cm和大树: DBH≥22.5 cm.采用了Morisita 指数 (Iδ)、方差均值比 (V/m), 聚块度指标(m*/m)和空间点格局分析方法 (SPPA) (采用了Ripley二次分析法)4种方法分析岷江冷杉的空间分布格局.结果表明: 1) 岷江冷杉种群结构稳定.因为其年龄结构表现为增长型, 幼苗幼树储备丰富,密度分别为2 217*hm-2和2 683*hm-2,可见岷江冷杉天然更新良好,进而通过其"移动镶嵌循环"更新维持其种群的稳定性.在大小级结构图中的一些缺刻和年龄结构图中的"断代"现象,是干扰的时空异质性在采样的时间和空间断面上的反映.2) 幼苗、幼树和小树在所有的研究尺度(从 1 m×1m 到 30 m×30 m)下都呈聚集分布.但中树和大树基本上呈随机分布.3) 聚集强度随尺度的变化而变化.上述的前3种方法表明,聚集强度随尺度的增加而减弱.但是,空间点格局分析法表明,岷江冷杉幼苗、幼树和小树的聚集强度首先随尺度的增加而增强,达到一定高峰后,随尺度的增加而减弱. 4) 岷江冷杉的空间分布格局是它与其自然环境长期作用的结果,同时也反映了其种群天然更新的格局和机制. 5) 4种分析方法对格局的判别基本一致, 但空间点格局分析法更能反映出格局强度随尺度的变化的关系,是值得推荐的一种分析空间分布格局的方法.使用空间点格局分析法的限制主要在于其计算和采样比较复杂.另外,由于Ripley 二次

  1. Changes in abiotic characteristics of water in the Paranapanema River and three lateral lagoons at mouth zone of the Jurumirim Reservoir during the flood period, São Paulo, Brazil Cambios de las características abióticas del agua del río Paranapanema y de tres lagunas laterales en la zona de la boca de la Reserva de Jurumirim durante el periodo de inundación, São Paulo, Brasil

    Danielli Cristina Granado


    Full Text Available Floods increase the similarity of the abiotic water characteristics of the rivers with those of the surrounding floodplains and are the main factors that influence the ecosystem dynamics. The aim of this paper was to examine the alterations in abiotic characteristics of the Paranapanema River and three lateral lagoons with different degrees of connectivity to the river during the flood period. Samplings were performed twice a week during a three-month period. Water quality in the Camargo and Coqueiral lagoons, connected to the Paranapanema River, presented patterns of variation similar to those of the lotic ecosystem, evidenced by the principal component analysis. In Cavalos Lagoon, changes in water quality were observed in all the environments, such as a function of dilution after the water level increased and greater nutrients resulting from littoral plant decomposition after submersion. In conclusion, the marginal lagoons and river were influenced by two anthropogenic actions: water storage in a dam reservoir, which acted like a buffer against hydrological pulses, and the widening of the channel uniting Camargo Lagoon with the river, changing the connectivity level and causing an ever-greater similarity of the lagoon with the lotic system.Las inundaciones asemejan las características abióticas del agua de los ríos a la de los entornos de planicies aluviales y son los principales factores que influyen en la dinámica del ecosistema. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar las alteraciones en las características abióticas del río Paranapanema y de tres lagunas laterales con distintos niveles de conectividad al río durante el período de inundación. Los muestreos se realizaron dos veces por semana durante un período de tres meses. La calidad del agua en las lagunas Camargo y Coqueiral, conectadas al río Paranapanema, presentó patrones de variación similar a aquellos del ecosistema lótico, demostrado por medio de análisis de

  2. Comparison between abiotic parameters and the forest structure of a forest fragment and an eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna Smith abandoned reforestation in the ecological park of Klabin, Telemaco Borba/PR Comparação entre parâmetros abióticos e a estrutura florestal de um fragmento de floresta e um reflorestamento abandonado de eucalipto (Eucalyptus saligna Smith no parque ecológico da Klabin, Telêmaco Borba/PR

    José Antonio Pimenta


    ções florestais, sendo uma delas um fragmento florestal secundário e a outra uma área abandonada de reflorestamento com eucalipto, neste trabalho foram avaliados alguns parâmetros abióticos, bem como a estrutura florestal das áreas. Dentre os fatores abióticos estudados estão: temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, compactação, umidade e pH do solo e espessura da serapilheira. Para analisar a estrutura florestal, foram avaliados: cobertura de herbáceas sobre o solo, índice de cobertura do dossel, diâmetro a altura do peito (DAP, área basal (AB e altura das árvores de todas as espécies. Entre os parâmetros analisados, comparando-se as áreas, foram observadas que: a compactação do solo é maior na floresta secundária (0,57 MPa do que no reflorestamento de eucalipto (0,43 MPa; a presença de herbáceas sobre o solo é menor no reflorestamento de eucalipto (17,96% do que na floresta secundária (59,4%; o índice de cobertura do dossel foi de 45,99% para o reflorestamento de eucalipto, enquanto na floresta secundária este valor foi de 61,02%. No entanto, de acordo com o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, a estrutura florestal não é diferente entre as áreas, já que os valores de DAP e altura não diferiram entre o calculado e o observado.

  3. Variação do número de estômatos e micropêlos em Paspalum vaginatum Sw: em relação às condições abióticas numa marisma do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS-Brasil Variation in the number of stomata and microhairs of Paspalum vaginatum Sw: en relation to abiotic conditions in a breakwater in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary, RS-Brazil

    Eleci de Oliveria Bastos


    Full Text Available Paspalum vaginatum Sw., gramínea perene, estolonífera, com folhas anfistomáticas e pequenas é característica de pântanos salgados, crescendo em condições estressantes na marisma da lagoa dos Patos, molhe oeste da Barra do Rio Grande, RS. Foram feitas contagens mensais de estômatos e micropêlos nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial das lâminas e relacionadas às características abióticas do ambiente. O número de micropêlos da superfície foliar abaxial variou significativamente e diretamente com a temperatura da água intersticial junto às rizosferas. Estes, porém, não mantiveram correlação com a salinidade intersticial. Os resultados sugerem que a espécie seja uma halófita facultativa. O número de estômatos da superfície abaxial manteve um relacionamento inverso com a pluviosidade. Paspalum vaginatum, apresenta-se como uma espécie com características xeromórficas.Paspalum vaginatum Sw., a perennial, stoloniferous grass with small leaves presenting stomata on both epidermises is characteristic of salt marshes, growing under stressful conditions near the west breakwater of the Rio Grande outlet, Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Monthly counts of stomata and microhairs on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were related to the abiotic characteristics of the enviroment. The number of microhairs of the abaxial leaf surface varied significantly and directly with interstitial water temperature close to the rhyzosphere. However, these counts did not correlate with the interstitial salinity. The results suggest that the species is a facultative halophyte. Stomata counts of the abaxial surface showed an inverse relation to precipitation. Paspalum vaginatum appears to be a species with xeromorphic characteristics.

  4. Long-term research in Bosque Fray Jorge National Park: Twenty years studying the role of biotic and abiotic factors in a Chilean semiarid scrubland Investigación de largo plazo en el Parque Nacional Bosque Fray Jorge: Veinte años estudiando el rol de los factores bióticos y abióticos en un matorral chileno semiárido



    in this region, and that more frequent El Niños in conjunction with global climatic change may lead to marked changes in community dynamics. The importance of long-term experimental studies is underscored by the fact that only now after 20 years of work are some patterns becoming evident.Desde 1989 hemos llevado a cabo un experimento ecológico a gran escala en un matorral espinoso semiárido de un parque nacional en el norte de Chile. Inicialmente, nos centramos en el rol de las interacciones bióticas incluyendo depredación, competencia interespecífica y herbivoría en micromamíferos y componentes vegetales de la comunidad. Usamos una aproximación reduccionista con parcelas replicadas cercadas de 0.56 ha que selectivamente excluían depredadores vertebrados y/o micromamíferos herbívoros más grandes como el degu, Octodon degus. Aunque detectamos efectos transitorios menores en la sobrevivencia y número de degus en las exclusiones de depredadores, otras especies no mostraron respuestas. Similarmente, la competencia interespecífica (i.e., degus con otros micromamíferos no tenía efectos numéricos detectables (aunque ocurrieron algunas respuestas conductuales, y las exclusiones tuvieron efectos relativamente pequeños en varios componentes vegetales. Aproximaciones basadas en modelos indican que los factores abióticos juegan un papel determinante en la dinámica de las especies de micromamíferos principales como O. degus y la laucha orejuda (Phyllotis darwini. En cambio, estos están principalmente relacionados a pulsos no periódicos de lluvias más altas (usualmente durante los eventos El Niño que gatilla el crecimiento de plantas efímeras; un experimento de adición de alimento en 1997-2000 verificó la importancia de la precipitación como un determinante de la disponibilidad de alimento. Desde el 2004 hemos expandido los esfuerzos de monitoreo de largo plazo a otros componentes comunitarios importantes incluyendo aves e insectos con el fin de

  5. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero



    densidades de plántulas y juveniles y de la proporción de semillas germinadas en los fragmentos pequeños de bosque. Por otro lado, la regeneración de N. obliqua es limitada en ambos hábitats, y la fragmentación del bosque no afectaría diferencialmente su germinación. Este estudio llama la atención sobre la relevancia de estudiar los cambios en los factores abióticos como consecuencias de actividades humanas, y de considerar los "sitios seguros" (definidos por los atributos del nicho regeneracional en la implementación de acciones de conservación y de restauración ecológica.

  6. Spatial patterns with memory: tree regeneration after stand-replacing disturbance in Picea abies mountain forests

    Wild, Jan; Kopecký, Martin; Svoboda, M.; Zenáhlíková, J.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Herben, Tomáš


    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2014), s. 1327-1340. ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0843; GA MŽP SP/2D2/111/08 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : bark beetle * spatial pattern * mountain spruce forest Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  7. Diversity of foliar endophytes in wind-fallen Picea abies trees

    Koukol, O.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kolářová, Zuzana; Baldrian, Petr


    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2012), s. 69-77. ISSN 1560-2745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Morphospecies * ITS rDNA * Culturable microfungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.319, year: 2012

  8. Characteristics of Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) surviving a spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) outbreak

    Jakuš, R.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Cudlín, Pavel; Blaženec, M.; Ježík, M.; Havlíček, František; Moravec, Ivo


    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2011), s. 965-973. ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06068; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Keywords Norway spruce * Ips typographus * Host selection * Bark beetle attack * Crown geometry Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2011

  9. Interaction of prechilling, temperature, osmotic stress, and light in Picea abies seed germination

    A multi-factor experimental approach and proportional odds model was used to study interactions between five environmental factors significant to Norway spruce seed germination: prechilling (at +4.5 °C), suboptimal temperatures (+12 and +16 °C), osmotically induced water stress (–0.3 Mpa and 0 Mpa), prolonged white light, and short-period far-red light. Temperature and osmotic stress interacted with one another in the germination of seeds: the effect of osmotic stress being stronger at +16 °C than at +12 °C. In natural conditions, this interaction may prevent germination early in the summer when soil dries and temperature increases. Prolonged white light prevented germination at low temperature and low osmotic potential. Inhibitory effect was less at higher temperatures and higher osmotic potential, as well as after prechilling. Short-period far-red light did not prevent germination of unchilled seeds in darkness. Prechilling tended to make seeds sensitive to short pulses of far-red light, an effect which depended on temperature: at +12 °C the effect on germination was promotive, but at +16 °C, inhibitory and partly reversible by white light. It seems that Norway spruce seeds may have adapted to germinate in canopy shade light rich in far-red. The seeds may also have evolved mechanisms to inhibit germination in prolonged light

  10. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    David Behringer; Heike Zimmermann; Birgit Ziegenhagen; Sascha Liepelt


    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer...

  11. Feeding with aminolevulinic acid increased chlorophyll content in Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the dark

    Pavlovič, A.; Demko, V.; Durchan, Milan; Hudák, J.


    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2009), s. 631-634. ISSN 0300-3604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Aminolevulinic acid * Ginkgo biloba * light-independent chlorophyll biosynthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.072, year: 2009

  12. Influence of road salting on the adjacent Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest

    Forczek, Sándor; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Sigler, Karel; Matucha, Miroslav


    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2011), s. 344-350. ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636; GA ČR GP522/09/P394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : deicing * radiotracer methods * salinity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2011

  13. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    Petřek, J.; Zítka, O.; Adam, V.; Bartušek, Karel; Anjum, N. A.; Pereira, E.; Havel, L.; Kizek, R.


    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0144093:1-16. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * biochemical parameters Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  14. Predicting the Radiometric Biases between ABI and VIIRS Due to Spectral Response Function Differences

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, Dave; Cao, Changyong


    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was launched last year aboard the Suomi NPP satellite. The high quality of the radiometric data can be attributed to thorough pre-launch spectral response characterization by the vendor and validation using the Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations Using Uniform Sources (SIRCUS) facility provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The GOES-R program is similarly developing an imaging radiomete...

  15. Drought as stress factor and its role in spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst) dieback

    Ĺubica Ditmarová; Daniel Kurjak; Jaroslav Kmeť


    In this paper we present the results of ecophysiological monitoring (chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, assimilatory pigments concentration, needles water potential) of spruce forest stands health state in the Kysucké Beskydy Mts. The focus has been set on evaluation of the role of drought acting as one of numerous factors causing dieback of this tree species. Our research was a part of an extensive project aimed at providing sufficient analytic data on spruce dieback at all levels: beg...

  16. Tolerance of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) embryogenic tissue to penicillin, carbapenem and aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Malá, J.; Pavingerová, Daniela; Cvrčková, H.; Bříza, Jindřich; Dostál, J.; Šíma, P.


    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 156-161. ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * Norway spruce * penicillin antibiotics * Agrobacterium tumefaciens * carbapenem antibiotics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Mustlaste mõrvad sundisid Ungarit FBI-lt abi paluma / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-


    Ungari politsei ja USA Föderaalne Juurdlusbüroo (FBI) püüavad koos lahendada ligi paarikümmet mustlaste mõrvamise ja ründamise juhtu. Vt. samas: Kanada ähvardab Tšehhit mustlaste pärast viisarežiimiga

  18. Possible effect from shear stress on maturation of somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Sun, Hong; Aidun, Cyrus K; Egertsdotter, Ulrika


    Somatic embryogenesis is the only method with the potential for industrial scale clonal propagation of conifers. Implementation of the method has so far been hampered by the extensive manual labor required for development of the somatic embryos into plants. The utilization of bioreactors is limited since the somatic embryos will not mature and germinate under liquid culture conditions. The negative effect on mature embryo yields from liquid culture conditions has been previously described. We have described the negative effects of shear stress on the development of early stage somatic embryos (proembryogenic masses; PEMs) at shear stresses of 0.086 and 0.14 N/m(2). In the present study, additional flow rates were studied to determine the effects of shear stress at lower rates resembling shear stress in a suspension culture flask. The results showed that shear stress at 0.009, 0.014, and 0.029 N/m(2) inhibited the PEM expansions comparing with the control group without shear stress. This study also provides validation for the cross-correlation method previously developed to show the effect of shear stress on early stage embryo suspensor cell formation and polarization. Furthermore, shear stress was shown to positively affect the uptake of water into the cells. The results indicate that the plasmolyzing effect from macromolecules added to liquid culture medium to stimulate maturation of the embryos are affected by liquid culture conditions and thus can affect the conversion of PEMs into mature somatic embryos. PMID:21449024

  19. Haiti vajab suurt abi, et jalule tõusta / Heiki Suurkask

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-


    ÜRO palub maailmalt maavärinas kannatanud Haiti jaoks rohkem kui pool miljardit dollarit. EBRD ja Maailmapank on sel aastakümnel Haitile ülesehituseks andnud sadu miljoneid dollareid, USA on 5 aasta jooksul Haitisse investeerinud 800 mln. dollarit. Riiki on püütud reformida, kuid korruptsioonist pole vabanetud

  20. Fluorescence-microscopic investigations on the vitality of mycorrhizas from spruce (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) and fir (Abies alba Mill. ) of stands in the Black Forest exhibiting varying degrees of damage. Fluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Vitalitaet der Mykorrhizen von Fichten (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) und Tannen (Abies alba Mill. ) unterschiedlich geschaedigter Bestaende im Schwarzwald

    Ritter, T.


    This is the first investigation to make use of 'FDA-Vitalfluorochromierung', a vitality test, for working on a large number of ectomycorrhizas. The test was found to provide a host of information on the physiological condition of ectomycorrhizas. Because of the limited durability of the fresh material required for the test, it cannot be applied to any given number of mycorrhizas from a sample. But as regards the amount of information on the vitality of mycorrhizas, 'FDA-Vitalfluorochromierung' is comparable to much more sophisticated techniques such as transmission electron microscopy. Comparative investigations of healthy and sick spruces and firs revealed that almost 100% of all investigated very fine roots carried mycorrhizas. A distinct decrease of the rate of mycorrhization in sick trees was not established. As the vitality of the mycorrhizas decreased, the starch content in the central cylinder increased. The increase in starch content was strongest after the mycorrhizas' hypha coat and Hartig's net had died off. (orig./MG).

