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Sample records for abh-le secretor traits

  1. Lewis phenotype, secretor status, and coeliac disease.

    Dickey, W; Wylie, J D; Collins, J S; Porter, K G; Watson, R G; McLoughlin, J C

    1994-01-01

    Patients who cannot secrete ABO and Lewis blood group antigens into body fluids, an ability controlled by a single gene on chromosome 19, are known to be at increased risk of certain autoimmune diseases associated with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) markers. This study investigated the possibility of an association with coeliac disease using red cell Lewis (Le) blood group phenotype to infer secretor status. Among 73 patients with coeliac disease who had Le a or b antigen, 48% were non-secreto...

  2. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    Barja, P R; Coelho, C C; Paiva, R F [Research and Development Institute, UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M A; Matos, L C; Matos, C C B [Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, L V F, E-mail: barja@univap.b [Rehabilitation Sciences Master' s Program, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called 'secretor' and 'non secretor' phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t{sub 0} (typical interaction time) and {Delta}t (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  3. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    Barja, P. R.; Coelho, C. C.; Paiva, R. F.; Barboza, M. A.; Matos, L. C.; Matos, C. C. B.; Oliveira, L. V. F.

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called "secretor" and "non secretor" phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t0 (typical interaction time) and Δt (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  4. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called 'secretor' and 'non secretor' phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t0 (typical interaction time) and Δt (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  5. Faecal microbiota composition in adults is associated with the FUT2 gene determining the secretor status.

    Pirjo Wacklin

    Full Text Available The human intestine is colonised with highly diverse and individually defined microbiota, which likely has an impact on the host well-being. Drivers of the individual variation in the microbiota compositions are multifactorial and include environmental, host and dietary factors. We studied the impact of the host secretor status, encoded by fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2 -gene, on the intestinal microbiota composition. Secretor status determines the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucosa. The study population was comprised of 14 non-secretor (FUT2 rs601338 genotype AA and 57 secretor (genotypes GG and AG adult individuals of western European descent. Intestinal microbiota was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and for a subset of 12 non-secretor subjects and 12 secretor subjects additionally by the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and the HITChip phylogenetic microarray analysis. All three methods showed distinct clustering of the intestinal microbiota and significant differences in abundances of several taxa representing dominant microbiota between the non-secretors and the secretors as well as between the FUT2 genotypes. In addition, the non-secretors had lower species richness than the secretors. The soft clustering of microbiota into enterotypes (ET 1 and 3 showed that the non-secretors had a higher probability of belonging to ET1 and the secretors to ET3. Our study shows that secretor status and FUT2 polymorphism are associated with the composition of human intestinal microbiota, and appears thus to be one of the key drivers affecting the individual variation of human intestinal microbiota.

  6. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden

    Nordgren, Johan; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Matussek, Andreas; Svensson, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis among adults. Susceptibility to disease has been associated with histo-blood group antigens and secretor status; nonsecretors are almost completely resistant to disease. We report a foodborne outbreak of GI.3 NoV gastroenteritis that affected 33/83 (40%) persons. Symptomatic disease was as likely to develop in nonsecretors as in secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-4.36 vs. OR 0.71, 95%...

  7. Infection by Helicobacter pylori expressing the BabA adhesin is influenced by the secretor phenotype.

    Azevedo, M; Eriksson, S; Mendes, N; Serpa, J; Figueiredo, C; Resende, L P; Ruvoën-Clouet, N; Haas, R; Borén, T; Le Pendu, J; David, L

    2008-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infects half the world's population and causes diverse gastric lesions, from gastritis to gastric cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the significance of secretor and Lewis status in infection and in vitro adherence by Hp expressing BabA adhesin. We enrolled 304 Hp-infected individuals from Northern Portugal. Gastric biopsies, blood and saliva were collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence were used to detect BabA+ Hp in gastric biopsies. In vitro adherence by a BabA expressing Hp strain to gastric biopsies was performed. Secretor status was identified by Ulex, a lectin that recognizes secretor-dependent glycan structures in saliva and in gastric mucosa, and by Lewis(a/b) antibodies, and indirectly by identification of an inactivating mutation in the FUT2 gene (G428A). BabA status of infecting Hp was associated with CagA and VacAs1 (p < 0.05), intercellular localization of Hp (p < 0.01) and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (p < 0.05) and degenerative alterations (p < 0.005) in the biopsies. BabA was associated (p < 0.05) with Ulex staining of gastric biopsies and, although not significantly, to absence of homozygosity for FUT2 G428A inactivating polymorphism. In vitro Hp adherence was higher in cases wild-type or heterozygous for FUT2 G428A mutation (p < 0.0001), cases staining for Ulex (p < 0.0001) and a(-)b+ and a(-)b(-) secretor phenotypes (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BabA+ Hp infection/adhesion is secretor-dependent and associated with the severity of gastric lesions. PMID:18498114

  8. Significance of Lewis Phenotyping Using Saliva and Gastric Tissue: Comparison with the Lewis Phenotype Inferred from Lewis and Secretor Genotypes

    Yun Ji Hong; Sang Mee Hwang; Taek Soo Kim; Eun Young Song; Kyoung Un Park; Junghan Song; Kyou-Sup Han

    2014-01-01

    Lewis phenotypes using various types of specimen were compared with the Lewis phenotype predicted from Lewis and Secretor genotypes. This is the first logical step in explaining the association between the Lewis expression and Helicobacter pylori. We performed a study of the followings on 209 patients who underwent routine gastroscopy: erythrocyte and saliva Lewis phenotyping, gastric Lewis phenotyping by the tissue array, and the Lewis and Secretor genes genotyping. The results of phenotypin...

  9. Significance of Lewis phenotyping using saliva and gastric tissue: comparison with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and secretor genotypes.

    Hong, Yun Ji; Hwang, Sang Mee; Kim, Taek Soo; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Lewis phenotypes using various types of specimen were compared with the Lewis phenotype predicted from Lewis and Secretor genotypes. This is the first logical step in explaining the association between the Lewis expression and Helicobacter pylori. We performed a study of the followings on 209 patients who underwent routine gastroscopy: erythrocyte and saliva Lewis phenotyping, gastric Lewis phenotyping by the tissue array, and the Lewis and Secretor genes genotyping. The results of phenotyping were as follows [Le(a-b-), Le(a+b-), Le(a-b+), and Le(a+b+), respectively, in order]: erythrocyte (12.4%, 25.8%, 61.2%, and 0.5%); saliva (2.4%, 27.3%, 70.3%, and 0.0%); gastric mucosa (8.1%, 6.7%, 45.5%, and 39.7%). The frequency of Le, le (59/508) , le (59/1067) , and le (59) alleles was 74.6%, 21.3%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively, among 418 alleles. The saliva Lewis phenotype was completely consistent with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and Secretor genotypes, but that of gastric mucosa could not be predicted from genotypes. Lewis phenotyping using erythrocytes is only adequate for transfusion needs. Saliva testing for the Lewis phenotype is a more reliable method for determining the peripheral Lewis phenotype of an individual and the gastric Lewis phenotype must be used for the study on the association between Helicobacter pylori and the Lewis phenotype. PMID:24783214

  10. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group – its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    Mohamad Salih Jaff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. Blood and saliva from 762 randomly selected apparently healthy adult individuals (480 men and 282 women were examined to determine their ABO and Rhesus blood groups by standard conventional methods, and their secretor status by using Lewis blood grouping and/or hemagglutination inhibition test of saliva. Results showed that 76.1% of the study population were ABH blood group antigens secretors and 23.9% were nonsecretors. The frequencies of secretor status in different ABO blood groups were 70.1% in group A, 67.8% in group B, 67.9% in group AB, and 88.3% in group O. In conclusion, blood group O individuals have significantly higher frequency of secretor status than non-O blood group individuals. This finding would be beneficial to them, protecting them, at least partially, from certain malignancies or allowing them to have less aggressive disease, and this finding might be useful in enhancing further studies and research in this direction.Keywords: blood group O, ABO blood groups, secretor phenotype, frequency, malignancies, prevention and/or treatment

  11. Significance of Lewis Phenotyping Using Saliva and Gastric Tissue: Comparison with the Lewis Phenotype Inferred from Lewis and Secretor Genotypes

    Yun Ji Hong

    2014-01-01

    , and le59 alleles was 74.6%, 21.3%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively, among 418 alleles. The saliva Lewis phenotype was completely consistent with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and Secretor genotypes, but that of gastric mucosa could not be predicted from genotypes. Lewis phenotyping using erythrocytes is only adequate for transfusion needs. Saliva testing for the Lewis phenotype is a more reliable method for determining the peripheral Lewis phenotype of an individual and the gastric Lewis phenotype must be used for the study on the association between Helicobacter pylori and the Lewis phenotype.

  12. Clonal traits

    Klimeš, Leoš; Klimešová, Jitka

    Groningen : LEDA Traitbase project, University of Groningen, Community and Conservation Ecology group, 2005 - (Knevel, I.C., Bekker, R.M., Kunzmann, D., Stadler, M., Thompson, K.), s. 66-88 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : plant functional traits * clonality * vegetative regeneration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and calcium mediate root ion fluxes in two non-secretor mangrove species subjected to NaCl stress.

    Lu, Yanjun; Li, Niya; Sun, Jian; Hou, Peichen; Jing, Xiaoshu; Zhu, Huipeng; Deng, Shurong; Han, Yansha; Huang, Xuxin; Ma, Xujun; Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Yuhong; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2013-01-01

    Using 3-month-old seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Savigny and Kandelia candel (L.) Druce, we compared species differences in ionic homeostasis control between the two non-secretor mangrove species. A high salinity (400 mM NaCl, 4 weeks) resulted in a decline of the K(+)/Na(+) ratio in root and leaf tissues, and the reduction was more pronounced in K. candel (41-66%) as compared with B. gymnorrhiza (5-36%). Salt-altered flux profiles of Na(+), K(+), H(+) and Ca(2+) in roots and effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) on root ion fluxes were examined in seedlings that were hydroponically treated short term with 100 mM NaCl (ST, 24 h) and long term with 200 mM NaCl (LT, 7 days). Short term and LT salinity resulted in Na(+) efflux and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx in roots of both species, although a more pronounced effect was observed in B. gymnorrhiza. The salt-enhanced exchange of Na(+) with H(+) was obviously inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or sodium orthovanadate (a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase inhibitor), indicating that the Na(+) efflux resulted from active Na(+) exclusion across the plasma membrane. Short term and LT salinity accelerated K(+) efflux in the two species, but K. candel exhibited a higher flux rate. The salt-induced K(+) efflux was markedly restricted by the K(+) channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride, indicating that the K(+) efflux is mediated by depolarization-activated channels, e.g., KORCs (outward rectifying K(+) channels) and NSCCs (non-selective cation channels). Exogenous H(2)O(2) application (10 mM) markedly increased the apparent Na(+) efflux and limited K(+) efflux in ST-treated roots, although H(2)O(2) caused a higher Na(+) efflux in B. gymnorrhiza roots. CaCl(2) (10 mM) reduced the efflux of K(+) in salinized roots of the two mangroves, but its enhancement of Na(+) efflux was found only in B. gymnorrhiza. Under ST treatment, sodium nitroprusside

  14. Sickle Cell Trait

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  15. Traits in Java

    2007-01-01

    A trait is a programming language feature which contains a collection of methods that can be reused across class hierarchies. Traits is a relatively new language feature that is beginning to be a part of some of the newest object-oriented programming languages. Traits have been implemented in some languages but it has not become a part of the Java language yet. In this thesis we apply traits to the Java 5 language by designing and implementing a traits aware preprocessor....

