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Sample records for aberrant shoot morphology

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger

    Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb), and shoot apical organisation in ginger was studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal. Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices appear histologically inert. (auth.)

  2. Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology

    Thompson, Addie M.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick; Crants, James C.; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In maize (Zea mays), leaves are formed throughout vegetative development; on transition to floral development, the shoot meristem forms the tassel. Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. Previous work identified loci controlling merist...

  3. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS) – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae), furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of ...

  4. Morphological variants induced from shoot tips of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) treated with gamma radiation

    Plantlets were regenerated on a revised Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg 1−1 6-benzyladenine (BA) from shoot tip explants of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) treated with 0–20 Gy of gamma radiation. These were acclimated in the greenhouse and cultivated in the field. No visible variation was observed among plants grown from seed corms and shoot tips treated with gamma radiation. A 12% rate of variation was observed among plants directly regenerated from the irradiated shoot tips. Among these plants, eight variants were selected and observed for various characters during the succeeding year. The morphological characteristics of the eight variants are described. Increased number of lateral shoots, flowering behavior, increase or decrease in plant height, presence or absence of corms, unusually small and large leaf blades, variations in the amount of anthocyanin in petioles, late sprouting and late wilting are among the significant characteristics of the variants. Variants R28 and R51, which are dwarf types, and R56 and R152, whose corms can be separated easily from the main corm, were considered horticulturally valuable. Variants R12 and R15 did not produce corms, but extensive flowering occurred. (author)

  5. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  6. Morphological images analysis and chromosomic aberrations classification based on fuzzy logic

    This work has implemented a methodology for automation of images analysis of chromosomes of human cells irradiated at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (located at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and therefore subject to morphological aberrations. This methodology intends to be a tool for helping cytogeneticists on identification, characterization and classification of chromosomal metaphasic analysis. The methodology development has included the creation of a software application based on artificial intelligence techniques using Fuzzy Logic combined with image processing techniques. The developed application was named CHRIMAN and is composed of modules that contain the methodological steps which are important requirements in order to achieve an automated analysis. The first step is the standardization of the bi-dimensional digital image acquisition procedure through coupling a simple digital camera to the ocular of the conventional metaphasic analysis microscope. Second step is related to the image treatment achieved through digital filters application; storing and organization of information obtained both from image content itself, and from selected extracted features, for further use on pattern recognition algorithms. The third step consists on characterizing, counting and classification of stored digital images and extracted features information. The accuracy in the recognition of chromosome images is 93.9%. This classification is based on classical standards obtained at Buckton [1973], and enables support to geneticist on chromosomic analysis procedure, decreasing analysis time, and creating conditions to include this method on a broader evaluation system on human cell damage due to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Variation of the chemical contents and morphology of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting pistol as a potential contribution to a shooting incidence reconstruction.

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2011-07-15

    A study of the chemical contents and sizes of gunshot residue originating from 9×18mm PM ammunition, depositing in the vicinity of the shooting person was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Samples of the residue were collected from targets placed at various distances in the range 0-100cm as well as from hands and clothing of the shooting person. Targets were covered by fragments of white cotton fabric or black bovine leather. In the case of cotton targets microtraces were collected from circles of 5 and 10cm in radius. Results of the examinations in the form of numbers of particles, proportions of their chemical classes and dimensions revealed a dependence on the distance from the gun muzzle, both in the direction of shooting and in the opposite one, i.e., on the shooting person. The parameters describing gunshot residue differed also depending on the kind of the target substrate. The kind of obtained information gives rise to understanding the general rules of the dispersion of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting gun. Thus, it may be utilised in the reconstruction of shooting incidences, especially in establishing the mutual positions of the shooter and other participants of the incident. PMID:21354728

  8. Morphological and physiological photon flux influence under in vitro culture of apple shoots

    Ilisandra Zanandrea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth and development of apple rootstock shoots submitted to different photon flux densities (7, 14, 21 and 60 µmol m-2 s-1 and three culture media. The best photon flux for maximizing growth, number of shoots and leaves was 14 µmol m-2 s-1, which also resulted in the highest values of chloroplastic pigments. On the other hand, the highest photon flux (60 µmol m-2 s-1 decreased significantly these parameters. Medium with reduced sucrose concentration did not affect the analyzed parameters, enabling an efficient multiplication of the cultivar with only 1% of sucrose.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar características de crescimento e desenvolvimento de brotações de macieira submetidas a diferentes densidades de fluxo de fótons (7, 14, 21 e 60 µmol m-2 s-1 e três meios de cultura. O melhor fluxo de fótons para maximizar o crescimento, número de brotações e de folhas foi de 14 µmol m-2 s-1, o qual também proporcionou os maiores valores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos. Por outro lado, alto fluxo de fótons (60 µmol m-2 s-1 diminuiu significativamente os parâmetros citados acima. O meio com concentração reduzida de sacarose não afetou os parâmetros analisados, possibilitando uma multiplicação eficiente desta cultivar com apenas 1% deste carboidrato.

  9. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    Michał Polguj; Łukasz Chrzanowski; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Ludomir Stefańczyk; Mirosław Topol; Agata Majos

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinical...

  10. Morphological evolution of InAs/InP quantum wires through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Sales, D L; Varela, M; Pennycook, S J; Galindo, P L; González, L; González, Y; Fuster, D; Molina, S I

    2010-08-13

    Evolution of the size, shape and composition of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires through the Stranski-Krastanov transition has been determined by aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging. High resolution compositional maps of the wires in the initial, intermediate and final formation stages are presented. (001) is the main facet at their very initial stage of formation, which is gradually reduced in favour of [114] or [118], ending with the formation of mature quantum wires with {114} facets. Significant changes in wire dimensions are measured when varying slightly the amount of InAs deposited. These results are used as input parameters to build three-dimensional models that allow calculation of the strain energy during the quantum wire formation process. The observed morphological evolution is explained in terms of the calculated elastic energy changes at the growth front. Regions of the wetting layer close to the nanostructure perimeters have higher strain energy, causing migration of As atoms towards the quantum wire terraces, where the structure is partially relaxed; the thickness of the wetting layer is reduced in these zones and the island height increases until the (001) facet is removed. PMID:20647625

  11. Morphological evolution of InAs/InP quantum wires through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Evolution of the size, shape and composition of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires through the Stranski-Krastanov transition has been determined by aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging. High resolution compositional maps of the wires in the initial, intermediate and final formation stages are presented. (001) is the main facet at their very initial stage of formation, which is gradually reduced in favour of {114} or {118}, ending with the formation of mature quantum wires with {114} facets. Significant changes in wire dimensions are measured when varying slightly the amount of InAs deposited. These results are used as input parameters to build three-dimensional models that allow calculation of the strain energy during the quantum wire formation process. The observed morphological evolution is explained in terms of the calculated elastic energy changes at the growth front. Regions of the wetting layer close to the nanostructure perimeters have higher strain energy, causing migration of As atoms towards the quantum wire terraces, where the structure is partially relaxed; the thickness of the wetting layer is reduced in these zones and the island height increases until the (001) facet is removed.

  12. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices. PMID:17472944

  13. Phenotypic aberrations during micropropagation of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb. Adr. Juss

    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the medicinal plants Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae possess significance for its valuable secondary metabolites. Multiplication of this endemic plant is limited by difficulty in rooting of stem cuttings, high seedling mortality rates and low seed viability period. Hence efficient protocols for in vitro mass propagation has been established from field grown and aseptic seedlings explants. Strikingly, we observed aberrant structures such as vitrified shoots, faciated shoots, albino shoots as well shoot necrosis during its micropropagation. These phenotypic maladies were observed during organogenesis and rooting. Compared to other abnormalities, shoot necrosis nonetheless was frequent and pronounced leading to plant death. Shoots when subjected to rooting also displayed necrosis which was controlled by transferring to MS medium containing various concentrations and combinations of calcium levels, activated charcoal, glucose, fructose and auxins. Microshoots initiated roots on half strength MS medium with IBA and IAA individually or in combination within two weeks. MS half strength solid medium supplemented with CAN (556 mg l–1, CAP (1.0 mg l–1, IAA (2.0 mg l–1 and IBA (2.0 mg l–1 in combination was found to be more efficient in showing high frequency (95% of root regeneration. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 70-85% of regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized to natural environment. In vitro derived plantlets were morphologically similar to in vivo plants.

  14. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy · hr-1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  15. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    Kasumi, Masakazu [Plant Biotechnology Inst., Ibaraki Agricultural Center, Iwama, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy {center_dot} hr{sup -}1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  16. Effects of acute and chronic gamma irradiation on the shoot apex and general morphology of Lupinus albus L

    Lupinus albus L. plants were grown from seeds and irradiated at various stages of development with acute or chronic gamma rays. All plants were greenhouse grown (pre- and post-irradiation) and allowed to proceed through their normal growth cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to establish a Plactochron Index for Lupinus albus L. and to determine the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on development at the macro and microscopic levels. A Plastochron Index was calculated and used as an indirect time scale to evaluate the effects of gamma rays from a common base line. Acute radiation treatment lasted for a period of a few days, whereas chronic treatment was initiated at the seedling stage and lasted for the entire growth season. Vegetative plants were used to study the effects of acute radiation exposure on apical meristem morphology, Plastochron Index, phyllatoxis and gross morphology

  17. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria: The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    Michał Polguj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria. If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9±19.4 years for all patients but 54.0±19.6 years and 44.9±18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P=0.0061. The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%, dyspnea (18.7%, retrosternal pain (17.0%, cough (7.6%, and weight loss (5.9%. The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%, Kommerell’s diverticulum (14.9%, aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%, and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%. In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss.

  18. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  19. The aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria): the morphological and clinical aspects of one of the most important variations--a systematic study of 141 reports.

    Polguj, Michał; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  20. Evaluación morfológica de brotes regenerados de callos de arroz (variedad IACuba-28 resistentes a higromicina Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

    Hernández Díaz Carlos Alberto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un sistema de evaluación de brotes de arroz regenerados de callos resistentes a higromicina, que permitió relacionar las características morfológicas de dichos brotes con su resistencia al antibiótico. Callos embriogénicos de arroz se transformaron con Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, con el gen de la higromicina-fosfotransferasa como marcador de selección. Después de dos semanas en medio de cultivo con higromicina, los callos resistentes fueron transferidos a regeneración. Durante 30 días se realizaron extracciones sucesivas de brotes emitidos de los callos, en seis intervalos de cinco días cada uno. Estos brotes se clasificaron según su morfología en: clase I – brote vigoroso con una estructura bipolar típica, de ápice y raíz con longitudes proporcionales; clase II – brote con raíz pequeña respecto al ápice, o sin raíz; clase III – brote con alteraciones fenotípicas, albinismo, hojas muy anchas o enrolladas. Los brotes clasificados se transfirieron a medio MS con higromicina para evaluar su viabilidad. Los de clase I, que predominaron en las primeras extracciones, presentaron la mayor viabilidad durante el enraizamiento y crecimiento del follaje. En las últimas dos extracciones ocurrió una drástica reducción de los brotes clase I, y aumentaron los de clases II y III, simultáneamente disminuyó la viabilidad de estos últimos en MS con higromicina. Este resultado puede aplicarse para mejorar la eficiencia de obtención de plantas transgénicas de arroz en estas condiciones, debido a que precisa el momento óptimo para lograr brotes con características morfológicas normales y que sean resistentes a higromicina.An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  1. Shooting stars

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is the object of this article; orbit gathering projects are also presented.

  2. Dose dependence of morphological changes and aberration to the plantation of pine in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    Dose rate to the Scots pine' (Pinus sylvestris L.) apical meristem at three experimental sites were calculated. The morphological and cytogenetic changes of the trees were estimated, and the dependences of these changes on the dose rates to the apical meristem were formulated

  3. Chromosomal aberration

    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G1 phase. (author)

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells

    Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

  5. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

    McGinley John N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  6. Morphological images analysis and chromosomic aberrations classification based on fuzzy logic; Analise morfologica de imagens e classificacao de aberracoes cromossomicas por meio de logica fuzzy

    Souza, Leonardo Peres

    2011-07-01

    This work has implemented a methodology for automation of images analysis of chromosomes of human cells irradiated at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (located at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and therefore subject to morphological aberrations. This methodology intends to be a tool for helping cytogeneticists on identification, characterization and classification of chromosomal metaphasic analysis. The methodology development has included the creation of a software application based on artificial intelligence techniques using Fuzzy Logic combined with image processing techniques. The developed application was named CHRIMAN and is composed of modules that contain the methodological steps which are important requirements in order to achieve an automated analysis. The first step is the standardization of the bi-dimensional digital image acquisition procedure through coupling a simple digital camera to the ocular of the conventional metaphasic analysis microscope. Second step is related to the image treatment achieved through digital filters application; storing and organization of information obtained both from image content itself, and from selected extracted features, for further use on pattern recognition algorithms. The third step consists on characterizing, counting and classification of stored digital images and extracted features information. The accuracy in the recognition of chromosome images is 93.9%. This classification is based on classical standards obtained at Buckton [1973], and enables support to geneticist on chromosomic analysis procedure, decreasing analysis time, and creating conditions to include this method on a broader evaluation system on human cell damage due to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Effect of gelling agents on shoot growth and multiple shoot formation of mangosteen

    Sompong Te-chato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apomict seeds of mangosteen were cultured as a whole or half seed on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA. The medium was solidified with various gelling agents. After culture for 2 months, multiple shoot formation, morphological and physiological characters of the shoot were investigated. The results revealed that 1.5% agarose gave the highest seed forming shoot (98% and number of shoots per culture seed (20.7. Wounding the seed by sectioning into half promoted higher callus formation (47-88% in all gelling agents. Phytagel (0.17% resulted in the highest callus formation (100% and hyperhydric shoots (11-31%. Those shoots produced translucent, thin and brittle leaves and stems, and malformed stoma. Those leaves had the lowest content of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll.

  8. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  9. Anatomy of normal and hyperhydric sunflower shoots regenerated in vitro

    Fauguel C.M.; Vega T.A.; Nestares G.; Zorzoli R.; Picardi L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is a morphological and physiological disorder affecting plants regenerated in vitro. This malformation is associated with excessive hydration and abnormal shoot morphogenesis such as glassy water-soaked appearance of shoots. This undesirable phenomenon is a frequent problem in sunflower tissue culture systems and has been described by visual symptoms but there is no information on the anatomic structure of the affected shoots. In this paper we describe anatomic features of norm...