  1. Stand dynamics and natural regeneration in silver fir (Abies alba Mill. plantations after traditional rotation age

    Bottalico F


    Full Text Available In the Apennine mountains most pure silver fir stands originated from planting and were managed according to the traditional model, with clear cutting and a 100 year rotation. In the last decades in most of these stands there has been a change towards nature conservation and active management has stopped. The aim of this work was (1 to analyse stand dynamics and spontaneous regeneration processes that are taking place with increasing age in even aged fir plantations, and (2 to discuss if these processes can be useful for defining management approaches answering biodiversity conservation aims. The study was carried out in the Vallombrosa Forest (Central Italy. The relationship between fir stand age and structural parameters was analyzed using inventory data. Gap dynamics were monitored between 1983 and 2007 on the basis of remote sensing data. Based on a field survey of a sample of gaps, species composition and density of seedlings and saplings were analysed in relation to gap size and within-gap position. From 1983 to 2007 the number of gaps and their total area increased, following increasing stand age. Significant relationships (p < 0.01 were found between fir stand age and number of trees per hectare (r = -0.30, quadratic mean diameter (r = 0.65 and volume per hectare (r = 0.50. In the fir stands with lower stand density, a layer of trees with DBH < 15 cm had filled in the structure: fifteen different broadleaf species were recorded in this layer, usually mixed with fir. Gap size had an influence on presence of young firs (seedlings and fir < 0.5 m, which were significantly more numerous in gaps < 200 m2, but it had relatively limited influence on species diversity. Within-gap position did not influence regeneration density. Results indicate that a possible management option for gradually transforming even aged fir plantations in the Apennines into mixed, naturally regenerating systems, could be based on the creation of small gaps (< 200 m2 in the canopy cover, simulating the natural dynamics that are taking place in ageing fir plantations.

  2. Actin distribution in mitotic apparatus of somatic embryo cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Cenklová, Věra; Binarová, Pavla; Havel, L.


    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2003), s. 167-174. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/99/D092; GA AV ČR IAA5020803; GA ČR GV522/96/K186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cytoskeleton * embryogenesis of spruce * mitosis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  3. Saaremaa naised saavad abi hiidlaste tööhõiveprojektist / Veljo Kuivjõgi

    Kuivjõgi, Veljo, 1951-


    Kümned Saaremaa naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  4. ELi abi: Eesti ametnik jagab ja valitseb / Andres Mäe

    Mäe, Andres


    Eesti suurim probleem Euroopa Liidu struktuurifondide kasutamisel on nigel haldussuutlikkus, täpsemalt ametnike omavoli sotsiaalpartnerite valikul, tähtaegadest kinnipidamisel ja kohustuste täitmisel, leiab autor

  5. III-IV klassi abiõppeõpilaste vahendatud tekstiloome / Karl Karlep, Ana Kontor

    Karlep, Karl


    Artiklis kirjeldatakse abikooli III-IV klassi õpilaste tekstiloome arengut kahe õppeaasta jooksul (1998.-2000.a.). Taseme uurimiseks kasutati lühitekste, mida õpilased kuulasid ja suuliselt ümber jutustasid, analüüsiti jutustuste sisu ja keelelist vormistust. Eriti pakkusid huvi kasutatavad süntaktilised struktuurid, kuna esmakordselt võeti kasutusele harjutuste süsteem muuteoperatsioonide (lausete ühendamine, sisestamine jm.) õpetamiseks-harjutamiseks

  6. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar


    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabid...

  7. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from stems of Betula Pendula pinus sylvestris and Picea Abies

    Macháčová, Kateřina; Halmeenmäki, E.; Pavelka, Marian; Dušek, Jiří; Bäck, J.; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, M.

    Helsinky: Finnish association for aerosol resarch FAAR, 2014, s. 408-412. ISBN 978-952-7091-01-2. ISSN 0784-3496. [International Aerosol Conference 2014. Busan (KR), 28.08.2014-02.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : methane and nitrous oxide flux * boreal forest trees Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Oxidative biodegradation of tetrachloroethene in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.)

    Weissflog, L.; Krüger, G.H.J.; Forczek, Sándor; Lange, Ch.A.; Kotte, K.; Pfennigsdorff, A.; Rohlenová, Jana; Fuksová, Květoslava; Uhlířová, H.; Matucha, Miroslav; Schröder, P.; Krueger, G.


    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2007), s. 89-96. ISSN 0254-6299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Biodegradation * Chloroplasts * Drought stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2007

  9. Storage lipid dynamics in somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies): histochemical and quantitative analyses

    Grigová, M.; Kubeš, Martin; Drážná, N.; Řezanka, Tomáš; Lipavská, H.


    Roč. 27, č. 11 (2007), s. 1533-1540. ISSN 0829-318X Grant ostatní: Grantová agentura UK(CZ) 153/2001; Univerzita Karlova v Praze / Přírodovědecká fakulta(CZ) OC 843.40 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : embryo maturation * fatty acid composition * histochemistry Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.141, year: 2007

  10. Ekspert : Lähis-Idal pole Euroopa kogemusest abi / Erkki Bahovski

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-


    Saksa mõttekoja peatne direktor Volker Perthes peab Baltimaade ja Kesk-Euroopa riikide olemist araabia ja Lähis-Ida riikide õpetajateks müüdiks, kuna sealsetes riikides pole tegemist üleminekuga sotsialismilt või postsotsialismilt liberaalsele demokraatiale

  11. Mati Raidma : Iraak vajab veel meie abi / Peep Lillemägi

    Lillemägi, Peep, 1967-


    Riigikogu riigikaitsekomisjoni esimehe Mati Raidma sõnul pikendab parlament meie kaitseväelaste mandaate erinevates kriisikolletes osalemiseks lähtudes vajadusest, arengutest ning abistava riigi soovidest. Ilmunud ka: Tallinna Teataja : Haabersti Kristiine ja Põhja-Tallinn dets. lk. 5; Tallinna Teataja : Nõmme ja Mustamäe dets. lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Järvamaa, Jõgevamaa, Tartumaa, Põlvamaa, Võrumaa, Valgamaa ja Viljandimaa dets. nr. 5 lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Hiiumaa, Saaremaa, Läänemaa ja Pärnumaa dets. nr. 6 lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Harju- ja Raplamaa dets. nr. 7 lk. 5; Eesti Teataja : Virumaa dets. nr. 8 lk. 5

  12. Afganistan vajab liitlasvägede abi veel aastaid / Holger Roonemaa

    Roonemaa, Holger


    Kuigi liitlasväed tegutsevad Afganistanis juba märksa laiemal alal kui aastaid tagasi, on koalitsioonivägede kohalolek veel aastaid riigile vajalik. Taliban jätkab aktiivset vastupanu ning on alustanud ka infosõda. Kaart. Lisa: Võitlus südamete ja mõistuse pärast; Oopiumitoodang suureneb. Vt. samas intervjuud logistikaüksuse julgestusmeeskonna ülema vanemveebel Urmas Pindisega

  13. Recovery of logging residues for energy from spruce (Pices abies) dominated stands

    Nurmi, Juha [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, Box 44, 69101 Kannus (Finland)


    Vast quantities of logging residue are left behind on clearcut areas. Given the suitable transportation distance, environmental and economic circumstances, they provide a possible alternative for fossil fuels. However, distribution of residual biomass over large areas during the logging operation and trampling by machines hinders the recovery. The recovery enhancing effect of three single-grip harvester work techniques on the productivity of logging residue recovery for energy was studied. Forwarder productivity, distribution of effective work time, forwarding distance, load size and the residue yield were studied. A heavy forwarder with an enlarged 22 m{sup 3} load space was used. The average load size was 9 tonnes. More than 50% of the forwarder's work time was spent on loading the residues. The recovery output of the trampled residues from the strip road after a conventional harvesting method was 11.4 t/E{sub 0}-h for a 9 tonnes load and a 300 m transportation distance. In contrast, the single-grip harvester methods that aimed at the post-logging residue recovery increased the recovery output to 12.0-13.3 t/E{sub 0}-h. The load size was a more significant factor than the forwarding distance in terms of machine productivity. The yield of residue recovery after the conventional roundwood harvesting method was 58.4% and from 66.8% to 78.7% for the alternative single-grip-harvester methods. (author)

  14. Does mixing of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) litter hasten decomposition?

    Berger, Torsten W.; Berger, Pétra


    Background and aims It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling, since the formation of thick organic layers is commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. Methods Litter decomposition was measured in three adjacent stands of ...

  15. Stand development and regeneration dynamics of managed uneven-aged Picea abies forests in boreal Sweden

    Chrimes, Dillon


    Volume increment and ingrowth are important aspects of stand development and regeneration dynamics for determining the effectiveness of uneven-aged silvicultural systems. The main objectives of this thesis were to establish the influence of standing volume on volume increment after different kinds of harvest regimes, the influence of overstorey density on height growth of advance regeneration, and the influence of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) on spruce regeneration in managed uneven-aged...

  16. Kriisimissioonidel ei anta üksnes abi, seal õpitakse palju ka ise / Ene Pajula

    Pajula, Ene, 1950-


    Lääne-Tallinna keskhaigla kirurgia- ja anestesioloogiakliiniku juhataja, anestesioloog Jaak Talving on üks Eesti kümmekonnast päästemeedikuks koolitatud arstist. Ta on käinud missioonil Indoneesias ja Haitil ning aidanud sisustada Afganistani väikehaiglat

  17. Pathos, forma, memoria: Aby Warburg e il«temporale» del comprendere

    Alice Barale


    Full Text Available Refusing the over-refined history of art of his time, young Warburg travels in 1895 to New Mexico,  visiting the American Indian pueblos. Here he discovers a dark side of our own culture, where arts turn out to be – as he writes about thirty years later in his notes - a “biological product” and knowledge shows to be deeply conncted to metamorphic behaviour.

  18. Aby Warburg’s and Fritz Saxl’s assessment of the ‘Wiener Schule’

    Dorothea McEwan


    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to locate both scholars' views in the discussion of the direction and scope of the ‘Wiener Schule’. Warburg, who corresponded with members of the ‘Wiener Schule’, and Saxl, who was trained by its teachers, whilst reading the important books of its members, never wanted to be drawn into their research agenda. Warburg was clear that he wanted to pursue a different form of ‘Kulturwissenschaft', all but untranslatable into English, possibly approaching a term like cultural 'science'. Saxl, whilst sympathetic to individual proponents of the ‘Wiener Schule’, realized that its analysis of artistic production would not be shared by scholars working in the KBW and/or the newly established university in Hamburg. The result was friendly coexistence in equidistance.

  19. Väikelaste emad vajavad töökoha leidmiseks abi / Kadri Ibrus

    Ibrus, Kadri


    EL-i sotsiaalfondi alaprogrammi Equal raames on ellu kutsutud projekt Choice & Balance (Valikud ja tasakaal), mis tegeleb tööturult tõrjutud lastevanemate abistamisega. Märtsikuus algab koolitus- ja nõustamisprogramm, mis aitab emadel tööturule naasta. Lisa: Nõustamiskoolitus vanematele

  20. Afganistan väärib meie abi / Stanley Davis Phillips

    Phillips, Stanley Davis


    Lääne toetus aitab Afganistani elanikel luua stabiilset, demokraatlikku ja majanduslikult elujõulist tulevikku. Kuigi töö Afganistanis on väga riskantne, on Eesti abiks sealsetel elanikel turvalise keskkonna loomisel

  1. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics of needle and branch samples of Siberian fir (Abies Siberica)

    Rock, B. N.; Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Wessman, C. A.; Moss, D. M.


    In August, 1991, needle and branch samples of Siberian fir were collected from undisturbed forest stands along an elevation gradient ranging from 2300 ft to 4450 ft. Four study sites were selected on west-facing slopes, and a standard set of measurements and collections was made. First-, second-, and third-year needles were collected for anatomical assessment. A visual assessment of the forest stand conditions at each site included an evaluation of canopy morphology needle, coloration, increment growth, and the state of health of a specific type of lichen. The heaviest damage to forest stands (extensive foliar loss, needle discoloration, dieback of terminal growth) occurs at an intermediate elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The least amount of damage was recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m). Only slight damage occurs at the highest elevation site (4450 ft/1357 m). Some degree of flagging occurs at all sites. Several lines of evidence suggest that the damage occurring in this area is recent in origin (incipient).

  2. A General Scheme for Formalizing Defaults Using the Predicate ab(I,S)

    SHEN Yidong


    In common sense reasoning two typical types of defaultsare encountered. One is of the form "All birds can fly except b1,b2,..., and bm (m1)", and the other "All birds can fly,but there exist exceptions". The first type of defaults is readilyformalized but the other, as some researchers have noticed, is difficultto deal with. This paper establishes a general scheme for formalizing defaults of the two types, the key to which is the introduction of atwo-argument predicate ab (I, S) to represent exceptional objects.

  3. Accumulation of radioactivity in mushrooms and its relation with the mycophagous rodents biology in an Abies religiosa forest; Acumulacion de radiactividad en hongos y su relacion con la biologia de roedores micofagos en un bosque de Abies religiosa

    Valenzuela G, V.H


    Nowadays the society expresses its concern by the action of the nuclear energy with respect to installations safety, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive waste management, nuclear accidents and nuclear tests. The concern is based to the fear of radioactive explosion which contaminates the environment and the damages to the public health. The mathematical models which establish and define the behavior and the exposure conditions of radioactive substances in the human beings as well as the systematic deposit in the terrestrial surface of the particles suspended in the air which contain radioactive material are called fallout, that is a contamination indicator. The objective of this work is to identify the little rodents species with greater accumulation of radionuclides of artificial origin. Due to the mushrooms are good bio indicators of radioactive contamination and the rodents consume them often, both are of greater assistance as indicators of this type of contamination and contribute to the knowledge of the {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40} K dynamics at the forest system. This work forms part of the environmental radiological surveillance of the Mexican Nuclear Center (CNM) in which are analysed several samples which will be used as biological indicators of radioactive contamination which serve for the transfer coefficient calculations of the different routes by which the radiation can to arrive to the human being, being able to be evaluated the dose to the people who live at the CNM surrounding area. Due to not always it is possible to detect so lowest levels of radioactivity in some environmental samples (air, water and, foods) it is necessary to quantify them in other animals or plants which accumulate them. (Author)

  4. Response of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies to the interactive effect of neighbor identity and enhanced CO2 levels

    Rolo, V.; Andivia, E.; Pokorný, Radek


    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 1459-1469. ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mixed-forest * climate change * root morphology * growth * non-structural carbohydrates * CO2 fumigation * plant-to-plant interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.651, year: 2014

  5. Albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel (Abraxane® ABI-007) in the treatment of breast cancer

    Evelina Miele; Gian Paolo Spinelli; Ermanno Miele; Federica Tomao; Silverio Tomao


    Evelina Miele1, Gian Paolo Spinelli1, Ermanno Miele2, Federica Tomao1, Silverio Tomao11Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy diagnosed in women. In the metastatic setting this disease is still uncurable. Taxanes represent an important class of antitumor agents which have proven to be fundamental in the ...

  6. Dynamics and composition of litterfall in an unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest after bark-beetle outbreak

    Kopáček, Jiří; Cudlín, Pavel; Fluksová, H.; Kaňa, Jiří; Picek, T.; Šantrůčková, H.; Svoboda, M.; Vaněk, D.


    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2015), s. 305-323. ISSN 1239-6095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : bark beetle * litter * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2014

  7. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Begoña Abellanas


    • The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. Keywords: Vorest; stand dynamics; individual-based forest model; spatially explicit forest model; pinsapo.

  8. NATO kõrgeim sõjaväelane : olge abi vastuvõtuks valmis / Raymond Henault ; interv. Raimo Poom

    Henault, Raymond


    NATO sõjalise komitee esimehe sõnul on NATO eesmärk aidata Balti riike õhuturbega kuni 2018. aastani, õhuturbe kontseptsioon vaadatakse üle 2011. aastal. Ämari lennuväli peab muutuma kättesaadavaks kõigile NATO õhuvägedele. Kindral tõstis esile küberkaitse kompetentsikeskuse loomise vajadust ning avaldas arvamust Eesti kaitseväe praeguse mudeli kohta

  9. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst].

    Fangqun OuYang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8% out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49% and hormone signal transduction (8.39%. With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1, AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3, involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth.

  10. Bilan de sante actuel et retrospectif du sapin (Abies alba Mill.) dans les Vosges. Etude ecologique et dendrochronologique

    M. Becker


    Le dispositif retenu comprend 196 placettes réparties dans toute l’aire naturelle du sapin, de façon à couvrir toute la diversité des situations (âge, altitude, sol, topographie, végétation...), mais sans préjuger de l’état sanitaire apparent des arbres. Sur chaque placette, six arbres ont été choisis parmi les dominants et codominants, notés quant à l’état de leur feuillage et carottés à coeur. Ce sont donc près de 1 200 carottes, soit environ 120 000 largeurs de cernes qui ont servi de ...

  11. Seasonal accumulation of ultraviolet-B screening pigments in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Conifer needles are highly effective in screening ultraviolet-B radiation (280–320 nm). This ability is mainly attributed to the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in the epidermal tissue. In two field cabinet experiments with two different clones of Norway spruce we assessed the seasonal accumulation of UV-B screening pigments under near-ambient, and close-to-zero UV-B irradiation. At the beginning of needle development, i.e. in June, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the dominant UV-B screening pigment. It was replaced during needle differentiation by the more effective diacylated flavonol glucosides, particulary kaempferol 3-O-(3,6-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, which reached highest concentrations in July. In addition to the soluble pool of diacylated flavonol glucoside derivatives, a cell wall-bound UV-B screen in the epidermal cell walls was formed during needle differentiation, consisting mainly of p-coumaric acid and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. An effect of UV-B radiation on the accumulation of diacylated flavonol glucosides was only observed in 1996 with clone 2, when the concentrations of kaempferol 3-O-(3,6-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside were significantly higher in July and August under field, and near-ambient than under close-to-zero UV-B irradiance. For wall-bound p-coumaric acid and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside UV-B radiation enhanced the concentrations of these compounds by approximately 20% in relation to the concentrations in close-to-zero UV-B-treated plants in both field cabinet experiments. (author)

  12. Assessment of sanitary conditions in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. damaged by spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk.