  16. Predicting microbial traits with phylogenies.

    Goberna, Marta; Verdú, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Phylogeny reflects genetic and phenotypic traits in Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic conservatism of microbial traits has prompted the application of phylogeny-based algorithms to predict unknown trait values of extant taxa based on the traits of their evolutionary relatives to estimate, for instance, rRNA gene copy numbers, gene contents or tolerance to abiotic conditions. Unlike the 'macrobial' world, microbial ecologists face scenarios potentially compromising the accuracy of trait reconstruction methods, as, for example, extremely large phylogenies and limited information on the traits of interest. We review 990 bacterial and archaeal traits from the literature and support that phylogenetic trait conservatism is widespread through the tree of life, while revealing that it is generally weak for ecologically relevant phenotypic traits and high for genetically complex traits. We then perform a simulation exercise to assess the accuracy of phylogeny-based trait predictions in common scenarios faced by microbial ecologists. Our simulations show that ca. 60% of the variation in phylogeny-based trait predictions depends on the magnitude of the trait conservatism, the number of species in the tree, the proportion of species with unknown trait values and the mean distance in the tree to the nearest neighbour with a known trait value. Results are similar for both binary and continuous traits. We discuss these results under the light of the reviewed traits and provide recommendations for the use of phylogeny-based trait predictions for microbial ecologists. PMID:26371406

  17. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  18. Power and Autistic Traits

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  19. Regulatory Traits in Cultural Evolution

    Acerbi, Alberto; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Enquist, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    We call \\regulatory traits" those cultural traits that aretransmitted through cultural interactions and, at the same time, changeindividual behaviors directly inuencing the outcome of future culturalinteractions. The cultural dynamics of some of those traits are studiedthrough simple simulations. In particular, we consider the cultural evolu-tion of traits determining the propensity to copy, the number of potentialdemonstrators from whom one individual may copy, and conformist ver-sus anti{co...

  20. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    Alexander B Siegling; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  1. Personality Traits and Administrators

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  2. Thalassaemia trait and pregnancy.

    White, J. M.; Richards, R; Byrne, M; T. Buchanan; White, Y S; Jelenski, G

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables, haematinic state, and placental function of more than 2000 pregnant women, heterozygous for either alpha- or beta-thalassaemia genes, were examined during pregnancy. Four features emerged. Firstly, it was possible by discriminant function analysis of haematological variables to distinguish in pregnant patients between the anaemia caused by thalassaemia trait and that caused by iron deficiency. Secondly, patients with thalassaemia become significantly more anaemic...

  3. Multiple Trait Analysis of Genetic Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci

    Jiang, C.; Zeng, Z B

    1995-01-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis ...

  4. Personality Traits and Social Inequality

    Guijarro Usobiaga, Jan

    2015-01-01

    During many decades, sociologists have downplayed the role that personality traits play in shaping individual’s lives. However, recent studies, mostly in economics, have shown the influence of these traits on a several educational and occupational outcomes. This thesis is an attempt to shed more light on this topic. By using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, it first investigates how the Big Five personality traits affect two important labor market outcomes: unemployment...

  5. Unemployment duration and personality traits

    Uysal, Selver; Pohlmeier, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role personality traits play in determining individual unemployment duration. We argue that a worker's job search intensity is decisively driven by her personality traits, reflected in her propensity to motivate and control herself while searching for a job. Moreover, personality traits, in as far as they can be signaled to a potential employer, may also enhance the probability of receiving and accepting a job offer. For our econometric duration analysis, we use the ...

  6. Social Status and Personality Traits

    Alessandro Bucciol; Barbara Cavasso; Luca Zarri

    2014-01-01

    In this study we provide direct evidence on the relationship between social status and personality traits. Using survey data from the 2006-2012 waves of the HRS, we show that individuals’ self-perceived social status is associated with all the “Big Five” personality traits, after controlling for observable characteristics that arguably reflect one’s actual status. We also construct an objective status measure that in turn is influenced by personality traits. Objectively measured status is pos...

  7. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits with Molecular Marker

    XU Chen-wu; LI Tao; SUN Chang-sen; GU Shi-liang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the genetic models for triploid endosperm traits and on the methods for mapping diploid quantitative traits loci (QTLs), the genetic constitutions, components of means and genetic variances of QTL controlling endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes of different generations were presented. From these results, a multiple linear regression method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits in cereals was proposed, which used the means of endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes as a dependent variable, the coefficient of additive effect ( d ) and dominance effect ( h 1 and/or h2 ) of a putative QTL in a given interval as independent variables. This method can work at any position in a genome covered by markers and increase the estimation precision of QTL location and their effects by eliminating the interference of other relative QTLs. This method can also be easily used in other uneven data such as markers and quantitative traits detected or measured in plants and tissues different either in generations or at chromosomal ploidy levels, and in endosperm traits controlled by complicated genetic models considering the effects produced by genotypes of both maternal plants and seeds on them.

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S;

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  9. Pregnancy outcomes amongst thalassemia traits

    Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut; Kor-anantakul, Ounjai; Leetanaporn, Roengsak; Suntharasaj, Thitima; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Pruksanusak, Ninlapa; Pranpanus, Savitree

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the pregnancy outcome between pregnancies affected and not affected by thalassemia trait. Methods A retrospective case–control cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnant women who attended antenatal care and delivered at Songklanagarind Hospital. All of the participating thalassemia trait pregnant women were diagnosed based on hemoglobin typing and/or DNA analysis. A ratio of around 1–1 was used to compare their pregnancy outcomes with normal pregnant women. Results...

  10. Personality Trait Change in Adulthood

    Roberts, Brent W.; Mroczek, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Recent longitudinal and cross-sectional aging research has shown that personality traits continue to change in adulthood. In this article, we review the evidence for mean-level change in personality traits, as well as for individual differences in change across the life span. In terms of mean-level change, people show increased selfconfidence, warmth, self-control, and emotional stability with age. These changes predominate in young adulthood (age 20–40). Moreover, mean-level change in person...

  11. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

  12. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  13. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  14. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  15. BIOLOGIAL TRAITS IN WALNUT BREEDING

    Balapanov I. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a review of biological traits that could be useful for selection of the walnut in diverse conditions of its growth. The most important aspects of species biology are described as they are of primary importance for breeding programs in the countries with walnut crops

  16. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  17. Fear Inhibition in High Trait Anxiety

    Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear [1]. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...

  18. Stability of personality traits in adulthood

    Allemand, Mathias; Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Patrick L. Hill

    2013-01-01

    Stability represents a fundamental concept in developmental theory and research. In this article we give an overview of recent work on personality traits and their stability in adulthood. First, we define personality traits and stability. Second, we present empirical evidence supporting change and stability of personality traits across the adult years with respect to conceptually and statistically different forms of stability. Third, we describe mechanisms and processes that enable trait stab...

  19. Traits Programming with AspectJ

    Denier, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Traits as defined by Schärli, Ducasse et al. allow for the explicit handling of a mean- ingful set of methods. This article presents an attempt to map the trait model from Smalltalk to the Java language. We use AspectJ introduction mechanism to do this. Thus we enlighten purposes of locality and reusability shared by traits and structural AOP.

  20. Which trait dissimilarity for functional diversity: trait means or trait overlap?

    de Bello, Francesco; Carmona, C. P.; Mason, N. W. H.; Sebastia, M.-T.; Lepš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 807-819. ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biodiversity * Environmental filtering * Functional traits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.372, year: 2013

  1. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble soli...

  2. FRIENDSHIP FUNCTIONS AND PERSONALITY TRAITS

    Ivana Pedovic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was exploration of the factor structure of the MFQ-FF inventory on a sample from Serbian population, and the relations of measures from this inventory (friendship functions with personality traits, as operationalized by the seven factor model proposed by Tellegen and Waller. For this purpose 154 University of Nis students completed the Serbian version of the MFQ-FF inventory and Lexi-70. The results show that factor structures of certain MFQ-FF scales devia-te somewhat from theoretical expectations. Confirmatory factor analysis produced relatively poor levels of fit, while exploratory factor analysis showed that loadings of five items differ substantially from theoretical expectations. As for correlations with personality traits, evaluative dimensions and negative emotionality were found to correlate with the MFQ-FF general factor, and correlations of specific functions with Openness to experience, Positive emotionality and Consciousness were also found. All obtained correlations were low.

  3. Group-level traits emerge.

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    Most commentators supported the thesis of the target article, though there were also those who were less fully persuaded. I will begin with a response to the most critical commentaries. First, I will justify an evolutionary perspective that includes group organization and nongenetic inheritance. Next, I will discuss the concept of emergence. Following that, I will transition to an exploration of ideas and concerns brought up by some of the more supportive commentators. This will include a discussion of different types of groups; the psychology of group-level traits; the uses and limitations of an institutional perspective; the link between transmission, adaptation, and selection; current and future methodologies; and the variety of fields that may benefit from a group-level traits perspective. PMID:25101360

  4. The stability of psychopathic traits in adolescent offenders

    Lee, Zina

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a constellation of interpersonal, affective, and behavioural traits. The growing literature on adolescent psychopathic traits suggests psychopathic traits can be assessed reliably and the traits demonstrate construct validity. Psychopathic traits in adolescents are associated with a variety of negative outcomes, including violence and criminality. However, there is considerable debate about the assessment of psychopathic traits in adolesc...

  5. Bacteriocin Production: a Probiotic Trait?

    Dobson, Alleson; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins are an abundant and diverse group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and archaea. Traditionally, bacteriocin production has been considered an important trait in the selection of probiotic strains, but until recently, few studies have definitively demonstrated the impact of bacteriocin production on the ability of a strain to compete within complex microbial communities and/or positively influence the health of the host. Although research in th...

  6. Expression of p53, Ki-67 and c-erb B2 in growth hormone-and/or prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas Expressão de p53, Ki-67 e c-erb B2 em adenomas hipofisários secretores de prolactina e/ou hormônio de crescimento

    Carlos Henrique A. Botelho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcellular events implicated on the formation and behavior of pituitary adenomas are not fully understood. In this study we investigated the presence of p53, Ki-67 and c-erb B2 in 38 pituitary adenomas with immunohistochemical positivity for GH and prolactin (n=26; 68.4%, for prolactin (n=9; 23.7% and for GH (n=3. 7.8%. The analyses revealed the following results: 24 (63.2% tumors expressed variable positivity for c-erb B2, 11 (28.9% expressed p53 positivity and 11 (28.9% tumors were variably positive for Ki-67. Our results demonstrated a high percentage of GH/prolactin-, prolactin- and GH-secreting tumors with immunohistochemical positivity for c-erb B2. Once this membrane receptor is related to growth factors EGF and TGFalpha and both have a definite effect on tumor growth, our data suggest a possible role for c-erb B2 on the evolution of these tumors.Os eventos subcelulares implicados na formação e comportamento dos adenomas hipofisários não são completamente compreendidos. Neste estudo nós investigamos a presença de p53, Ki-67 e c-erb B2 em 38 adenomas hipofisários com positividade imuno-histoquímica para GH e prolactina (n=26, 68,4%, para prolactina (n=9, 23,7% e para GH (n=3, 7,8%. A análise revelou os seguintes resultados: 24 tumores (63,2% expressaram positividade variável para c-erb B2, 11 (28,9% expressaram positividade para p53 e 11 tumores (28,9% foram variavelmente positivos para Ki-67. Nossos resultados demonstraram elevada percentagem de tumores secretores de GH/prolactina, prolactina e GH com positividade imuno-histoquímica para c-erb B2. Desde que este receptor de membrana está relacionado aos fatores de crescimento EGF e TGFalfa e ambos têm efeito definido no crescimento tumoral, nossos dados sugerem possível função para o c-erb B2 na evolução destes tumores.

  7. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology. PMID:23910482

  8. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato.

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble solids (degrees Brix; °Bx) in tomato fruit. The purpose of the present work was to pyramid into cultivated varieties the selected QTL for enhanced antioxidant and °Bx content. To better understand the genetic architecture of each QTL, the two ILs were crossed to the recurrent parent M82 (ILH7-3 and ILH12-4) and between them (ILH7-3+12-4). F1 hybrids (ILH7-3+12-4) were then selfed up to obtain F3 progenies in order to stabilize the favourable traits at the homozygous condition. Species-specific molecular markers were identified for each introgressed region and allowed us to select four F2 genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition. The F3 double homozygous plants displayed AsA, total phenols and °Bx content significantly higher than M82. Therefore, they may represent suitable genetic material for breeding schemes aiming to increase antioxidant content in tomato fruit. PMID:23316114

  9. Multi-trait mimicry and the relative salience of individual traits.

    Kazemi, Baharan; Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Leimar, Olof

    2015-11-01

    Mimicry occurs when one species gains protection from predators by resembling an unprofitable model species. The degree of mimic-model similarity is variable in nature and is closely related to the number of traits that the mimic shares with its model. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that the relative salience of traits, as perceived by a predator, is an important determinant of the degree of mimic-model similarity required for successful mimicry. We manipulated the relative salience of the traits of a two-trait artificial model prey, and subsequently tested the survival of mimics of the different traits. The unrewarded model prey had two colour traits, black and blue, and the rewarded prey had two combinations of green, brown and grey shades. Blue tits were used as predators. We found that the birds perceived the black and blue traits to be similarly salient in one treatment, and mimic-model similarity in both traits was then required for high mimic success. In a second treatment, the blue trait was the most salient trait, and mimic-model similarity in this trait alone achieved high success. Our results thus support the idea that similar salience of model traits can explain the occurrence of multi-trait mimicry. PMID:26511051

  10. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... zooplankton in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function...... and type. Some traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for...