  10. Violence and school shootings.

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims. PMID:23254623

  11. Ozone-Induced Rice Grain Yield Loss Is Triggered via a Change in Panicle Morphology That Is Controlled by ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 Gene.

    Keita Tsukahara

    Full Text Available Rice grain yield is predicted to decrease in the future because of an increase in tropospheric ozone concentration. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the responses to ozone of two rice (Oryza Sativa L. cultivars, Sasanishiki and Habataki. Sasanishiki showed ozone-induced leaf injury, but no grain yield loss. By contrast, Habataki showed grain yield loss with minimal leaf injury. A QTL associated with grain yield loss caused by ozone was identified in Sasanishiki/Habataki chromosome segment substitution lines and included the ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 (APO1 gene. The Habataki allele of the APO1 locus in a near-isogenic line also resulted in grain yield loss upon ozone exposure, suggesting APO1 involvement in ozone-induced yield loss. Only a few differences in the APO1 amino acid sequences were detected between the cultivars, but the APO1 transcript level was oppositely regulated by ozone exposure: i.e., it increased in Sasanishiki and decreased in Habataki. Interestingly, the levels of some phytohormones (jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, and abscisic acid known to be involved in attenuation of ozone-induced leaf injury tended to decrease in Sasanishiki but to increase in Habataki upon ozone exposure. These data indicate that ozone-induced grain yield loss in Habataki is caused by a reduction in the APO1 transcript level through an increase in the levels of phytohormones that reduce leaf damage.

  12. Shooting Sports Competition

    Fisher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This year for the first time Congress is introducing an actual shooting competition in Rifle and Archery. An introduction and firing the first shots workshop will be conducted with all participants to begin the day and then break out to disciplines for the competition. There will also be a general knowledge/safety test that will count toward the final scores of participants.

  13. Efficacy of aqueous garlic extract on growth, aflatoxin B1 production, and cyto-morphological aberrations of Aspergillus flavus, causing human ophthalmic infection: topical treatment of A. flavus keratitis.

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Rabie, Gamal H; Kenawey, Saied E M; Abd El-Aal, Marwa A

    2012-10-01

    By using agar well diffusion assay, antifungal activity of aqueous extract prepared from Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) was evaluated in vitro against two strains of Aspergillus flavus (OC1 and OC10) causing human ocular infection. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for growth inhibition of both strains was 3.60 mg/ml. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was used in successive in vivo tests as an attempt to cure rabbit's fungal keratitis caused by A. flavus OC1. Findings showed that diluted preparation of AGE was effective topical antifungal agent and succeeded to cure severe A. flavus keratitis in a time course less than 10 days without any observable side effects. Microscopic examination showed that AGE induced deleterious cyto-morphological aberrations in A. flavus target cells. AGE applied to Czapek's broth via contact method was more effective on growth, spores and aflatoxin B1 production than AGE applied to the same broth at the same concentration via fumigation method. PMID:24031964

  14. Radiographing roots and shoots

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  15. Aberrations in Fresnel Lenses and Mirrors

    Gregory, Don

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Shooting Star program revealed a number of technical problems that must be solved before solar thermal propulsion can become a reality. The fundamental problem of interest here is the collection of solar energy. This is the first step in the propulsion process and indeed the most important. Everything else depends on the efficiency and focusing ability of the collection lens or mirror. An initial model of Fresnel lens behavior using a wave optics approach has been completed and the results were encouraging enough to warrant an experimental investigation. This experimental investigation confirmed some of the effects predicted and produced invaluable photographic evidence of coherence based diffraction and aberration.

  16. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  17. Shoot multiplication and plant regeneration in Caragana fruticosa (Pall.) Besser

    ZHAI Xiao-jie; YANG Ling; SHEN Hai-long

    2011-01-01

    Different nutrient media can affectin vitro culturing protocols,and experimentation under varied growth conditions is valuable in plants where in vitro methods are in preliminary stages.We carried out the first in vitro propagation studies for the endangered species Caragana fruticosa (Fabaceae).We evaluated various nutrient media for their inpact on shoot elongation and axillary bud proliferation using different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).Shoot elongation was evaluated based on adventitious shoot primary culture and subculture regeneration from Caragana seedlings.Our goal was to improve both micropropagation and regeneration in C.fruticosa.MS nutrient media was superior to 1/2MS macronutrients,DKW,QL,and WPM for shoot elongation and axillary shoot proliferation.Shoots grown on 1/2MS and WPM exhibited some chlorosis,and shoots on QL produced larger leavers than plants growing on normal medium.The shoot proliferation coefficient on MS media supplemented with 2.22 μM BA and 0.44 μM BA + 2.69 μM NAA was significantly higher than that with other treatments in the primary culture.Shoots on 2.22 μM BA showed a higher proliferation coefficient (3.17) than others in the subculture.Shoots were rooted on 1/2MS medium with the addition of different concentrations of NAA.The optimal concentration for rooting was 0.27 μM NAA (74%).Roots exhibited many stout and long root hairs.Survivl of established plantlets was 82% at 30 days after transfer to soil.Plants established in the green house showed normal growth and displayed no apparent morphological differences compared to stock plants.

  18. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Comparison of Morphological Microstructure of Vitrified and Normal Shoots of Aronia melanocarpa Elloit%黑果腺肋花楸正常苗与玻璃化苗茎叶显微结构的比较

    高晔华; 利爽; 吕天舒; 胡婷婷; 吴荣哲

    2014-01-01

    The Aronia melanocarpa El oit was used as test material. The microstruc-ture of normal and vitrified shoots and the characteristics of their stomas on leaf surface were compared by paraffin section and leaf epidermis-tearing method. The results showed the palisade tissue of Aronia melanocarpa El oit consists of 2-3 lay-ers of cells. The stomas on lower epidermis cave in, and are smal and dense. There are abundant vessels and sieve tubes in stems. ln contrast, the main veins of vitrified shoots are unobvious, messy and irregular. The boundary between pal-isade tissue and spongy tissue is not obvious. The stomas open circularly and bigly. The stems are swel ing and thick, but the pith parenchyma cells are broken.%以黑果花楸组培苗为试材,采用石蜡切片和叶表皮撕取法,比较正常苗与玻璃化苗茎叶横切面显微结构以及叶表面气孔特征。结果表明,黑果腺肋花楸栅栏组织由2~3层细胞构成,下表皮气孔下陷,小而密集,茎内分布大量导管、筛管。玻璃化苗主脉不明显,细胞排列凌乱不规则,栅栏组织与海绵组织的区别不明显,气孔开口大近圆形,茎肿胀粗大髓腔内薄壁细胞较多、已破裂。

  20. Induced mutations in citrus shoot tip culture in vitro

    This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of using induced mutation of the callus of citrus clones as a method in citrus breeding. It was observed that the nuclear clones had a higher ratio of callus cell differentiation than the old clones. The callus cells were exposed to gamma irradiation of 7,000 roentgen at 127 R/min. Callus cells derived from the shoot tip proved to be more appropriate for cytological examination by the smearing technique than the root tip cells. Gamma irradiation of callus cells is quite effective for inducing chromosome aberration and micronucleus inspection

  1. Support application for shooting clubs

    Lenič, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    The process of logging shooting results, especially without proper electronic support, can be a very tedious task, for which no practical solution exists. The web application, in addition to logging results, offers many other useful functionalities to shooters and to shooting clubs. In addition to the web application, we also developed an Android mobile application, which enables shooters to take photos of their targets and upload them to a server so they can review them later. The first p...

  2. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were pr...

  3. Trouble shooting in toxicopathology

    Toxicopathology, also referred to as toxicologic pathology, can be defined as the study of structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs that are induced by toxicants (such as drugs, industrial and agricultural chemicals), toxins (chemicals of biological origin such as mycotoxins and phycotoxins), and physical agents (such as heat and radiation); the investigation of the mechanisms by which these changes are induced; and the development of risk assessment and risk management policies based on such information. Toxicologic pathology primarily deals with the morphologic or structural effects of the toxicant and the mechanism by which this structural effect is induced. This article highlights some of the problems that toxicologic pathologists may encounter in obtaining and interpreting pathology lesions. By alerting toxicologists to some of these issues, it is hoped that a better understanding of the use and limitations of toxicologic pathology data will occur

  4. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  5. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  6. Segmenting the sepal and shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Cunha, Alexandre L.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2010-01-01

    We present methods for segmenting the sepal and shoot apical meristem of the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. We propose a mathematical morphology pipeline and a modified numerical scheme for the active contours without edges algorithm to extract the geometry and topology of plant cells imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We demonstrate our methods in typical images used in the studies of cell endoreduplication and hormone transport and show that in practice they produce highly accura...

  7. Genetic Control of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture

    Thompson, Addie M.; Crants, James; Schnable, Patrick S.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Springer, Nathan M.; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and generates all above-ground organs of the plant. During vegetative growth, cells differentiate from the meristem to initiate leaves while the pool of meristematic cells is preserved; this balance is determined in part by genetic regulatory mechanisms. To assess vegetative meristem growth and genetic control in Zea mays, we investigated its morphology at multiple time points and identified three stages of growth. We me...

  8. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  9. Short and long term effects of root and shoot chilling of ransom soybean.

    Musser, R L; Thomas, S A; Kramer, P J

    1983-11-01

    The immediate short term effects on some physiological processes and the long term effects on morphology and reproductive development of root- and shoot-chilled soybeans (Glycine max L. cv Ransom) were studied. Roots or shoots of 16- or 17-day-old plants were chilled at 10 degrees C for one week, and then rewarmed to 25 degrees C. Leaf elongation rate, net CO(2) uptake rate, and stomatal conductance decreased during root or shoot chilling. Root chilling had only temporary effects on water relations, while shoot chilling caused large changes in potentials during chilling. Most processes measured returned to control levels after two days of rewarming. Root-chilled plants harvested 90 days after emergence were similar in morphology and seed weight to controls. Shoot-chilled plants showed a large increase over controls in axillary branch growth, but an early abortion of flowers and a delayed resumption of flowering caused a 78% reduction in seed weight. Root chilling in this study was found to have little or no long term effect on the plants, while shoot chilling caused significant changes in vegetative morphology, and a delay in flowering and subsequent pod filling. PMID:16663300

  10. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. -- Highlights: ► Develops the analogy between light and electron optics in aberration calculations. ► Optimized spherical and chromatic aberrations for an electrostatic einzel lens. ► Comparison between analytic and numerical aberration calculations.

  11. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various concentrations tested, 2.0mg/l BAP (Benzyl amino purine and 0.1 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid (NAA were found to be the best for maximum shoot bud differentiation. Percentage, as well as the number of shoots per explant showing differentiation of shoot buds was higher on MS media supplement with BAP and optimal BAP concentration for shoot regeneration was 2mg/l. The elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing different concentrations of auxins. Among them indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l induced maximum frequency of rooting. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil where 91% of them have been developed into morphologically normal and fertile plants. This method can thus be advantageously applied in the production of transgenic pigeon pea plants.

  12. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various concentrations tested, 2.0mg/l BAP (Benzyl amino purine and 0.1 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid (NAA were found to be the best for maximum shoot bud differentiation. Percentage, as well as the number of shoots per explant showing differentiation of shoot buds was higher on MS media supplement with BAP and optimal BAP concentration for shoot regeneration was 2mg/l. The elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing different concentrations of auxins. Among them indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l induced maximum frequency of rooting. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil where 91% of them have been developed into morphologically normal and fertile plants. This method can thus be advantageously applied in the production of transgenic pigeon pea plants.

  13. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  14. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  15. Effect of light intensity on in vitro multiple shoot induction and regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Khandawa-2).

    Gupta, S K; Singh, P K; Sawant, S V; Chaturvedi, R; Tuli, R

    2000-04-01

    Cotyledonary nodes taken alongwith shoot apex from seedlings of cotton (G. hirsutum) proliferated into shoots on nutrient agar medium supplemented with cytokinins. In the presence of optimal plant growth regulators, low light intensity enhanced the number of shoots initiated per explant in cotton. An average of 33.5 +/- 2.9 shoots were obtained from a single explant cultured for 8 weeks which is about four fold higher than the values reported in earlier protocols. The isolated shoots were rooted on nutrient agar medium supplemented with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid and transferred to soil after acclimatization. Regenerated plants were morphologically identical to the seed-germinated plants and were fertile. PMID:11218821

  16. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields.

    Harvey, J E; Shack, R V

    1978-09-15

    This paper is an attempt to provide new insight into the behavior of near-field scalar diffraction phenomena by showing that the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral is equivalent to the Fourier transform integral of a generalized pupil function which includes a term that represents phase errors in the aperture. This term can be interpreted as describing a conventional wavefront aberration function. The resulting aberration coefficients are calculated and expressed in terms of the aperture diameter, observation distance, and appropriate field parameter for several different geometrical configurations of incident beam and observation space. These aberrations, which are inherently associated with the diffraction process, are precisely the effects ignored when making the usual Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations. PMID:20203910

  17. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  18. Characteristics of one-year-old shoots of peach hybrids from the crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni

    Radović Aleksandar R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year research (2011-2012 of the most important morphological characteristics of 1-year-old shoots in eight peach hybrids obtained from a crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni were shown in this paper. The following characteristics were studied in tested hybrids: length and diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flowers and vegetative buds per shoot, ratio of flower to vegetative buds, number of flower buds per node and 1-m length of a shoot. The properties of sylleptic shoots on one-year-old shoots have also been studied. The significant differences were determined among the hybrids for parameters such as the diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flower and vegetative buds per shoot. Hybrids FH1 and FH6 were characterized by the highest density of flower buds, so that they are singled out as potentially the most yielding. These hybrids may be of interest for growing in areas where there is a risk of frost and in the domain of breeding when creating new peach cultivars of high yield potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063: Primena novih genotipova i tehnoloških inovacija u cilju unapređenja voćarske i vinogradarske proizvodnje

  19. A method to determine waterfowl shooting distances

    Davenport, D.A.; Sherwood, G.A.; Murdy, H.W.