    Miezite O


    Full Text Available Spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk. affects tree growth directly and indirectly. Direct injury appears in the form of tissue damage, as insects suck sap from tree phloem. Indirect injury appears as “honeydew”, which results in negative effects on tree growth. Plant sap is saturated with various carbohydrates called photosynthates that are difficult for scaly insects to digest. Therefore it is secreted in excrements, which are subsequently a food source for the black sooty mold (Apiosporium pinophilum Fuckel. The fungus covers needles blocking stomata, causing decreased transpiration and photosynthesis. An inexplicable wither of Norway spruce was reported in Latvia during 2010 due to black sooty mold. However, spruce bud scale was not evident. In 2011, mass propagation of spruce bud scale was observed following the 2010 Norway spruce loss. One objective of this research was to determine if Kraft tree growth classes could be applied to establish the factors responsible for tree foliage damage. Six 21 - 40 year old (second age class Norway spruce stands were evaluated. Two circular sample plots with a 7.98 m radius, and a 200-m2 area were randomly established per each forest stand hectare. Diameter at breast height (dbh, 1.3 m, and height of approximately 30 trees was measured to model a trend. For all trees, Kraft class, and foliage damage level caused by spruce bud scale and black sooty mold were determined. Significant differences were not observed in tree damage levels among stands, however significant differences among damage levels in different Kraft classes were detected (F = 3.45 > Fcrit. = 2.80, α = 0.05 > P = 0.02 found. Overall damage intensity was 29.3 %. Total forestry loss was 1153 LVL (1640 EUR for all surveyed stands (10 ha, and 115 LVL (164 EUR per hectare.

  13. Effect of season, needle age and elevated CO2concentration on photosynthesis and Rubisco acclimation in Picea abies

    Urban, Otmar; Hrstka, M.; Zitová, Martina; Holišová, Petra; Šprtová, Miroslava; Klem, Karel; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Marek, Michal V.


    Roč. 58, SEP 2012 (2012), s. 135-141. ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Activation state * Electron transport rate * Norway spruce * Photosynthetic acclimation * Rubisco carboxylation * Rubisco specific activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.775, year: 2012

  14. Ground vegetation dynamics in mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) forests recovering after air pollution stress impact

    Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, O.; Vavříček, D.; Cudlín, Pavel


    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2009), s. 305-321. ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest decline * norway spruce * microsite conditions * recovery * understorey layer Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.567, year: 2009

  15. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno


    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n-alkanes). Consequently, the combination of 13C pulse labeling with compound-specific 13C analysis of key metabolites enabled identification of relevant C allocation pathways during needle growth after bud break. Besides primary metabolism, synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex network of various pathways consumed the freshly assimilated 13C and kept the majority of the assimilated C in the growing needles.

  16. Net radiation of mountain cultivated Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stand: evaluation of shortand long-wave radiation ratio

    Marková, I.; Marek, Michal V.


    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), s. 114-122. ISSN 0071-6677 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : downward short- and long-wave radiation * upward short- and long-wave radiation * sun elevation * clearness index Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  17. Identifying Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa Attacked by the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae Using Spectral Measurements of the Foliage

    Stephen P. Cook


    Full Text Available Balsam woolly adelgid is an invasive pest of firs in the United States. Aerial surveys are conducted for detection of adelgid infestations but other remotely sensed data may also be useful. Our objective was to determine if high spectral resolution, branch-level data can be used to distinguish infested from noninfested trees. Stepwise discriminant analysis yielded a three-variable model (the red-green index and two narrow-bands (one at 670 nm and the other at 1912 nm that classified infested versus non-infested trees with 94% accuracy compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model. The response of trees in narrow spectral bands was integrated across wavebands to simulate measurements from the multispectral SPOT5-HRVIR sensor. Stepwise discriminant analysis again yielded a three-variable model (simple ratio, the SPOT5-HRVIR band in the SWIR region and NDVI with similar accuracy (93% at discriminating infested from non-infested trees compared with the 83% accuracy obtained with a single-variable model.

  18. Small changes in species composition despite stand-replacing bark beetle outbreak in Picea abies mountain forests

    Fischer, A.; Fischer, H. S.; Kopecký, Martin; Macek, Martin; Wild, Jan


    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2015), s. 1164-1171. ISSN 0045-5067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0843 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : disturbance * permanent plot * multiple-site dissimilarity Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.683, year: 2014

  19. Hispaania nõuab immigrantide vastu võitlemiseks EL-i abi / Anna-Maria Penu

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-


    Üha suureneb Kanaaridele saabuvate Aafrika paadipõgenike hulk, Hispaania asepeaminister Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega tahab probleemi lahendamiseks EL-ilt kaasabi. Lisa: Nädalavahetus tõi üle 1000 põgeniku

  20. Accumulation of radioactivity in mushrooms and its relation with the mycophagous rodents biology in an Abies religiosa forest

    Nowadays the society expresses its concern by the action of the nuclear energy with respect to installations safety, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive waste management, nuclear accidents and nuclear tests. The concern is based to the fear of radioactive explosion which contaminates the environment and the damages to the public health. The mathematical models which establish and define the behavior and the exposure conditions of radioactive substances in the human beings as well as the systematic deposit in the terrestrial surface of the particles suspended in the air which contain radioactive material are called fallout, that is a contamination indicator. The objective of this work is to identify the little rodents species with greater accumulation of radionuclides of artificial origin. Due to the mushrooms are good bio indicators of radioactive contamination and the rodents consume them often, both are of greater assistance as indicators of this type of contamination and contribute to the knowledge of the 137 Cs and 40 K dynamics at the forest system. This work forms part of the environmental radiological surveillance of the Mexican Nuclear Center (CNM) in which are analysed several samples which will be used as biological indicators of radioactive contamination which serve for the transfer coefficient calculations of the different routes by which the radiation can to arrive to the human being, being able to be evaluated the dose to the people who live at the CNM surrounding area. Due to not always it is possible to detect so lowest levels of radioactivity in some environmental samples (air, water and, foods) it is necessary to quantify them in other animals or plants which accumulate them. (Author)

  1. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.;


    climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed to similar weather conditions. Out of 232 samples collected from the sites, Titi lower (2700 m), Titi...

  2. Growth responses of Picea abies to climate in the central part of the Ceskomoravska Upland (Czech Republic)

    Rybníček, M.; Čermák, P.; Žid, T.; Kolář, Tomáš


    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2012), s. 21-30. ISSN 1641-1307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * precipitation * temperature * tree-ring width * habitual diagnostic * Ceskomoravská Upland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2012

  3. Effects of physical blockage of axial phloem transport on growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings under drought

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Winkler, Andrea; Lethaus, Gina; Wieser, Gerhard


    Early culmination of maximum radial growth in late spring was found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (Oberhuber et al. 2014). We hypothesized that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis we manipulated tree carbon status by physical blockage of phloem transport and soil water availability of Norway spruce saplings (tree height c. 1.5 m) in a common garden experiment to investigate influence of carbon availability and drought on above- and belowground growth. Girdling occurred at different phenological stages during the growing season, i.e., before growth onset, and during earlywood and latewood formation. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, soluble sugars and starch) were determined before and after the growing season to evaluate change in tree carbon status. Tree ring analysis revealed that compared to non-girdled controls earlywood width above girdling strikingly increased by c. 170 and 440 %, while latewood width decreased by c. 85 and 55 % in watered and drought stressed trees, respectively. Below girdling no xylem formation was detected. Unexpectedly, preliminary analyses of carbon status revealed striking reduction (c. -80 %) of NSC above and below girdling. Most likely due to reductions in xylem hydraulic conductance, girdling before growth onset reduced leader shoot growth compared to non-girdled controls by c. 45 %, irrespective of water availability. Root dry mass of girdled trees was significantly reduced compared to non-girdled controls (c. 30 % in drought stressed and 45 % in watered trees; p < 0.001). Results suggest that in Norway spruce saplings (1) carbon availability affects radial stem growth, (2) higher basipetal carbon transport occurs under drought supporting our hypothesis of early switch of carbon allocation to belowground when drought stress prevails and (3) minor acropetal transport of carbon from carbon stores in the root system to the stem. We conclude that physical manipulation of carbon availability by disruption of phloem transport is a valuable tool to study relevance of carbon status for tree growth exposed to environmental stress. This study was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  4. Comparing Hyperion-Observed with Model-Predicted Lunar Irradiances in Support of GOES-R ABI Calibration

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish


    Photometric stability of the lunar surface and its relatively smooth reflectance spectra makes the moon an attractive target for calibrating satellite instruments. In this paper, we report analysis of Hyperion lunar observations and comparison with Miller-Turner (MT2009) lunar irradiance model. Hyperion is a hyper-spectral imager on-board the Earth Observing One (EO-1) with 242 spectral channels covering the visible and nearinfrared. It made observations of the moon regularly with a phase ang...

  5. Biomass allocation and transpiration of the Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica cultivated under ambient and elevated [CO2] concentration

    Bužková, Romana; Pokorný, Radek


    Roč. 991, ISHS 2013 (2013), s. 157-162. ISSN 0567-7572 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600870701 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : sap flux density * Norway spruce * European beech * semi-opened glassdomes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Fungal succession in the needle litter of a montane Picea abies forest investigated through strain isolation and molecular fingerprinting

    Haňáčková, Z.; Koukol, O.; Štursová, Martina; Kolařík, Miroslav; Baldrian, Petr


    Roč. 13, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 157-166. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bark beetle * Culturable microfungi * Diversity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  7. Measurement and decontamination of radiocesium on fir (Abies firma) and camellia (Camellia japonica) leaves in Fukushima city

    Pollutants on radiocesium contaminated fir and camellia leaves in Northern Fukushima prefecture were measured and decontaminated after the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The surface contamination of the leaves of the fir and the camellia leaves was measured by washing by hand with water; the contaminants were then removed by deposition. Leaves that had unfolded more than three years ago were polluted by a high concentration of Cs-137+Cs-134; 7,070±129 Bq/kg in fir and 6,610±195 Bq/kg camellia. Lower position leaves of large camellia plants showed higher levels of radiocesium concentration compared with them of small plants. The radiocesium contamination of leaves decreased to one-fifth (fir) and one-quarter (camellia) by hand rubbing with water before washing. 99.4% of radiocesium contamination from fir leaves and 90.8% of radiocesium contamination from camellia. A large amount of the radiocesium surface contamination on fir and camellia could be removed by rubbing leaf surfaces with water, and the contamination was collected by deposition processing. (author)

  8. Fine-scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing Tsuga diversifolia seedlings growing on rocks in a subalpine Abies veitchii forest.

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Son, Joung A; Matsushita, Norihisa; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Hogetsu, Taizo


    Numerous species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi coexist under the forest floor. To explore the mechanisms of coexistence, we investigated the fine-scale distribution of ECM fungal species colonizing root tips in the root system of Tsuga diversifolia seedlings in a subalpine forest. ECM root tips of three seedlings growing on the flat top surface of rocks were sampled after recording their positions in the root system. After the root tips were grouped by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of ITS rDNA, the fungal species representing each T-RFLP group were identified using DNA sequencing. Based on the fungal species identification, the distribution of root tips colonized by each ECM fungus was mapped. Significant clustering of root tips was estimated for each fungal species by comparing actual and randomly simulated distributions. In total, the three seedlings were colonized by 40 ECM fungal species. The composition of colonizing fungal species was quite different among the seedlings. Twelve of the 15 major ECM fungal species clustered significantly within a few centimeters. Some clusters overlapped or intermingled, while others were unique. Areas with high fungal species diversity were also identified in the root system. In this report, the mechanisms underlying generation of these ECM root tip clusters in the root system are discussed. PMID:24212400

  9. «Potenze del destino» e «disintossicazione del tragico» in Aby Warburg

    Alice Barale


    Full Text Available In the years following his psychiatric condition, Warburg approaches Ovidio's poetry with the intent to disclose, underneath its graceful levity, the sense of classical tragedy lying at its heart. Surprisingly, in the reflections of these years, this tragical dimension turns out to be rather embodied by Orpheus than by Dionysius. An element of discontinuity between Warburg and Nietzsche thus emerges, which could be consequential for their very concept of "tragic" as well as of "image". This short essay sets out to emphasise such a discontinuity and to explore its wider implications.

  10. Photosynthetic induction in broadleaved Fagus sylvatica and coniferous Picea abies cultivated under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations

    Košvancová, Martina; Urban, Otmar; Šprtová, Miroslava; Hrstka, M.; Kalina, J.; Tomášková, Ivana; Špunda, V.; Marek, Michal V.


    Roč. 177, - (2009), s. 123-130. ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08022; GA AV ČR IAA600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : gas exchange * photosynthetic limitations * photosynthetic down-regulation * Rubisco specific activity * stomatal conductance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  11. Variation patterns of mitochondrial DNA of Abies alba Mill. in suture zones of postglacial migration in Europe

    Duśan Gomory


    Full Text Available Thirty silver fir populations originating from the putative suture zones of the postglacial recolonization (Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Ukraine were studied using a mitochondrial nad5-4 gene marker. The geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the Ukrainian Carpathians and their northern foothills indicates a very recent meeting of migration streams arriving from the Romanian Carpathians and Central Europe. In the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, two counterparallel migration streams are the most plausible explanation of the pattern observed. The haplotype typical for the Balkan Peninsula predominates along the Adrian coast, whereas the CentralEuropean haplotype is more represented in the inland.

  12. Tipología selvícola para los abetales españoles de Abies alba Mill.

    Aunós Gómez, Álvaro; E. Martínez; Blanco Ortiz, Ricardo


    Se ofrece una tipología de naturaleza silvogenética para los abetales del Pirineo español, elaborada a partir de la información suministrada por el Segundo Inventario Forestal Nacional. Se han derivado nueve tipos, cuya diferenciación se articula en base al área basimétrica, la densidad, la distribución diamétrica de los pies presentes y el carácter puro o mixto de la masa. Se ha analizado comparativamente la estructura que conforman sus distribuciones diamétricas y el rol que las especies...

  13. Testing Romanian seed sources of Norway spruce (Picea abies: results on growth traits and survival at age 30

    Marius Budeanu


    Full Text Available Growth traits and survival rate were evaluated in two field trialsconsisting of 33 provenances (seed stands spread across the entire natural distribution range of Norway spruce in Romania. Total tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH and survival rate were measured at 30 years after planting. Both growth and adaptation traits show substantial genetic variation among the tested seed stands. The amplitude of variation depends markedly on trait and testing site. This fact suggests that the best performing seed stands for growth and adaptation traits at each testing site can be selected. Two groups of valuable populations from Romanian Carpathians - the Northern and Western part (Apuseni Mountains - were identified. Survival rate was negatively correlated with growth traits, the average values in the two field trials were 68% and 70%. By analyzing growth and adaptation traits together with stem and wood qualitative traits, the best performing populations will be considered as tested seed sourcesand the forest reproductive material they can provide will be recommended for use in the regions of provenance where the two field trials are located.

  14. Sekvestrace uhlíku smrkovým porostem (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST.) v oblasti Drahanské vrchoviny

    Světlík, J.; Krejza, Jan; Menšík, L.; Pokorný, Radek; Mazal, P.; Kulhavý, J.


    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-53. ISSN 0322-9688 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : carbon * sequestration * Norway spruce * above-and below-ground biomass * allometric relationships * biomass expansion factors * forest floor * soil * Drahanská vrchovina upland * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Use of different growth paramaters of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to study tree response to climate

    Anja PUGELJ; Levanič, Tom; Jalkanen, Risto; Gričar, Jožica; Gagen, M; Oven, Primož


    In the paper, potential analysis of various growth parameters of Norway spruceare introduced at the macro and micro levels. Dendroecological measurements give information as to xylem growth ring widths, their density and content of stable isotopes in the xylem growth rings. Needle trace method of the terminal annual shoot allows retrospective view into needle density ofthe terminal annual shoot and consequently reconstruction of the several parameters linked to the needles and air pollution. ...

  16. Kas erivajadustega lapsed saavad õigel ajal abi? / Ene Mägi, Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Ale Sprenk, Peeter Aas


    Küsimusele vastavad: Tallinna Ülikooli Kasvatusteaduste Instituudi eri- ja sotsiaalpedagoogika osakonna juhataja Ene Mägi, Tallinna Haridusameti üldhariduse osakonna peaspetsialist Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Krabi põhikooli direktor Ale Sprenk, Põlva Maavalitsuse haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas

  17. Far-red light inhibits germination through DELLA-dependent stimulation of ABA synthesis and ABI3 activity

    Piskurewicz, U.; Turečková, Veronika; Lacombe, E.; Lopez-Molina, L.


    Roč. 28, č. 15 (2009), s. 2259-2271. ISSN 0261-4189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : abscisic acid * DELLA * gibberellins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 8.993, year: 2009


    Root respiration has been shown to increase with temperature, but less is known about how this relation ship is affected by the fungal partner in mycorrhizal root systems. In order to test respiratory temperature dependence, in particular Q10 of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal r...


    Liviu Fartais


    Full Text Available The Silver Fir genetic resources conservation is a very important activity (including in our country consideredthrough the viewpoint of a drastic diminution of natural arboreta. The elite (plus silver fir trees are the most importantpurveyors of high quality biological material for the creation of populations (orchards for seed or cutting production inthe process of forest genetic improvement and afforestation too. The experiments were fulfilled in order to establish thebiological answer of Silver Fir seeds concerning the germinative potential in a mixture arboretum (Silver Fir andEuropean Beech. Related to the main physiological indicators of Silver Fir seeds, the value of the germinativeenergy/germinative vigour, respectively 26,75%, is normal in natural conditions. The germinative capacity(technical germination registered 32%, value corresponding to second category of seed quality.

  20. Central-European mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests: regeneration of tree species after a bark beetle outbreak

    Jonášová, Magda; Prach, Karel


    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2004), s. 15-27. ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : forest management * mountain spruce forest * natural regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2004

  1. Discovery and molecular biology of the abortive infection phage resistance system AbiV from Lactococcus lactis

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup


    Bakteriofager (fager) er bakteriedræbende virus som fungerer ved at sprøjte deres DNA ind i en bakteriecelle og udnytte dennes celle-apparat til at danne nye fager. Disse frigives til omgivelserne under ødelæggelse af bakteriens cellevæg hvorved cellen dør. Fager forårsager stor skade i industrie...