  11. Biological traits of European pond macroinvertebrates

    Céréghino, Régis; Oertli, Beat; Marcello BAZZANTI; Coccia, Cristina; Compin, Arthur; Biggs, Jeremy; Bressi, Nicolas; Grillas, Patrick; Hull, Andrew P.; Kalettka, Thomas; Scher, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Whilst biological traits of river macroinvertebrates show unimodal responses to geographic changes in habitat conditions in Europe, we still do not know whether spatial turnover of species result in distinct combinations of biological traits for pond macroinvertebrates. Here, we used data on the occurrence of 204 macroinvertebrate taxa in 120 ponds from four biogeographic regions of Europe, to compare their biological traits. The Mediterranean, Atlantic, Alpine, and Continental regions have s...

  12. Phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits in microorganisms

    Martiny, Adam C.; Treseder, Kathleen; Pusch, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A central question in biology is how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning. Underlying this is the relationship between organismal phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. The relationship is complicated by gene loss and convergent evolution, resulting in the polyphyletic distribution of many traits. In microorganisms, lateral gene transfer can further distort the linkage between phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. To identify the phylogenetic co...

  13. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    Costello, M.J.; Claus, S.; Dekeyzer, S; Vandepitte, L.; Ó Tuama, É.; Lear, D.; Tyler-Walters, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of...

  14. Understanding rice adaptation to varying agro-ecosystems: trait interactions and quantitative trait loci

    Dixit, Shalabh; Grondin, Alexandre; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Henry, Amelia; Olds, Thomas-Mitchell; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Background Interaction and genetic control for traits influencing the adaptation of the rice crop to varying environments was studied in a mapping population derived from parents (Moroberekan and Swarna) contrasting for drought tolerance, yield potential, lodging resistance, and adaptation to dry direct seeding. A BC2F3-derived mapping population for traits related to these four trait groups was phenotyped to understand the interactions among traits and to map and align QTLs using composite i...

  15. Beware the angry leader: Trait anger and trait anxiety as predictors of petty tyranny

    Kant, Leo; SKOGSTAD, Anders; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Einarsen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the general aggression model and theories of victimization and temperamental goodness-of-fit, we investigated trait anger and trait anxiety as antecedents of petty tyranny: employing a multilevel design with data from 84 sea captains and 177 crew members. Leader trait anger predicted subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Subordinate trait anxiety was associated with subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Theassociation between leader traitanger and subordinate-reported pe...

  16. Quantitative trait loci analysis of osteocondrosis traits in the elbow joint of pigs

    Christensen, O F; Busch, M E; Gregersen, V R;

    2010-01-01

    Osteochondrosis is a growth disorder in the cartilage of young animals and is characterised by lesions found in the cartilage and bone. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with six osteochondrosis lesion traits in the elbow joint of finishing pigs. The traits were...

  17. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    S.T.G. Gunput; A.J.M. Ligtenberg; B. Terlouw; M. Brouwer; E.C.I. Veerman; D. Wouters

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi,

  18. Personal traits as predictor of job satisfaction

    Petrushikhina Elena Borisovna

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to problem of association between job satisfaction and personal traits. The Five-Factor model is well-founded for predicting job satisfaction. Correlation analysis indicates high influence of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness on job satisfaction. NEO-PI-R is recommended for measuring of personal traits in human resource management.

  19. Personality traits and energy conservation

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  20. PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN ZAGORJE TURKEY

    Z. Janječić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  1. Predictors of leadership: The usual suspects and the suspect traits

    Antonakis J.; Bryman A. (ed.); Collinson D. (ed.); Grint K. (ed.); Jackson B. (ed.); Uhl-Bien M. (ed.)

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, I review literature on traits (i.e., individual differences) and their links to leader outcomes. I present an integrated model, the ascription-actuality trait theory, to explain two routes to leader outcomes that stem from traits: the route that objectively matters and the route that appears to matter but objectively may not. I discuss the history of trait research and provide criteria by which we should judge the validity of trait models. Finally, I review trait models that ...

  2. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners. PMID:27153207

  3. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites. PMID:15835251

  4. Heteroscedastic Latent Trait Models for Dichotomous Data.

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the levels of an observed moderator variable. In the case that heteroscedasticity arises across the latent trait itself, existing models commonly distinguish between heteroscedastic residuals and a skewed trait distribution. These models have valuable applications in intelligence, personality and psychopathology research. However, existing approaches are only limited to continuous and polytomous data, while dichotomous data are common in intelligence and psychopathology research. Therefore, in present paper, a heteroscedastic latent trait model is presented for dichotomous data. The model is studied in a simulation study, and applied to data pertaining alcohol use and cognitive ability. PMID:25080866

  5. Trait emotional intelligence and inflammatory diseases.

    Costa, Sebastiano; Petrides, K V; Tillmann, Taavi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the psychological aspects of inflammatory disorders. Within this line of research, the present study compares the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) profiles of 827 individuals with various inflammatory conditions (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, and RA plus one comorbidity) against 496 healthy controls. Global trait EI scores did not show significant differences between these groups, although some differences were observed when comparisons were carried out against alternative control groups. Significant differences were found on the trait EI factors of Well-being (where the healthy group scored higher than the RA group) and Sociability (where the healthy group scored higher than both the RA group and the RA plus one comorbidity group). The discussion centers on the multifarious links and interplay between emotions and inflammatory conditions. PMID:23725416

  6. Flood adaptive traits and processes : An overview

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissue

  7. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  8. Trait-oriented programming in Java 8

    Bono, Viviana; Mensa, Enrico; Naddeo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Java 8 was released recently. Along with lambda expressions, a new language construct is introduced: default methods in interfaces. The intent of this feature is to allow interfaces to be extended over time preserving backward compatibility. In this paper, we show a possible, different use of interfaces with default methods: we introduce a trait-oriented programming style based on an interface-as- trait idea, with the aim of improving code modularity. Starting from the most common operators o...

  9. New methods for mapping quantitative trait loci

    Carlborg, Örjan

    2002-01-01

    This thesis presents and discusses the use of various genetic models, high performance computing, global optimization algorithms and statistical methods for mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The aim of the work has been to develop statistically powerful and computationally efficient methods to detect genomic loci affecting multifactorial traits, and use the methods use to analyse experimental data. Imprinting is an epigenetic phenomena which causes differential expression of alleles base...

  10. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...

  11. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Tessa eMarzi; Antonio eRegina; Stefania eRighi

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase,...

  12. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  13. Trait evolution in two-sex populations

    Zwoleński, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    We present an individual-based model of phenotypic trait evolution in two-sex populations, which includes semi-random mating of individuals of the opposite sex, natural death and intra-specific competition. By passing the number of individuals to infinity, we derive the macroscopic system of nonlinear differential equations describing the evolution of trait distributions in male and female subpopulations. We study solutions, give criteria for persistence or extinction, and state theorem on as...

  14. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    Steer, Colin D; Jean Golding; Bolton, Patrick F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC data...

  15. Multiple Quantitative Trait Analysis Using Bayesian Networks

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J.; Mackay, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data f...

  16. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    Steer, Colin D.; Golding, Jean; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. Methods and Principal Findings Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC databa...

  17. Is Adaptability of Personality a Trait?

    Cook, Clare Taube

    2016-01-01

    Due to the dominance of the trait approach, personality is widely reduced to a set of trait scores which represent ‘usual’ behaviour. However, individuals show substantial variation within their personality (e.g. Fleeson, 2001; 2004). Thus there is a need for research into the personality characteristics which underlie this variance so that personality can be more fully quantified. To this end, the current thesis investigated a previously unresearched personality characteristic: personalit...

  18. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreas...

  19. Trait and state authenticity across cultures

    Slabu, L; Lenton, A.; Sedikides, Constantine; Bruder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of culture in both trait and state authenticity, asking whether the search for and experience of the “true self” is a uniquely Western phenomenon or is relevant cross-culturally. We tested participants from the United States, China, India, and Singapore. U.S. participants reported higher average levels of trait authenticity than those from Eastern cultures (i.e., China, India, Singapore), but this effect was partially explained by cultural differences in self-construal an...

  20. Committed Salesforce: An Investigation into Personality Traits

    Hisham Hamid Hawass

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to uncover the pre-dispositional roots of organizational commitment. More specifically, thepurpose of the study is to investigate whether affective and continuance dimensions of organizationalcommitment are delibrately influenced by a defined set of personality traits. The study applies well-establishedmeasurements of organizational commitment and personality traits on a sample of sales representatives in sixmajor Egyptian pharmaceuticals. The findings reveal that organization...

  1. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-01-01

    In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurtur...

  2. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Sharma, Asankhaya

    2014-01-01

    Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mi...

  3. Genetics of complex traits in psychiatry

    Gelernter, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all psychiatric traits are genetically complex. This article discusses the genetics of complex traits in psychiatry. The complexity is accounted for by numerous factors, including multiple risk alleles, epistasis, and epigenetic effects, such as methylation. Risk alleles can individually be common or rare, and can include, for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNV) that are transmitted or are new mutations, and other kinds of variation. Many d...

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to quantitative trait loci for grain quality traits in wheat

    Chunlian Li; Guihua Bai; Shiaoman Chao; Brett Carver; Zhonghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define suitable growing areas and potential end-use products of a wheat cultivar. To dissect QTL for these traits including protein content (GPC);test weight (TW);single kernel characterization system (SKCS)-estimated kernel weight (SKW); kernel diameter (KD);kernel hardness measured by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) hardness index (NHI); and SKCS-hardness index (SHI), a high-density genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Ning7840 × Clark. The RILs were evaluated for these quality traits in seven Oklahoma environments from 2001 to 2003. A total of 41 QTL with additive effects on different traits were mapped on most wheat chromosomes, excluding 1A, 2A, 3D, 4D, 6D, and 7B. Seven chromosome regions showed either tightly linked QTL or QTL with pleiotropic effects on two to four traits. Ten pairs of QTL showed additive × additive effects (AA), four QTL were involved in additive × environment (AE) effects, and one was involved in AAE effects. Two to eleven QTL for each of the six traits and 139 tightly linked markers to these QTL were identified. The findings shed light on the inheritance of wheat grain quality traits and provide DNA markers for manipulating these important traits to improve quality of new wheat cultivars.

  5. Transdiagnostic cognitive processes in high trait anger.

    Owen, John M

    2011-03-01

    Trait anger is a personality construct that refers to stable individual differences in the propensity to experience anger as an emotional state. The objective of this paper is to review relevant empirical studies in order to determine whether the transdiagnostic cognitive processes that have been identified across the DSM-IV Axis I disorders (specifically, selective attention, memory biases, reasoning biases and recurrent negative thinking) are also an underlying characteristic of high trait anger. On the basis of the review it is concluded that, whilst the research base is limited, there is good evidence that high trait anger is associated with selective attention to hostile social cues, the tendency to interpret the behaviour of others as indicating potential hostility and the tendency to ruminate over past anger-provoking experiences. The range of cognitive processes identified in high trait anger is consistent with those identified in the Axis I disorders. It is concluded that these findings provide support for (i) the broad applicability of the transdiagnostic approach as a theoretical framework for understanding a range of psychological conditions, not limited to the Axis I disorders, and (ii) the validity of conceptualising high trait anger as an aspect of personality functioning that is maintained, at least in part, by cognitive processes. Cognitive and motivational factors (specifically, beliefs and goals) that may underlie the hostile information-processing biases and recurrent negative thinking associated with high trait anger are discussed, and consideration is given to the clinical relevance of the findings of the review. PMID:21094569

  6. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  7. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Benjamin Hornoy

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  8. The trait emotional intelligence of ballet dancers and musicians

    Petrides, K. V.; Niven, L; Mouskounti, T.

    2006-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence ('trait EI' or 'trait emotional self-efficacy') is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of normal adult personality. The two studies in this paper investigate the construct validity of trait EI, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). In Study 1 (34 ballet students; 5 ballet teachers), we found moderate to high levels of convergence between self and other rating...