    1973-01-01

    Long-range shooting at ducks and geese frequently results in a high crippling loss, unretrieved birds and frustrated hunters. A principal problem has been the general inability of hunters or observers to properly judge distance of birds. This paper describes a reasonably accurate method developed to determine shooting distances to geese. Two observers utilized transit-mounted 4X hunting scopes to determine angles and elevations to goose hunters and birds. These data were used to set up a series of triangles by which a distance between hunter and birds could be calculated. Known-distance tests indicated an average measurement error of approximately two percent. An average shooting distance of 71 yards was calculated from 175 sightings. The maximum range was 240 yards and the minimum was 24 yards. The relationship of shooting to clean kills and crippling loss is also discussed.

  20. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  1. Aberrant methylation patterns in cancer

    Hudler, Petra; Videtič, Alja

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins affecting nucleosome remodelling, and regulation by small and large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) work in concert with cis and trans acting elements to drive appropriate gene expression. Advances in detection methods and development of dedicated platforms and methylation arrays resulted in an explo - sion of information on aberrantly methylated sequences linking devia...

  2. Baseline chromosome aberrations in children

    Merlo, D.F.; Ceppi, M.; Stagi, E.; Bocchini, V.; Šrám, Radim; Rössner st., Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 172, - (2007), s. 60-67. ISSN 0378-4274 Grant ostatní: EU(EU) 2002-02198; EU(EU) 2005-016320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : chromosome aberrations * children * molecular epidemiology Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2007

  3. Competition Strategies of Resources Between Stipa grandis and Cleistogenes squarrosa.Ⅰ.Morphological Response of Shoot and Root on Sulfur Supply%大针茅和糙隐子草对养分资源的竞争策略Ⅰ.根和茎对施硫和其他养分的形态学反应

    王艳芬; 汪诗平; 邢雪荣; 陈佐忠; Ewald SCHNUG; Silvia HANEKLAUS

    2004-01-01

    Effects of nutrients (compounds of macro- and micro-elements) supply without sulfur (T1)and with sulfur (T2) on the competition between Stipa grandis L. (C3) and Cleistogenes squarrosa L. (C4)were examined using a replacement series design in a greenhouse experiment over a period of 80 d. Blank treatment (nothing applied) (To) was conducted simultaneously. it seems to be no inter-competition between S. grandis and C. squarrosa in all treatments. There was also no intra-competition for S. grandis in all treatments, and for C. squarrosa under T0 treatment because of low productivity. However, the intra-competition of aboveground of C squarrosa was significant when nutrients were supplied regardless of sulfur (S) application. The interaction on dry weight of C. squarrosa per pot between S supply and proportion of C. squarrosa was observed. Under the treatments of T1 and T2 the shoot growth of S. grandis increased significantly compared with To treatment, but there was no significant difference between T1 and T2 treatments, indicating S had no effect on it. Root morphologies of S. grandis was not sensitive to nutrients added. Nutrients supply (T1 and T2 treatments) not only increased significantly the shoot growth of C. squarrosa, but also increased significantly its root growth. Sulfur increased significantly growth of the shoot and root of C. squarrosa. Nutrients supply decreased significantly ratio of root to shoot dry matter (RRS) of C. squarrosa regardless of S application, but the RRS of S. grandis was not affected by nutrients applied. Sulfur also decreased significantly the RRS of C. squarrosa in 100% and 75% proportions of C.squarrosa. The RRS of C. squarrosa was greater significantly in the 100% proportion than that in the 25% proportion of C. squarrosa for all treatments. Therefore, photosynthesis is more allocated to root in infertility soils than in fertility soils and the competition for nutrient resources stimulates root production.The degree of leaf

  4. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  5. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  6. Chromosomal aberrations and bone marrow toxicity.

    Heddle, J A; Salamone, M F

    1981-01-01

    The importance of chromosomal aberrations as a proximate cause of bone marrow toxicity is discussed. Since chemicals that can cause nondisjunction are rare, numerical aberrations (aneuploidy, polyploidy) are not ordinarily important. Many structural aberrations, however, can lead directly to cell death and so are proximate causes of toxicity when they occur. The micronucleus test which utilizes the polychromatic erythrocyte is capable of detecting agents (clastogens) that can cause such struc...

  7. Microdissection of shoot meristem functional domains.

    Lionel Brooks

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem (SAM maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection-microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1 or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1, a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

  8. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes th...

  9. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  11. Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical meristem

    Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Xianran; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Todt, Natalie; YANG, JINLIANG; Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiaoqing; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Yu, Jianming; Schnable, Patrick S.; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The maize shoot apical meristem (SAM) comprises a small pool of stem cells that generate all above-ground organs. Although mutational studies have identified genetic networks regulating SAM function, little is known about SAM morphological variation in natural populations. Here we report the use of high-throughput image processing to capture rich SAM size variation within a diverse maize inbred panel. We demonstrate correlations between seedling SAM size and agronomically important adult trai...

  12. Ready, aim, shoot: stem cell regulation of the shoot apical meristem.

    Soyars, Cara L; James, Sean R; Nimchuk, Zachary L

    2016-02-01

    Plant shoot meristems contain stem cells that are continuously renewed to replenish cells that exit and differentiate during lateral organ formation. Complex cell-to-cell signaling systems balance division and differentiation. These center on ligand-receptor networks, hormone pathways, and transcriptional regulators that function in an integrated manner. In this review, we aim to highlight new findings in shoot stem cell regulation across species. PMID:26803586

  13. Bullshot : sporting shooting, alcohol and the two cultures.

    Hillyard, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the role and function of alcohol in sporting shooting in the UK. It seeks to understand and critically comment upon alcohol consumption relating to this sport, to widen empirical knowledge of sporting shooting and to use the lens of alcohol to enhance our theoretical understanding of changes taking place in the global countryside. The paper contextualises the activity of sporting shooting by discussing the characteristics of game shooting participants and also the natur...

  14. Shoot Apical Meristem Organization in Several Philippine Species of Selaginella

    Prescillano Zamora; V. B. Bagaoisan-Cosico

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of two types of shoot apical meristem organization on the main and lateral shoots of eight Philippine species of Selaginella: (1) shoot apical meristem with a single lenticular apical cell in S. cupressina and S. delicatula and (a) shoot apical meristem with a row of several prominent prismatic apical cells in the lateral plane in S. jagorii, S. halconensis), S. involvens (S. polyura, S. peltata), S. flagellifera (S. biformis), S. nummulari...

  15. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies

  16. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies.

  17. Calculation of aberration coefficients by ray tracing

    Oral, Martin; Lencová, Bohumila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (2009), s. 1365-1373. ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Aberrations * Aberration coefficients * Ray tracing * Regression * Fitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2009

  18. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  19. Aberration compensation in charged particle projection lithography

    Projection systems offer the opportunity to increase the throughput for charged particle lithography, because such systems image a large area of a mask directly on to a wafer as a single shot. Shots have to be imaged over a certain range of off-axis distances at the wafer to increase the writing speed, because shot sizes are limited to about 0.25x0.25 mm2 due to aberrations. In a projection system with only lenses, however, the aberrations for off-axis shots are still very large, and some aberration compensation elements need to be introduced. In this paper, three aberration compensation elements (deflectors, stigmators and dynamic focus lenses) are first discussed, a suite of newly developed software, called PROJECTION, based on this principle and our unified aberration theory is then described, and an illustrative example computed with the software is finally given

  20. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  1. Higher-Order Aberrations in Myopic Eyes

    Farid Karimian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between refractive error and higher-order aberrations (HOAs in patients with myopic astigmatism. Methods: HOAs were measured using the Zywave II aberrometer over a 6 mm pupil. Correlations between HOAs and myopia, astigmatism, and age were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects with mean age of 26.4±5.9 years were studied. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error and refractive astigmatism were -4.94±1.63 D and 0.96±1.06 D, respectively. The most common higher-order aberration was primary horizontal trefoil with mean value of 0.069±0.152 μm followed by spherical aberration (-0.064±0.130 μm and primary vertical coma (-0.038±0.148 μm. As the order of aberration increased from third to fifth, its contribution to total HOA decreased: 53.9% for third order, 31.9% for fourth order, and 14.2% for fifth order aberrations. Significant correlations were observed between spherical equivalent refractive error and primary horizontal coma (R=0.231, P=0.022, and root mean square (RMS of spherical aberration (R=0.213, P=0.031; between astigmatism and RMS of total HOA (R=0.251, P=0.032, RMS of fourth order aberration (R=0.35, P<0.001, and primary horizontal coma (R=0.314, P=0.004. Spherical aberration (R=0.214, P=0.034 and secondary vertical coma (R=0.203, P=0.031 significantly increased with age. Conclusion: Primary horizontal trefoil, spherical aberration and primary vertical coma are the predominant higher-order aberrations in eyes with myopic astigmatism.

  2. Multiple Shooting in Rational Expectations Models

    David Lipton; James M. Poterba; Jeffrey Sachs; Summers, Lawrence H.

    1983-01-01

    This note describes an algorithm for the solution of rational expectations models with saddlepoint stability properties. The algorithm is based on the method of multiple shooting, which is widely used to solve mathematically similar problems in the physical sciences. Potential applications to economics include models of capital accumulation and valuation, money arid growth, exchange rate determination, and macroeconomic activity. In general, whenever an asset price incorporates information ab...

  3. Auxin at the Shoot Apical Meristem

    Vernoux, Teva; Besnard, Fabrice; Traas, Jan,

    2010-01-01

    Plants continuously generate new tissues and organs through the activity of populations of undifferentiated stem cells, called meristems. Here, we discuss the so-called shoot apical meristem (SAM), which generates all the aerial parts of the plant. It has been known for many years that auxin plays a central role in the functioning of this meristem. Auxin is not homogeneously distributed at the SAM and it is thought that this distribution is interpreted in terms of differential gene expression...

  4. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  5. Disruption of Nfic Causes Dissociation of Odontoblasts by Interfering With the Formation of Intercellular Junctions and Aberrant Odontoblast Differentiation

    Lee, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Seol; Kim, Hyun-Man; Ko, Jea Seung; Gronostajski, Richard M; Cho, Moon-Il; Son, Ho-Hyun; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    We reported previously that Nfic-deficient mice exhibit short and abnormal molar roots and severely deformed incisors. The objective of this study is to address the mechanisms responsible for these changes using morphological, IHC, and RT-PCR analysis. Nfic-deficient mice exhibited aberrant odontoblasts and abnormal dentin formation in molar roots and the labial crown analog of incisors. The most striking changes observed in these aberrant odontoblasts were the loss of intercellular junctions...

  6. Chromosomal induced aberrations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with gamma-irradiation, sodium azide and combined treatments

    The seeds of 2 varieties of common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) viz: USH-430 and KL-675 were treated to estimate the mutagenicity of both gamma-rays, sodium azide alone and in combination with a view to generate morphological macro-mutations and screen and ascertain the chromosomal aberrations followed by reduction of pollen fertility with increased doses. An attempt was made to know the genetic basis of the chromosomal aberrations. Such aberrations are a source of changes in the pattern of gene regulation at the time of differentiation leading to the formation of cultivars. (author)

  7. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  8. Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp nov and associated shoots from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jixi Basin, Heilongjiang, China

    Yang, X.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing (China). Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology

    2004-10-01

    Ginkgoalean leaves attributed to Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp. nov. and associated long and dwarf shoots were collected from the Lower Cretaceous coal-bearing Muling Formation of the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang, China. The common characteristic feature of the various leaves is the dense venation. The species may be distinguished from other known species of Ginkgoites from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of eastern Asia in having 8-18 closely arranged oblanceolate segments each with 6-16 veins. The fragmentary long and dwarf shoots are similar to those of extant Ginkgo biloba in gross morphology. They are considered to belong to the same tree as that which produced Ginkgoites myrioneurus.

  9. Effect of aberrations in vortex spatial filtering

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2012-11-01

    Edge enhancement is a very important operation in image processing and a spiral phase plate can be used as a radial Hilbert mask for isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper we analyze the effect of various Seidel aberrations on the performance of radial Hilbert mask or the vortex phase mask. The aberrated vortex phase mask is implemented optically with the help of a high resolution, spatial light modulator (SLM). It has also been shown that out of various aberrations astigmatism can introduce anisotropy in the Hilbert mask which causes selective edge enhancement.

  10. Plant regeneration via direct shoot organogenesis from cotyledon explants of Bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc.

    Koné, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc. is mainly grown for human consumption. However, several factors limit a wider adoption of the crop including the presence of antinutritional factors in the seeds that lower product quality and protein availability but also the plant susceptibility to pests and diseases. Tissue culture techniques are very scanty in Bambara groundnut and should be developed before carrying out genetic transformation for the crop improvement. Therefore, here, an efficient system for in vitro shoot induction from cotyledons derived from mature seeds has been established. Different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators were used to induce buds in embryo-free cotyledon explants. Cotyledons were cut transversally or longitudinally into three segments: proximal, middle and distal part. The influence of explant orientation on the medium, the type of segment and landrace has then been studied. Benzylaminopurine (3 mg·l-1 alone or combined with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.05 mg·l-1 induced multiple shoot formations. The organogenic potential was restricted to the proximal segment of cotyledons. Frequency of bud induction (30% and average number of buds per explant (12 were higher when the adaxial side of the proximal segment was in contact with the medium. Shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants of ten Bambara landraces revealed that the response is genotype-dependent with varieties Ci6, Ci2, Ci4 and Ci15 exhibiting 20 to 30% shoot regeneration and six to ten buds per explant. Regenerated shoot buds excised from explants were elongated and rooted on MS basal medium devoid of plant growth regulators. All rooted plantlets survived to the transfer on a sand soil mixture, and morphologically normal plants were hardened and transferred to greenhouse for further growth to maturity and seed set.

  11. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gondolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, res...

  12. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    Tromp, R.M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed.