  2. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada


    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  3. Proportion of various dendromass components of spruce (Picea abies), and partial models for modification of wind speed and radiation by pure spruce stands

    Means for quantifying dendromass components of spruce stands have been discussed, and partial models for modification of radiation and wind by the pure spruce stand were developed. By means of a sampling procedure, the components needle dry mass and branchwood dry mass without needles of individual trees are recorded. Using the relationship between branch basal diameter and needle respectively branchwood dry mass, the total needle and branchwood dry mass of trees is estimated. Based on that, stand or regional parameters for the allometric function between diameter breast height and needle respectively branchwood dry mass can be determined for defined H/D-clusters. Published data from various sources were used in this paper. The lowest coefficients of determination were found in H/D-cluster 120 (H/D-values over 114). Therefore, further differentiation within this range seems to be necessary. For assimilation models, there should be quantification of needle dry mass separately for needle age classes and morphological characteristics of needles. Basis for the estimate of tree-bole volume is the relationship between H/D-value and oven-dry weight. There are problems as far as methods for quantifying the subterranean dendromass (e.g. dynamics of fine roots) are concerned; this is requiring considerable efforts, too. Spatial structure was also described by allometric functions (crown length and crown cover in relation to diameter breast height). For the partial model to express wind modification by the stand, standardized wind profiles as related to crown canopy density were used. The modification of radiation by the stand is closely related with the vertical needle mass distribution (sum curves). These two partial models have to be considered as an approach for the description of the modifying effect by the stocking

  4. Analyse non destructive de caractéristiques internes de billons d'Epicéa commun (Picea Abies) par tomographie à rayons X

    Longuetaud, Fleur; MOTHE, Frédéric; Leban, Jean-Michel


    Ce travail se place dans le contexte de l’évolution des technologies de classement des bois qui sont mises en oeuvre dans les scieries. Il s’agit d’envisager l’usage de scanners tomographiques à rayons X pour améliorer le rendement des opérations de sciage. Dans la présente étude, nous avons sélectionné 24 arbres provenant de quatre peuplements d’Epicéa commun du nord-est de la France (Vosges) représentant plusieurs classes d’âge et de fertilité ainsi que différents statuts sociaux. Ces arbre...

  5. Phytochemicals as a Source of Novel Drugs Against Prostate Cancer - Preparation of Animal Experiments and Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides from Abies pindrow

    Vidal, Carlos Oscar Alejandro Soto


    Introduction: Plants and herbs have been utilized for centuries by traditional medicinal systems (e.g. TCM, Ayurveda) to alleviate minor illnesses and major diseases. In recent decades, interest in traditional medicine has increased significantly among drug development institutions. Currently, several research groups worldwide are conducting isolation, characterization and bioassay evaluation of secondary metabolites from plants and herbs utilized in traditional medicine. Such research aim...

  6. Metody aktywizujące w nauczaniu dorosłych, czyli jak sprawić, aby studentom chciało się chcieć

    Rapacka-Wojtala, Sylwia


    Publikacja przynosi różne spojrzenia na zjawisko zaangażowania (się) / angażowania (się) w dydaktyce. Znajdziemy tu teksty ujmujące ów proces z teoretycznej bądź historycznej perspektywy, a także takie, których autorzy ukazują realne – wypływające z ich dydak¬tycznych doświadczeń – efekty stosowania twórczych rozwiązań edukacyjnych w motywowaniu studentów. Jakie to metody? Stoliki negocjacyjne, audiodeskrypcja, personalizacja zadań, realizacja projektu – to niektóre z propozycji. Autorzy ...

  7. Hea kink on annetus, vabatahtlik töö, kana või kits. Inimesed pakuvad abi / Signe Sillasoo ; kommenteerinud Triin Kaare

    Sillasoo, Signe


    Heaks firmakingituseks on ka mõnele organisatsioonile tehtav annetus. Arvamust avaldavad SA Talinna Lastehaigla Toetusfondi juhataja Inna Kramer, SA Maarja Küla juhataja Ly Mikheim ja TÜ Mondo konsultant Riina Kuusik-Rajasaar

  8. Phytohormones in needles of spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) under different levels of air pollution in the open-top chamber experiment at Edelmannshof

    Christmann, A.; Frenzel, B. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Botanik


    The plant hormones ethylene (ACC, MACC), abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid were investigated between August 1988 and December 1989 in current-year and one-year-old needles of the twelve spruce trees of the Edelmannshof experiment. Data from this period do not allow to reliably differentiate between consequences of the reduced impact of immissions (open-top chambers receiving charcoal-filtered air) and individual differences of the trees investigated. The conditions are discussed that might have made such a differentiation possible but which were not fulfilled at Edelmannshof. (orig.)

  9. Influence of mineral nutrition, ozone, and acid fog on abscisic acid and indole acetic acid in needles of Picea abies (L. ) Karst

    Fackler, U.; Huber, W.; Hock, B.


    The phytohormones abscisic acid and auxin (total, free, and alkali-labile IAA) were quantified in needles from spruces which had been exposed to air pollutants under different controlled climatic conditions within the MAGL pilot project. Increased concentrations of ABA were found especially in the most recent needles after ozone treatment. Noticeable changes in auxin concentrations could not be observed. These results should be backed up by further experiments with more samples in order to gain insight into the hormonal balance of plants under stress by air pollution.

  10. Keelan, käsen, poon ja lasen või osutan abi? [1.-2. osa] / Kärt Muller

    Muller, Kärt


    Kaalutlusõiguse sisust ja põhimõtetest hoolekande teostamisel väljamõeldud kaasuste näitel, põhjendamiskohustuse sisust ja vajalikkusest. Võrdsest kohtlemisest kaalutlusõiguses, kaalutlusvigade kataloogist ja kaalutlusõiguse teostamisest praktikas Riigikohtu lahendite näite

  11. Diurnal dynamics of photosynthetic parameters of Norway spruce (Picea abies) cultivated under elevated CO2. - I. Inhibition of CO2 assimilation during summer day

    Špunda, V.; Kalina, J.; Urban, Otmar; Marek, Michal V.; Luis Díaz, V.


    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2004), s. 107-107. ISSN 0137-5881. [The 14the FESPB Congress. Cracow, 23.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) HPRI-CT-2002-00197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : diurnal course, photosynthesis , elevated CO2 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.433, year: 2004

  12. Effekte einer mehrjährigen Ozonbehandlung von Fichten (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) auf die Struktur und Funktion von Ektomykorrhiza-Gemeinschaften

    Ernst, Jana


    In dieser Arbeit wurden die Auswirkungen einer langjährigen, doppelt ambienten Ozonbegasung von Fichten auf Ektomykorrhiza (ECM)-Gemeinschaften untersucht. Neben einer erhöhten Biodiversität und funktionellen Diversität wurden auch Effekte auf funktioneller Ebene bezüglich der Exoenzymaktivitäten nachgewiesen. Nach Ende der Ozonbegasung glichen sich sowohl die Struktur als auch die Funktionen der ECM-Gemeinschaften unter ambienten Bedingungen den Kontrollflächen an, was auf eine hohe Resilien...

  13. Nutritional disorders in spruce (Picea abies) as a consequence of damage to needle surfaces and deposition of atmospheric nitrogenous compounds - one of the mechanisms of forest decline

    Glatzel, G.; Kazda, M.; Katzensteiner, K.; Grill, D.; Halbwachs, G.


    A hypothesis to explain the damages as combined effect of needle damage by polluted fog and high deposition of plant useable nitrogen is discussed. It has been shown, that epicuticular was structures can be destroyed by exposure to polluted wet deposition, especially under conditions where cycles of wetting and drying of leave surface alternate without wash off by rain. When water containing plant available nitrogen is deposited on damaged leave surfaces, exchange with the interior of the leaves may disturb the ratios of individual nutrients in the leaves and cause metabolic stress. High ammonium concentrations in the precipitation water and low pH-values increase the leaching of plant nutrients, especially magnesium, potassium, manganese and zinc. By use of fertilizers or soil amendments the nutritional status of the trees can be improved. As long as polluted precipitation reaches the canopy and causes damage to the needle surfaces additional detrimental effects, such as easy invasion of pathogenic fungi, remain.

  14. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Keiner, R.; Trumbore, S; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.


    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurement...

  15. On Fuzzy Regular-I-Closed Sets, Fuzzy Semi-I-Regular Sets, Fuzzy ABI-Sets and Decompositions of Fuzzy Regular-I-Continuity, Fuzzy AI - Continuity

    Yildiz, Cemil; ABBAS, Fadhil


     The concepts of fuzzy regular-I-closed set and fuzzy semi-I-regular set in fuzzy ideal topological spaces are investigated and some of their properties are obtained. Key words: Topological, Spaces, Fuzzy, Regular, Sets

  16. Was tun nach dem Abi? Die schulische Vorbereitung auf die Studien- und Berufswahl aus der Sicht von GymnasiastInnen in der Sekundarstufe II

    Kracke, Bärbel


    Die Schule hat den ausdrücklichen Auftrag Jugendliche im Prozess der Berufswahl zu unterstützen. Geeignete schulische Maßnahmen sollen Jugendlichen ermöglichen, gut überlegte Entscheidungen für ein Studium oder eine Ausbildung zu treffen. Die vorliegende Fragebogenstudie mit 264 Schülerinnen und Schülern der elften Jahrgangsstufe zweier Thüringer Gymnasien untersuchte, welche nachschulischen Pläne vorherrschen, wie aktiv sich die Jugendlichen mit studien- und berufswahlrelevanten Fragen ausei...

  17. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram; Ingerslev, Morten


    N, K and Mg varied between 16 and 21 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), 2 and 10 kg K ha(-1) year(-1), and 2 and 3 kg Mg ha(-1) year(-1). The concentration of NO3-N in the soil water on the sandy sites was characterized by notable pulses contrasting the mitigated peaks on the clayey site. In general, the soil...

  18. Pollen percentage thresholds of Abies alba based on 13-year annual records of pollen deposition in modified Tauber traps: perspectives of application to fossil situations

    Pidek, I. A.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; van der Knaap, W. O.; Magyari, E.


    Roč. 195, Aug. 16 (2013), s. 26-36. ISSN 0034-6667 Grant ostatní: European Commission(XE) FP7/2007-2013/ERCno.278065 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Abiers alba * percentage treshold value * pollen Tauber traps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.656, year : 2013

  19. An investigation on roundwood extraction of Fagus orientalis lipsky, Abies nordmanniana (Stew.) Spach. and Picea orientalis (L.) Link. by Urus M III forest skyline on snow

    Eroğlu, Habip; Özkaya, M. Sinan; ACAR, H. Hulusi; Karaman, Ali; Yolasığmaz, Hacı Ahmet


    Harvesting and transportation of woods from forest are extremely difficult, expensive and timeconsuming operations. In the most regions of Turkey, the application of mechanized harvesting equipment is currently very limited due to low labor cost and high fuel cost. In Turkish forestry, the most common harvesting method is cut-to-length system, which is carried out intensively during the late spring and summer, as well as during the winter with a limited extent. In this study, prod...

  20. MADS-box genes active in developing pollen cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) are homologous to the B-class floral homeotic genes in angiosperms.

    Sundström, J; Carlsbecker, A; Svensson, M E; Svenson, M; Johanson, U; Theissen, G; Engström, P


    The reproductive organs of conifers, the pollen cones and seed cones, differ in morphology from the angiosperm flower in several fundamental respects. In this report we present evidence to suggest that the two plant groups, in spite of these morphological differences and the long evolutionary distance between them, share important features in regulating the development of the reproductive organs. We present the cloning of three genes, DAL11, DAL12, and DAL13, from Norway spruce, all of which are related to the angiosperm B-class of homeotic genes. The B-class genes determine the identities of petals and stamens. They are members of a family of MADS-box genes, which also includes C-class genes that act to determine the identity of carpels and, in concert with B genes specify stamens in the angiosperm flower. Phylogenetic analyses and the presence of B-class specific C-terminal motifs in the DAL protein sequences imply homology to the B-class genes. Specific expression of all three genes in developing pollen cones suggests that the genes are involved in one aspect of B function, the regulation of development of the pollen-bearing organs. The different temporal and spatial expression patterns of the three DAL genes in the developing pollen cones indicate that the genes have attained at least in part distinct functions. The DAL11, DAL12, and 13 expression patterns in the pollen cone partly overlap with that of the previously identified DAL2 gene, which is structurally and functionally related to the angiosperm C-class genes. This result supports the hypothesis that an interaction between B- and C-type genes is required for male organ development in conifers like in the angiosperms. Taken together, our data suggests that central components in the regulatory mechanisms for reproductive organ development are conserved between conifers and angiosperms and, thus, among all seed plants. PMID:10528266

  1. Greater accumulation of litter in spruce (Picea abies) compared to beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands is not a consequence of the inherent recalcitrance of needles

    Berger, Torsten W.; Berger, Pétra


    Background and aims Replacement of beech by spruce is associated with changes in soil acidity, soil structure and humus form, which are commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. M...

  2. Preliminary assessment of the ecochemical condition of soils after fertilization of younger spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. stands in the Beskid Slaski and Zywiecki Mts.

    Małek, Stanisław; Januszek, Kazimierz; Barszcz, Józef; Błońska, Ewa; Wanic, Tomasz; Gąsienica-Fronek, Wojciech; Kroczek, Marek


    The experimental plots were located in the middle forest zone (900– 950 m) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians: Magura (the Ujsoły Forest District) and Silesian (the Wisła Forest District) in the spruce stands of age class 21– 40 years. Serpentinite was introduced in the autumn of 2008 on all plots while other fertilizers (N, P, NP and NPK) in the spring of 2009. Based on the chemical composition of soil solutions collected in lysimeters placed at the depth of 20 cm in the aut...

  3. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert


    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substit...

  4. Effects of substrate and ectomycorrhizal inoculation on the development of two-years-old container-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) seedlings

    Repáč I; Balanda M; Vencurik J; Kmet J; Krajmerová D; Paule L


    The objective of this study was to test the effects of selected peat growth substrates (Agro CS, Gramoflor and Durpeta) and inoculation with commercial ectomycorrhizal inocula (Ectovit and Mycorrhizaroots) on growth, ectomycorrhiza formation, needle nutrients concentration and several physiological parameters of two-years-old containerized Norway spruce seedlings cultivated under standard nursery conditions. The selected substrates differed in origin, composition and nutrient content: Agro CS...

  5. Effect of an auxin transport inhibitor on aggregation and attachment processes during ectomycorrhiza formation between Laccaria bicolo S238N and Picea abies

    Rincón, Ana; Gérard, Joëlle; Dexheimer, Jean; Le Tacon, François


    Transmission electron microscopy observations performed with cytochemical stains to detect polysaccharides and cysteine-rich proteins have been done to study the effect of an auxin transport inhibitor (2,3,5-triidobenzoic acid), TIBA) on Laccaria bicolor (Marie) Orton.

  6. Body Dissatisfaction Measured with a Figure Preference Task and Self-Esteem in 8 Year Old Children - a Study within the ABIS-Project

    A. Sepa; Ludvigsson, J; F.S. Koch


    Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem and depression in adolescents. With regard to the current world wide rise in childhood obesity and common stigmatization of adults and children with obesity, easy to use and cost effective measurements of body dissatisfaction would be helpful in epidemiological research. In the current study, detailed data on body measurements with regard to perceived and ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, as measured with the figure preference t...

  7. Ühiseid väärtusi hoides : haridusministeerium otsib abi eetikast / Avo Rosenvald ; kommenteerinud Tõnis Lukas, Marju Lauristin ... [jt.


    26. septembril Tallinnas väärtuste ja nende arendamise teemal toimunud konverentsist "Ühiseid väärtusi hoides", mille korraldas Tartu Ülikooli eetikakeskus koostöös Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumiga

  8. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.


    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  9. Effects of forest canopy gap on biomass of Abies faxoniana seedlings and its allocation in subalpine coniferous forests of western Sichuan

    Junren XIAN; Tingxing HU; Yuanbin ZHANG; Kaiyun WANG


    Using a strip transect sampling method, the density, height (≤ 100 cm), basal diameter and compo-nents of biomass of Abiesfaxoniana seedlings, living in a forest gap (FG) and under the forest canopy (FC) of sub-alpine natural coniferous forests in western Sichuan, were investigated and the relationships among different com-ponents of biomass analyzed. The results indicated that the density and average height (H) of A. faxoniana seed-lings were significantly different in the FG and under the FC, with the values being 12903 and 2017 per hm2, and 26.6 and 24.3 cm. No significant differences were found in the average basal diameter (D) and biomass. The biomass allocation in seedling components was significantly affec-ted by forest gap. In the FG, the biomass ratio of branch to stem reached a maximum of 1.54 at age 12 and then declined and fluctuated around 0.69. Under the FC, the biomass ratio of branch to stem increased with seedling growth and exceeded 1.0 at about age 15. The total bio-mass and the biomass of leaves, stems, shoots and roots grown in the FG and under the FC were significantly correlated with D2H. There were significant and positive correlations among the biomass of different components.