  9. Economic values for performance and functional traits in dairy sheep

    Roswitha Baumung; Birgit Fuerst-Waltl

    2010-01-01

    In order to establish a total merit index, the relative economic values of the traits considered must be known. Hence, the objective of this study was to derive economic values, defined by the value of one unit of superiority of a trait, for essential traits in dairy sheep based on a herd model. These traits included dairy (milk carrier = water, lactose and mineral nutrients, fat and protein yield), fattening (daily gain, dressing percentage, and EUROP grading score) and functional traits (st...

  10. The relationship between functional traits and invasiveness of alien plants

    Jian Liu; Junmin Li; Hua Yu; Weiming He; Feihai Yu; Weiguo Sang; Guofang Liu; Ming Dong

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the functional traits and ecological mechanisms associated with successful invasions of alien plants is a key role of the field of invasion ecology. Through literature review and analysis of plant functional traits contributing to successful plant invasions and the demands for functional traits at different invasion stages, we discuss the relationships between the functional traits and invasiveness of alien plants as well as related ecological mechanisms. Functional traits that ...

  11. Sample size for morphological traits of pigeonpea

    Giovani Facco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size (i.e., number of plants required to accurately estimate the average of morphological traits of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. and to check for variability in sample size between evaluation periods and seasons. Two uniformity trials (i.e., experiments without treatment were conducted for two growing seasons. In the first season (2011/2012, the seeds were sown by broadcast seeding, and in the second season (2012/2013, the seeds were sown in rows spaced 0.50 m apart. The ground area in each experiment was 1,848 m2, and 360 plants were marked in the central area, in a 2 m × 2 m grid. Three morphological traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter were evaluated 13 times during the first season and 22 times in the second season. Measurements for all three morphological traits were normally distributed and confirmed through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Randomness was confirmed using the Run Test, and the descriptive statistics were calculated. For each trait, the sample size (n was calculated for the semiamplitudes of the confidence interval (i.e., estimation error equal to 2, 4, 6, ..., 20% of the estimated mean with a confidence coefficient (1-? of 95%. Subsequently, n was fixed at 360 plants, and the estimation error of the estimated percentage of the average for each trait was calculated. Variability of the sample size for the pigeonpea culture was observed between the morphological traits evaluated, among the evaluation periods and between seasons. Therefore, to assess with an accuracy of 6% of the estimated average, at least 136 plants must be evaluated throughout the pigeonpea crop cycle to determine the sample size for the traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter in the different evaluation periods and between seasons. 

  12. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  13. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  14. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  15. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  16. Quantitative trait analysis in sequencing studies under trait-dependent sampling.

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Zeng, Donglin; Tang, Zheng-Zheng

    2013-07-23

    It is not economically feasible to sequence all study subjects in a large cohort. A cost-effective strategy is to sequence only the subjects with the extreme values of a quantitative trait. In the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project, subjects with the highest or lowest values of body mass index, LDL, or blood pressure were selected for whole-exome sequencing. Failure to account for such trait-dependent sampling can cause severe inflation of type I error and substantial loss of power in quantitative trait analysis, especially when combining results from multiple studies with different selection criteria. We present valid and efficient statistical methods for association analysis of sequencing data under trait-dependent sampling. We pay special attention to gene-based analysis of rare variants. Our methods can be used to perform quantitative trait analysis not only for the trait that is used to select subjects for sequencing but for any other traits that are measured. For a particular trait of interest, our approach properly combines the association results from all studies with measurements of that trait. This meta-analysis is substantially more powerful than the analysis of any single study. By contrast, meta-analysis of standard linear regression results (ignoring trait-dependent sampling) can be less powerful than the analysis of a single study. The advantages of the proposed methods are demonstrated through simulation studies and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project data. The methods are applicable to other types of genetic association studies and nongenetic studies. PMID:23847208

  17. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational

  18. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes.

    Stepien, Courtney C; Pfister, Catherine A; Wootton, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  19. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken.

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were ...

  1. Rethinking Trait Conceptions of Social Desirability Scales

    de Vries, Reinout E.; Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    found for both IM (r = .45) and Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE; r = .34), supporting a trait conception of IM and SDE. In both self- and other ratings, the most important predictors of SDE were (low) Emotionality, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. IM was associated with Conscientiousness...

  2. Trait diversity promotes stability of community dynamics

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Knudsen, Kim; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical exploration of how diversity influences stability has traditionally been approached by species-centric methods. Here we offer an alternative approach to the diversity–stability problem by examining the stability and dynamics of size and trait distributions of individuals. The anal...

  3. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  4. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  5. Heteroscedastic latent trait models for dichotomous data

    D. Molenaar

    2014-01-01

    Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the l

  6. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  7. Reproductive traits in Ethiopian male goats

    Mekasha Gebre, Yoseph

    2007-01-01

    This thesis characterizes reproductive traits of Ethiopian male goats raised under extensive husbandry and subjected to differential nutritional management. A total of 177 extensively-managed indigenous bucks of 5 breeds (i.e., Arsi–Bale [AB], Central Highlands [CH], Afar, Boran and Woito-Guji [WG]) were selected following stratified random sampling.The bucks were compared according to three age classes (

  8. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    Borghans, L.; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  9. The economics and psychology of personality traits

    Borghans, L.; Angela Lee Duckworth; Heckman, James J.; Bas Ter Weel

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  10. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters

    Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of --globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features -thalassaemia trait (BTT), and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and -thalassaemia trait. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analyzed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HBA2 levels. Results: Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH <26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was <12 in 75% of cases and <15 in 197 (97%). Conclusion: Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a beta- thalassaemia trait. (author)

  11. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  12. Consensual validation of personality traits across cultures

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Urbánek, Tomáš; McCrae, R. ,R.; Costa, P. T.; Martin, T. A.; Oryol, V. E.; Rukavishnikov, A. A.; Senin, I. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2004), s. 179-201. ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : Cross-cultural * Personality traits * Self/other agreement Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.325, year: 2004

  13. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad (VCU)

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but ...

  14. Advances in Phenotyping of Functional Traits

    In plants, functional traits are morphological, biochemical, physiological, structural, phenological, or behavioral characteristics that are expressed in phenotypes of individual plants,that are relevant to the plant’s role in the ecosystem or its agronomic performance. By themselves, functional tra...

  15. #614411 GLYCEROL QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS; GLYCQTL [OMIM

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 614411 FIELD TI #614411 GLYCEROL QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS; GLYCQTL ;;GLYCEROL RELEASE D ... 07) screened 178 Spanish individuals, including 37 lean ... and 90 obese (see 606641) nondiabetics and 14 lean ... significant difference in its distribution between lean ... and obese individuals or between diabetics and non ...

  16. The trait-coverage of emotional intelligence

    De Raad, B

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is explored to what extent emotional intelligence can be expressed in terms of a standard trait model. Two studies were performed. In Study 1 a total of 437 items from several emotional intelligence questionnaires were used. The items were classified into the categories comprised by

  17. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  18. Plant traits as indicators: loss or gain of information?

    de Bello, Francesco; Mudrák, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2013), s. 353-354. ISSN 1402-2001 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant traits * taxonomic indicators * plant traits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  19. Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...... placed in the placenta, and abortions. In addition, retained placenta was selected for analysis because it is related to uterine infections. A genome scan was performed using 416 microsatellite markers for the fertility treatment subtraits and retained placenta, and an additional genome scan for milk...... production traits conditional on the QTL regions for the subtraits and retained placenta was conducted. Second, we selected 24 genomic regions harboring QTL for fertility traits from a previous study. A QTL scan for milk production traits conditional on the selected regions was conducted. We found that 16...

  20. Traits contributing to the autistic spectrum.

    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7 were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001. Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y, the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m, repetitive behaviour (69 m and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m. Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R(2 =  0.48. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are

  1. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Peter K Hatemi

    Full Text Available The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  2. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Chengsong Zhu; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Zhigang Guo

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits of biological interest and economic importance are seldom addressed. In this study, an attempt was made to map binary trait loci (BTL) in the F2:3 design. The fundamental idea was: the F2 plants were genotyped, all phenotypic values of each F2:3 progeny were measured for binary trait, and these binary trait values and the marker genotype informations were used to detect BTL under the penetrance and liability models. The proposed method was verified by a series of Monte–Carlo simulation experiments. These results showed that maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and liability models provide accurate estimates for the effects and the locations of BTL with high statistical power, even under of low heritability. Moreover, the penetrance model is as efficient as the liability model, and the F2:3 design is more efficient than classical F2 design, even though only a single progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. With the maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and the liability models developed in this study, we can map binary traits as we can do for quantitative trait in the F2:3 design.

  3. Quantitative trait loci for agronomic traits in an elite barley population for Mediterranean conditions

    Mansour, Elsayed; Casas Cendoya, Ana María; Gracia Gimeno, María Pilar; Molina-Cano, José Luis; Moralejo, Marian; Cattivelli, Luigi; William T.B. Thomas; Igartua Arregui, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Advances in plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS) are only possible when genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can contribute to the improvement of elite germplasm. A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed for one of the best crosses of the Spanish National Barley Breeding Program, between two six-row winter barley cultivars Orria and Plaisant. The objective of this study was to identify favourable QTLs for agronomic traits in this population, which may...

  4. Joint Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Multiple Binary Characters

    Xu, Chenwu; Li, Zhikang; Xu, Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    Joint mapping for multiple quantitative traits has shed new light on genetic mapping by pinpointing pleiotropic effects and close linkage. Joint mapping also can improve statistical power of QTL detection. However, such a joint mapping procedure has not been available for discrete traits. Most disease resistance traits are measured as one or more discrete characters. These discrete characters are often correlated. Joint mapping for multiple binary disease traits may provide an opportunity to ...

  5. Genetic dissection of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Holmberg, Mia

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to improve the knowledge about the genetic background of health and reproduction traits in dairy cattle. This was accomplished by performing gene mapping studies of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting these traits and also by exploring the genetic variability for pathogen-specific mastitis. Ten sire families were used in a granddaughter design to map QTL. Several QTL were detected for most of the traits studied. Inclusion of cofactors in the analyses to adjust...

  6. A Bayesian Nonparametric Approach for Mapping Dynamic Quantitative Traits

    Li, Zitong; Sillanpää, Mikko J.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, many quantitative traits are dynamic in nature. They can often be described by some smooth functions or curves. A joint analysis of all the repeated measurements of the dynamic traits by functional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping methods has the benefits to (1) understand the genetic control of the whole dynamic process of the quantitative traits and (2) improve the statistical power to detect QTL. One crucial issue in functional QTL mapping is how to correctly describe the ...

  7. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Comas, Louise H.; Becker, Steven R.; Cruz, Von Mark V.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in...

  8. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits. PMID:10375215

  9. Genetic complexity and quantitative trait loci mapping of yeast morphological traits.

    Satoru Nogami

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional genomics relies on two essential parameters: the sensitivity of phenotypic measures and the power to detect genomic perturbations that cause phenotypic variations. In model organisms, two types of perturbations are widely used. Artificial mutations can be introduced in virtually any gene and allow the systematic analysis of gene function via mutants fitness. Alternatively, natural genetic variations can be associated to particular phenotypes via genetic mapping. However, the access to genome manipulation and breeding provided by model organisms is sometimes counterbalanced by phenotyping limitations. Here we investigated the natural genetic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cellular morphology using a very sensitive high-throughput imaging platform. We quantified 501 morphological parameters in over 50,000 yeast cells from a cross between two wild-type divergent backgrounds. Extensive morphological differences were found between these backgrounds. The genetic architecture of the traits was complex, with evidence of both epistasis and transgressive segregation. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for 67 traits and discovered 364 correlations between traits segregation and inheritance of gene expression levels. We validated one QTL by the replacement of a single base in the genome. This study illustrates the natural diversity and complexity of cellular traits among natural yeast strains and provides an ideal framework for a genetical genomics dissection of multiple traits. Our results did not overlap with results previously obtained from systematic deletion strains, showing that both approaches are necessary for the functional exploration of genomes.

  10. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    Brunel Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance and production (wool and carcass traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.

  11. Urbanization causes shifts in species' trait state frequencies

    Knapp, S.; Kühn, I.; Wittig, R.; Ozinga, W.A.; Poschlod, P.; Klotz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most extreme forms of land transformation. It is supposed to change the frequencies of species trait states in species assemblages.We hypothesize that the flora of urban and rural areas differs in the frequency of trait states and ask which traits enable a plant to cope wi

  12. TRAIT PROCRASTINATION AND THE BIG-5 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

    SCHOUWENBURG, HC; LAY, CH

    1995-01-01

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in Dutc

  13. A trait-based approach to advance coral reef science

    Madin, Joshua S.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Connolly, Sean R.;

    2016-01-01

    hampered by a paucity of trait data for the many, often rare, species and by a reliance on nonquantitative approaches. Therefore, we propose filling data gaps by prioritizing traits that are easy to measure, estimating key traits for species with missing data, and identifying ‘supertraits’ that capture...