  13. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed

  14. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale. - Highlights: • Demonstration of nanometre scale resolution in magnetic field free environment using aberration correction in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • Implementation of differential phase contrast mode of Lorentz microscopy in aberration corrected STEM with improved sensitivity. • Quantitative imaging of magnetic induction of nanostructures in amorphous and cross-section samples

  15. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  16. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  17. Aberrant right hepatic artery; A case report

    We present a rare case of aberrant hepatic artery in a 40-year-old male with a history of chronic cholecystitis. During laparoscopic surgery, the artery found to pass anterior to the body the gallbladder and bifurcating anterior to the gallbladder body. The surgery was un eventful. We present this anomaly of the rare condition of aberrant right hepatic artery which should be in mind during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, because inadverant injury could lead to massive bleeding and increase co morbidities. (author)

  18. Multiple shoot cultures of Atropa belladonna: Effect of physico-chemical factors on growth and alkaloid formation

    Multiple shoot cultures were established from shoot tip and axillary meristem of the plant Atropa belladonna. The cultures were initially raised on agar medium and subsequently maintained on liquid medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented with BA. These cultures were subjected to different doses of -y-irradiation. Recovery from the radiation effects was observed in tissues subjected to 29 Gy during four successive passages. Plant growth regulators influenced the growth and morphogenetic events of the tissues. The precursors of tropane alkaloids marginally increased the alkaloid synthesis during the stationary phase of growth. Shoot cultures, established from different field grown plants varying in alkaloid content, were morphologically similar and did not exhibit the parental characteristics with respect to alkaloid formation

  19. DIRECT IN VITRO SHOOTS PROLIFERATION OF CHICK PEA (CICER ARIETINUM L. FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS INDUCED BY THIDIAZURON

    Shaheena Parveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and efficient protocol for direct in vitro multiple shoot induction and plantlet regeneration was achieved from shoot tip explants of Cicer arietinum. The shoot tips were cultured on MS medium fortified with Thidiazuron (TDZ (1.0-7.0 mg/L for multiple shoot induction. Multiple shoots proliferation was best observed at 3.0 mg/L TDZ from the shoot tip explants within three weeks of culture. Shoot number per explant ranged between 2 and 10. Individual shoots were aseptically excised and sub cultured in the same media for shoot elongation. The elongated shoots were transferred to Indole Butyric Acid (IBA (1.0mg/L–5.0mg/L for root induction. Rooting was observed within two weeks of culture. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened under culture conditions and subsequently established in the field conditions. The recorded survival rate of the plants was 86%. Plants looked healthy with no visually detectable phenotypic variations.

  20. Translocation of labelled carbon in ramified peach shoots following 14CO2 assimilation by single primary leaves and secondary shoots

    The 5th, 11th, 20th and 28th primary leaves (counted from the tip downwards, not including the young unfolded leaves) of the rapidied peach shoots and secondary shoots situated on the 6th, 13th and 26 nodes on the central shoots of the peach cultivar Redhaven were fed with μC14CO2 at the time of vegetative tips of the central and secondary shoots were in a state of active growth. Results were scored using the method of autoradiography. It was established that 14C assimilates transport from the primary leaves toward the secondary shoots was favoured by two main factors: a) convenient phloem connection, and b) insufficient proper assimilates for the growth of secondary shoots. Vascular connection proved most convenient within the axial complex ''leaf-axilar shoot'' as well as between the 1st and the 6th node. Connection with the 4th leaf was comparatively good, with the third leaf it was considerably more inconvenient, while the 2nd and the 5th nodes were situated in a most unfavourable position in their relation to the 1st node. Eight to twelve leaves were necessary for a growing secondary shoot in order to be fully self sufficient. The rate of 14C assimilates translocation from the primary leaves toward the secondary shoots depended on the combination of the two above mentioned factors. Evidently the main function of the upper primary leaves was to supply the growing tips of the central and secondary shoots with photosynthesis. Transport from the lower leaves was directed exclusively toward the remified shoots' base and outwards. The young secondary shoots having no more than 8 mature leaves made use of their own and of imported assimilates, and at the same time exported certain quantities. Older secondary shoots were self-sufficient and exported assimilates. (author)

  1. The molecular path to in vitro shoot regeneration.

    Motte, Hans; Vereecke, Danny; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration through de novo shoot organogenesis in tissue culture is a critical step in most plant transformation and micropropagation procedures. Establishing an efficient regeneration protocol is an empirical process and requires optimization of multiple factors that influence the regeneration capacity. Here, we review the molecular process of shoot induction in a two-step regeneration protocol and focus on the role of auxins and cytokinins. First, during incubation on an auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM), organogenic callus is produced that exhibits characteristics of a root meristem. Subsequent incubation on a cytokinin-rich shoot induction medium (SIM) induces root to shoot conversion. Through a detailed analysis of the different aspects of shoot regeneration, we try to reveal hinge points and novel candidate genes that may be targeted to increase shoot regeneration capacity in order to improve transformation protocols. PMID:24355763

  2. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  3. Fruit bearing shoot characteristics of European plum (Prunus domestica L. and Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivars

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of fruit bearing shoots: length, number of flower buds and vegetative buds and their ratio were studied in 11 cultivars of European plum and 11 cultivars of Japanese plum during a two-year period. Fruit bearing shoots were divided into two groups: long (shoots and short (spurs. For all studied traits, statistically significant differences between plum cultivars were found. Japanese plums had lesser thickness and shorter internodes of shoots in relation to European plums. They also had a significantly higher number of flower buds both on shoots and spurs. Based on obtained results, recommendations for pruning can be made. Cultivars with a higher number of flower buds per 1-m length and in relation to vegetative buds, like most varieties of Japanese plum and some varieties of European plum ("Stanley", "Topper", "Top", "Topking", require severe pruning. On the other hand, cultivars with lower density of flower buds, such as "Čačanska rana" and "Golden Plum", can be pruned slightly.

  4. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  5. Shoot Apical Meristem Organization in Several Philippine Species of Selaginella

    Prescillano Zamora

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of two types of shoot apical meristem organization on the main and lateral shoots of eight Philippine species of Selaginella: (1 shoot apical meristem with a single lenticular apical cell in S. cupressina and S. delicatula and (a shoot apical meristem with a row of several prominent prismatic apical cells in the lateral plane in S. jagorii, S. halconensis, S. involvens (S. polyura, S. peltata, S. flagellifera (S. biformis, S. nummularia, S. aristata, and S. philippina (endemic.

  6. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Igawa Shoji; Sato Takeshi; Watanabe Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants) aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal) and shot timing. S...

  7. Studies on shoot and leaf characters of brinjal plants and their quantitative relationships with brinjal shoot and fruit borer

    Ahmad, H; Rahman, M.H.; Haque, K.S; K.S. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The field experiment was conducted with twenty brinjal varieties/lines during October 2007 to May 2008 to identify shoot and leaf characteristics of brinjal plants for their susceptibility/resistance against brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. Borer infestation was influenced by different characters of plant shoot and leaf. Various parameters like plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and leaves plant-1, third leaf length and width were recorded from different varieties used....

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice Shoots Exposed to High Arsenate

    Yanli Liu; Ming Li; Chao Han; Fengxia Wu; Bingkun Tu; Pingfang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cereals is a serious threat to humans all over the world. Rice (Oryza sativa“Nipponbare”), as a main cereal crop, can accumulate arsenic more than 10-fold that of in other cereals. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of rice subjected to 100 mM arsenate stress, a comparative proteomic analysis of rice shoots in combination with morphological and biochemical investigations have been performed in this study. The results demonstrated that arsenate suppressed the growth of rice seedlings, destroyed the cellular ultra-structure and changed the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a total of 38 differentially displayed proteins, which were mainly involved in metabolism, redox and protein-metabolism, were identified. The data suggest the arsenic can inhibit rice growth through negatively affecting chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. In addition, upregulation of the proteins involved in redox and protein metabolism might help the rice to be resistant or tolerant to arsenic toxicity. In general, this study improves our understanding about the rice arsenic responsive mechanism.

  9. Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

  10. X-ray induction of mitotic and meiotic chromosome aberrations

    In 1964 six pairs of rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) were obtained from Australia. The tissues of these animals were used to initiate cell lines. Since this species has a low chromosome number of six pairs, each pair with its own distinctive morphology, it is particularly favorable for cytogenetic research. In cell cultures derived from the corneal endothelial tissues of one animal there emerged a number of haploid cells. The number of haploid cells in the cultures reached as high as 20% of the total mitotic configurations. The in vitro diploid and haploid mixture cell cultures could be a resemblance or a coincidence to the mixture existence of the diploid primary spermatocytes and the haploid secondary spermatocytes (gametes) in the in vivo testicular tissues of the male animals. It would be interesting to compare reactions of the haploid and diploid cell mixture, either in the cultures or in the testes, to x-ray exposure. Two other studies involving x-ray effects on Chinese hamster oocyte maturation and meiotic chromosomes and the x-ray induction of Chinese hamster spermatocyte meiotic chromosome aberrations have been done in this laboratory. A review of these three studies involving diploid and haploid chromosomes may lead to further research in the x-ray induction of chromosome aberrations

  11. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf of Uenishiwase Persimmon

    MA Jun-lian; LIU Xiao-na; ZHANG Zi-de

    2004-01-01

    Effects of basal mediums, hormones and their concentrations on the shoot regeneration from leaf of sweet persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. Cv. Uenishiwase) were studied by orthogonal design trial. The result showed that modified Murashige and Skoog [MS (1/2 N)] was the most optimum for the regeneration and 1/2 MS was better than MS. Shoot percentage in the medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT(zeatin) was much higher than that of other two concentrations, among which 2.0 mg L-1 ZT was much better than 1.0 mg L-1 ZT and shoot percentage in the concentration of 1.0 mg L-1 ZT was only 4%. There were no any beneficial effects when supplementing IAA in the medium. Shoot percentage and average shoots perexplantsweredramaticallydecreasedinthe 2.0 mg L-1 IAA. Data in the orthogonal trial indicated that ZT was the most effective factor in the shoot regenerating of Uenishwase persimmon and basal medium was important too, but IAAhad no any beneficial effects at all. In the orthogonal trial, the best result was achieved in MS (1/ 2 N) medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT and 1.0 mg L-1 IAA, in which shoot percentage and average shoots per explants were 86% and 2.2, respectively.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  13. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    Sachs, R.K.; Tarver, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics); Yates, B.L.; Morgan, W.F. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G[sub 1] Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author).

  14. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G1 Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author)

  15. Estimation of dose from chromosome aberration rate

    The methods and skills of evaluating dose from correctly scored shromsome aberration rate are presented, and supplemented with corresponding BASIC computer code. The possibility and preventive measures of excessive probability of missing score of the aberrations in some of the current routine score methods are discussed. The use of dose-effect relationship with exposure time correction factor G in evaluating doses and their confidence intervals, dose estimation in mixed n-γ exposure, and identification of high by nonuniform acute exposure to low LET radiation and its dose estimation are discussed in more detail. The difference of estimated dose due to whether the interaction between subleisoms produced by n and γ have been taken into account is examined. In fitting the standard dose-aberration rate curve, proper weighing of experiment points and comparison with commonly accepted values are emphasised, and the coefficient of variation σy√y of the aberration rate y as a function of dose and exposure time is given. In appendix I and II, the dose-aberration rate formula is derived from dual action theory, and the time variation of subleisom is illustrated and in appendix III, the estimation of dose from scores of two different types of aberrations (of other related score) is illustrated. Two computer codes are given in appendix IV, one is a simple code, the other a complete code, including the fitting of standard curve. the skills of using compressed data storage, and the production of simulated 'data ' for testing the curve fitting procedure are also given

  16. Variants of Digitalis obscura from irradiated shoot tips

    Shoot tips excised from genotype T4 of Digitalis obscura were exposed to gamma rays (20–100 Gy). Radiosensitivity was assessed and LD50 determined was about 60 Gy. The effect of the herbicide amitrole on shoot-tip culture was investigated, efficient bleaching was obtained with 10 mg/l amitrole. Shoot tips mutagenized (20–40 Gy) were cultured on several selective amitrole-containing media, but none of them permitted prolonged survival of the green shoots formed. Ploidy level of the plantlets developed was analysed by flow cytometry 8 and 18 months after culture establishment. Variations detected corresponded to aneuploid changes and increased in parallel with the gamma radiation dose. Plantlets developed from irradiated shoot tips presented a high variability in their cardenolide production (878 to 3291 μg/g d.w.), including variants with similar or even higher productivities than the native T4 plant. (author)

  17. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  18. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  19. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m-2. Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  20. Determination of chromatic aberration in the human eye by means of Fresnel propagation theory

    Mas Candela, David; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Illueca Contri, Carlos; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen; Miret Marí, Juan José

    2005-01-01

    In this communication, the authors have determined the longitudinal chromatic aberrations in real eyes. The method that has been used combines real data of corneal morphology, central thickness of crystalline lens and biometric measures of axial length together with numerical calculation of the propagation process. The curvature of the crystalline lens has been adjusted to different curvature models and refractive index distributions. The wavelength dependence of all ocular media has been mod...

  1. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies

  2. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  3. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    Hawkes, P.W., E-mail: peter.hawkes@cemes.fr

    2015-09-15

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies.

  4. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation

  5. Prenatal hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels

    Lenz, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    With routine use of obstetric ultrasonography, fetal low-grade hydronephrosis is commonly detected, but may resolve spontaneously after birth. Two cases are presented to illustrate that in some cases such findings can express intermittent hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels. Renal det...

  6. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  7. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation

  8. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  9. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U-14C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U-14C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  10. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  11. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia × candida Pers

    Randall P. Niedz; Evens, Terence J.; Hyndman, Scott E.; Adkins, Scott; Chellemi, Daniel O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida ‘Creamsickle’. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4+, NO3−, K+, FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weight of shoot mass, and shoot number. The experiment to determine the levels of NH4+, NO3−, and K+, was conducted as a 2-component NH4+: K+ mixture crossed by [NO3−] and resulted in an experimental de...

  12. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  13. Electro-Hydrodynamic Shooting Phenomenon of Liquid Metal Stream

    Fang, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We reported an electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream. A small voltage direct current electric field would induce ejection of liquid metal inside capillary tube and then shooting into sodium hydroxide solution to form discrete droplets. The shooting velocity has positive relationship with the applied voltage while the droplet size is dominated by the aperture diameter of the capillary nozzle. Further, the motion of the liquid metal droplets can be flexibly manipulated by the electrodes. This effect suggests an easy going way to generate metal droplets in large quantity, which is important from both fundamental and practical aspects.

  14. Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.