  10. Explosion characteristics of pulverised torrefied and raw Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Southern pine (Pinus palustris) in comparison to bituminous coal

    Pre-treatments, such as torrefaction, can improve biomass fuels properties. Dedicated and coal co-firing plants, in which pulverised biomass and torrefied biomass can be used, are exposed to explosion hazards during handling, storage and transport from the mills to the boiler. Data on the explosion characteristics of biomass and torrefied biomass are scarce. This study presents explosion characteristics (maximum explosion pressure, deflagration index and minimum explosible concentration) of two torrefied wood samples and compares their reactivity to that of their corresponding untreated biomass materials and to a sample of Kellingley coal. Torrefied biomass samples showed higher reactivity, overpressures were around 9 bar (0.9 MPa, 1 bar = 105 Pa) for all biomass samples irrespective of size or sample composition. Derived laminar burning velocities ranged between 0.1–0.12 m s−1, and were therefore similar to that of coal (0.12 m s−1). The differences in explosion reactivity influence the design of explosion protection measures and can be used to introduce suitable modifications for safe operations with torrefied biomass. - Highlights: • Explosion characteristics were measured for two torrefied biomass samples. • Properties were compared to those of coal and corresponding untreated biomass. • Maximum explosion overpressures were similar for all biomass at about 9 bar. • Torrefied biomass was more reactive than coal and untreated biomass. • Biomass explosion data can be used to design better safety systems

  11. A systematic review of the efficacy of self-management programs for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury (ABI)

    Jones, Taryn M; Dean, Catherine M.; Hush, Julia M.; Dear, Blake F.; Titov, Nickolai


    Background Individuals living with acquired brain injury, typically caused by stroke or trauma, are far less likely to achieve recommended levels of physical activity for optimal health and well-being. With a growing number of people living with chronic disease and disability globally, self-management programs are seen as integral to the management of these conditions and the prevention of secondary health conditions. However, to date, there has been no systematic review of the literature exa...

  12. The Dynamics and Variability of Radial Growth in Provenance Trials of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Within and Beyond the Hot Margins of its Natural Range

    Neculae ŞOFLETEA


    Full Text Available Multi-site field trials provide valuable data for the investigation of possible effects of environmental changes on forest tree species. We analyze the descendants of plus trees from 33 Norway spruce seed sources of Romanian Carpathians, at age 30, in four comparative field trials: two established in the natural range of species and two outside of it. The dynamics and variation of radial growth, earlywood and latewood were analyzed. The influence of populations, site conditions and climatic factors were also quantified. The provenances response in the four comparative trials was asymmetric for mean radial growth, but its dynamics was less favourable outside of the natural range. Analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001 between the testing sites, but non-significant (P<0.05 for the populations. Populations x localities interaction was high (P<0.001 in the first half of the testing period, but decreased over time, becoming not significant at the age of 30. At intra-populational level, the average coefficient of variation for radial growth was higher outside the natural range, whereas the proportion of latewood decreased. The temperature in the first half of the growing season negatively influenced (P<0.001 the radial increment, but in the latewood proportion significat effects (P˂0.05 were recorded only in trials located outside of the natural range. An increased variability of radial growth and a decrease of latewood proportion are expected in Norway spruce stands located at lower altitudes, towards the limits of the natural range. Our results may contribute to the sustainable management of Norway spruce forests within and outside its natural range.

  13. Elevated CO{sub 2} and development of frost hardiness in Norway spruce (picea abies (L.) Karst.); Oekt CO{sub 2} og utvikling av frostherdighet i gran

    Dalen, Lars Sandved


    This thesis discusses controlled laboratory experiments carried out to study the effects of CO{sub 2} pollution on Norwegian spruce. It was found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased height growth and biomass production. It slightly increased frost hardiness, but only at high nitrogen values. There was no evidence of adverse effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the phenology of bud set and the development of frost hardiness. Although not statistically significant, there seemed to be a consistently higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates in one-season-old Norway spruce seedlings treated with elevated CO{sub 2}. This was not found in three-year-old seedlings grown in open top chambers, possibly indicating a down-regulation of photosynthesis or a transition from free to predetermined growth, and change in allocation of photosynthates with age. Treatment with high or low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilizer did not affect apoplastic chitinolytic activity during cold acclimation, nor were there any effects on antifreeze activity in these apoplastic extracts from cold acclimated needles. 149 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Succession from bog pine (Pinus uncinata var. rotundata) to Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in relation to anthropic factors in Les Saignolis bog, Jura Mountains, Switzerland

    Freléchoux, François; Buttler, Alexandre; Gillet, François; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Schweingruber, Fritz


    Succession pinède-pessière en relation avec les facteurs anthropiques dans la tourbière des Saignolis, chaîne jurassienne, Suisse. Dans les hauts marais jurassiens, sur tourbe épaisse et oligotrophe, la limite entre la pinède et la ceinture d'épicéas est très nette et il n'y a pas de succession pinède-pessière en situations peu perturbées. Le marais des Saignolis est situé au sommet d'un anticlinal, sur tourbe mince et oligotrophe. Plusieurs documents témoignent de perturbations anthropiques ...

  15. Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture

    Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.


    In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the δ13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

  16. Effects of substrate and ectomycorrhizal inoculation on the development of two-years-old container-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. seedlings

    Repáč I


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the effects of selected peat growth substrates (Agro CS, Gramoflor and Durpeta and inoculation with commercial ectomycorrhizal inocula (Ectovit and Mycorrhizaroots on growth, ectomycorrhiza formation, needle nutrients concentration and several physiological parameters of two-years-old containerized Norway spruce seedlings cultivated under standard nursery conditions. The selected substrates differed in origin, composition and nutrient content: Agro CS and Gramoflor were mixtures of various peat types and components with added nutrients, while Durpeta was non-enriched pure peat. Growth parameters of seedlings cultivated in enriched substrates were significantly higher than those grown on the non-enriched substrate. Significant interactions were found between substrate and inoculation treatments. Inoculation with Ectovit stimulated seedling growth in non-enriched substrate but had no effect on seedling parameters in the enriched substrates, and a negative effect on aboveground biomass in Gramoflor. Mycorrhizaroots inoculum significantly decreased shoot to root dry weight ratio, but had no other effect on seedling development. ECM colonization rate of seedlings ranged from 73 to 80%, with no significant effects of the ECM inoculum or growth substrate. DNA analysis revealed a low species diversity of ECM fungi on seedling roots, with a pronounced dominance of the soil-borne ECM species Thelephora terrestris Fr. Chemical analysis of needles and measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence showed similar trends as seedling growth. Values of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and needle N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in both enriched substrates. Ectovit increased (though not significantly chlorophyll a fluorescence in needles as compared to Mycorrhizaroots- and non-inoculated seedlings, as well as nutrient-uptake (mainly K in the non-enriched substrate. Our results suggest the importance of the origin and composition of peat-based substrates on the development of container-grown Norway spruce seedlings, while the observed positive effect of the commercial ECM inoculum Ectovit was more probably caused by its physical and chemical properties rather than by its efficiency in promoting ECM fungi symbiosis. The enriched substrates tested appear to be suitable for production of spruce seedlings of acceptable size for outplanting within two growing seasons.

  17. Translocation and bonding of calcium (45Ca) in two-year-old seedlings of spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    Within the framework of the project ''Effect of liming and magnesium fertilization on the uptake, transport, and chemical bonding form of calcium and magnesium in conifers'', experiments regarding the calcium budget of two-year-old spruce and pine seedlings under conditions of controlled nutrition in a gravel culture were carried out. Two variants of calcium nutrition demonstrated which of the mechanisms in the calcium metabolism of trees are dependent on changes in element availability. Root labelling using the radioactive tracer 45Ca permitted aimed investigation of the uptake and translocation of calcium during shoot formation in May. The functional importance of the investigated nutritive element was characterized by breaking up the total calcium contents (45Ca) into the three essential chemical bonding forms (water-soluble Ca, Ca-pectate, Ca-oxalate) for the different tree fractions.- The culture experiments led to the conclusion that the root tips are most important as sites of calcium uptake. Translocation within the roots to the shoot took place via diffusion and exchange displacement as a function of calcium supply in the nutritive solution. There is no clue to support the assumption of a regulation of calcium uptake in spruces; in pines, by contrast, it cannot be excluded.- From a nutrition-physiological viewpoint, a total calcium content of 2 mg per gramme of dry mass is to be considered as sufficient. As this target is always attained, even where calcium supply is scarce, it is not appropriate to equate increased calcium availability with enhanced nutrient supply. Rather, the results discussed seem to support the theory that the trees now need to detoxicate excessively high calcium concentrations, which are liable to endanger the physiological cell metabolism, by a reaction with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate. (orig.)

  18. Estructura espacial y dinámica del bosque montano del sur del Ecuador. Interacciones bióticas y limitaciones abióticas

    Vicuña Merino, Rafael


    Muchos estudios han descrito la composición y diversidad de los bosques montanos tropicales, pero los patrones espaciales y las diferentes tipos de relaciones de estos, entre especies o entre grupos funcionales ha sido poco documentada. El presente trabajo se realizó en tres parcelas completamente censadas del bosque de la Estación Biológica “Chamusquin” (Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador), y se plantea como objetivo principal conocer la estructura espacial y dinámica del bosque montano tropical del ...

  19. Relación entre variabilidad biogeoquímica y rasgos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana en suelos forestales: bosques de Abies pinsapo como caso de estudio

    Torres Cañabate, Patricia; Hinojosa, M. Belén; García Ruiz, Roberto; Daniell, Tim; Carreira de la Fuente, José Antonio


    Tradicionalmente, los estudios biogeoquímicos consideraban el suelo como una "caja negra", conectada con el resto del ecosistema mediante flujos de entrada y de salida de nutrientes, en la que éstos experimentan transformaciones mediadas en gran parte por microorganismos desconocidos. El desarrollo de nuevas técnicas moleculares ha incrementado el conocimiento sobre las comunidades microbianas del suelo. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto correspondencias entre la variabilidad de la ...

  20. Estudio de efectos protectores y mecanismos de acción frente a estrés abiótico de bioestimulantes de fertilizantes en Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Caballero Molada, Marcos


    [EN] ABSTRACT This PhD thesis is based on a collaboration between Professor Dr. Ramon Serrano's laboratory and the fertilizer company Fertinagro Nutrientes and it's motivated by the increasing need in agriculture to increase crop productivity while minimizing its impact on the environment. Fertinagro Nutrientes supplied the following six bioestimulants for analyzing its effects on tolerance to abiotic stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, providing no (or very limited in some cases...

  1. Does the azimuth orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies/L./Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    Lhotáková, Zuzana; Albrechtová, Jana; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Rock, Barrett N.; Polák, Tomáš; Cudlín, Pavel


    The goal of this study was to determine if selected biochemical, structural and spectral properties of Norway spruce needles are influenced by the azimuth orientation of the branch. Three youngest needle age classes from 20 mature (100 years old or older) Norway spruce trees were sampled from upper branches of the sunlit production crown part from each of the 4 cardinal azimuth orientations. Photosynthetic pigments, soluble phenolic compounds and selected spectral and structural characteristi...

  2. Body Dissatisfaction Measured with a Figure Preference Task and Self-Esteem in 8 Year Old Children - a Study within the ABIS-Project

    A. Sepa


    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction has been related to low self-esteem and depression in adolescents. With regard to the current world wide rise in childhood obesity and common stigmatization of adults and children with obesity, easy to use and cost effective measurements of body dissatisfaction would be helpful in epidemiological research. In the current study, detailed data on body measurements with regard to perceived and ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, as measured with the figure preference task, are presented for a population based sample of 3837 children. Perceived body size correlations to weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist circumference were between 0.41 and 0.54; and to height between 0.12 and 0.21. Odds ratios for lower self-esteem increased with increase in body dissatisfaction. Gender differences in body dissatisfaction were present but not found in relation to self-esteem. It is concluded that the figure preference task yields valuable information in epidemiological studies of children as young as 7.5 years of age. It is argued, that the figure preference task is an additional measurement which theoretically relates to psychological stress in childhood.

  3. Uptake, transport, and storage of calcium and magnesium in spruce (Picea abies [L]Karst.) and pine (Pinus silvestris L.) as affected by variable nutrition and pollutant stress

    Statements about the dynamic processes of uptake, transport, and deposition of Ca and Mg in norway spruce and Scots pine are made in this paper. Concerning the storage of these elements it is shown that there are great differences in their functional importance in cell metabolism. There is evidence that the role of Mg in enzyme and protein metabolism is of far greater significance for the understanding of Mg-deficiency symptoms than its function as the central atom of the chlorophyll complexes. In regard to the transport and especially to the incorporation of Ca into the needles differences between species were evident, expressing the special status of pine among the gymnosperms. With increasing needle age an accumulation of Ca-oxalate crystals, which are physiologically inert, could be proved for the studied conifers. This was interpreted as a 'detoxication' from surplus Ca to hold constant the level of the physiologically active fraction. Accordingly, the low Ca-contents of yellowed needles are not expressing a deficiency level. It is therefore questionable, that the increase of total Ca-contents caused by liming is reflecting a physiologically improved nutritional status of conifers. The study of spruce needles exposed to ozone showed that instead of the until now considered increased Ca-efflux from the cells caused by higher membran permeability an increased Ca-influx should be assumed. The experimental exposition of spruces to simulated acid rain reveals increased leaching of Ca from the epidermal cell walls instead of the precipitation as Ca-oxalate crystals, having no major negative impact on foliage physiology. (orig./UWA)

  4. Impact of traffic on δ15N, δ13C and δ18O of needles and annual tree rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Guerrieri MR


    Full Text Available Increase of nitrogen depositions, as oxidized (NOx and reduced (NHx compounds, has important implications on ecosystem nitrogen cycle. NOx comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion in car engines and industrial processes, while agricultural activities (cattle farming, fertilizations are the main sources for NHx emissions. Such fertilisations could stimulate growth and, therefore, productivity of forests, especially in temperate forests, where nitrogen is a limiting factor. On the other hand an excess of nitrogen can lead to an acidification of the soil and have a negative impact on the microbial fauna and structure of plants. NOx and NHx depositions can be separated with the help of stable isotopes with different 15N-values reported for NOx originating from combustion sources. Consequently it was observed that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the vegetation reflects the isotopic signature of nitrogen sources. Our preliminary results on needles of Norway spruce trees exposed to NOx emissions along a transect perpendicular to a highway close to Faido and Brittnau show a clear isotopic enrichment in 15N in trees growing closer to traffic pollution, indicating an uptake of atmospheric nitrogen by stomatal pathway. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition measured in tree rings reveals the physiological response in plants. Trees more exposed to air pollution from traffic show an increase in δ13C and δ18O in tree rings, since mid sixties next to Erstfeld. This could mean a higher photosynthetic activity, enhanced by NOx traffic emissions, under low or not changed stomatal conductance. Our results confirm that stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen measured in needles and tree rings represent an important tool to monitor the impact of NOx load on tree physiology.

  5. Photosynthetic assimilation of sun versus shade Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.)Karst] needles under the long-term impact of elevated CO2 concentration

    Marek, Michal V.; Urban, Otmar; Šprtová, Miroslava; Pokorný, Radek; Rosová, Zuzana; Kulhavý, J.


    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2002), s. 259-267. ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : stand density * sun/shade * carboxylation efficiency and rate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.773, year: 2002

  6. Photosynthetic assimilation of sun versus shade Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] needles under the long/term impact of elevated CO2 concentration

    Marek, Michal V.


    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2002), s. 259-267. ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC E21.001 Keywords : carboxylation efficiency and rate * stand density * dark respiration * dense/sparse parts * electron transport rate * quantum yield of assimilation * sun/shade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.773, year: 2002

  7. A Pilot Study of Social Competence Group Training for Adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning and Emotional and Behavioural Problems (SCT-ABI)

    Nestler, J.; Goldbeck, L.


    Background: Emotional and behavioural problems as well as a lack of social competence are common in adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning and impair their social and vocational integration. Group interventions specifically developed for this target group are scarce and controlled evaluation studies are absent. Methods: A…

  8. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  9. Detection, quantification and modelling of small-scale lateral translocation of throughfall in tree crowns of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Frischbier, Nico; Wagner, Sven


    The redistribution of precipitation in forests depends on the amount of above-canopy precipitation and is characterised by high small-scale variability. Although higher and lower values of net forest precipitation at small scales are typically averaged at larger spatial scales, the small-scale variability of throughfall needs to be understood because subordinate ecological processes in the forest ecosystem, e.g., regeneration of tree species, often take place at the same small scale. High stemflow amounts and canopy driplines at the crown edge of particular tree species can only be explained by lateral flow processes within tree crowns. This study tests the hypothesis that lateral water translocation within the crown can be determined from simultaneous records of precipitation at defined measurement points below and above the canopy by taking single-tree characteristics such as species and crown width into account. Spatially explicit simultaneous measurements of gross precipitation (above-canopy reference) and throughfall were conducted repeatedly at 175 measurements points in a mixed European beech-Norway spruce stand for a total of 26 individual rain events. Subsequent analysis with a new regression approach resulted in an estimated average canopy storage capacity of 3.5 mm and 5.8 mm for beech (leaf-bearing period) and spruce stands, respectively. Values of calculated lateral flow showed considerable variability between individual measurement points. The highest discharge amounts were observed at positions below the inner beech crowns during the leaf-bearing period. For an exemplary rainfall event with a gross precipitation of 25 mm, the predicted discharge ranged from 5 mm underneath the inner beech crown to about zero near the crown edge. A comparison with the measured values indicated that the predicted amount of lateral flow, which could be translated into stemflow for single beech trees, was realistic. However, for the same rainfall event, lateral flow in spruce crowns was mainly identified in the outer crown. The derived functions for calculating lateral water translocation may be incorporated into single-tree models.

  10. Isolation and characterization of essential oils from the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.): Izoliranje in karakteriziranje eteričnih olj iz storžev navadne smreke (Picea abies Karst.), evropskega macesna (Larix decidua Mill.) in rdečega bora (Pinus sylvestris L.):

    Tišler, Vesna; Torelli, Niko; Zule, Janja; Žurej, Andrej


    Extraction and chemical characterization of essential oils from the cones of Norway spruce, European larch and Scots pine are presented in the article. Various monoterpenes have been identified and their relative concentracions calculated by means of gas chromatograpy. The contents of higher terpenes in individual oils have been also evaluated and the differences in their chemical compositions discussed.

  11. Cytokinin concentrations in the foliage of spruce trees (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) affected to different degrees by 'recently discovered forms of forest disease' as determined in immunoenzymatic assays (ELISA). Der Cytokiningehalt in Nadeln unterschiedlich stark von 'neuartigen Waldschaeden' betroffenen Fichten (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ), bestimmt mittels einer immunoenzymatischen Methode - ELISA

    Schwartzenberg, K. von.