  14. Going underground: root traits as drivers of ecosystem processes

    Bardgett, R.D.; Mommer, L.; Vries, de F.T.

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly adopting trait-based approaches to understand how community change influences ecosystem processes. However, most of this research has focussed on aboveground plant traits, whereas it is becoming clear that root traits are important drivers of many ecosystem processes, suc

  15. Taxonomies of situations from a trait psychological perspective. A review

    Ten Berge, MA; De Raad, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article we review studies of situations and situation taxonomies from the perspective of trait psychology. Objections to trait psychology are discussed and several refutations are recapitulated The relation between traits and situations is analysed, as well as the affinity that both concepts

  16. Trophic niche-space imaging, using resource and consumer traits

    Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Rossberg, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The strength of trophic (feeding) links between two species depends on the traits of both the consumer and the resource. But which traits of consumer and resource have to be measured to predict link strengths, and how many? A novel theoretical framework for systematically determining trophic traits

  17. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Geneticists and breeders are poised to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, they need a better understanding of root functional traits and how these traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditio...

  18. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  19. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in

  20. Udder health and female fertility traits are favourable correlated and support each other in multi-trait evaluations

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Lassen, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    the selection index was quantified for a heifer, a cow and a proven bull. The difference between the accuracy obtained by multi-trait and single-trait evaluations was largest for the cow (0.012) and small for the heifer and the bull (0.006 and 0.004) because the phenotype of the cow for one trait...

  1. The key ingredients of personality traits: situations, behaviors, and explanations.

    Yang, Yu; Read, Stephen J; Denson, Thomas F; Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Pedersen, William C

    2014-01-01

    The trait and social cognitive perspectives are considered disparate approaches to understanding personality. We suggest an integrative view in which three elements derived from the social cognitive perspective (i.e., situations, behaviors, and explanations [SBEs]) form the basis of personality traits. Study 1 demonstrated strong associations between traits and SBEs across the Big Five dimensions. Studies 2 through 7 tested the discriminative validity, internal structure, and unique contributions of the individual components of SBEs. Studies 8 and 9 demonstrated that the strong associations between traits and SBEs generalize to different cultures. The present work suggests that SBEs may be a universal folk psychological mechanism underlying personality traits. PMID:24072753

  2. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (p<0.05). Conclusion There is an association between the Cusp of Carabelli and the shoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  3. Personality trait structure as a human universal.

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1997-05-01

    Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal. PMID:9145021

  4. Temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder.

    Krishnakumar, P; Sumesh, P; Mathews, Lulu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder in children. Thirty children with conversion disorder attending a child guidance clinic were compared with an age and sex matched control group of normal children for life stresses and temperament dimensions. The temperament measurement schedule (TMS) and the life event scale for Indian children (LESIC) were used for evaluating the temperament dimensions and life stresses respectively. Children with conversion disorder experienced significantly more stressful life events compared to the children in the control group. The stress factors included scholastic difficulties, examination failures, punishment by teacher, conflict with peers, parental disharmony and family problems and sibling rivalry. The characteristic temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder were low emotionality and low threshold of responsiveness. PMID:17079833

  5. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  6. Hypomanic personality trait in cocaine addiction.

    Lemere, F; Smith, J W

    1990-04-01

    An analysis of 292 private patients treated for cocaine addiction showed the following. Comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorders were found in 19% and preaddiction Axis I disorders in 9% of these patients. Psychopathology at the time of treatment appeared to be more the result of than the cause of the addiction. Of these patients 63% had become addicted pursuing euphoria. A definitive nonpathologic unipolar hypomanic subtype of cocaine addict was observed in 13% of these 292 patients. This was manifested more as a trait than a disorder. This subgroup had been reasonably well adjusted, fun-loving and action oriented extroverts before their addiction. The rush and lifestyle of cocaine fit the imperatives of their personality. In a significant subtype of cocaine addict, an underlying hypomanic personality trait is ego-syntonic with the abuse of cocaine. PMID:2346798

  7. Alexandre Skirda, La traite des Slaves

    Lavrov, Aleksandr; Berelowitch, André

    2011-01-01

    Il est difficile actuellement de vivre en France, de s’intéresser à l’histoire, à plus forte raison d’être historien, et d’ignorer complètement le débat sur l’esclavage. Pour les uns, la traite coloniale, et surtout la traite transatlantique, n’est plus seulement un objet entre autres de la recherche : elle est revendiquée comme repère d’identité et objet de mémoire par les descendants des déportés. Pour les autres, en majorité des historiens, le phénomène de l’esclavage colonial, organisé pa...

  8. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  9. Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María

    2016-03-30

    The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits. PMID:27030412

  10. Learning Social Relation Traits from Face Images

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Luo, Ping; Loy, Chen Change; Tang, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Social relation defines the association, e.g, warm, friendliness, and dominance, between two or more people. Motivated by psychological studies, we investigate if such fine-grained and high-level relation traits can be characterised and quantified from face images in the wild. To address this challenging problem we propose a deep model that learns a rich face representation to capture gender, expression, head pose, and age-related attributes, and then performs pairwise-face reasoning for rela...

  11. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci With Censored Observations

    Diao, Guoqing; Lin, D. Y.; Zou, Fei

    2004-01-01

    The existing statistical methods for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) assume that the phenotype follows a normal distribution and is fully observed. These assumptions may not be satisfied when the phenotype pertains to the survival time or failure time, which has a skewed distribution and is usually subject to censoring due to random loss of follow-up or limited duration of the experiment. In this article, we propose an interval-mapping approach for censored failure time phenotypes. We f...

  12. Personality traits of a music teacher

    Bogunović Blanka D.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of individual musical instrument teaching, pedagogical abilities of a music teacher and the atmosphere he creates, result from his personality traits and can be of crucial importance for the initial and further progress of his students. The paper seeks to: describe the personality of a music instrument teacher, determine the differences in comparison to a group of non-musicians, and determine the position of personal characteristics in the structure of general and professional ...

  13. Precision Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci

    Zeng, Z B

    1994-01-01

    Adequate separation of effects of possible multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on mapping QTLs is the key to increasing the precision of QTL mapping. A new method of QTL mapping is proposed and analyzed in this paper by combining interval mapping with multiple regression. The basis of the proposed method is an interval test in which the test statistic on a marker interval is made to be unaffected by QTLs located outside a defined interval. This is achieved by fitting other genetic ...

  14. Nurse manager personal traits and leadership characteristics.

    Hansen, H E; Woods, C Q; Boyle, D K; Bott, M J; Taunton, R L

    1995-01-01

    A portion of an Organizational Dynamics Paradigm provided the framework for examining urban hospital nurse managers' personality and staff nurses' perceptions of their leadership. Nurse managers' personality traits were comparable to American women in general. On motivation to manage they scored lower than business and health services managers and higher than female public school administrators. Staff nurses rated managers favorably on leadership style, power, and influence. Personality was linked modestly to motivation to manage and selected aspects of leadership. PMID:7630522

  15. Traits and types of health data repositories

    Wade, Ted D.

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data’s institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research meth...

  16. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexi...

  17. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    Amin, Najaf

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), who systematically studied heredity of human behaviour and mind, introducing major statistical concepts such as correlation and regression towards the mean. After a brie...

  18. Personality Traits, Self-Employment, and Professions

    Fritsch, Michael; Rusakova, Alina

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of broad personality traits' - the Big Five - on an individua's decision to become self-employed. In particular, we test an overall indicator of the entrepreneurial personality. Since we find that the level of self-employment varies considerably across professions, we also perform the analysis for different types of professions, namely, those classified as being in the 'creative class' as compared to the noncreative class. The analysis is based on micro data for indi...

  19. Influence of personality traits on gingival health

    Shanker, Rajesh Kashyap; Mohamed, Munaz; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

    2013-01-01

    Background: The maintenance of good oral hygiene is considered a salient issue in dental health promotion. Personality is the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. Various personality traits have been proposed to influence the oral health. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of personality characteristics using questionnaire on oral hygiene performance and gingival health. Materials and Methods: In total, 155 pati...

  20. Institutions And The Preservation Of Cultural Traits

    Prummer, Anja; Siedlarek, Jan-Peter

    2014-01-01

    We offer a novel explanation for why some immigrant groups and minorities have persistent, distinctive cultural traits – the presence of a rigid institution. Such an institution is necessary for communities to not fully assimilate to the mainstream society. We distinguish between different types of institutions, such as churches, foreign-language media or ethnic business associations and ask what level of cultural distinction these institutions prefer. Any type of institution can have incen...

  1. Trait anxiety among undergraduates according to the Implicit Association Test.

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia

    2012-08-01

    Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results. PMID:23045843

  2. Genetic association of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle.

    Tonussi, R L; Espigolan, R; Gordo, D G M; Magalhães, A F B; Venturini, G C; Baldi, F; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; Tonhati, H; de Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic associations of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle. Data from male and female animals were used for weaning weight (WW; N = 241,416), yearling weight (YW, N = 126,596), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY, N = 78,687), and yearling hip height (YHH, N = 90,720), respectively; 877 male animals were used for hot carcass weight (HCW) and 884 for longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BT), marbling score (MS), and shear force (SF). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using three-trait animal models that included WW. The model for WW included direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects as random effects; contemporary group as fixed effects; and age of dam at calving and age of animal as covariates (linear and quadratic effects). For the other traits, maternal effects and the effect of age of dam at calving were excluded from the model. Heritability ranged from 0.10 ± 0.12 (LMA) to 0.44 ± 0.007 (YW). Genetic correlations ranged from -0.40 ± 0.38 (WW x LMA) to 0.55 ± 0.10 (HCW x YW). Growth, carcass, and meat traits have sufficient genetic variability to be included as selection criteria in animal breeding programs. PMID:26782521

  3. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for growth traits on bovine chromosome 14

    Marcelo Miyata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in livestock allows the identification of genes that determine the genetic variation affecting traits of economic interest. We analyzed the birth weight and weight at 60 days QTL segregating on bovine chromosome BTA14 in a F2 resource population using genotypes produced from seven microsatellite markers. Phenotypes were derived from 346 F2 progeny produced from crossing Bos indicus Gyr x Holstein Bos taurus F1 parents. Interval analysis to detect QTL for birth weight revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 1 centimorgan (cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 1.210 ± 0.438 kg. Interval analysis for weight at 60 days revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 0 cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 2.122 ± 0.735 kg. The region to which the QTL were assigned is described in the literature as responsible for some growth traits, milk yield, milk composition, fat deposition and has also been related to reproductive traits such as daughter pregnancy rate and ovulation rate. The effects of the QTL described on other traits were not investigated.

  4. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Ashok Badigannavar; Gerald O. Myers

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47–25.16%, protein from 1.85–28.45% and fibre content from 15.88–37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content. With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of ST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes.

  5. MULTIPLE TRAIT ANALYSIS OF GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR MILK YIELD TRAITS IN SLOVENIAN CATTLE

    Betka Logar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate genotype by environment interaction (GxEI for yield traits in Holstein, Simmental and Brown breed cattle in Slovenia using multiple trait analysis. Data from Slovenian milk-recording scheme was used. The lactation records on cows having first to third calving in the period 1990-2004 and milk, protein and fat yield in 305 days were studied. The variables used to characterize the environment were herd-year averages of each trait. The multiple trait analysis was done using the highest and lowest quartiles of the environments. To study the GxEI, animal model methodology and the genetic correlation between the traits were used. GxEI was generally smaller for fat and milk yield than for protein yield. The lowest genetic correlations between high and low environments were estimated for protein yield, especially in Simmental (0.81 and in Brown (0.86 breed. In Holstein the correlation was higher, 0.94. The genetic correlations for fat yield were 0.95 for Brown and Simmental breed and 0.96 for Holstein. For milk yield the estimated genetic correlations were 0.88, 0.92 and 0.96 in Brown, Simmental and Holstein breed, respectively. Differences between variance components obtained in low and high quartile result in the rank of heritabilities from 0.04 to 0.12 in low and from 0.12 to 0.22 in high quartile.