    López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin. PMID:24747671

  15. Adaptive and aberrant reward prediction signals in the human brain.

    Roiser, J.P.; Stephan, K.E.; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Friston, K.J.; Joyce, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Theories of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia hypothesize a role for aberrant reinforcement signaling driven by dysregulated dopamine transmission. Recently, we provided evidence of aberrant reward learning in symptomatic, but not asymptomatic patients with schizophrenia, using a novel paradigm

  16. The effect of irradiation on the cell ultrastructure of the shoot apical meristem in garlic

    Irradiation with doses of 0.02-0.3 kGy of γ-rays could cause varied damages to the cellular and subcellular structures of the shoot apical meristems in garlic. The irradiated cells were elongated and cell walls were thickened. The highest radio-sensitivity was found in the vacuoles which developed morphological abnormality before the end of dormancy, while the nuclei and nucleoli, which remained intact even after the cell walls were broken, demonstrated the highest resistance to irradiation. The observed morphological damages were of higher magnitude in sprouting period than that in dormancy in which irradiation treatments were conducted, suggesting that metabolism plays an important role in the development of initial irradiation lesions into structural damages in the cells

  17. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  18. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Izabela Grzegorczyk; Ireneusz Bilichowski; Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik; Halina Wysokińska

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid) in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP). It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots s...

  19. Application of Monte Carlo Simulations to Improve Basketball Shooting Strategy

    Min, Byeong June

    2016-01-01

    The underlying physics of basketball shooting seems to be a straightforward example of the Newtonian mechanics that can easily be traced by numerical methods. However, a human basketball player does not make use of all the possible basketball trajectories. Instead, a basketball player will build up a database of successful shots and select the trajectory that has the greatest tolerance to small variations of the real world. We simulate the basketball player's shooting training as a Monte Carlo sequence to build optimal shooting strategies, such as the launch speed and angle of the basketball, and whether to take a direct shot or a bank shot, as a function of the player's court positions and height. The phase space volume that belongs to the successful launch velocities generated by Monte Carlo simulations are then used as the criterion to optimize a shooting strategy that incorporates not only mechanical, but human factors as well.

  20. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    Arie Zeichner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  1. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    Arie Zeichner; Baruch Glattstein

    2002-01-01

    A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  2. LAX and SPA: Major regulators of shoot branching in rice

    Komatsu, Keishi; Maekawa, Masahiko; Ujiie, Shin; Satake, Yuzuki; Furutani, Ikuyo; Okamoto, Hironobu; Shimamoto, Ko; Kyozuka, Junko

    2003-01-01

    The aerial architecture of plants is determined primarily by the pattern of shoot branching. Although shoot apical meristem initiation during embryogenesis has been extensively studied by molecular genetic approaches using Arabidopsis, little is known about the genetic mechanisms controlling axillary meristem initiation, mainly because of the insufficient number of mutants that specifically alter it. We identified the LAX PANICLE (LAX) and SMALL PANICLE (SPA) genes as the main regulators of a...

  3. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  4. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Stojičić Dragana; Budimir Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA) were compared to those of untreated control...

  5. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  6. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Sawchuk, Megan G.; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  7. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices.

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Waldie, Tanya; Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin; Leyser, Ottoline

    2016-04-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  8. The correction of electron lens aberrations.

    Hawkes, P W

    2015-09-01

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. PMID:26025209

  9. Aberrant laryngeal location of Onchocerca lupi in a dog.

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Cruz, Luís; Coelho, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Mansinho, Mário; Annoscia, Giada; Lia, Riccardo P; Giannelli, Alessio; Otranto, Domenico; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2016-06-01

    Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is an emerging vector-borne helminth that causes nodular lesions associated with acute or chronic ocular disease in dogs and cats. Since its first description in dogs in 1991, this zoonotic filarioid has been increasingly reported in Europe and the United States. An 8-year-old outdoor mixed-breed female dog from the Algarve (southern Portugal) was presented with a history of severe dyspnoea. Cervical and thoracic radiographs revealed a slight reduction in the diameter of the cervical trachea and a moderate increase in radiopacity of the laryngeal soft tissue. An exploratory laryngoscopy was performed, revealing filiform worms associated with stenosis of the thyroid cartilage and a purulent necrotic tissue in the larynx lumen. A single sessile nodule, protruding from the dorsal wall of the laryngeal lumen caused a severe reduction of the glottis and tracheal diameter. Fragments of the worms were morphologically and molecularly identified as O. lupi. Histological examination of the nodule showed a granulomatous reaction with sections of coiled gravid female nematodes. Following laryngoscopy, a tracheostomy tube was inserted to relieve dyspnoea and ivermectin (300μg/kg, once a week, for 8weeks) combined with prednisolone was prescribed. The dog showed a complete recovery. Although O. lupi has been isolated in human patients from the spinal cord, this is the first report of an aberrant migration of O. lupi in a dog. The veterinary medical community should pay attention to aberrant location of O. lupi and consider onchocercosis as a differential diagnosis for airway obstruction in dogs. PMID:26732654

  10. Do patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant salience?

    Roiser, J. P.; Stephan, K E; den Ouden, H. E. M.; Barnes, T. R. E.; Friston, K.J.; Joyce, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that some psychotic symptoms reflect ‘aberrant salience’, related to dysfunctional reward learning. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia showed impaired learning of task-relevant stimulusreinforcement associations in the presence of distracting task-irrelevant cues. METHODS: We tested 20 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 17 controls on a reaction time game, the Salience Attribution Test. In this game, ...

  11. Tailored displays to compensate for visual aberrations

    Pamplona, Vitor F.; Oliveira, Manuel M.; Aliaga, Daniel G.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    We introduce tailored displays that enhance visual acuity by decomposing virtual objects and placing the resulting anisotropic pieces into the subject's focal range. The goal is to free the viewer from needing wearable optical corrections when looking at displays. Our tailoring process uses aberration and scattering maps to account for refractive errors and cataracts. It splits an object's light field into multiple instances that are each in-focus for a given eye sub-aperture. Their integrati...

  12. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience

    Kristin Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  13. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation. PMID:23179712

  14. Surveys of harvest technology of winter bamboo shoots

    LIU Tian-hu

    2011-01-01

    Winter bamboo shoots are widely used in Asian cuisine. We surveyed growth depth (tail depth and root depth), harvest speed, and harvest processes to provide information for developing new harvest technology. The tail depth of most winter bamboo shoots was 100-350 mm below the soil surface, and the root depth was 200-500 mm below the soil surface. Most winter bamboo shoots were difficult to locate with only the naked eye. The digging depth was 200-500 mm to cut winter bamboo shoots from the root. The highest harvest rate was 7.75 times faster than the slowest one and the average harvest speed ratio of men: women was about 1.71:1. The harvest process of winter bamboo shoots was divisible into three steps: searching, digging a hole (around the shoot) and cutting the root. The ratio of searching time to the sum of digging and cutting time was about 8:1, showing that searching required more time than digging and cutting together.

  15. Transport of rubidium and strontium in detached wheat shoots

    Rb is easily translocated in xylem and phloem (similar to K), while Sr is mobile in the xylem but rather immobile in the phloem. Wheat shoots from the field were cut 1 week after ear emergence below or above the uppermost node and incubated for 3 days standing in flasks with 2 mM rubidium chloride + 2 mM strontium chloride. In some plants the phloem flux to the ear was interrupted by steam-girdling below the ear. Rb and Sr were analyzed in the different parts of the shoots by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Rb content in the ear depended remarkably on the treatment: 0.139 mg/ear were detected in shoots cut below the node (A), 0.015 mg/ear in shoots cut above the node (B), 0.019 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node after removing the flag leaf spread (C) and only 0.001 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node and steam-girdled below the ear (D). The Sr content was not drastically affected by these treatments: 0.278 (a), 0.317 (b), 0.356 (C) and 0.214 (D) mg/ear. These results suggest that Rb was transferred from the xylem to the phloem and translocated mainly with the phloem stream to the ear

  16. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  17. Group morphology

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  18. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  19. Radiotherapeutical chromosomal aberrations in laryngeal cancer patients

    Stošić-Divjak Svetlana L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The authors present the results of cytogenetic analysis of 21 patients with laryngeal carcinomas diagnosed and treated in the period 1995-2000 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia and Clinical Center of Novi Sad. Material and methods. The patients were specially monitored and the material was analyzed at the Institute of Human Genetics of the School of Medicine in Belgrade as well as in the Laboratory for Radiological Protection of the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health 'Dr Dragomir Karajovic' in Belgrade. Results. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations and incidence of exchange of material between sister chromatids were observed in the preparation of the metaphasic lymphocyte chromosomes of the peripheral blood obtained in the culture. Structural aberrations were found on the chromosomes in the form of breakups, rings, translocations and dicentrics as early as after a single exposure of patients to tumor radiation dose of 2 Gy in the field sized 5x7. Out of the total number of 35 cultivated blood samples obtained from 13 patients, 21 were successfully cultivated and they were proved to contain chromosomal aberrations. Some of the peripheral blood samples failed to show cell growth in vitro due to the lethal cell damages in vivo. Discussion.. We have consluded that the number of structural aberrations cannot be used as a biological measure of the absorbed ionizing radiation dose. The presence of aberrations per se is indicative of the mutagenic effect of the ionizing radiation, which was also confirmed in our series on the original model by cultivation of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in the culture of the cells of the volunteer donors upon in vitro radiation. Using the method of bromdeoxyuridylreductase, the increased incidence of SCE as a mutagenic effect was registered. Conclusion. It has been concluded that the increase of absorbed radiation dose in

  20. Chromatic variation of aberration: the role of induced aberrations and raytrace direction

    Berner, A.; Nobis, T.; Shafer, D.; Gross, H.

    2015-09-01

    The design and optimization process of an optical system contains several first order steps. The definition of the appropriate lens type and the fixation of the raytrace direction are some of them. The latter can be understood as a hidden assumption rather than an aware design step. This is usually followed by the determination of the paraxial lens layout calculated for the primary wavelength. It is obvious, that for this primary wavelength the paraxial calculations are independent of raytrace direction. Today, most of the lens designs are specified not to work only for one wavelength, but in a certain wavelength range. Considering such rays of other wavelengths, one can observe that depending on the direction there will already occur differences in the first order chromatic aberrations and additionally in the chromatic variation of the third-order aberrations. The reason for this effect are induced aberrations emerging from one surface to the following surfaces by perturbed ray heights and ray angles. It can be shown, that the total amount of surface-resolved first order chromatic aberrations and the chromatic variation of the five primary aberrations can be split into an intrinsic part and an induced part. The intrinsic part is independent of the raytrace direction whereas the induced part is not.

  1. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Septennial ionahta

    Zhou, L.B. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn; Li, W.J. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, S. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, X.C. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, L.X. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Q. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, G.M. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, Q.X. [Institute of Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Southern Tianshui Road 222, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2006-03-15

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  2. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta

    Zhou, L. B.; Li, W. J.; Ma, S.; Dong, X. C.; Yu, L. X.; Li, Q.; Zhou, G. M.; Gao, Q. X.

    2006-03-01

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  3. Convergences and divergences in polar auxin transport and shoot development in land plant evolution

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2009-01-01

    A shoot is a reiterated structure consisting of stems and leaves and is the prevailing body plan in most land plant lineages. Vascular plants form shoots in the diploid generation, whereas mosses do so in the haploid generation.1 However, whether these plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development and how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved is not clear. In our recent paper,2 we examined polar auxin transport in several mosses, which is essential for shoot develo...

  4. Signals flowing from mature tissues to shoot apical meristem affect phyllotaxis in coniferous shoot.

    Beata Zagórska-Marek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Axial homodromy in growing shoots of perennial plants with spiral phyllotaxis is the case when the chirality of phyllotactic pattern does not change in consecutive growth increments of the same axis. In conifers such as Picea or Abies this rule is strictly observed, except for the rare cases of discontinuous phyllotactic transitions. In Torreya, however, the chirality changes, at random, every year. The pattern of primordia packing, executed by vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM, depends in Torreya on their identity. The primordia of bud scales are initiated in the decussate and those of needles in bijugate spiral pattern. The decussate, achiral i.e. neutral pattern always precedes the formation of new spiral pattern and thus facilitates random selection of its chiral configuration. Periodic change in organ identity cannot itself be responsible for the special behavior of Torreya, because in other conifers it also exists. There is, however, one important difference: in Torreya, when the initiation of bud scales begins at SAM, the distance between differentiated protoxylem and the initiation site gradually increases, while in other conifers it remains constant and small. In Torreya, at this phase of development, the rate of xylem differentiation and the rate of organogenesis become uncoupled. Closer anatomical examination shows that the decussate pattern in a bud scale zone develops slowly suggesting gradual decrease of the putative signal flowing acropetally from differentiated protoxylem, responsible for positioning of primordia. We hypothesize that in the absence of this signal SAM starts acting autonomously, distributing primordia according to their identity only. A constant presence of the signal in other conifers assures the continuation of the same phyllotactic pattern throughout the period of bud scale formation, despite the change in organ identity.

  5. Mathematical morphology

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  6. Genomic copy number analysis of a spectrum of blue nevi identifies recurrent aberrations of entire chromosomal arms in melanoma ex blue nevus.