    This report attempts to find an answer to the question as to whether the cytokinin concentrations in the leaves of spruce trees showing discolouration or loss of foliage would be any different from those determined for trees, in which no such changes have occurred. Described is a specific analytical method developed for quantitative determinations of the cytokinins trans-zeatin (t-Z), trans-zeatin riboside (t-ZR), isopentenyladenine (ZiP) and isopentenyladenosine (ZiPA). In all, it was found that the levels determined for cytokinin ribosides in needles of the older age groups tested were quite consistent with the degree of discolouration and general damage observed in those trees. Fumigation experiments were additionally performed to find out which effect 8-11 weeks of exposure to an air pollutant, ozone, would have on young spruces. Initial measurements carried out in exposed and non-exposed plants do not yet permit any predictions to be made about the probable influence of ozone on the cytokinin concentrations of foliage. (KST).

  12. Contributions on the morphogenetic cycle of the bud, the phyllotaxis and shoot growth of spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst. ) in different sites. Beitraege zum morphogenetischen Zyklus der Knospe zur Phyllotaxis und zum Triebwachstum der Fichte (Picea abies (L) Karst. ) auf unterschiedlichen Standorten

    Gruber, F.


    The growth of trees and tree species encompasses many natural forms and is therefore most variable, depending on the site. The greater the variability of a tree species is, the more it becomes difficult to distinguish between normal, i.e. largely undisturbed growth and abnormal growth. This is true particularly if the total range of variation and the characteristic reaction of a tree species are not, or insufficiently, known. Owing to its being stationary, a tree is compelled to develop specific growth characteristics, growth strategies, and reaction norms in order to cope with the very dynamic influences of its environment. Such different types of growth and reaction norms are thoroughly analysed in regard of crowns of spruces in young stands in different sites. On the basis of anatomical and morphological studies, essential gaps in the knowledge about the ontogenesis of spruces could be closed. Many new facts contribute towards penetrating in depth into different ways of growth of young spruces. Some so far accepted facts were newly defined. This work deals essentially with the anatomy and development of the terminal bud and the apical meristem, investigates the primary growth of the annual shoot as well as the phyllotaxis and spatial distribution of the lateral buds on the terminal shoot surface. It throws new light on the phenomenon of shoot development in August. The book is a fundamental contribution towards the interpretation of the causes of current damage in spruces. (orig.) With 56 photos.

  13. AbiAl v1.0 - un simulateur de croissance-production de type arbre indépendant des distances (MAID) pour les peuplements purs et réguliers de Sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill.) dans les massifs des Vosges et du Jura

    Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Longuetaud, Fleur; Mothe, Frédéric; Perez, Vincent; Rittié, Daniel; Saint-André, Laurent; Seynave, Ingrid


    Le simulateur est conçu suivant une architecture similaire à celle du simulateur Fagacées (Dhôte 1995, Dhôte et Le Moguedec 2005). Cette architecture est fondée sur 5 relations fondamentales : (i) un modèle de croissance en hauteur dominante permet d'apprécier l'indice de fertilité (IF) du peuplement et de prédire ses accroissements à tout âge, (ii) un modèle de loi d'auto-éclaircie permet de calculer un indice de densité relative des peuplements (RDI), (iii) un modèle de loi de productivité ...

  14. Sobre el método de la interpretación documental y el uso de las imágenes en la sociología: Karl Mannheim, Aby Warburg y Pierre Bourdieu On the method of documental interpretation and the use of images in Sociology: Kark Mannheim, Aby Warburg and Pierre Bourdieu

    Amalia Barboza Martínez


    Full Text Available El método de interpretación documental elaborado por el sociólogo Karl Mannheim ofrece herramientas de análisis indicadas para integrar materiales visuales en las investigaciones sociológicas. Esto se debe a que Mannheim elaboró este método basándose en los avances metodológicos de los historiadores del arte de su época. En este artículo se presenta en un primer apartado las características centrales de este método. En una segunda parte se muestra que existe dos formas de aplicación de este método a la hora de hacer uso de las imágenes. Por un lado las imágenes pueden ser objeto del método documental. Por otro lado la producción de imágenes pueden servir como técnica para realizar un análisis documental de la sociedad.The method of documental interpretation of the sociologist Karl Mannheim offers appropriate analysing tools to introduce visual data to sociological investigations. Because Mannheim had elaborated his methods based on the methodological progress of art historians. In the first part of this paper the central characteristics of this method will be presented. In the second part the author differences between two ways of application of this method in the way how to use visual data. On the one hand pictures could be objects of analysis of the method of documental interpretation, on the other hand they could also serve to make a documental analysis of the society.

  15. Measurement of blood pressure, ankle blood pressure and calculation of ankle brachial index in general practice

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Damsbo, Bent; Lund, Jens Otto;


    BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values......BACKGROUND: Low ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive measure of 'burden' of atherosclerosis, indicating cardiovascular risk of the asymptomatic patient. Conventionally, ABI values...

  16. A precious metal alloy for construction of MR imaging-compatible balloon-expandable vascular stents

    Dijk, Lukas; Van Holten, J.; Dijk, Bastiaan; Matheijssen, N A; Pattynama, Peter


    textabstractThe authors developed ABI alloy, which mechanically resembles stainless steel 316. The main elements of ABI alloy are palladium and silver. Magnetic resonance (MR) images and radiographs of ABI alloy and stainless steel 316 stent models and of nitinol, tantalum, and Elgiloy stents were compared. ABI alloy showed the least MR imaging artifacts and was more radiopaque than stainless steel 316. ABI alloy has the potential to replace stainless steel 316 for construction of balloon-exp...

  17. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazole derivatives targeting tubulin polymerization

    Chen, Jianjun; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Jin; Ahn, Sunjoo; Wang, Zhao; Lu, Yan; Dalton, James T.; Miller, Duane D.; Li, Wei


    We previously reported the discovery of 2-aryl-4-benzoyl-imidazoles (ABI-I) as potent antiproliferative agents for melanoma. To further understand the structural requirements for the potency of ABI analogs, gain insight in the structure-activity relationships (SAR), and investigate metabolic stability for these compounds, we report extensive SAR studies on the ABI-I scaffold. Compared with the previous set of ABI-I analogs, the newly synthesized ABI-II analogs have lower potency in general, b...

  18. K. Dittmann, Sv. Prokop ukládá ve snu měšťanu Soběslavovi, aby svůj dům proměnil v kostel

    Šroněk, Michal

    Praha : Národní galerie, 2010 - (Stolárová, L.; Vlnas, V.), s. 490-491 ISBN 978-80-7035-458-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Bohemian Lands * Baroque art * painting * Kristián Dittmann Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. Seasonal Evolution of the Rhizosphere Effect on Major and Trace Elements in Soil Solutions of Norway Spruce ( Picea abies Karst) and Beech ( Quercus sessiliflora Smith) in an Acidic Forest Soil

    Christophe Calvaruso; Christelle Collignon; Antoine Kies; Marie-Pierre Turpault


    In low-nutrient ecosystems such as forests developed on acidic soil, the main limiting factor for plant growth is the availability of soil nutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate in a temperate forest: 1) the influence of the rhizosphere processes on the availability of nutrients and trace elements during one year period and 2) the seasonal evolution of this rhizosphere effect. Bulk soil and rhizosphere were collected in organo-mineral and mineral horizons of an acidic soil during...

  20. Efecto del estrés abiótico sobre la síntesis y degradación de almidón. una revisión

    Tofiño Adriana; Romero Hernán Mauricio; Ceballos Hernán


    En las plantas superiores la biosíntesis del almidón es sensible al efecto de condiciones ambientales adversas, las cuales actúan sobre el suministro de carbohidratos desde los órganos fuente, la actividad de los vertederos y de las enzimas biosintéticas asociadas. Mediciones de la planta entera in vivo han demostrado que la tasa de flujo de carbono depende además de las propiedades del vertedero y de las características del sistema de transporte. E...

  1. Milles näeks riigi abi tööandjale töötervishoiuarst? = Focus of OH physician : what kind of help need employer from the government side? / Tiia Piho

    Piho, Tiia


    Autori arvates peaks riik toetama neid tööandjaid oma töötajate tervise kaitsel elualadel (politseinikud, päästetöötajad, piirivalvurid, meditsiinitöötajad), kus tegevuse eesmärgiks ei ole kasumi tootmine, vaid ühiskonna kaitsmine ja abistamine

  2. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Longuetaud, F


    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  3. Vertikální distribuce normalizovaných vegetačních indexů V rámci korunové vrstvy smrku ztepilého (Picea abies (L) Karst.)

    Kováč, Daniel; Urban, Otmar; Ač, Alexander; Pokorný, Radek; Kaplan, Věroslav; Hanuš, Jan

    Praha : Česká společnost experimentální biologie rostlin, 2010. s. 140-140. ISSN 1213-6670. [12. konference experimentální biologie rostlin. 14.09.2010-17.09.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06068; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : reflectance * photosynthesis * ecophysiology * chlorophyll Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Influencia de factores abióticos en la revegetación temprana tras hidrosiembra de estériles de carbón = Influence of abiotic factors in early revegetation after hydroseeding of coal mines

    González Alday, Josu


    La minería a cielo abierto genera grandes impactos ambientales cuya restauración es una necesidad urgente. El principal objetivo de la restauración ecológica de estas zonas es la creación de ecosistemas auto-suficientes a largo plazo que se asemejen a la vegetación previa a la actividad minera. Sin embargo, la restauración es un proceso complejo, dificultado principalmente por la total eliminación de la vegetación y la alteración del suelo. Se analizaron los procesos sucesional...

  5. Preliminary assessment of the ecochemical condition of soils after fertilization of younger spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. stands in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki Mts.

    Małek, Stanisław; Januszek, Kazimierz; Barszcz, Józef; Błońska, Ewa; Wanic, Tomasz; Gąsienica-Fronek, Wojciech; Kroczek, Marek


    The experimental plots were located in the middle forest zone (900– 950 m) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians Magura (the Ujsoły Forest District) and Silesian (the Wisła Forest District) in the spruce stands of age class 21– 40 years. Serpentinite was introduced in the autumn of 2008 on all plots while other fertilizers (N, P, NP and NPK) in the spring of 2009. Based on the chemical composition of soil solutions collected in lysimeters placed at the depth of 20 cm in the autumn 2008 and ...

  6. Relación entre factores bióticos y abióticos en los cultivos de guayaba con la infestación de picudo (conotrachelus psidii, coleóptera: curculionidae) en Puente Nacional (Santander, Colombia)

    Machuca Mesa, Laura Marcela


    Los insectos que son “plagas” causan daño a los sistemas naturales y aquellos que son manejados por el hombre y durante mucho tiempo se ha demostrado que las plagas generan resistencia a los pesticidas y se ha generado un problema ambiental con el mal uso de dichos productos. Los cultivos de guayaba en el país actualmente son atacados por picudo lo que genera grandes pérdidas económicas. En la actualidad los programas agrícolas están dirigidos a controlar las plagas juntando conocimientos bio...

  7. Influência de Fatores Abióticos na Infestação de Mosca-Negra-dos-Citros (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby em Plantio de Citros em Sistema Agroflorestal no Estado do Pará

    Anderson Silva


    Abstract. An important part of citrus production at Pará state is planted by Agroforestry System (AFS, that presents, amongst major phytosanitary problems, the citrus blackfly, that by severe attacks cause estimated redution of 80% in its’ production. Beside that, it constitutes a quarentenary pest of maximun alert level A2. Given the relevance of this sucking insect and the lack of basic knowledge, as well pest studies associated to agroforestry planting, the objective of this study was to evaluate the abiotic factors influence on blackfly infestation in citrus planting by agroforestry planting at Pará state. This study was carried out at Capitão Poço county, northeast mesoregion of Pará. 12 samplings were made evaluating the presence or abscence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby alive nymphs and/or adults. Correlation analisys was carried out to evaluate abiotic parameters (temperature and precipitation and kriging maps to evaluate Teca plants shading effects on the pest under study infestation. Amongst the main results obtained, there was pest infestation in every evaluated moth; there was temperature influence onto citrus blackfly population regulation and high precipitations reduced the number of plants with A. woglumi presence. Still, it can be inferred that the citrus blackfly infestations present preference for moderate shading intensity. However, changes occuring by the forestry species introduction onto agricultural cultivations must be better investigated.

  8. Retrospective determination of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr activities in the outer bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) collected at various sites in the Czech Republic

    The activity concentrations of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr were determined in 25 archived spruce outer bark samples collected in coniferous forests across the Czech Republic in 1995. At three sampling sites the radionuclide activity concentrations were determined in forest soil. Data was provided on the cumulative deposition and vertical distribution of 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 90Sr in forest soil. The median activity concentration of 238Pu in the spruce bark samples was 0.009 Bq kg-1. The median activity concentration of 239,240Pu was 0.212 Bq kg-1, and the median activity concentration of 90Sr was 10.6 Bq kg-1. The radionuclide activity concentration distribution was not significantly explained by the local long-term (1961-2000) mean annual precipitation totals, by site elevation, by bark acidity, by soil moisture and soil texture. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides in bark were found to be higher than or comparable with the published and measured figures for radionuclide activity concentrations in cultivated and uncultivated soils (0-20 cm layer) in the Czech Republic and abroad. The activity concentration ratio of 90Sr/239,240Pu in the investigated spruce bark samples was higher than in the relevant soil samples. We assume that the crucial radioactive contamination loads in bark occurred in the first half of the 1960s, when the concentration of the investigated radionuclides in the air was highest. Spruce trunk bark has preserved relatively high activity concentrations of these radionuclides. The mechanism governing the long-term radionuclide activity concentrations in outer bark proportional to the local radioactive fallout rates is not correctly known. Our results indicate the suitability of spruce bark for use as an effective monitor of radioactive plume fallout loads even several decades after the contamination episode. (author)

  9. Biotic and abiotic factors associated with soil suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani Fatores bióticos e abióticos associados à supressividade de solos a Rhizoctonia solani

    Raquel Ghini; Marcelo Augusto Boechat Morandi


    Crop management may modify soil characteristics, and as a consequence, alter incidence of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. This study evaluated the suppressiveness to R. solani in 59 soil samples from a microbasin. Soil sampling areas included undisturbed forest, pasture and fallow ground areas, annual crops, perennial crops, and ploughed soil. The soil samples were characterized according to abiotic variables (pH; electrical conductivity; organic matter content; N total; P; K; Ca; Mg;...

  10. A comunidade vegetal e as características abióticas de um campo de murundu em Uberlândia, MG Plant community and abiotic characteristics of a murundu field in Uberlândia, MG

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende


    Full Text Available Murundu é um tipo de microrrelevo em forma de pequena elevação, geralmente arredondado, muitas vezes apresentando solo e vegetação diferentes da área circundante. Todos os morrotes encontrados em 1,08ha de um campo de murundu foram medidos (comprimento, largura e altura. Determinou-se a profundidade do lençol freático e as características do solo sobre os mesmos e na área plana adjacente. A vegetação lenhosa (cipós, arbustos e árvores com diâmetro do caule ao nível do solo > 5mm foi amostrada em 48 morrotes. Encontraram-se 434 elevações (31,4% da área das quais 24,3% apresentaram vegetação lenhosa. A profundidade do lençol freático sob os murundus com vegetação lenhosa variou de 99,2 a 206,8cm. O solo estudado apresentou baixo teor de bases trocáveis e pequena diferença na disponibilidade de nutrientes entre os murundus e a área plana próxima. Foram amostrados 116 espécies, 72 gêneros e 42 famílias. Matayba guianensis Aubl. e Erythroxylum suberosum A. St.-Hil. apresentaram maiores densidades e Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg., maiores áreas basais. A maior diversidade em relação a outros trabalhos pode ser decorrente do pisoteio, pastejo bovino e queimadas.Murundus are small usually round mounds, that often present soil and vegetation different from the surrounding level area. All micro-elevations incountered in a 1.08ha murundu field had their length, width and height measured. The depth of the water table was measured and soil characteristics were obtained within and outside the murundus. All woody plants (lianas, trees, and shrubs with a diameter of > 5 mm at ground level were identified. A total 434 elevations (31.4% of the total area were encontered, of which 48 (24.3% contained woody plants. The mound vegetation comprised 116 species belonging to 72 genera, and 42 families. The depth of the water table for those murunduns with woody plants varied between 99.2 and 206.8cm. The studied soil showed a low content of exchangeable bases, but only slight differences were observed between murundus and level soils. Matayba guianensis Aubl. and Erythroxylum suberosum A. St.-Hil. had the highest densities, while Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg. showed the highest basal areas. The heigher diversity encountered here in comparison to other published reports may be due to cattle grazing and trampling as well as burning.

  11. Índice Tornozelo-Braquial (ITB) determinado por esfigmomanômetros oscilométricos automáticos Assessing Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) by using automated oscillometric devices

    Takao Kawamura


    FUNDAMENTO: Índice Tornozelo-Braquial (ITB) é essencial na prática clínica, mas dificuldades técnicas na sua execução pelo padrão de referência Doppler vascular (DV) tornam-no ainda pouco utilizado. OBJETIVO: Avaliar aplicabilidade da determinação do ITB com uso de esfigmomanômetros oscilométricos automáticos (EOA) e sugerir a utilização dos índices delta-Bráquio-Braquial (delta-BB) e delta-ITB como marcadores de risco cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e observacional de 247 paciente...