  6. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. PMID:26985915

  7. FishTraits: A Database of Ecological and Life-history Traits of Freshwater Fishes of the United States

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs mapping for growth traits in the mouse: A review

    Medrano Juan F

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The attainment of a specific mature body size is one of the most fundamental differences among species of mammals. Moreover, body size seems to be the central factor underlying differences in traits such as growth rate, energy metabolism and body composition. An important proportion of this variability is of genetic origin. The goal of the genetic analysis of animal growth is to understand its "genetic architecture", that is the number and position of loci affecting the trait, the magnitude of their effects, allele frequencies and types of gene action. In this review, the different strategies developed to identify and characterize genes involved in the regulation of growth in the mouse are described, with emphasis on the methods developed to map loci contributing to the regulation of quantitative traits (QTLs.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  10. Ubiquitous polygenicity of human complex traits: genome-wide analysis of 49 traits in Koreans.

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30% ~ 50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7,170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326,262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05 proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array ([Formula: see text]. On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of h(G(2 is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8% of narrow sense heritability. The estimate of h(G(2 is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r(2 = 0.92. Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the "missing heritability" is captured by common SNPs.

  11. Physical Attractiveness And Sex As Determinants Of Trait Attributions.

    Gillen, B; Sherman, R C

    1980-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine (a) the implicational qualities of trait terms that describe stereotypic males and females, and (b) the influence of a target person's gender and physical attractiveness on the attributions of traits with specific qualities. On the basis of previous research and theory concerning sex-role and attractiveness stereotypes, it was predicted that the attribution of evaluative traits would be affected by the attractiveness of the target (the what-is-beautiful-is-good phenomenon) but not by sex. However, for traits with primarily sex-linked implicational properties, it was expected that the effect of attractiveness would be dependent upon the target's sex such that the attribution of "masculine" traits would vary only with the attractiveness of male targets and the attribution of "feminine" traits only with the attractiveness of female targets. In Study I a multidimensional scaling analysis revealed both evaluative and non-evaluative qualities underlying trait ratings of male and female stereotypes. In Study II the predicted results for evaluative traits were obtained. For "masculine" and "feminine" traits, however, the effects of attractiveness were not symmetrical for male and female targets as originally predicted. The results suggest that attractiveness of males, but not females, leads to a narrowing of the types of traits that are attributed to them. PMID:26810878

  12. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    P Narain

    2003-09-01

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of selection that not only combines phenotypic and molecular information on the trait under improvement but also combines similar information on one or more auxiliary traits. The accuracy of such a selection procedure has been theoretically studied for sufficiently large populations so that the effects of detected quantitative trait loci can be perfectly estimated. The theory is illustrated numerically by considering one auxiliary trait. It is shown that the use of an auxiliary trait improves the selection accuracy; and, hence, the relative efficiency of index selection compared to individual selection which is based on the same intensity of selection. This is particularly so for higher magnitudes of residual genetic correlation and environmental correlation having opposite signs, lower values of the proportion of genetic variation in the main trait associated with the markers, negligible proportion of genetic variation in the auxiliary trait associated with the markers, and lower values of the heritability of the main trait but higher values of the heritability of the auxiliary trait.

  13. Chronic Trauma Effects on Personality Traits in Police Officers.

    Leigh Wills, Jennifer; Schuldberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered. Mean trait scores declined on all CPI traits analyzed in the study. Trait change was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index; change in participants' scores unlikely to occur by chance ranged from 11% to 63% in the traits examined. All participants reported substantial TE exposure. PTS symptoms were correlated with steeper decline in 4 of 5 traits, with effect sizes ranging from r =  -.47 to r = -.67. Scores on measures of job-related TEs were negatively correlated with only one CPI trait (empathy) at T2 (r = -.31), and were unrelated to slope of trait change. Work environment stress was significantly related to gender, with female officers reporting higher levels of operational (r = .45) and organizational (r = .54) stress. PMID:26954662

  14. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  15. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  16. Palm Functional Traits: which traits matter and how do we measure them?

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Barfod, Anders S.;

    role of palms in tropical forest ecosystems. We review data availability for palms for four traits that are commonly used in functional plant ecology: specific leaf area (SLA), wood density, seed size, and maximum height. We suggest that palm functional ecology is impeded by some of the standard...... functional traits being difficult to measure (e.g. SLA) or interpret (e.g. wood density). We show that an SLA measure can be easily obtained from dried specimens, and discuss the problems and opportunities of this approach compared to whole-leaf SLA measurements. Measuring SLA from herbarium samples may...

  17. Juvenile hormone mediates developmental integration between exaggerated traits and supportive traits in the horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus.

    Okada, Yasukazu; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Sexually selected exaggerated traits are often coupled with modifications in other nontarget traits. In insects with weapons, enlargements of nontarget characters that functionally support the weapon often occur (i.e. supportive traits). The support of sexual traits requires developmental coordination among functionally related multiple traits-an explicit example of morphological integration. The genetic theory predicts that developmental integration among different body modules, for which development is regulated via different sets of genes, is likely to be coordinated by pleiotropic factors. However, the developmental backgrounds of morphological integrations are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the juvenile hormone (JH), as a pleiotropic factor, mediates the integration between exaggerated and supportive traits in an armed beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. During combat, males of this beetle use exaggerated mandibles to lift up their opponents with the supportive traits, that is, the head and prothoracic body parts. Application of methoprene, a JH analog (JHA), during the larval to prepupal period, induced the formation of large mandibles relative to the body sizes in males. Morphometric examination of nontarget traits elucidated an increase in the relative sizes of supportive traits, including the head and prothoracic body parts. In addition, reductions in the hind wing area and elytra length, which correspond to flight and reproductive abilities, were detected. Our findings are consistent with the genetic theory and support the idea that JH is a key pleiotropic factor that coordinates the developmental integration of exaggerated traits and supportive characters, as well as resource allocation trade-offs. PMID:22765207

  18. Borderline personality traits in hysterical neurosis.

    Ohshima, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the traits of the psychopathology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) compared with hysterical neurosis. A total of 48 subjects with BPD and 40 subjects with hysterical neurosis both defined by DSM-III-R were assessed by Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB). Statistical analysis was done by quantification of the second type, a multivariate data analysis. The total scores of DIB were BPD group, 6.13 +/- 1.52; hysterical neurosis group, 4.9 +/- 2.12 (t = 3.05, P = 0.0016). The correlation ratio (index of to what extent the two groups are discriminated) was 0.2442. Among the four parameters of: (i) affect, (ii) cognition, (iii) impulse-action pattern, (iv), and interpersonal relationships, the partial coefficient correlations of (iii) and (iv) were significantly high (0.342, 0.287, P aloneness (0.3797), demanding nature (0.3768), self-mutilation (0.3609), visual hallucination (0.3395). Those with low score of independent coefficients were counterdependency (0.0533), identity disturbance (0.1010), depression (0.1551), loneliness (0.1752), hypomanic episode (0.1936). Both of BPD and hysterical neurosis groups were not so fairly well discriminated. However, these results suggested that impulse-action pattern and disorder of interpersonal relationships were traits of borderline personality disorder. We could admit manipulation, intolerance of aloneness as its symptoms. In addition, counterdependency, identity disturbance were comparatively common to both. There were some borderline personality traits symptomatically in hysterical neurosis. PMID:11285092

  19. Giraffe browsing in response to plant traits

    Mahenya, Obeid; Ndjamba, Johannes Kambinda; Mathisen, Karen Marie; Skarpe, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Intake rates by large herbivores are governed by among other things plant traits. We used Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi Matschie) as study animals, testing whether they as very large browsers would follow the Jarman-Bell principle and maximize intake rate while tolerating low forage quality. We worked in Arusha National Park, Tanzania. We investigated how intake rate was determined by bite mass and bite rate, and show that bite mass and bite rate were determined by plant characteristics, governed by inherent plant traits, plant traits acquired from previous years' browsing, and season. We predicted that; (1) bite mass would be larger in trees without spines than with (2) bite mass would be larger in the wet season than in the dry, (3) bite rate would be higher in spinescent trees than in non-spinescent, (4) bite rate and/or bite mass would increase with previous years' browsing, (5) bite mass, bite rate or browsing time per tree would be highest for high trees with large, although still available canopies. Visual observations were used to collect data on tree attributes, number of bites taken and time of browsing. Sample size was 132 observed giraffe. We found that bite mass was larger in spineless than in spinescent trees and was larger in the wet season than in the dry. Bite rate, but not bite mass, increased with increasing browsing in previous years and was highest on two to three meter high trees and in spinescent trees. Intake rate followed bite mass more than bite rate and was higher in spineless than in spinescent trees, higher in the wet season than in the dry, and tended to increase with tree height. Giraffe did not prioritize the highest intake rate, but browsed much on Acacias giving a high quality diet but a low intake rate.

  20. Integrative Systems Biology: Elucidating Complex Traits

    Pers, Tune Hannes

    human traits and disease. e esis is structured as follows. Chapter  presents a few introductory remarks to integrative systems biology, and Chapter  gives a brief description of human genetic variation and GWA analysis. Chapters - present the main topics in the esis (integrative methodologies for...... body-mass index associated gene products coalesce onto distinct protein complexes, and show that these putative risk modules incriminate novel candidate obesitysusceptibility genes. e last overall line of research presented here, provides examples on how networks of human metabolism may serve as a...

  1. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Ajda Kermauner; Silvester Zgur

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed) were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A ...

  2. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures. PMID:26476814

  3. Neighborhood income and the expression of callous-unemotional traits.

    Markowitz, Anna Justine; Ryan, Rebecca M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-09-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, including an uncaring nature and reduced empathy, represent a strongly heritable pattern of socio-emotional responding linked with elevated risk for severe, persistent delinquent behavior. Although evidence suggests that CU traits vary continuously across the population, research linking CU traits and delinquency is often conducted with incarcerated or clinical samples, obscuring potential heterogeneity in this relationship across the full range of high-CU individuals. Using a nationally representative sample, this study examines the role of neighborhood income in moderating the association between CU traits and delinquency in terms of both level and type of offending. Findings corroborate the link between CU traits and delinquency and suggest that the link between high-CU traits and violent delinquency may be unique to youth living in low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25534926

  4. SIRE EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BROWN COW

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2005-01-01

    The present research aims to obtain more fundamental knowledge of genetic effect (sire effect) on carcass traits of Japanese Brown cow. This experiment was done at Kumamoto Prefecture Japan. The field data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits of 9468 head of Japanese Brown cow, which had born from January 3rd 1988 to December 25th 1993 and representing by 88 head of sires were collected. All data were included of pedigree status. Cows data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits wer...

  5. A fast algorithm for functional mapping of complex traits.

    Zhao, Wei; Wu, Rongling; Ma, Chang-Xing; Casella, George

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the underlying developmental mechanisms for the phenotypic formation of traits into a mapping framework, functional mapping has emerged as an important statistical approach for mapping complex traits. In this note, we explore the feasibility of using the simplex algorithm as an alternative to solve the mixture-based likelihood for functional mapping of complex traits. The results from the simplex algorithm are consistent with those from the traditional EM algorithm, but the sim...

  6. Genetic mapping of complex traits by minimizing integrated square errors

    Wu Song; Fu Guifang; Chen Yunmei; Wang Zhong; Wu Rongling

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic mapping has been used as a tool to study the genetic architecture of complex traits by localizing their underlying quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Statistical methods for genetic mapping rely on a key assumption, that is, traits obey a parametric distribution. However, in practice real data may not perfectly follow the specified distribution. Results Here, we derive a robust statistical approach for QTL mapping that accommodates a certain degree of misspecification...

  7. Identifying copepod functional groups from species functional traits

    Benedetti, Fabio; Gasparini, Stéphane; Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    We gathered information on the functional traits of the most representative copepod species in the Mediterranean Sea. Our database includes 191 species described by 7 traits encompassing diverse ecological functions: minimal and maximal body length, trophic group, feeding type, spawning strategy, diel vertical migration and vertical habitat. Cluster analysis in the functional trait space revealed that Mediterranean copepods can be separated into groups with distinct ecological roles.

  8. A thesaurus for soil invertebrate trait-based approaches

    Pey, Benjamin; Nahmani, Johanne; Auclerc, Apolline; Capowiez, Yvan; Caro, Gaël; Cluzeau, Daniel; Cortet, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dubs, Florence; Joimel, Sophie,; Guernion, Muriel; Briard, Charlène; Grumiaux, Fabien; Laporte, Baptiste; Pasquet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Soil invertebrates are known to be much involved in soil behaviour and therefore in the provision of ecosystem services. Functional trait-based approaches are methodologies which can be used to understand soil invertebrates' responses to their environment. They (i) improve the predictions and (ii) are less dependent on space and time. The way traits have been used recently has led to misunderstandings in the integration and interpretation of data. Trait semantics are especially concerned. The...