    Chan, May P; Andea, Aleodor A; Harms, Paul W; Durham, Alison B; Patel, Rajiv M; Wang, Min; Robichaud, Patrick; Fisher, Gary J; Johnson, Timothy M; Fullen, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Blue nevi may display significant atypia or undergo malignant transformation. Morphologic diagnosis of this spectrum of lesions is notoriously difficult, and molecular tools are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy. We studied copy number aberrations in a cohort of cellular blue nevi, atypical cellular blue nevi, and melanomas ex blue nevi using Affymetrix's OncoScan platform. Cases with sufficient DNA were analyzed for GNAQ, GNA11, and HRAS mutations. Copy number aberrations were detected in 0 of 5 (0%) cellular blue nevi, 3 of 12 (25%) atypical cellular blue nevi, and 6 of 9 (67%) melanomas ex blue nevi. None of the atypical cellular blue nevi displayed more than one aberration, whereas complex aberrations involving four or more regions were seen exclusively in melanomas ex blue nevi. Gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms were identified in four of five melanomas ex blue nevi with copy number aberrations. In particular, gains of 1q, 4p, 6p, and 8q, and losses of 1p and 4q were each found in at least two melanomas. Whole chromosome aberrations were also common, and represented the sole finding in one atypical cellular blue nevus. When seen in melanomas, however, whole chromosome aberrations were invariably accompanied by partial aberrations of other chromosomes. Three melanomas ex blue nevi harbored aberrations, which were absent or negligible in their precursor components, suggesting progression in tumor biology. Gene mutations involving GNAQ and GNA11 were each detected in two of eight melanomas ex blue nevi. In conclusion, copy number aberrations are more common and often complex in melanomas ex blue nevi compared with cellular and atypical cellular blue nevi. Identification of recurrent gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms in melanomas ex blue nevi suggests that development of new probes targeting these regions may improve detection and risk stratification of these lesions. PMID:26743478

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  8. In vitro Flowering of Shoots Regenerated from Cultured Nodal Explants

    Kantamaht KANCHANAPOOM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for the regeneration of Gypsophila paniculata L. using nodal explants from 2-month-old field grown plants was established. The induction of multiple shoots was best obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 13.3 μM BA. Callus growth was observed on MS medium containing 44.3 μM BA. Calluses were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (4.5, 13.5, 22.6 μM, NAA (5.3, 16.1, 26.8 μM or BA (4.4, 13.3, 22.1 μM for 2 months to induce shoot formation. After 6 weeks of initial culture, multiple shoots were regenerated from calluses cultured on MS medium supplemented with 13.3 μM BA. All regenerated shoots produced roots on 16.1 μM NAA containing MS medium within 4 weeks. Rooted plantlets were hardened and established in pots at 100% survival. For induction of in vitro flowering, regenerated shoots could be induced to flower efficiently when cultured on MS medium containing 13.3 μM BA and 50 g/l sucrose.

  9. The relationship between basketball shooting kinematics, distance and playing position.

    Miller, S; Bartlett, R

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional cinematography (100 Hz) was used to establish the relationship between distance and the kinematics of shooting with respect to playing position in basketball. Fifteen subjects, divided into guards, forwards and centres (all n = 5), performed jump shots from each of three distances: 2.74, 4.57 and 6.40 m from the basket. Increases in mean release speed were found as shooting distance increased for all groups. This was due to increased angular velocities of both shoulder flexion and elbow extension and an increased speed of the centre of mass in the direction of the basket. Release angles for the two shorter distances (52-55 degrees) tended to provide the advantage of a steep angle of entry into the basket, whereas those at the longest distance (48-50 degrees) were closer to those requiring the minimum possible release speed. All groups exhibited an earlier timing of release as shooting distance increased, which gave rise to an earlier rotation of the shoulder axis. The more consistent changes in kinematic patterns with changes in shooting distance exhibited by guards as compared to centres would suggest that such adjustments are easier to make for those players who regularly shoot from long range. PMID:8809716

  10. Cryopreservation of citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery.

    Volk, Gayle M; Bonnart, Remi; Krueger, Robert; Lee, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and citrus wild species within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have identified a cryopreservation method by which Citrus genetic resources that are not maintained in vitro can be successfully conserved. Shoot tips were excised from actively growing vegetative flushes of protected trees. Surface-disinfected shoot tips were precultured overnight in 0.3 M sucrose, loaded with a loading solution for 20 min and treated with PVS2 for 30 or 60 min at 0 degree C, prior to direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Rewarmed shoot tips post-cultured overnight on survival medium were then micrografted on 'Carrizo' seedling rootstocks to produce whole plants. Micrografted shoot tips recovered quickly and rooted plants could be transferred to the greenhouse within months. Regrowth of whole plants after micrografting averaged 53 percent for cryopreserved shoot tips of cultivars representing eight Citrus and Fortunella species. This method has several advantages: it uses screenhouse or greenhouse plants as source materials, it is not dependent upon cultivar-specific recovery media, and it avoids seedling juvenility. PMID:23250401

  11. Aberrant splicing and drug resistance in AML.

    de Necochea-Campion, Rosalia; Shouse, Geoffrey P; Zhou, Qi; Mirshahidi, Saied; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has unveiled a new window into the heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, recurrent mutations in spliceosome machinery and genome-wide aberrant splicing events have been recognized as a prominent component of this disease. This review will focus on how these factors influence drug resistance through altered splicing of tumor suppressor and oncogenes and dysregulation of the apoptotic signaling network. A better understanding of these factors in disease progression is necessary to design appropriate therapeutic strategies recognizing specific alternatively spliced or mutated oncogenic targets. PMID:27613060

  12. Morphological traits and yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. genotypes with varying inflorescence length

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two red clover breeding strains with elongated flower heads, developed by one of the authors (H.Góral, were studied for forage and seed yield and compared to the standard cultivar 'Nike'. In addition, six morphological shoot traits were measured and their interrelations were computed. The leaf area index (LAI of successive cuts in two harvest years was determined on the basis of shoot density and leaf area of individual shoots. All three genotypes exhibited a high leaf area on shoots and a very high forage productivity. Among the morphological traits only shoot height could be a good selective criterion because it is easily measured, is significantly associated with shoot weight and shoot leaf area and its variation is low. Both strains, particularly the one with longer inflorescences belong to short-lived red clover forms giving satis factory forage and seed yields in the first harvest year. Depending on the strain the number of seeds per elongated inflorescence in the first harvest year was higher by 92 and 42% compared to that of a standard cultivar.

  13. A Morphological and Quantitative Characterization of Early Floral Development in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

    Foster, Toshi; JOHNSTON, ROBYN; SELEZNYOVA, ALLA

    2003-01-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized....

  14. Efficient in vitro direct shoot organogenesis and regeneration of fertile plants from embryo explants of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.).

    Lacroix, B; Assoumou, Y; Sangwan, R S

    2003-08-01

    An efficient protocol has been developed for direct shoot organogenesis from embryo axes derived from mature seeds of two different landraces of Bambara groundnut. Multiple shoots were initiated on several media containing different concentrations and combinations of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ). Efficient regeneration occurred when the embryo axes were first plated for 6 days on a medium containing high concentrations of BAP (1 mg/l) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 1 mg/l) and then cut transversely and transferred onto a medium containing 1.5 mg/l BAP. Shoot regeneration frequency was 100% and from five to eight shoots per explant were obtained. The importance of using embryo explants and cytokinins in the culture media, with respect to controlling the development of a highly organogenic system, was demonstrated. Histological studies revealed that proliferating buds originated directly from the superficial layers of the explants without an intermediate callus phase. The regenerated shoots were rooted on a medium containing 1 mg/l NAA and then transferred to the greenhouse. Flow cytometric analyses and chloroplast counts of guard cells suggested that the regenerants were diploid. All were morphologically normal and fertile. The short duration, high efficiency and low frequency of somaclonal variation of this system make it well suited for wider biotechnological applications of Bambara groundnut-a neglected and under-utilized crop. PMID:12910367

  15. Somatic embryogenesis and massive shoot regeneration from immature embryo explants of tef.

    Gugsa, Likyelesh; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Tef (Eragrostis tef) provides a major source of human nutrition in the Horn of Africa, but biotechnology has had little impact on its improvement to date. Here, we report the elaboration of an in vitro regeneration protocol, based on the use of immature zygotic embryos as explant. Explant size was an important determinant of in vitro regeneration efficiency, as was the formulation of the culture medium. Optimal results were obtained by culturing 0.2-0.35 mm embryo explants on a medium containing KBP minerals, 9.2-13.8 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6 mM glutamine, and 0.5% Phytagel. Although this protocol was effective for both the improved cultivar "DZ-01-196" and the landrace "Fesho", the former produced consistently more embryogenic tissue and a higher number of regenerants. An average of more than 2,800 shoots could be obtained from each "DZ-01-196" explant after 12 weeks of in vitro culture. These shoots readily formed roots, and plantlets transferred to soil were able to develop into morphologically normal, fertile plants. This regeneration and multiplication system should allow for the application of a range of biotechnological methods to tef. PMID:22028975

  16. Sensitivity of singular beams in the presence of Zernike aberrations

    Dixit, Awakash; Mishra, Sanjay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Singular beams in the presence of Zernike aberrations create an opportunity for various applications such as trapping and manipulation of micro-particles, atomic optics and atmospheric optics. In the milieu of importance of the role of aberrations, sensitivity of singular beams with Zernike aberrations is studied. In this paper, the effect of various Zernike aberrations on a singular beam is reported in terms of its Point Spread Function (PSF) deformations. The intensity distributions around the focal plane, i.e. PSF, of the singular beam of various topological charges and in the presence of different strengths of Zernike aberrations are theoretically estimated by the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral. Experimentally, the singular beams have been generated and known strengths of Zernike aberration introduced in the beam by a phase-only Spatial Light Modulator. Metric Ensquared Energy is used to analyze the PSF of the corresponding intensity distributions of the singular beams. The experimental results have been validated with numerical simulation.

  17. Light signaling and the phytohormonal regulation of shoot growth.

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-12-01

    Shoot growth of dicot plants is rigorously controlled by the interactions of environmental cues with several groups of phytohormones. The signaling effects of light on shoot growth are of special interest, as both light irradiance and light quality change rapidly throughout the day, causing profound changes in stem elongation and leaf area growth. Among the several dicot species examined, we have focused on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) because its shoots are robust and their growth is highly plastic. Sunflower shoots thus constitute an ideal tissue for assessing responses to both light irradiance and light quality signals. Herein, we discuss the possible roles of gibberellins, auxin, ethylene, cytokinins and brassinosteroids in mediating the stem elongation and leaf area growth that is induced by shade light. To do this we uncoupled the plant's responses to changes in the red to far-red [R/FR] light ratio from its responses to changes in irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation [PAR]. Reducing each of R/FR light ratio and PAR irradiance results in increased sunflower stem elongation. However, the plant's response for leaf area growth differs considerably, with a low R/FR ratio generally promoting leaf area growth, whereas low irradiance PAR inhibits it. The increased stem elongation that occurs in response to lowering R/FR ratio and PAR irradiance is accomplished at the expense of leaf area growth. In effect, the low PAR irradiance signal overrides the low R/FR ratio signal in shade light's control of leaf growth and development. Three hormone groups, gibberellins, auxin and ethylene are directly involved in regulating these light-mediated shoot growth changes. Gibberellins and auxin function as growth promoters, with auxin likely acting as an up-regulator of gibberellin biosynthesis. Ethylene functions as a growth-inhibitor and probably interacts with gibberellins in regulating both stem and leaf growth of the sunflower shoot. PMID:25443853

  18. Aberrations caused by mechanical misalignments in electrostatic quadrupole lens systems

    Baranova, L. A.; Read, F. H.

    Image aberrations resulting from small misalignments in quadrupole lenses multiplets have been analysed. Analytical formulas for the coefficients of the beam displacement, astigmatism and coma associated with misalignments in a general quadrupole lens system have been derived. Numerical computations of systems of three and four quadrupole lenses have also been carried out. The aberration figures obtained for systems with and without a mechanical defect are compared. The aberration coefficients that have been obtained can be used for estimating tolerance limits for lens misalignments.

  19. Calculation of aberration of electron gun in color picture tubes

    In a color picture tube, aberration is an important factor influencing the electron beam spot on the screen. This paper discusses a new method which is used to calculate the aberration of an electron gun in a CPT. In this method, electron trajectories are simulated directly in the cathode and the pre-focus lens. In the main lens, the asymptotic aberration is calculated to decide the size of the image. Some results of the calculation are shown in this paper. (orig.)

  20. Monitoring of chromosomal aberrations in natural populations of Pinus pallasiana

    V. P. Koba

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of monitoring research of the chromosome aberrations at the stage of anaphase-telophase. The statistical characteristics of dynamics of chromosomal aberrations in populations of Pinus pallasiana D. Don across the high-altitude zones of the Mountain Crimea is given. It is established that on the southern macroslope of the Crimean Main Ridge the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the P. pallasiana stands is higher in the lower zone in comparison with the mid...

  1. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    Saeedeh Ghazaey; Farzaneh Mirzaei; Mitra Ahadian; Fatemeh Keifi; Semiramis Tootian; Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in K...

  2. Hydronephrosis by an Aberrant Renal Artery: A Case Report

    Park, Byoung Seok; Jeong, Taek Kyun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2003-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is usually intrinsic and is most common in children. Aberrant renal arteries are present in about 30% of individuals. Aberrant renal arteries to the inferior pole cross anteriorly to the ureter and may cause hydronephrosis. To the best of our knowledge, although there are some papers about aberrant renal arteries producing ureteropelvic junction obstruction, there is no report of a case which is diagnosed by the new modalities, such as computed tomography an...

  3. Chromosomal aberrations in children exposed to diagnostic x-rays

    Among children who have received high x-ray doses congenital dislocation of the hip joint is the predominating diagnosis. In a series of 9 children who had received high x-ray doses (8 with luxation of the hip joint and one with achondroplasia) a significant increase of chromosomal aberrations was found. The increase concerned mainly chromosome type aberrations. The shorter the time since the last x-ray investigation the higher was the frequency of chromosome type aberrations. (author)

  4. Algorithm on robot soccer pass and shoot a ball

    2001-01-01

    Introduces of robot soccer's competition software of Harbin Institute of Technology(HIT), the con cept of running range and the method of calculating the running range for both the opponent and our teammates according to the distances Between the ball and robot soccers, and therefore the method of calculating the angle that the robot passes or shoots the ball according to the running ranges of both sides. And gives the examples of passing the ball when the ball's position is in the backcourt and shooting the ball when the ball's position is in the frontcourt.

  5. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs. PMID:18522379

  6. Aberrant expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 in human lung cancer

    Tokunaga, Takayuki [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Naruke, Yuki; Shigematsu, Sayuri; Kohno, Tomoko; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Ma, Yuhua; Chua, Koon Jiew [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Katayama, Ikuo; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Radiology and Cancer Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takehiko [Department of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yatabe, Yasushi [Department of Pathology and Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Research Institute, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Nagayasu, Takeshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Fujita, Takashi [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Matsuyama, Toshifumi, E-mail: tosim@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); The Global Center of Excellence Program at Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); and others

    2010-06-25

    We analyzed the subcellular distributions and gene structures of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) transcription factor in 50 cases of human primary lung cancer. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed substantially aberrant IRF3 expression specific to the cancer lesions (2 and 6 tumors with nuclear staining, and 4 and 5 tumors with negative staining, in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively), while the morphologically normal region around the tumors exhibited only cytoplasmic staining. In addition, we determined the sequence of the entire IRF3 coding region, and found two novel variants with the amino acid changes (S{sup 175}(AGC) {yields} R{sup 175}(CGC) and A{sup 208}(GCC) {yields} D{sup 208}(GAC)). The R{sup 175} variant was also detected in a morphologically normal region around the nuclear staining squamous cell carcinoma, and exhibited almost the same functions as the wild type IRF3. On the other hand, the D{sup 208} variant, found in the negative staining squamous cell carcinoma cases, reduced the nuclear translocation in response to I{kappa}B kinase {epsilon} stimulation, as compared to the wild type IRF3, but the same variant was detected in the surrounding morphologically normal region. The aberrant expression of IRF3 and the novel D{sup 208} variant may provide clues to elucidate the etiology of primary lung cancer.