  12. The Construction and Application of Strength Measurement Curve of Abies fabric Root System with Pull-out Method%冷杉根系抗拔法测强曲线的建立与应用

    杨锋伟; 刘秀萍; 陈丽华; 宋维峰



  13. O lugar da fotografia na construção da obra de Aby Warburg: uma perspectiva cultural para a compreensão da criação imagética

    Paulo César Boni


    Full Text Available Este estudio busca discutir las relaciones planteadas entre la producción fotográfica y la construcción de la teoría warburguiana de posvida de las imá genes ( Nachleben der Antike por medio de su atlas Mnemosyne . Para tanto, utiliza la investigación bibliográca de autores que contribuirán a la elucidación de ese hecho, como Michaud (2013, Didi-Huberman (2013 y Kossoy (1989. Dado el hecho de la creación de paneles fotográcos para la aproximación de las relaciones temporales, Warburg rearma la impor- tancia de la fotografía como un objeto cultural e histórico. Para él, el atlas enfoca en la capacidad de comparación de imágenes en la historia del arte precisamente porque utiliza un panel móvil y práctico para establecer una base antropológica. Se concluye, por tanto, que Warburg usó y se ampa- ró en el potencial de la imagen fotográca para plantear una nueva mirada que rompiera con la perspectiva estática por medio de la imagen en movi- miento y del arte.

  14. 高大冷杉温室Strophosoma象甲的微生物防治%Microbial control of Strophosoma spp. larvae (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in Abies procera greenery plantations

    夏洛蒂· 尼尔森; Susanne Vestergaard; Susanne Harding; Jφrgen Eilenberg


    In Denmark, the weevils Strophosoma melanogrammum and S.capitatum cause economic damage in Noble fir due to the adult stage feeding on the needles.No chemical treatments of these weevils are allowed in Denmark,so biological control is an attractive solution.We evaluated the potential for microbial control of larvae of Strophosoma spp.based on laboratory bioassays and field applications,taking effect on both target and non-target into consideration,as well as persistence of the applied fungus.In the laboratory Beauveria bassiana,Paecilomyces farinosus and Metarhizium anisopliae were able to infect and cause mycosis in Strophosoma larvae.Among the tested isolates the most virulent isolate was M.anisopliae BIPESCO 5,which resulted in 80 % mortality.In the field experiment M.anisopliae,isolate BIPESCO 5,was applied to the soil as a conidial suspension against larvae of Strophosoma spp.The effect of the fungus on the target population was monitored at a weekly basis by counts of emerging adult weevils during their activity periods.The population of Strophosoma spp.was reduced by up to 60% in treated plots compared to control plots.The non-target effects of M.anisopliae were studied by sampling insects and ticks from both treated and control plots.Seven days after treatment,two sampled insect orders (Hemiptera and Coleoptera) and ticks were found with prevalences of M.anisopliae above 50%,compared to no infection in the insects collected from control plots.Infections in coccinellids were found as long as 277 days after treatment.However,the effect on population level of non-target is still unexplored.The persistence of the fungus was documented by plating a soil suspension onto agar.We documented that conidia of M.anisopliae could persist in the greenery plantation for at least 418 days after application.

  15. Regulación de la biosíntesis de la vitamina E y su función en señalización celular en condiciones de estrés abiótico

    Cela Udaondo, Jana


    [spa] La vitamina E incluye una serie de compuestos amfipáticos esenciales en la dieta tanto para humanos como para animales y que únicamente puede ser sintetizada por organismos fotosintéticos, los tocoferoles y los tocotrienoles. Descubierta a principios del siglo XX, no fue hasta los años 60 que se asoció a propiedades antioxidantes. En plantas, se sabe que los niveles de tocoferol (la forma mayoritaria en hojas) aumenta en respuesta al estrés y que está implicado en el control de los nive...

  16. Proč dopustili Češi a Slováci, aby jejich čelní političtí představitelé koncem roku 1992 rozdělili Československo?

    Lyons, Pat

    Praha : Sociologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015 - (Lyons, P.; Kindlerová, R.), s. 78-88 ISBN 978-80-7330-280-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : dissolution of a state * Czechoslovakia * federation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  17. DNA data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  18. Acquired brain injury services in the Republic of Ireland: experiences and perceptions of families and professionals.

    McDermott, Garret L


    This study aimed to highlight the experiences and perceptions of rehabilitation services among families of people with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and among professionals working in ABI rehabilitation services in Ireland.

  19. 八ヶ岳周辺におけるウラジロモミ林の組成と環境要因

    長岡, 総子; 奥田, 重俊


    Species composition and environmental factors of the Abies homolepis forest are investigated around Mt. Yatsugatake in Central Japan. Based on the phytosociological classification, Abies homolepis forests in this area are classified into two communities: Rhododendron wadanum-Abies homolepis and Lonicera demissa-Abies homolepis communities. The former is differentiated by Rhododendron wadanum, Acer distylum, Arachniodes mutica, Fagus crenata and Fagus japonica; the latter, by Lonicera demissa,...

  20. Eesti transpordi infrastruktuuri ootavad suured toetused / Tanel Tang

    Tang, Tanel


    EL-iga liitumisel avanevad Eestile Euroopa Regionaalarengu fond (ERDF) ja Ühtekuuluvusfond, mis tähendab transpordisektorile miljardite kroonide suurust abi maanteede, raudteede, lennujaamade ning sadamate ehitamiseks ja rekonstrueerimiseks. Vt. samas: Eestile tulnud abi PHARE ja ISPA fondist ; Ühtekuuluvusfond ja Euroopa regionaalarengu fond (ERDF) toetavad Eestit miljonite kroonidega. Diagramm: EL-i abi Eesti transpordisektorile

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SCER-05-0000 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-SCER-05-0000 ref|NP_010975.1| ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, a hexameric enzyme, catalyzes ... iae] gb|ABI82045.1| ATP phosphoribosyltransferase [Cloning ... vector pABC5'] gb|ABI82047.1| ATP phosphoribosyltr ... ansferase [Cloning ... vector pABC5'-His] gb|ABI82049.1| ATP phosphoribos ...

  2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) screening in the asymptomatic population

    Sillesen, Henrik; Falk, Erling


    Measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI) was developed to assess peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with symptoms of peripheral ischemia being present at rest or only functionally dependent (intermittent claudication). Reduced ABI is caused by arterial obstruction between the aortic arch....... Measuring ABI identifies asymptomatic persons at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: an ABI 25% in people between 80 and 90 years of age. The majority of persons with reduced ABI are asymptomatic and therefore unaware of the increased risk they are living with, thus, screening by...

  3. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method.

    Špan, Matjaž; Geršak, Gregor; Millasseau, Sandrine C; Meža, Marko; Košir, Andrej


    In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50%) and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI) in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD(®) device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop) and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi). ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years). Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, PABPI MD measurements to be performed. In conclusion, MESI improved automated oscillometric method and offered a faster and repeatable measurement of ABI with only a small, clinically irrelevant overestimation of ABI value. The tested MESI ABPI MD-improved oscillometric system can be used as a screening tool for patients in general practice and would enable family doctors to comply with current guidelines for PAD. PMID:27536125

  4. A HER2-binding Affibody molecule labelled with {sup 68}Ga for PET imaging: direct in vivo comparison with the {sup 111}In-labelled analogue

    Tolmachev, Vladimir [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Velikyan, Irina [Uppsala University, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Uppsala (Sweden); GEMS PET Systems, GE Healthcare, Uppsala Applied Science Lab, Uppsala (Sweden); Sandstroem, Mattias [Uppsala University Hospital, Hospital Physics, Department of Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden); Orlova, Anna [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)


    Overexpression of HER2 receptors is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies. Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 overexpression may influence patient management making treatment more personalized. Earlier, {sup 111}In-DOTA-Z{sub HER2:342-pep2} (ABY-002) Affibody molecule demonstrated excellent imaging of HER2-expressing xenografts in mice shortly after injection. The use of the positron-emitting nuclide {sup 68}Ga instead of {sup 111}In might increase both the sensitivity of HER2 imaging and accuracy of expression quantification. The goal of this study was to prepare and characterize {sup 68}Ga-labelled ABY-002. {sup 68}Ga labelling of ABY-002 was optimized. In vitro cell binding and procession of {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 was evaluated. Biodistribution and tumour targeting of {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 and {sup 111}In-ABY-002 was compared in vivo by paired-label experiments. ABY-002 was incubated with {sup 68}Ga at 90 C for 10 min resulting in a radiochemical labelling yield of over 95%. Capacity for specific binding to HER2-expressing cells was retained. In vivo, both {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 and {sup 111}In-ABY-002 demonstrated specific targeting of SKOV-3 xenografts and high-contrast imaging. Background radioactivity in blood, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and muscle fell more rapidly for {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 compared with {sup 111}In-ABY-002 favouring imaging shortly after injection. For {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002, a tumour uptake of 12.4 {+-} 3.8%ID/g and a tumour to blood ratio of 31 {+-} 13 were achieved at 2 h post-injection. {sup 68}Ga-ABY-002 is easy to label and provides high-contrast imaging within 2 h after injection. This makes it a promising candidate for clinical molecular imaging of HER2 expression in malignant tumours. (orig.)

  5. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Gschwind, Michael K


    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  6. Noise and Analyzer-Crystal Angular Position Analysis for Analyzer-Based Phase-Contrast Imaging

    Majidi, Keivan; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol; Brankov, Jovan G.


    The analyzer-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the...

  7. Assistive technologies for brain-injured gamers

    Colman, Jason; Gnanayutham, Paul


    This chapter surveys assistive technologies which make video games more accessible for people who have an acquired brain injury (ABI). As medical care improves, an increasing number of people survive ABI. Video games have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits in many medical contexts, and rehabilitation for ABI survivors has been shown to be facilitated by playing some types of video game. Therefore, technologies which improve the accessibility of games have the potential to bring a form...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-08-0064 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-08-0064 ref|NP_040360.1| hypothetical protein pColE1_05 [Plasmid ColE1] gb|AAB59125.1| ... lasmid ColE1] gb|ABI93156.1| hypothetical protein [Cloning ... vector pOri1] gb|ABI93161.1| hypothetical protein ... [Cloning ... vector pCW] gb|ABI93166.1| hypothetical protein [C ...

  9. Gene : CBRC-SCER-05-0000 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-SCER-05-0000 5 B UNKNOWN HIS1_YEAST 1e-163 100% ref|NP_010975.1| ATP phosphoribosyltransfer ... iae] gb|ABI82045.1| ATP phosphoribosyltransferase [Cloning ... vector pABC5'] gb|ABI82047.1| ATP phosphoribosyltr ... ansferase [Cloning ... vector pABC5'-His] gb|ABI82049.1| ATP phosphoribos ...

  10. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; K. Vanessa eGuerrero Nuñez; Ferland, Mark B.


    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exam...

  11. Association of Interarm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference with Atherosclerosis and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung


    An interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of 10 mmHg or more have been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether an association exists between this difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 1120 patients were included in the study. The bilateral arm blood pressures were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The values of ABI...

  12. Accuracy of the ankle-brachial index using the SCVL®, an arm and ankle automated device with synchronized cuffs, in a population with increased cardiovascular risk

    Rosenbaum, David; Rodriguez-Carranza, Sandra; Laroche, Patrick; Bruckert, Eric; Giral, Philippe; Girerd, Xavier


    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of the ankle brachial index (ABI) measured with the SCVL® (“screening cardiovascular lab”; GenNov, Paris, France), an automated device with synchronized arm and ankle cuffs with an automatic ABI calculation. Methods Patients were consecutively included in a cardiovascular prevention unit if they presented with at least two cardiovascular risk factors. ABI measurements were made using the SCVL, following a synchronized assessment of brachial and ankle systoli...

  13. The reliability of the ankle-brachial index in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS)

    Catellier Diane J; Heiss Gerardo; Chambless Lloyd E; Weatherley Beth D; Ellison Curtis R


    Abstract Background A low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and death. Regression model parameter estimates may be biased due to measurement error when the ABI is included as a predictor in regression models, but may be corrected if the reliability coefficient, R, is known. The R for the ABI computed from DINAMAP™ readings of the ankle and brachial SBP is not known. Methods A total of 119 participants in both the Atherosclerosis Ri...

  14. Tohutu rahvamass nõudis Gruusia presidendilt kevadeks uusi valimisi / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-


    Opositsiooni korraldatud võimudevastasest meeleavaldusest Tbilisis, opositsiooni nõudmised. Lisa: Parteide ühisrinne presidendi vastu. Vt. samas: Kaivo Kopli. Opositsiooni rahastaja otsib abi Rupert Murdochilt

  15. Parts toetab eksporti miljardigarantiiga / Juhan Parts ; intervjueerinud Gert D. Hankewitz, Andrus Karnau

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-


    Intervjuu majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsiga, kes vastab küsimustele ekspordiettevõtetele riiklike garantiide andmise teemal. Vt. samas: Ekspordigarantiid; Padar pakub abi laenuvõtjatele

  16. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João


    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. Th...

  17. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; Diego Cunha Zied; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni; João Kopytowski Filho


    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The ...

  18. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que: o crescimento micelial de A. bisporus é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação; a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. bisporus; na temperatura de 20°C, o melhor crescimento foi obtido com as linhagens ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01; na temperatura de 25°C, a linhagem ABI-01/01 apresentou crescimento significativamente maior que todas as demais.The in vitro mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus strains ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 was evaluated in solidculture media made up of compost. Evaluations were performed by means of measurements of four diameters of the colonies, every 48 hours, during 12 days of incubation in darkness under 20 and 25ºC. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, using the Tukey test to compare averages. Based on the obtained results, it was verified that: mycelium growth of A. bisporus is influenced by the temperature of incubation; the temperature of 25°C was more favorable to the mycelium growth of all A. bisporus strains; under the temperature of 20°C, the best growth was obtained with strainsABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 and, under the temperature of 25°C, strain ABI-01/01 showed significantly higher growth than all other strains.

  19. The risk factors for abnormal ankle-brachial index in type 2 diabetic patients and clinical predictive value for diabetic foot



    Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetic foot (DF) and the normal,high and low ankle brachial index (ABI) in type 2 diabetic patients and explore the risk factor for abnormal ABI and the clinical predictive value for DF.Methods A total of 2 681 type 2 diabetic patients who visited our hospital between January,2007and December,2009 were enrolled in the study.The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by logistic regression analysis.Results ABI was normal (0.9-<1.3) in 2 362 cases

  20. Abortive phage-infection and UV-protection markers on ColI plasmids from epidemic strains of Salmonella

    Cultures of Escherichia coli carrying ColI plasmids received in conjugation from strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. agona were examined for abortive infection (Abi) of phage BF23 and for enhanced resistance to the lethal action of UV-irradiation (Uvr). The Abi character of stored cultures of E. coli was also compared with the reaction of the same stock culture tested 5 years before. Seven of the eight potential types differentiated by three characters were represented among 160 ColI plasmids: ColIa Abi+ Uvr+ (3 plasmids), ColIa Abi- Uvr+ (1), ColIa Abi- Uvr-> (2), ColIb Abi+ Uvr+ (85), ColIb Abi+ Uvr- (5), ColIb Abi- Uvr+ (4), ColIb Abi-? Uvr- (60). Recognition that different plasmid types could be carried by strains of a clone proved useful in the interpretation of the epidemic spread of strains of S. typhimurium of phage type/biotype 141/9f in Scotland and in tracing the ancestry of a recently emerged rhamnose non-fermenting mutant strain of S. agona. (author)

  1. Isiku paigutamine kinnisesse asutusse psühhiaatrilise ravi eesmärgil : [magistritöö] / Mai-Liis Meigo ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendajad: Kai Härmand, Kristjan Kask

    Meigo, Mai-Liis


    Isiku tahtevastasest paigutamisest raviasutusse (tsiviilkohtumenetluse seadustik, psühhiaatrilise abi seadus), isiku põhiõigustest ja sellest tulenevast kohtupraktikast tahtevastase ravi läbiviimisel

  2. Microbial Biomass Carbon and Soil Invertase Activity of Mixed Stands of Picea koraiensis,Abies fabric and Pinus koraiensis in Different Succession Stages%云冷杉红松混交林不同演替阶段土壤微生物生物量碳与土壤蔗糖酶活性分析



    通过对云冷杉红松混交林不同演替阶段(形成阶段、发展阶段、稳定阶段和顶级群落)不同土壤层次土壤微生物量碳(MBC)含量和土壤蔗糖酶活性及各个阶段土壤总有机碳、全氮、速效钾和有效磷的研究,采用对比分析方法分析了土壤微生物量碳和土壤蔗糖酶活性与土壤总有机碳、全氮、速效钾和有效磷之间的相关关系,结果显示,土壤微生物量碳和土壤蔗糖酶活性与土壤总有机碳、全氮、速效钾和有效磷之间均呈显著正相关。%The content of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC)in different soil layers,soil invertase activity,total organic carbon (TOC),total nitrogen,available potassium,available phosphorus at all stages in different succession stages (the formation stage,stage of development,stability phase and climax community)of mixed spruce-fir-larch stands were studied.The correlation among MBC,soil invertase activity,TOC,total nitrogen,available potassium, and available phosphorus were analyzed.Result shows that:MBC,soil invertase activity,TOC,total nitrogen,a-vailable potassium,available phosphorus show significant positive correlation.

  3. Odpověď v anketě na téma Jak řešíte jako rodič nebo by měla společnost řešit to, aby se z dítěte nestal nepřiměřený konzument alkoholu?

    Simonová, Natalie


    Roč. 20, č. 48 (2009), s. 6-6. ISSN 0862-6545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : teenagers * alcohol * prevent ion Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  4. Análisis integrado de factores genéticos, bióticos y abióticos para la formulación de una nueva hipótesis sobre la etiología del "mal del ciprés"

    El Mujtar, Verónica A.


    El desarrollo de un trabajo de investigación en sistemas naturales plantea el desafío de avanzar en el conocimiento sorteando la dificultad de la falta de control sobre un conjunto de factores que pueden afectar las variables en estudio. La presente tesis tuvo como objetivo general el análisis simultáneo del mismo grupo de individuos desde diversos aspectos a fin de avanzar en la identificación de la etiología del o de los procesos actualmente englobados bajo la denominación mal del ciprés...