  9. State and trait measures in the affective disorders

    Svanborg, Pär

    1999-01-01

    Background: Personality 'traits' refer to stability, consistency and repeated occurrence of actions while psychiatric 'states' concern the varying part of human behaviour. States are often associated with matter and body, and with biological causes, and 'traits' and 'personality' with 'mind', and with psychological and social causes. In a semantic, conceptual meaning, the concepts of 'states' and 'traits', and 'body' and 'mind' are opposites, and mutually exclusive. Howe...

  10. Genetic Architecture of Leaf Ecophysiological Traits in Helianthus

    Brouillette, Larry C.; Rosenthal, David M.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Lexer, Christian; Malmberg, Russell L; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for several leaf chemistry traits in early-generation hybrids between Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris, the parental species of the ancient diploid hybrid sunflower species Helianthus anomalus, Helianthus deserticola, and Helianthus paradoxus. We grew individuals of a second-generation backcross (BC2) toward H. petiolaris under optimum conditions in a glasshouse experiment. Trait values were measured once for each individual. In additi...

  11. Phenotyping and beyond: modelling the relationships between traits

    Granier, Christine; Vile, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenotyping technology has become more advanced with the capacity to measure many morphological and physiological traits on a given individual. With increasing automation, getting access to various traits on a high number of genotypes over time raises the need to develop systems for data storage and analyses, all congregating into plant phenotyping pipelines. In this review, we highlight several studies that illustrate the latest advances in plant multi-trait phenotyping and discuss fut...

  12. Frontline employees’ personality traits: customer preferences and the homophily effect

    Streukens, Sandra; Tor W Andreassen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the agreement among researchers that the frontline employee (FLE) is crucial in creating value in retailing and other services, no empirical work exists that examines the customer’s preferences regarding FLE personality traits. Building on leading work in personality and services research, our empirical study aims to gain insight in customer preferences for FLE personality traits. In particular, we assess whether customer preferences for FLE personality traits vary as a function of th...

  13. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a presp...

  14. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience

    Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude tes...

  15. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Perso...

  16. Household finances and the 'Big Five' personality traits

    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationship between household finances and personality traits from an empirical perspective. Specifically, using individual level data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey, we analyse the influence of personality traits on financial decision-making at the individual level focusing on decisions regarding unsecured debt acquisition and financial assets. Personality traits are classified according to the ‘Big Five’ taxonomy: openness to experience, conscientiousness, ext...

  17. Functional evaluation of genetic variation in complex human traits

    Peters, Derek T.; Musunuru, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and, more recently, next-generation sequencing studies have accelerated the investigation of complex human traits by providing a wealth of association data linking genetic variants to diseases and other phenotypic traits. These data promise to transform our understanding of the molecular pathways underlying complex human traits, but only if functional evaluation of the novel genetic variants is undertaken. Here, we review recent examples in which such functiona...

  18. Predicting plants – modeling traits as a function of environment

    O. Franklin

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al...

  19. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”), such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased...

  20. Trophic niche-space imaging, using resource and consumer traits

    Leopold A. J. Nagelkerke; Rossberg, Axel G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The strength of trophic (feeding) links between two species depends on the traits of both the consumer and the resource. But which traits of consumer and resource have to be measured to predict link strengths, and how many? A novel theoretical framework for systematically determining trophic traits from empirical data was recently proposed. Here we demonstrate this approach for a group of 14 consumer fish species (Labeobarbus spp., Cyprinidae) and 11 aquatic resource categor...

  1. The Structure of Temperament and Personality Traits: A Developmental Perspective

    Rebecca L. Shiner; DeYoung, Colin G.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we articulate a developmental perspective on personality traits from early childhood through adulthood. In the first section, we address two topics that are fundamental in defining the most important traits at each point in the life span: the relationship between temperament and personality and the methods used to ascertain the structure of traits in the temperament and personality research traditions. We argue in this section that temperament and personality are different wa...

  2. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated tra...

  3. Genetic Analysis of Craniofacial Traits in the Medaka

    Kimura, Tetsuaki; Shimada, Atsuko; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Tamiya, Gen; Shinya, Minori

    2007-01-01

    Family and twin studies suggest that a substantial genetic component underlies individual differences in craniofacial morphology. In the current study, we quantified 444 craniofacial traits in 100 individuals from two inbred medaka (Oryzias latipes) strains, HNI and Hd-rR. Relative distances between defined landmarks were measured in digital images of the medaka head region. A total of 379 traits differed significantly between the two strains, indicating that many craniofacial traits are cont...

  4. Do girls with anorexia nervosa have elevated autistic traits?

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Jaffa, Tony; Davies, Sarah; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia may have elevated autistic traits. In this study, we tested test whether patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) have an elevated score on a dimensional measure of autistic traits, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), as well as on trait measures relevant to the autism spectrum: the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Methods Two groups were tested: (1) female adolescents with anorexia: n = 66, aged 12 to 18 years; and (2) female adolesc...

  5. Bivariate and Multivariate Associations between Trait Listening Goals and Trait Communicator Preferences

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Keteyian, Robert V.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides validity evidence for a measure of listening goals by showing theoretically consistent relationships with an existing communication preference questionnaire. Participants (N = 257) were administered trait measures for listening goals and communicator preferences. The four listening goals--relational, task-oriented,…

  6. The Contrasting Roles of Growth Traits and Architectural Traits in Diversity Maintenance in Clonal Plant Communities

    Wildová, Radka; Goldberg, D. E.; Herben, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 6 (2012), s. 693-706. ISSN 0003-0147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1471 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : individual based model * coexistence * cempetitive exclusion * plant architecture * spatial traits Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.552, year: 2012

  7. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  8. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Live Measurement Traits in Pigs

    ZHANG Jing-hu; XIONG Yuan-zhu; ZUO Bo; LEI Ming-gang; LI Feng-e; LI Jia-lian

    2007-01-01

    Live measurement growth traits are very important economic traits in pig production and breeding. In this research,quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 11 live estimated growth and carcass traits, including birth weight (BWT),average daily gain over testing periods (ADG3), live backfat thickness at last 3-4th lumbar (LBFT3), live loin eye area (LLEA), and so on, in 214 pig resource family population, including 180 F2 individual, by 39 microsatellite marker loci on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The results indicated that 4 chromosome significant level QTL and one suggestive QTL were detected for ADG3 (at position of 50 cM on SSC8), LBFT3 (at position of 147 cM on SSC4), LLEA (one highly significant at position of 48 cM on SSC7; another significant at position of 125 cM on SSC8) and BWT (suggestive significant at position of 0 cM, at marker sw489 on SSC4). The phenotypic variance of these QTL accounted for 0.95% to 16.91%. Most of them were mentioned in previous reports; except the QTL of LLEA at position of sw1953 on SSC8 which maybe a new QTL.

  9. Is trait-emotional intelligence simply or more than just a trait?

    van der Zee, K; Wabeke, R

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the usefulness of trait-Emotional Intelligence (EI) among a sample of 1186 top managers who filled out questionnaires for Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five and were evaluated by a consultant on their competencies. Three higher-order factors were found to underlie the

  10. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends

  11. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  12. Towards a multidimensional root trait framework: a tree root review.

    Weemstra, Monique; Mommer, Liesje; Visser, Eric J W; van Ruijven, Jasper; Kuyper, Thomas W; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Sterck, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1159 I. 1159 II. 1161 III. 1164 IV. 1166 1167 References 1167 SUMMARY: The search for a root economics spectrum (RES) has been sparked by recent interest in trait-based plant ecology. By analogy with the one-dimensional leaf economics spectrum (LES), fine-root traits are hypothesised to match leaf traits which are coordinated along one axis from resource acquisitive to conservative traits. However, our literature review and meta-level analysis reveal no consistent evidence of an RES mirroring an LES. Instead the RES appears to be multidimensional. We discuss three fundamental differences contributing to the discrepancy between these spectra. First, root traits are simultaneously constrained by various environmental drivers not necessarily related to resource uptake. Second, above- and belowground traits cannot be considered analogues, because they function differently and might not be related to resource uptake in a similar manner. Third, mycorrhizal interactions may offset selection for an RES. Understanding and explaining the belowground mechanisms and trade-offs that drive variation in root traits, resource acquisition and plant performance across species, thus requires a fundamentally different approach than applied aboveground. We therefore call for studies that can functionally incorporate the root traits involved in resource uptake, the complex soil environment and the various soil resource uptake mechanisms - particularly the mycorrhizal pathway - in a multidimensional root trait framework. PMID:27174359

  13. Economic values for performance and functional traits in dairy sheep

    Roswitha Baumung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish a total merit index, the relative economic values of the traits considered must be known. Hence, the objective of this study was to derive economic values, defined by the value of one unit of superiority of a trait, for essential traits in dairy sheep based on a herd model. These traits included dairy (milk carrier = water, lactose and mineral nutrients, fat and protein yield, fattening (daily gain, dressing percentage, and EUROP grading score and functional traits (stillbirth rate, losses until first mating, litter size, lambing interval, and functional longevity. To avoid double counting, the economic value for each trait was derived while keeping all other traits constant. A sheep herd with milk production, lamb fattening and rearing of young sheep for replacement was modelled. The following economic values (in € per ewe place and year and genetic standard deviation were derived: 21.45 (milk carrier yield, 11.73 (fat yield, 16.87 (protein yield; 3.62 (daily gain, 1.62 (dressing percentage, 1.45 (EUROP-grading score, -0.28 (functional longevity, 3.00 (litter size, 1.77 (stillbirth, 5.92 (losses before first mating, and 5.35 (lambing interval. When setting functional longevity to zero, relative economic values for the trait complexes in % were as follows: dairy:meat:functional traits = 68.8:9.2:22.0, respectively.

  14. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  15. Repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum (Jacq.) hybrids.

    Braz, T G S; Fonseca, D M; Jank, L; Cruz, C D; Martuscello, J A

    2015-01-01

    When evaluating plants, in particular perennial species, it is common to obtain repeated measures of a given trait from the same individual to evaluate the traits' repeatability in successive harvests. The degree of correlation among these measures defines the coefficient of repeatability, which has been widely utilized in the study of forage traits of interest for breeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum hybrids. Hybrids from three progenies totaling 320 hybrids were evaluated in an incomplete-block design, with consideration of production and morpho-agronomic traits. Of the production traits, total dry matter and leaf dry matter showed the highest repeatability and varied from 0.540 to 0.769, whereas stem dry matter had lower coefficients (0.265-0.632). Among the morpho-agronomic traits, plant height and incidence of Bipolaris maydis had higher coefficients (0.118-0.460). The repeatability values of the agronomic traits were low-to-moderate, and six evaluations were sufficient to provide accuracy in the selection of hybrids regarding total dry matter, leaf dry matter, plant height, and incidence of B. maydis, whereas the other traits require more repeated measures to increase reliability in the prediction of their response. PMID:26782581

  16. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...... heritability estimates of this traits are low ranging from 0.02-0.04. Furthermore, the expression of the trait is very sensitive to environmental factores and it is affected by the ineraction between genotype and environment (GxE)....

  17. Molecular mapping of important agro-botanic traits in sesame

    P. Venkata Ramana Rao, & , K. Prasuna, G. Anuradha, A. Srividya, Lakshminarayana R Vemireddy, V. Gouri Shankar, S. Sridhar, M. Jayaprada, K. Raja Reddy, N.P. Eswara Reddy and E.A. Siddiq

    2014-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) ((2n=26) is one of the most ancient oilseed crop of the world. The present study was undertaken to develop a molecular map of the important agro-botanic traits in sesame. Two sesame genotypes Chandana and TAC-89-309 that differ in respect of the important agro-botanic traits were crossed to study the inheritance of these traits. The F2 population along with the F1 and parents was evaluated under field conditions and observations were made on nine agro-botanic trait...