  7. Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: a review

    Among various biological dosimetry techniques, dicentric chromosome aberration method appears to be the method of choice in analysing accidental radiation exposure in most of the laboratories. The major advantage of this method is its sensitivity as the number of dicentric chromosomes present in control population is too small and more importantly radiation induces mainly dicentric chromosome aberration among unstable aberration. This report brings out the historical development of various cytogenetic methods, the basic structure of DNA, chromosomes and different forms of chromosome aberrations. It also highlights the construction of dose-response curve for dicentric chromosome and its use in the estimation of radiation dose. (author)

  8. Cellular origin of prognostic chromosomal aberrations in AML patients

    Mora-Jensen, H.; Jendholm, J.; Rapin, N.;

    2015-01-01

    these aberrations occur in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) before definitive leukemic transformation through additional acquisition of a few (that is, mostly 1 or 2) leukemia-promoting driver aberrations. NGS studies on sorted bone marrow (BM) populations of AML patients with...... molecular aberrations that were present in the fully transformed committed HPCs together with the prognostic driver aberration. Adding to this vast heterogeneity and complexity of AML genomes and their clonal evolution, a recent study of a murine AML model demonstrated that t(9;11) AML originating from HSCs...

  9. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    Dariusz Świetlik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the shortest shoots (1-10 cm bore more fruit per unit length as compared to the longer shoots.

  10. Population dynamics in a 6-year old coppice culture of poplar. I. Clonal differences in stool mortality, shoot dynamics and shoot diameter distribution in relation to biomass production

    Poplar trees have the capacity to regrow a number of shoots after being coppiced. In April 1996, a high density field trial with 17 different poplar (Populus) clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. At the end of the establishment year (December 1996), all plants were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. Four years after the first coppicing in January 2001, the stand was cut back again. During 6 years (1996-2001), shoot diameters and number of stools and shoots were assessed every year for all clones. Before the second coppicing, biomass production of all clones was estimated. Significant clonal differences were found in stool mortality, number of shoots per stool and biomass production. After 6 years (December 2001), stool mortality averaged 7-65%. After the first coppicing (1997), the average number of shoots ranged between three and seven shoots per stool; after the second coppicing, the average number of shoots ranged between 8 and 19 shoots per stool. During the 4 years following the first coppicing, shoot density decreased exponentially, leaving mostly one or two dominant shoots per stool by the end of 2000. The other shoots had no significant influence on stool dry mass, since most of the surviving shoots were suppressed and small and made little contribution to total dry mass. The diameter of the dominant shoot(s) was the most important determinant of stool dry mass. Mean annual biomass production ranged from 2 to 11 Mg ha-1

  11. Exogenous gibberellin altered morphology, anatomic and transcriptional regulatory networks of hormones in carrot root and shoot

    Wang, Guang-Long; Que, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Gibberellins stimulate cell elongation and expansion during plant growth and development. Carrot is a root plant with great value and undergoes obvious alteration in organ size over the period of plant growth. However, the roles of gibberellins in carrot remain unclear. Results To investigate the effects of gibberelliins on the growth of carrot, we treated carrot plants with gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) or paclobutrazol (a gibberellin inhibitor). The results found that GA3 dramatically...

  12. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  13. Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical meristem.

    Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Xianran; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Todt, Natalie; Yang, Jinliang; Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiaoqing; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Timmermans, Marja C P; Yu, Jianming; Schnable, Patrick S; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The maize shoot apical meristem (SAM) comprises a small pool of stem cells that generate all above-ground organs. Although mutational studies have identified genetic networks regulating SAM function, little is known about SAM morphological variation in natural populations. Here we report the use of high-throughput image processing to capture rich SAM size variation within a diverse maize inbred panel. We demonstrate correlations between seedling SAM size and agronomically important adult traits such as flowering time, stem size and leaf node number. Combining SAM phenotypes with 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via genome-wide association study reveals unexpected SAM morphology candidate genes. Analyses of candidate genes implicated in hormone transport, cell division and cell size confirm correlations between SAM morphology and trait-associated SNP alleles. Our data illustrate that the microscopic seedling SAM is predictive of adult phenotypes and that SAM morphometric variation is associated with genes not previously predicted to regulate SAM size. PMID:26584889

  14. Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

  15. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  16. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sardans, J.; Pérez-Trujillo, M.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Oravec, Michal; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, A.; Kreyling, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Parella, T.; Penuelas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6829 (2014), s. 1-7. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shoot and roots * autotrophic and heterotrophic organs * environmental change * growth metabolism * water and nutirens Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  17. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND SHOOT GROWING IN APRICOT CULTIVARS

    Ali Islam

    2002-01-01

    In this research, shoot growing and amount of total phenolic compounds were investigated on apricot grown in Van ecological conditions. Correlations between the two it was determined. In the end of this study it was determined that phenolic compounds increased during the rapid growing period (generally until the end of May) and decreased in the following period.

  18. Murky Shooting: a quest for the sound primacy on videogames

    Cordeiro, João

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo é apresentado e descrito um protótipo para um videojogo (Murky Shooting) cujo sistema de estímulos enviados ao jogador é alicerçado no uso do som, sendo, por isso, também considerado um audiojogo.

  19. Shoot biomass of turfgrass cultivars grown on composted waste

    Roberts, Bruce R.; Kohorst, Sanford D.; Decker, Henry F.; Yaussy, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    Various cultivars of four cool-season grass types (tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were seeded in 0.34-liter plastic pots containing either composted sewage sludge [Com-Til2 (CT), Soil Magic2 (SM)] or composted yard mulch (YM). Plants were grown in the greenhouse for four weeks prior to measuring shoot biomass. White most tall fescue cultivars showed more shoot growth on YM, perennial ryegrass cultivars generally grew better on SM. Cultivars of fine fescue and bluegrass grew about the same on YM or SM, and slightly less on CT. With very few exceptions, shoot biomass of individual cultivars was greater on either YM or SM than it was on CT. Within individual grass types, Pennlawn (fine fescue), Pennant (perennial ryegrass), and Victa (Kentucky bluegrass) averaged consistently better growth on all three composted media. For tall fescue, Aquara, Rebel II, and Monarch performed best on YM, SM, and CT, respectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals did not occur in selective samples of shoot tissues collected from the grass types used.

  20. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  1. Role of acetylcholine on plant root-shoot signal transduction

    2003-01-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) on plant root- shoot communication was investigated using the root-split system of Vicia faba L. In the experiments, slight osmotic stress caused the decrease of ACh content in root tips and the xylem sap transported up per time unit from root tip to the shoot when the water potential of the shoot was kept unchanged. It also caused the decrease of ACh content in the abaxial epidermis. The decrease was highly correlative to the changes of transpiration rate, suggesting that the decrease of ACh content probably functions as a signal to regulate stomatal behavior. The effect of osmotic stress might be mainly through the inhibition of the ACh synthesis in root tip; thus further influences the ACh content in root tip, xylem sap and abaxial epidermis and resulting in the changes of stomatal behavior. These results provide new evidence that plants transduce positive and negative signals among roots and shoots to coordinate stomatal behavior and adapt to variable environments.

  2. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  3. Chapter Four - Shoot apical meristem form and function. In:

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates above-ground aerial organs throughout the lifespan of higher plants. In order to fulfill this function, the meristem must maintain a balance between the self-renewal of a reservoir of central stem cells and organ initiation from peripheral cells. The activit...

  4. Aberrant angiogenesis: The gateway to diabetic complications

    Sunil K Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic cum vascular syndrome with resultant abnormalities in both micro- and macrovasculature. The adverse long-term effects of diabetes mellitus have been described to involve many organ systems. Apart from hyperglycemia, abnormalities of angiogenesis may cause or contribute toward many of the clinical manifestations of diabetes. These are implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular abnormalities of the retina, kidneys, and fetus, impaired wound healing, increased risk of rejection of transplanted organs, and impaired formation of coronary collaterals. A perplexing feature of the aberrant angiogenesis is that excessive and insufficient angiogenesis can occur in different organs in the same individual. The current article hereby reviews the molecular mechanisms including abnormalities in growth factors, cytokines, and metabolic derangements, clinical implications, and therapeutic options of dealing with abnormal angiogenesis in diabetes.

  5. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase. PMID:25632972

  6. Effects of carbon ion beam irradiation on the shoot regeneration from in vitro axillary bud explants of the Impatiens hawkeri

    Zhou, Libin; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Li, Ping; Dong, Xicun; Qu, Ying; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qiang

    Accelerated ion beams is an excellent mutagen in plant breeding which can induce higher mutation frequencies and wider mutation spectrum than those of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations, such as X-rays (Okamura et al. 2003, Yamaguchi et al. 2003). Mutation breeding operation of two Saintpaulia ionahta cultivars using the method combining plant tissue culture technique and carbon ion beam irradiations were set out at Institute of Modern Physics from 2005 (Zhou et al. 2006). The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiations on regenerated shoots of Impatiens hawkeri from another kind of explants named in vitro axillary buds explants were studied recently. The biology endpoints in this study included relative number of roots (RNR), relative length of roots (RLR), relative height of shoots (RHS), relative number of nodes (RNN), survival fraction (SF) and morphology changes in the regenerated shoots. The experimental results showed that carbon ion beams inhibited the root and stem developments of axillary bud explants more severely than X-rays did. And the 50% lethal dose (LD50 ) is about 23.3 Gy for the carbon ion beam and 49.1 Gy for the X-rays, respectively. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Impatiens hawkeri with respect to X-rays according to 50% SF was about two. Secondly, the percentage of shoots regenerated with malformed shoots including curliness, carnification, nicks in all Impatiens hawkeri axillary bud explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 55.6%, while the highest number for the 40 Gy X-ray irradiation was 40%. Last, many regenerated shoots whose vascular bundle fused together were obtained only from explants irradiated with carbon ion beams. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the axillary explants of Impatiens hawkeri is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy

  7. Using nodal aberration theory to understand the aberrations of multiple unobscured three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes

    Thompson, Kevin P.; Fuerschbach, Kyle; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2009-08-01

    The alignment of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes has been studied since their invention in the 60s. Recently, Thompson et al.1 reported that other than the conventional uniform coma over the field caused by misalignment, TMA telescopes display only one other misalignment induced aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear astigmatism. Currently, an instrument with three TMAs is under development as the primary spectrometer on the James Webb Space Telescope. This paper will report on the application of Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) to understanding the optical design of an optical system with multiple TMAs as a first step towards investigating and potentially independently analyzing the sensitivities to alignment of this key instrument.

  8. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis.

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Hill, Robert D; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role of hemoglobins during in vitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture, and altered the transcript levels of genes participating in cytokinin perception and signalling. The up-regulation of GLB1 or GLB2 activated CKI1 and AHK3, genes encoding cytokinin receptors and affected the transcript levels of cytokinin responsive regulators (ARRs). The expression of Type-A ARRs (ARR4, 5, 7, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely unresponsive to applications of exogenous cytokinins. PMID:21741261

  9. Statistical virtual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    Wang, Jie-Mei; Liu, Chun-Ling; Luo, Yi-Ning; Liu, Yi-Guang; Hu, Bing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront aberration affects the quality of retinal image directly. This paper reviews the representation and reconstruction of wavefront aberration, as well as the construction of virtual eye model based on Zernike polynomial coefficients. In addition, the promising prospect of virtual eye model is emphasized.

  10. Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

    Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented

  12. Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images

    S K Tripathy; S Ananda Rao

    2003-01-01

    Expressions for third-order aberration in the reconstructed wave front of point objects are established by Meier. But Smith, Neil Mohon, Sweatt independently reported that their results differ from that of Meier. We found that coefficients for spherical aberration, astigmatism, tally with Meier’s while coefficients for distortion and coma differ.

  13. Exact solutions in the scalar diffraction theory of aberrations.

    Budgor, A B

    1980-05-15

    A simple exact method is presented for evaluating the circularly symmetric Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral in the presence of Seidel aberrations, all orders of spherical aberration, and all orders of linear coma. The resultant formulas involve a simple quadrature over a single special function of mathematics. PMID:20221084

  14. Exact solutions in the scalar diffraction theory of aberrations

    A simple exact method is presented for evaluating the circularly symmetric Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral in the presence of Seidel aberrations, all orders of spherical aberration, and all orders of linear coma. The resultant formulas involve a simple quadrature over a single special function of mathematics

  15. Seasonal Variation of Organogenetic Activity and Reserves Allocation in the Shoot Apex of Pinus pinaster Ait.

    JORDY, MARIE‐NOËLLE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims To understand better the basic growth characteristics of pines and the fundamental properties of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), variations within the shoot apex of buds were studied.

  16. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order.

    Tromp, R M; Wan, W; Schramm, S M

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C(c)) and spherical (C₃) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. PMID:22188906

  17. Chromosome aberration analysis based on a beta-binomial distribution

    Analyses carried out here generalized on earlier studies of chromosomal aberrations in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by allowing extra-binomial variation in aberrant cell counts corresponding to within-subject correlations in cell aberrations. Strong within-subject correlations were detected with corresponding standard errors for the average number of aberrant cells that were often substantially larger than was previously assumed. The extra-binomial variation is accomodated in the analysis in the present report, as described in the section on dose-response models, by using a beta-binomial (B-B) variance structure. It is emphasized that we have generally satisfactory agreement between the observed and the B-B fitted frequencies by city-dose category. The chromosomal aberration data considered here are not extensive enough to allow a precise discrimination between competing dose-response models. A quadratic gamma ray and linear neutron model, however, most closely fits the chromosome data. (author)

  18. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  19. Brown's TRANSPORT up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, etc., including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effects by artificial intelligence, outputing automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  20. Galaxy Morphology

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  1. Noun Morphology

    Santazilia, Ekaitz

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the Basque noun morphology, which sets out the noun paradigm of historical Basque and the structure of its NP, and then goes on to list the explanations proposed so far for every aspect concerning the formation of that paradigm: first the number/definiteness axis, and then the individual cases, classifying these into primary cases (grammatical and local), secondary cases (those built upon the allative and the genitive), and pseudo-flectional morphemes or non-cases.