  5. Factores abióticos que influencian la germinación de seis especies herbáceas de la zona árida de Chile Abiotic factors effects influencing the germination of six herbaceous species of Chilean arid zone

    Paola A Jara


    Full Text Available La zona árida del norte de Chile presenta un clima seco que impide la emergencia masiva de especies vegetales, excepto cuando se producen escasas e irregulares precipitaciones que modifican las características de aridez y estimulan la germinación de semillas. Los principales factores externos que modifican estructuras y condiciones internas de las semillas son el tiempo de hidratación, iluminación, temperatura y escarificación. En este trabajo se abordaron dos interrogantes: (a ¿la germinación de semillas de seis especies de zonas áridas es regulada por diferentes factores externos o presentan respuestas comunes a una combinación de estímulos? y (b ¿existe correspondencia entre las condiciones germinativas establecidas en laboratorio y las determinadas in situ? Para resolver estas interrogantes se sometieron seis especies herbáceas endémicas y nativas del norte de Chile (Cistanthe salsoloides, Leucocoryne purpurea, Pasithea coerulea, Placea amoena, Schizanthus litoralis y Trichopetalum plumosum a dos experimentos germinativos con combinaciones factoriales de tiempo de hidratación, temperatura e iluminación. Solo S. litoralis fue sometido a un experimento adicional de escarificación y deshidratación. Los resultados determinaron que todas las especies en estudio presentaron respuestas germinativas comunes frente a determinados factores externos, con una máxima germinación al sobrepasar un umbral de 96 h de hidratación y permanecer a niveles de temperatura de 10 a 25 ºC. La respuesta frente a iluminación fue especie dependiente. Schizanthus litoralis solo responde a estímulos externos previo a ser escarificada su semilla. Además, se determinó que existe concordancia entre los factores germinativos determinados en laboratorio y las condiciones naturales de germinación. Por lo tanto, las semillas de las especies en estudio presentan umbrales germinativos semejantes, y las técnicas de germinación en laboratorio deben ser determinadas por las características ambientales del lugar de procedencia y de la época de germinación naturalThe arid zone of northern Chile has a dry climate that prevents the massive emergency of plant species. The exception to this general trend arises when scarce and irregular rainfall events occur, modify the environmental humidity, and stimulate the germination of seeds. The main external factors that modify the internal nature of the seeds are the hydration time, light, temperature and scarification. In this work two questions were addressed: (a is the germination of seeds of arid zones regulated by independent external factors or by a combined array of stimuli? and (b do exist correspondence between laboratory and in situ germinative conditions?. Seeds of six native and endemic herbaceous species of the north of Chile (Cistanthe salsoloides, Leucocoryne purpurea, Pasithea coerulea, Placea amoena, Schizanthus litoralis y Trichopetalum plumosum were subjected to two germination experiments, with factorial combinations of hydration time, temperature, light, dehydration and scarification. Schizanthus litoralis, was subjected to an aditional scarification-dehydration experiment (experiment 3. Results showed a common response of all the species in study to certain external factors. Maximum germination percentages were reached when exceeding a threshold of 96 h of hydration and at temperatures of 10 to 25 ºC. Light response was species-dependent. Agreement was found between the germinative conditions determined in laboratory and natural conditions of germination. Therefore, the seeds of plant species of arid zones display similar germinative thresholds and the techniques of germination in laboratory must be determined by the environmental characteristics of the place of origin and the time of natural germination

  6. Planktonic crustacean assemblages of three reservoirs from the Mexican Central Plateau: relationships with biotic and abiotic factors Crustáceos planctónicos de tres embalses de la Mesa Central Mexicana: relaciones con factores bióticos y abióticos

    Gloria Ana María Arroyo Bustos


    Full Text Available The reservoirs Trinidad Fabela (TF, Ignacio Ramírez (IR and Tepuxtepec (T are located along an altitude gradient in the upper Lerma Basin of the Mexican Central Plateau. Between July 1993 and June 1994, the planktonic crustacean assemblages of these systems were dominated by seven cladoceran species and five copepod species. Specific richness ranged from 13 species in TF to 16 species in T, out of a total 20 species. Nine species were common to all three systems, while the rest were absent from at least one reservoir. Canonic correspondence analysis showed that the structure and seasonal variation of these assemblages are regulated by factors directly related (transparency and dissolved oxygen or inversely related (turbidity, temperature, mineralization and eutrophication to the altitude at which the reservoirs are located. TF had the lowest levels of mineralization and the lowest specific richness, as well as the highest plankton diversity and mean density, while T had the highest mineralization and highest specific richness, but showed the lowest density. Crustacean mean size was smaller in T than in TF, possibly due to predation by fish in the former system and the presence of fish predators (waterfowl in the latter, as well as the impact of the different hydrological regime and release schedules of the reservoirs.Se estudiaron los embalses Trinidad Fabela (TF, Ignacio Ramírez (IR y Tepuxtepec (T que se localizan en un gradiente de altitud en la subcuenca del Alto Lerma en la Mesa Central de México. La asociación de crustáceos planctónicos estuvo dominada por siete especies de cladóceros y cinco copépodos y la riqueza específica varió entre 13 y 16 especies con un total de 20 especies; nueve de éstas resultaron comunes a todos los embalses y las otras no se encontraron en al menos uno de ellos. El análisis de correspondencias canónicas mostró que la estructura y la variación estacional de las asociaciones de crustáceos planctónicos están regulados por factores que están directamente (transparencia y oxígeno disuelto o inversamente (turbiedad, temperatura, grado de mineralización y de eutrofización relacionados a la altitud de los tres embalses. TF fue el embalse con el menor grado de mineralización y la menor riqueza específica y con la mayor diversidad y densidad de plancton. T tuvo la mayor mineralización y riqueza específica, pero la menor densidad. Los crustáceos de T presentaron tallas medias menores que los de TF, posiblemente como un efecto de depredación de la ictiofauna en T y de la presencia de aves acuáticas piscívoras en TF, además del diferente régimen hidrológico de los embalses.

  7. Efecte de la incorporació de biochar al sòl i estrès abiòitic de contaminants orgànics emergents presents en l'aigua de reg en la producció de biomassa de Lactuca sativa

    Nadal Talavera, Marta


    Recently, the hydrological demand has increased while the supply has stayed the same or even, in some places, it has diminished. One possible solution to this problem is the use of recycled wastewater, mostly in places with scarcity of water. The main use of this water is in the agriculture and landscape restoration. However, the wastewaters treatment plants used for the water reclamation are not able to eliminate the presence of xenobiotics and, among them, the presence of emergent organic c...

  8. Gene Expression Analysis: A Way to Study Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses in Crops Species Análisis de la Expresión Génica: Una Forma de Estudiar la Tolerancia a Estreses Abióticos en Cultivos

    Eduardo Pérez-Torres


    Full Text Available Regions traditionally destined to agriculture report an ever increasing exposure to cold and drought conditions. This is especially important in countries like Chile where crop management options are limited. The development of new cultivars with better yields under adverse conditions is fundamental if the ever increasing demand for food is to be matched; however, improving tolerance to abiotic stresses has proved to be a complex task. In this regard, development in plant physiology and genomics in the last 20 years has led to a deeper understanding of how plants respond to stress and mechanisms responsible for different ranges of tolerance observed in nature. This review discusses the techniques currently most in use in gene expression analysis, together with some important experimental design variables, such as the developmental stage of the plant, stress intensity and duration, and how different stresses may interact when performing assays. On the other hand, it is fundamental to properly select gene expression techniques according to the available information on the genome, the crop and the final objective of the research. All these points must be considered to ease transition from genomics to practical applications to crop species in order to increase their tolerance to stress. In this regard, the rapid development of new techniques in gene expression analysis with lower costs will determine a new revolution in crop research in coming decades. Therefore, Chile needs to be prepared in this area to continue its development as a major food producer worldwide.Las regiones agrícolas están cada vez más expuestas a condiciones de frío y sequía, algo especialmente importante en países con opciones limitadas de manejo de cultivos como Chile. Si la creciente demanda por alimento ha de ser cubierta, es necesaria la compleja tarea del desarrollo de nuevos cultivares con mejores rendimientos bajo condiciones de estrés. El desarrollo de la fisiología vegetal y la genómica en los últimos 20 años ha permitido entender mejor cómo las plantas responden al estrés y los mecanismos responsables de los distintos rangos de tolerancia observados en la naturaleza. En esta revisión, se discuten las técnicas más usadas actualmente en análisis de expresión génica y algunas variables que deben ser consideradas en el diseño experimental tales como el estado de desarrollo de la planta y la intensidad, duración e interacción de distintos tipos de estrés, además de la elección de técnicas apropiadas de acuerdo a la información disponible del genoma del cultivo y el objetivo final de la investigación. Todos estos puntos son fundamentales para facilitar la transición desde la genómica a aplicaciones prácticas en el aumento de la tolerancia al estrés de los cultivos. En este sentido, el rápido desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para estudiar la expresión de genes a menor costo determinará una nueva revolución en la investigación de cultivos en las próximas décadas. En este sentido, Chile necesita estar preparado en esta área para continuar su desarrollo como un importante productor de alimentos a nivel mundial.

  9. Impact of traffic on δ15N, δ13C and δ18O of needles and annual tree rings of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.)

    Guerrieri MR; Saurer M; Siegwolf RTW; Waldner P; Cherubini P


    Increase of nitrogen depositions, as oxidized (NOx) and reduced (NHx) compounds, has important implications on ecosystem nitrogen cycle. NOx comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion in car engines and industrial processes, while agricultural activities (cattle farming, fertilizations) are the main sources for NHx emissions. Such fertilisations could stimulate growth and, therefore, productivity of forests, especially in temperate forests, where nitrogen is a limiting factor. On the oth...

  10. Abiotic gradients drive floristic composition and structure of plant communities in the Monte Desert Gradientes abióticos dirigen la composición florística y la estructura de las comunidades de plantas en el Desierto del Monte



    Full Text Available Defining plant communities in desert zones is difficult due to large scale homogeneity and small scale heterogeneity, thus making provision of systematic information for conservation decisions problematic. We analysed plant communities of the most arid sector of Monte Desert for structure, plant composition and environmental variables. Small-scale variables such as slope, rock cover, bare ground and litter, as well as large-scale ones such as species diversity, composition and similarity within and between sites were included. Analyses of floristic composition showed the difficulty of segregating distinct communities due to high internal heterogeneity and overlap between the different sites. Only mesquite woodlands, a community situated at the extreme of the soil moisture-gradient was segregated. Ordination on structural variables was somewhat more successful in segregating communities on the basis of substrate type and of tree and shrub cover. Our results showed the difficulty distinguishing plant communities in temperate deserts, suggesting the existence of relatively stable assemblages of species at the extremes of the gradients and of great heterogeneity within and between sites. They cannot be defined by floristic variables solely, but require environmental information also.La definición de comunidades discretas de plantas en zonas desérticas es complejo debido tanto a su homogeneidad a gran escala como a su heterogeneidad a pequeña escala, lo que acaba generando dificultades para la toma de decisiones de conservación. En este trabajo analizamos las comunidades de plantas del sector más árido del Desierto del Monte en función de su estructura y composición florística. Se han utilizado también variables ambientales estimadas a pequeña escala como la pendiente o la superficie de roca, suelo desnudo y hojarasca, así como variables que operan a mayor escala como la diversidad de especies, la composición florística y la similitud dentro y entre localidades. Los análisis de composición florística resaltaron la dificultad para segregar diferentes comunidades debido al elevado nivel de heterogeneidad interna y de solapamiento florístico entre las distintas localidades estudiadas. Solo la comunidad situada en el extremo del gradiente de humedad edáfica, el algarrobal, se segregó del resto. La ordenación realizada sobre las variables estructurales en función del tipo de sustrato y de la cobertura arbórea y de matorral segregó mejor las diferentes comunidades. Nuestros resultados muestran la dificultad para diferenciar comunidades de plantas en desiertos templados, sugiriendo la existencia de ensamblajes de especies relativamente estables en los extremos de los gradientes y de una gran heterogeneidad dentro y entre localidades. Las comunidades de plantas, por tanto, no pueden ser definidas únicamente por variables florísticas, sino que es preciso incluir información ambiental.

  11. Relation between chemical composition of Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, and abiotic parameters Relação entre composição química de Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne Howe, Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius e parâmetros abióticos

    Paulo Nelo Medeiros Perfeto


    Full Text Available In Grateloupia doryphora and Gymnogongrus griffithsiae the seasonal variation of their chemical compounds was studied, establishing a relation with the physical and chemical properties of seawater. High values of proteins in the studied species were detected during the winter, 28.88% in G. doryphora and 26.68% in G. griffithsiae, corresponding to the maximum period of ammonium concentration in the marine environment. The variation in carbohydrates content showed an inverse relation with the proteins, with a maximum of 54.72% in G. doryphora and of 55.36% in G. griffithsiae, both in summer, positively correlated with salinity and temperature of sea water. Lipids content was low in both species. In G. doryphora the values ranged between 0.81 and 1.30% and, in G. griffithsiae, from 0.71 to 1.50% of dry weight, showing a direct relation with the amount of nitrogen in the seawater. The maximum content of ashes, phosphorus and potassium occurred in autumn and winter, respectively, with 11.85%, 0.20%, 1.27% in G. doryphora, and 14.46%, 0.14%, 1.41% in G. griffithsiae.Foi estudado em Grateloupia doryphora e Gymnogongrus griffithsiae a variação sazonal de seus compostos químicos, estabelecendo uma relação com os parâmetros físico-químicos da água do mar. Durante o inverno foram detectados valores altos de proteína nas espécies estudadas, com 28,88 % em G. doryphora e 26,68 % em G. griffithsiae, correspondendo ao período de concentração máxima de amônio no ambiente marinho. A variação no conteúdo de carboidratos apresentou relação inversa à de proteínas. Os valores máximos de 54,72 % em G. doryphora e de 55,36 % em G. griffithsiae, ocorreram no verão, correlacionados positivamente com salinidade e temperatura da água do mar. Os conteúdos de lipídeos foram baixos em ambas as espécies. Em G. doryphora os valores variaram entre 0,81 e 1,30 % e em G. griffithsiae, de 0,71 a 1,50 % do peso seco, mostrando relação direta com a quantidade de nitrogênio na água do mar. O conteúdo máximo de cinzas, fósforo e potássio ocorreu no outono e inverno, respectivamente com 11,85 %, 0,20 % e 1,27 % em G. doryphora e 14,46 %, 0,14 % e 1,41 % em G. griffithsiae.

  12. Analyse qualitative et quantitative de la production de semences du sapin pectiné (Abies alba) en région méditerranéenne française et détermination des facteurs environnementaux associés

    Martinez, Célia


    Les écosystèmes forestiers sont aujourd’hui touchés par les conséquences des changements globaux en cours. Les conditions climatiques prévues au cours des prochaines décennies devraient induire des modifications dans la plasticité et l’évolution des espèces et conduire à des changements dans leur distribution géographique. Les populations d’arbres établis en marge de leur aire de distribution sont particulièrement sensibles aux modifications de leur environnement et sont déjà contraintes ces ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0030 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0030 ref|NP_001011594.1| G-protein coupled receptor [Apis mellifera] e...mb|CAB76374.1| G-protein coupled receptor [Apis mellifera] gb|ABI94393.1| tyramine receptor [Apis mellifera]... gb|ABI94394.1| tyramine receptor [Apis mellifera] NP_001011594.1 2e-61 36% ...

  14. 8 CFR 214.2 - Special requirements for admission, extension, and maintenance of status.


    ...; (iii) Unmarried sons or daughters under the age of 23 who are in full-time attendance as students at... in full-time attendance as students at post-secondary educational institutions if a formal bilateral... the student's attendance. (ii) Disposition of Form I-20 A-B/I-20 ID. Form I-20 A-B/I-20 ID...

  15. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle


    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Badaruddoza Doza


    Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  17. Eksperdid: video Liibanonis röövitud eestlastest on hea märk / Kärt Anvelt, Kadri Ibrus, Erik Rand

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-


    Youtube'i videokeskkonda ilmus Liibanonis röövitud eestlastest video, milles nad paluvad Liibanoni, Saudi Araabia, Jordaania ja Prantsusmaa juhtide abi enda vabastamiseks. Saudi Araabia, Araabia Ühendemiraadid ja Jordaania on lubanud igakülgset abi. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese avaldusest seoses videopöördumisega

  18. The correlative study between index of hemodynamics and vibration perception thresholds in type 2 diabetic patients

    Objective: To investigate the correlation of ankle-brachial index (ABI, pulsatility index (PI), resistent index (RI)and vibration perception thresholds (VPT)in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). Methods: A total of 664 type 2 diabetic patients with 1328 legs (362 men and 302 women)were divided into three groups based on the ABI test: group A(ABI < 0.9, n=176), group B(ABI 0.9-1.3, n=368) and group C (ABI ≥1.3, n=120). ABI was measured with Doppler ultrasound and VPT with Bio-Thesiometer. Results: VPT was negatively and positively correlated with ABI < 0.9 and ABI ≥1.3 (r=-0.57 and r=0.61, respectively P<0.05). VPT was also negatively correlated with PI (r=-0.68, P<0.05) and positively correlated with RI (r=0.83, P<0.05). Multivariate analysis, after adjustment with a series of confounding factors such as age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma glucose, plasma lipids and HbAlc, demonstrated that only the presence of RI was independently associated with VPT (SE[B]=0.471, P< 0.05). Conclusion: The more severity of the stricture and hardening of periphery arteries, the higher the value of VPT; and RI is independently associated with VPT in type 2 diabetes. (authors)

  19. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)


    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  20. Determinants of participation of youth with acquired brain injury : A systematic review

    Kloet, A.J. (Arend) de; Gijzen, Rianne; Braga, Lucia W.; Schoones, Jan W.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea; Meesters, Jorit J.L.


    Objectives: Participation is considerably restricted in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) as compared to their healthy peers. This systematic review aims to identify which factors are associated with participation in children and adolescents with ABI. Methods: A systematic se