  18. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF. PMID:22373162

  19. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:7643735

  20. Establishing the Attention-Distractibility Trait.

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-02-01

    Failures to focus attention will affect any task engagement (e.g., at work, in the classroom, when driving). At the clinical end, distractibility is a diagnostic criterion of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we examined whether the inability to maintain attentional focus varies in the overall population in the form of an attention-distractibility trait. To test this idea, we administered an ADHD diagnostic tool to a sample of healthy participants and assessed the relationship between ADHD symptoms and task distraction. ADHD symptom summary scores were significantly positively associated with distractor interference in letter-search and name-classification tasks (as measured by reaction time), as long as the distractors were irrelevant (cartoon images) rather than relevant (i.e., compatible or incompatible with target names). Higher perceptual load during a task eliminated distraction irrespective of ADHD score. These findings suggest the existence of an attention-distractibility trait that confers vulnerability to irrelevant distraction, which can be remedied by increasing the level of perceptual load during the task. PMID:26667659

  1. PREDICTION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULLS AT SEVERAL AGES USING BODY MEASUREMENTS AND ULTRASONIC ESTIMATE OF CARCASS TRAITS

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    The present research aims to estimate the mathematical equations for predicting ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at ten months after performance test (about 20 months of age) using body measurements and ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at earlier stages of performance test of Japanese Black bulls. This research was done at Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefecture Livestock Experimental Stations Japan to collect the ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements data of Jap...

  2. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans.

    Madin, Joshua S; Anderson, Kristen D; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C L; Cairns, Stephen D; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S; Franklin, Erik C; Gates, Ruth D; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Kosnik, Matthew A; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S; Putnam, Hollie M; Roberts, T Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism's function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research. PMID:27023900

  3. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  4. Antisocial Traits as Modifiers of Treatment Response in Borderline Inpatients

    CLARKIN, JOHN F.; Hull, James; YEOMANS, FRANK; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; CANTOR, JENNIFER

    1994-01-01

    The relationship of antisocial traits to treatment response in 35 female inpatients with borderline personality disorder was studied. Antisocial traits were measured with the Personality Assessment Inventory. Treatment response was measured by weekly ratings on the Symptom Checklist-90—Revised over 25 weeks of hospitalization. Treatment course was found to be significantly associated with the level of antisocial behavior reported at admission.

  5. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  6. Traits and emotions : A review of their structure and management

    De Raad, B; Kokkonen, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on traits and emotions focusing on both structure and management, or 'having' and 'doing'. The cognitive perspective of this paper implies that traits and emotions are viewed as provisions to frame people and their behaviours in situations in meaningful ways. The focus

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci in humans: achievements and limitations

    Majumder, Partha P.; Ghosh, Saurabh

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in statistical methods and genomic technologies have ushered in a new era in mapping clinically important quantitative traits. However, many refinements and novel statistical approaches are required to enable greater successes in this mapping. The possible impact of recent findings pertaining to the structure of the human genome on efforts to map quantitative traits is yet unclear.

  8. Mapping quantitative trait Loci using generalized estimating equations.

    Lange, C.; Whittaker, J C

    2001-01-01

    A number of statistical methods are now available to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) relative to markers. However, no existing methodology can simultaneously map QTL for multiple nonnormal traits. In this article we rectify this deficiency by developing a QTL-mapping approach based on generalized estimating equations (GEE). Simulation experiments are used to illustrate the application of the GEE-based approach.

  9. Seven Traits Define Leaders among Student Life Professionals.

    Haines, Dana Lee

    2000-01-01

    Identifies seven character traits characteristic of leaders among student life professionals: influence, values, integrity, trust, self-discipline, empathy, and attitude. Student life professionals are urged to periodically examine themselves in light of these traits as they build their leadership skills. (DB)

  10. Do Gender and Personality Traits Influence Use of Deal Sites?

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Deal sites became widespread, there are numerous both international and local players in the market. The research presented in the paper investigates if gender and personality traits influence use (versus non-use) of deal sites. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. The...

  11. An Examination of Personality Traits of Motorsports Management Students

    Young, Joyce A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Harder, Joseph T.; Peters, Randell

    2013-01-01

    For the motorsports industry, there is a strong desire to recruit individuals that have realistic expectations of the profession as well as exhibit the personality traits needed to be successful in the industry over time. The study sought to examine and compare personality traits of motorsports management students to those of practitioners…

  12. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  13. Ethnic variation of selected dental traits in Coorg

    Uthaman, Chancy; Sequeira, Peter Simon; Jain, Jithesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In a country like India, in addition to the great innate diversity, there are distinct migrant populations with unique dental traits. Aim: To assess the distribution and degree of expression of cusp of Carabelli of maxillary first permanent molars and shoveling trait of maxillary central incisors, between three ethnic groups of Coorg, namely Kodavas, Tibetans, and Malayalees. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, indirect, anthropometric, study was carried out among 15- to 30-year-old subjects belonging to three different ethnic origins. A random sample consisting of 91 subjects were recruited for the study. The shovel trait of incisors and the Carabelli trait of molars were recorded according to the classification given by Hrdliƈka and Sousa et al., respectively. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to determine the difference in three populations for shoveling and Carabelli traits. Mann-Whitney Test was used for pair-wise comparisons of three populations. Result: Of the total 91 subjects, 31 were Kodavas, 30 Malayalees and 30 Tibetans. There was a statistically significant difference in shoveling trait among the three ethnic groups. For Carabelli traits, there was no statistically significant difference among three ethnic groups. Conclusion: The present study findings showed that Tibetans have a higher degree of shoveling trait than the selected South Indian ethnic groups. PMID:26816457

  14. Bridging traits, story, and self: Prospects and problems

    Hermans, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In his target article, McAdams brings together three domains in the field of psychology in which challenging developments have been observed over the past decades: trait psychology, narrative psychology, and culture. Trait psychology has been rejuvenated by crossnational and cross-cultural research

  15. Predictable patterns of trait mismatches between interacting plants and insects

    Ellis Allan G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few predictions about the directionality or extent of morphological trait (mismatches between interacting organisms. We review and analyse studies on morphological trait complementarity (e.g. floral tube length versus insect mouthpart length at the population and species level. Results Plants have consistently more exaggerated morphological traits than insects at high trait magnitudes and in some cases less exaggerated traits than insects at smaller trait magnitudes. This result held at the population level, as well as for phylogenetically adjusted analyses at the species-level and for both pollination and host-parasite interactions, perhaps suggesting a general pattern. Across communities, the degree of trait mismatch between one specialist plant and its more generalized pollinator was related to the level of pollinator specialization at each site; the observed pattern supports the "life-dinner principle" of selection acting more strongly on species with more at stake in the interaction. Similarly, plant mating system also affected the degree of trait correspondence because selfing reduces the reliance on pollinators and is analogous to pollination generalization. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that there are predictable "winners" and "losers" of evolutionary arms races and the results of this study highlight the fact that breeding system and the degree of specialization can influence the outcome.

  16. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  17. Short communication: Genetic variation in estrus activity traits

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2009-01-01

    with a heritability of 0.18 ± 0.07. The heritability for the period of increased activity was small (0.02 to 0.08) and of similar magnitude as that for the level of activity (0.04 to 0.08). Compared with fertility traits based on artificial insemination field data, activity traits have higher heritability than...

  18. Effectiveness of Persona with Personality Traits on Conceptual Design

    Anvari, Farshid; Richards, Deborah; Hitchens, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    traits) on students’ performance in creating conceptual designs. Our results indicate that the students were able to identify the personality traits of personas and their ratings of the personalities match closely with the intended personalities. A majority of the participants stated that their designs...

  19. Relationship between Personality Traits and Performance among School Principals

    Ali, Siadat Sayyed; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Zaman, Azhdari; Zahra, Amiri; Mohtaram, Abooeimehrizi

    2011-01-01

    This research seeks to explore the relationship between personality traits and performance among school principals. The main objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between principals' personality traits such as introversion, extroversion neuroticism and emotional stability between several performance dimensions. A descriptive…

  20. A research framework of ecosystem services based on functional traits

    Lu, Chun-Xia; AN Kai; XIE Gao-Di; Xiao, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Functional traits influence ecosystem services through their effects on ecosystem attributes, processes and their maintenance. Research on the relationship between functional diversity and ecosystem function can contribute to investigating the mechanism of ecosystem functioning and services supplied, which provides insight on ecosystem services. This study reviewed research on functional traits and framework of ecosystem services, relationship between functional diversity and ecosystem functi...

  1. Trait and State Anxiety in Israeli Student Athletes

    Tenenbaum, Gershon; Milgram, Roberta M.

    1978-01-01

    Examined trait anxiety in three groups of Israeli physical education students (N-251) competitors in individual sports, in team sports, and noncompetitors. The measure was the Spielberger, Gorsuch, and Lushene Trait Anxiety Scale (1970). Additionally, two groups of competitive athletes were compared on State Anxiety as measured by the Spielberger…

  2. Personality trait similarity between spouses in four cultures

    McCrae, R.R.; Martin, T.A.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Urbánek, Tomáš; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.; Costa, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2008), s. 1137-1163. ISSN 0022-3506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : personality traits * traits similarity * assortative mating Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.491, year: 2008

  3. Competencies and Traits of Successful Agricultural Science Teachers

    Roberts, T. Grady; Dooley, Kim E.; Harlin, Julie F.; Murphrey, Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify the required competencies and traits of successful agricultural science teachers. Data was collected from focus groups of agricultural science teachers and a content analysis of existing research. Results identified 47 unique traits or competencies that were divided into the categories of…

  4. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits.

    Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Foulds Mathes, Wendy; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-04-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

  5. Predicting plants -modeling traits as a function of environment

    Franklin, Oskar

    2016-04-01

    A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al. 2014; Kunstler et al. 2015) based on wide ranging datasets on a small number of easily measured traits, such as specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and maximum plant height. However, plant function depends on many other traits and while the commonly measured trait data are valuable, they are not sufficient for driving predictive and mechanistic models of vegetation dynamics -especially under novel climate or management conditions. For this purpose we need a model to predict functional traits, also those not easily measured, and how they depend on the plants' environment. Here I present such a mechanistic model based on fitness concepts and focused on traits related to water and light limitation of trees, including: wood density, drought response, allocation to defense, and leaf traits. The model is able to predict observed patterns of variability in these traits in relation to growth and mortality, and their responses to a gradient of water limitation. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mechanistically predict plant traits as a function of the environment based on an eco-physiological model of plant fitness. References Adier, P.B., Salguero-Gómez, R., Compagnoni, A., Hsu, J.S., Ray-Mukherjee, J., Mbeau-Ache, C. et al. (2014). Functional traits explain variation in plant lifehistory strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111, 740-745. Kunstler, G., Falster, D., Coomes, D.A., Hui, F., Kooyman, R.M., Laughlin, D.C. et al. (2015). Plant functional traits

  6. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years). PMID:27252661

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Leaf Morphological Traits and Chlorophyll Content in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Xian-Liang SONG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Zhi-Guo HAN; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis at the molecular level. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map containing 590 markers and a BC1 population from two cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, namely TM-1 and Hai 7124 (G.barbadense L.), were used to map and analyze QTL using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method.Thirty one QTLs, 10 for lobe length, 13 for lobe width, six for lobe angle, and two for leaf chlorophyll content,were detected on 15 chromosomes or linkage groups at logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥ 2.0, of which 15 were found for leaf morphology at LOD ≥.3.0. The genetic effects of the QTL were estimated. These results are fundamental for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of these traits in tetraploid cotton breeding.

  8. The reciprocal relationship between competition and intraspecific trait variation

    A Bennett, Jonathan; Riibak, Kersti; Tamme, Riin;

    2016-01-01

    with larger leaves and lower specific leaf area than their neighbours. Switching to more stress tolerant strategies by increasing root diameter and leaf tissue density also reduced competition. However, dissimilarity in root tissue density also minimized competition, consistent with limiting similarity......1.Trait differences among plants are expected to influence the outcome of competition; competition should be strongest between similar species (or individuals) under limiting similarity, and between dissimilar species within competitive hierarchies. These hypotheses are often used to infer...... competitive dynamics from trait patterns within communities. However, plant traits are frequently plastic in response to competition. This variation is poorly accounted for in trait based studies of competition and community assembly. 2.To explore the relationship between trait responses and competitive...

  9. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time for...... daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...

  10. Sample size for estimating average productive traits of pigeon pea

    Giovani Facco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size, in terms of number of plants, needed to estimate the average values of productive traits of the pigeon pea and to determine whether the sample size needed varies between traits and between crop years. Separate uniformity trials were conducted in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. In each trial, 360 plants were demarcated, and the fresh and dry masses of roots, stems, and leaves and of shoots and the total plant were evaluated during blossoming for 10 productive traits. Descriptive statistics were calculated, normality and randomness were checked, and the sample size was calculated. There was variability in the sample size between the productive traits and crop years of the pigeon pea culture. To estimate the averages of the productive traits with a 20% maximum estimation error and 95% confidence level, 70 plants are sufficient.