  2. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  3. Gaze Behavior in Basketball Shooting: Further Evidence for Online Visual Control

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to help resolve conflicting findings and interpretations regarding the visual control of basketball shooting by examining the looking behavior of 6 expert basketball players (3 with a low shooting style and 3 with a high shooting style) executing both free throws and jump shots. Based on previous findings, they…

  4. The relationship between physical fitness and shooting accuracy of professional basketball players

    Haris Pojskić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical fitness of professional Bosnian basketball players (n = 38 and shooting accuracy during one basketball season. A related, secondary aim was to examine relationships between basketball shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. Physical fitness components included: muscular endurance and aerobic endurance, lower and upper-body power, speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic power. The specific basketball shooting accuracy was assessed by stationary and dynamic shooting assessments. Competitive shooting accuracy was represented by data collected during one basketball season for each player (free throw, field goal, and three-point %. Results of the regression analyses showed that there were significant positive relationships among shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. The relationship was stronger when the dynamic shooting tests were applied compared to the stationary tests. However, few or weak relationships existed among physical fitness components and competitive shooting accuracy. Only the power tests showed to be good predictors for shooting over longer distances. The findings support the inclusion of the dynamic basketball shooting accuracy tests in regular basketball assessment procedures as a valuable testing instrument.

  5. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely i

  6. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia × candida Pers.

    Niedz, Randall P; Evens, Terence J; Hyndman, Scott E; Adkins, Scott; Chellemi, Daniel O

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida 'Creamsickle'. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4 (+), NO3 (-), K(+), FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weight of shoot mass, and shoot number. The experiment to determine the levels of NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and K(+), was conducted as a 2-component NH4 (+): K(+) mixture crossed by [NO3 (-)] and resulted in an experimental design free of ion confounding and capable of separating the effects of proportion and concentration. The results of the NH4 (+)-K(+)-NO3 (-) experiment revealed a region in the design space where growth was significantly improved; the region generally had lower total nitrogen and lower NH4 (+):K(+) ratios than MS medium. The experiments to determine the appropriate levels of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were conducted at six log levels ranging from 0 to 1 mM. Of the four metal salts tested, MnSO4 had the least effect on in vitro shoot growth and its concentration was reduced from 0.1 mM (MS level) to 0.001 mM. CuSO4 had large effects on in vitro shoot growth and was increased from 0.0001 mM to 0.001 mM. A 2-level factorial of NH4 (+)-K(+)-NO3 (-), FeSO4/EDTA, and ZnSO4 was conducted and several formulations identified for their improvements of quality and growth. In addition to the changes to MnSO4 and CuSO4, these formulations were characterized by lower levels of NH4 (+), K(+), NO3 (-) and Zn, and higher levels of FeSO4/EDTA. Overall, several nutrient formulations were identified as superior to MS medium for growth of in vitro shoot cultures of B. 'Creamsickle'. PMID:23573042

  7. Chromosome aberrations in solid tumors have a stochastic nature

    Castro, Mauro A.A. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil) and Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil) and Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil)]. E-mail: mauro@ufrgs.br; Onsten, Tor G.H. [Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil); Moreira, Jose C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil); Almeida, Rita M.C. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)

    2006-08-30

    An important question nowadays is whether chromosome aberrations are random events or arise from an internal deterministic mechanism, which leads to the delicate task of quantifying the degree of randomness. For this purpose, we have defined several Shannon information functions to evaluate disorder inside a tumor and between tumors of the same kind. We have considered 79 different kinds of solid tumors with 30 or more karyotypes retrieved from the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. The Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival was also obtained for each solid tumor type in order to correlate data with tumor malignance. The results here show that aberration spread is specific for each tumor type, with high degree of diversity for those tumor types with worst survival indices. Those tumor types with preferential variants (e.g. high proportion of a given karyotype) have shown better survival statistics, indicating that aberration recurrence is a good prognosis. Indeed, global spread of both numerical and structural abnormalities demonstrates the stochastic nature of chromosome aberrations by setting a signature of randomness associated to the production of disorder. These results also indicate that tumor malignancy correlates not only with karyotypic diversity taken from different tumor types but also taken from single tumors. Therefore, by quantifying aberration spread, we could confront diverse models and verify which of them points to the most likely outcome. Our results suggest that the generating process of chromosome aberrations is neither deterministic nor totally random, but produces variations that are distributed between these two boundaries.

  8. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order

    Tromp, R.M., E-mail: rtromp@us.ibm.com [Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM Research Division, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wan, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 80R0114, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schramm, S.M. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C{sub c}) and spherical (C{sub 3}) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A theory is presented for the aberrations of the uniform electrostatic field up to fifth order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such aberrations are important for advanced LEEM and PEEM instruments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between theory and raytracing results for a full cathode objective lens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrast Transfer Function calculations predict that spatial resolution below 1 nm is achievable.

  9. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  10. Aberrant glycosylation associated with enzymes as cancer biomarkers

    Meany Danni L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the new roles for enzymes in personalized medicine builds on a rational approach to cancer biomarker discovery using enzyme-associated aberrant glycosylation. A hallmark of cancer, aberrant glycosylation is associated with differential expressions of enzymes such as glycosyltransferase and glycosidases. The aberrant expressions of the enzymes in turn cause cancer cells to produce glycoproteins with specific cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures. Content In this review we provide examples of cancer biomarker discovery using aberrant glycosylation in three areas. First, changes in glycosylation machinery such as glycosyltransferases/glycosidases could be used as cancer biomarkers. Second, most of the clinically useful cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins. Discovery of specific cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures of these existing biomarkers could improve their cancer specificity, such as the discovery of AFP-L3, fucosylated glycoforms of AFP. Third, cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures provide a compelling rationale for discovering new biomarkers using glycomic and glycoproteomic technologies. Summary As a hallmark of cancer, aberrant glycosylation allows for the rational design of biomarker discovery efforts. But more important, we need to translate these biomarkers from discovery to clinical diagnostics using good strategies, such as the lessons learned from translating the biomarkers discovered using proteomic technologies to OVA 1, the first FDA-cleared In Vitro Diagnostic Multivariate Index Assay (IVDMIA. These lessons, providing important guidance in current efforts in biomarker discovery and translation, are applicable to the discovery of aberrant glycosylation associated with enzymes as cancer biomarkers as well.

  11. Nitrate assimilation in plant shoots depends on photorespiration

    Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cousins, Asaph B.; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2004-01-01

    Photorespiration, a process that diminishes net photosynthesis by ≈25% in most plants, has been viewed as the unfavorable consequence of plants having evolved when the atmosphere contained much higher levels of carbon dioxide than it does today. Here we used two independent methods to show that exposure of Arabidopsis and wheat shoots to conditions that inhibited photorespiration also strongly inhibited nitrate assimilation. Thus, nitrate assimilation in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledono...

  12. BGP Started Shooting Its Largest Oversea Seismic Survey

    2005-01-01

    @@ At 5 a.m. on November 1, 2005 of Beijing time, BGP (Bureau of Geophysical Prospecting)formally began shooting the S-51 3D seismic acquisition project in Saudi Arabia, its largest oversea seismic survey project to date. At the same time, the SRAK 2D seismic survey project was also started in the country. These two projects mark the construction of BGP's another large oversea production base.

  13. Shooting string holography of jet quenching at RHIC and LHC

    We derive a new formula for jet energy loss using finite endpoint momentum shooting strings initial conditions in SYM plasmas to overcome the difficulties of previous falling string holographic scenarios. We apply the new formula to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow parameter v2 of light hadrons at RHIC and LHC. We show furthermore that Gauss–Bonnet quadratic curvature corrections to the AdS5 geometry improve the agreement with the recent data

  14. Shoot and root dry weight in drought exposed tomato populations

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka; Girek Zdenka; Pavlović Suzana; Ugrinović Milan; Zdravković Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted with the aim to among forty-one tested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) populations distinguish those tolerant to limited water supply. Tolerance assessments were performed by using sixteen drought stress selection indices calculated on the basis of tomato shoot and root dry weight yields determined at water stress and non-stress conditions. Populations were differentiated in groups using the method of cluster analysis. The ...

  15. Clonal propagation of Dorystoechas hastata via axillary shoot proliferation

    ERDAĞ, Bengi BABA; EMEK, Yelda Çalmaz; AYDOĞAN, Serap KURT

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for the in vitro seed germination, seedling development, and axillary shoot propagation of Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham is described. By employing sterilised seeds that were transferred onto in vitro media, the effects of various in vitro media, photoperiods, and temperatures on germination were investigated. At the end of these experiments, a final protocol was determined for the in vitro germination of D. hastata seeds. With this protocol, the highest germi...

  16. Shooting rampages, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence

    Miguel A Faria

    2013-01-01

    Gun violence and, most recently, senseless shooting rampages continue to be sensitive and emotional points of debate in the American media and the political establishment. The United Nations is already set to commence discussing and approving its Small Arms Treaty in March 2013. And following the Newtown, Connecticut tragedy in the United States this past December, American legislators are working frantically to pass more stringent gun control laws in the U.S. Congress. The American media and...

  17. Regulatory Networks Involving YABBY Genes in Rice Shoot Development

    Dai, Mingqiu; Hu, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2007-01-01

    Shoot development is regulated by specific gene expression programs depending on the interplay between transcription factors and growth hormones that function in specific domains of the meristem and lateral organs. Functional relationship between different regulators is not clearly established. In the May issue of Plant Physiology (2007) we have shown that Wuschel-like Homeobox3 and YABBY3 are coexpressed in the leaf primordia and young leaves, and that WOX3 functions as a transcriptional rep...

  18. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Liang BAO; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow grow...

  19. The shoot apical meristem: the dynamics of a stable structure.

    Traas, Jan,; Vernoux, Teva

    2002-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a group of proliferating, embryonic-type cells that generates the aerial parts of the plant. SAMs are highly organized and stable structures that can function for years or even centuries. This is in apparent contradiction to the behaviour of their constituent cells, which continuously proliferate and differentiate. To reconcile the dynamic nature of the cells with the stability of the overall system the existence of elaborate signalling networks has been pro...

  20. Projectile motion in real-life situation: Kinematics of basketball shooting

    Changjan, A.; Mueanploy, W.

    2015-06-01

    Basketball shooting is a basic practice for players. The path of the ball from the players to the hoop is projectile motion. For undergraduate introductory physics courses student must be taught about projectile motion. Basketball shooting can be used as a case study for learning projectile motion from real-life situation. In this research, we discuss the relationship between optimal angle, minimum initial velocity and the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball for basketball shooting problem analytically. We found that the value of optimal angle and minimum initial velocity decreases with increasing the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball.

  1. (14C)-glucose metabolism during shoot bud development in cultured cotyledon explants of Pinus radiata

    Excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured under shoot-forming (plus benzyladenine) and non shoot-forming (minus benzyladenine) conditions for 10 and 21 days were fed U-[14C]-glucose for 3 h in the light followed by a 3 h chase period. The labelling of individual metabolites as well as 14C incorporation into protein was assessed. It was found that the general metabolic patterns were qualitatively the same in shoot-forming and non shoot-forming conditions, however, metabolism leading to respiration as well as to the synthesis of some amino acids and protein synthesis was enhanced in the shoot-forming cultures. (author)

  2. Differential algebraic method for aberration analysis of typical electrostatic lenses

    In this paper up to fifth-order geometric and third-order chromatic aberration coefficients of typical electrostatic lenses are calculated by means of the charged particle optics code, COSY INFINITY, based on the differential algebraic (DA) method. A two-tube immersion lens and a symmetric einzel lens have been chosen as two examples, whose axial potential distributions are numerically calculated by a FORTRAN program using the finite difference method. The DA results are in good agreement with those evaluated by the aberration integrals in electron optics. The DA method presented here can easily be extended to aberration analysis of other numerically computed electron lenses, including magnetic lenses

  3. Regulation of Shoot and Root Development through Mutual Signaling

    Jér(o)me Puig; Germain Pauluzzi; Emmanuel Guiderdoni; Pascal Gantet

    2012-01-01

    Plants adjust their development in relation to the availability of nutrient sources.This necessitates signaling between root and shoot.Aside from the well-known systemic signaling processes mediated by auxin,cytokinin,and sugars,new pathways involving carotenoid-derived hormones have recently been identified.The auxin-responsive MAX pathway controls shoot branching through the biosynthesis of strigolactone in the roots.The BYPASS1 gene affects the production of an as-yet unknown carotenoid-derived substance in roots that promotes shoot development.Novel local and systemic mechanisms that control adaptive root development in response to nitrogen and phosphorus starvation were recently discovered.Notably,the ability of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1.1 to transport auxin drew for the first time a functional link between auxin,root development,and nitrate availability in soil.The study of plant response to phosphorus starvation allowed the identification of a systemic mobile miRNA.Deciphering and integrating these signaling pathways at the whole-plant level provide a new perspective for understanding how plants regulate their development in response to environmental cues.

  4. IN VITRO SHOOT TIP CULTURE OF BANANA CULTIVAR MEITEI HEI

    ROBERT LALRINSANGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropopagation is preferred over the conventional method of propagation in banana owing to its fastermultiplication rate, uniformity in planting materials, production of disease-free planting materials, higherbunch weight, more fingers and hands and less variability in fruit size and shape. The apical meristem orshoot-tip culture is very efficient for rapid clonal micropopagation. Though abundant information on themicropropagation of banana is available for cultivars in India and abroad, there is only little or no informationon micropropagation of Meitei Hei, a popular local variety of Manipur. Thus, study was undertaken during2009-10 in the Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, CAU, Imphal on the in vitroshoot tip culture of Meiteti Hei banana to analyze its micropropagation potential. Results revealed that thehighest multiple shoot induction was found in MS+5mg1-1BAP at 2.17 shoots while MS+1 mg1-1NAA+0.2mg1-1BAP gave the longest regenerated shoots after 45 days of incubation. Highest number of roots wasfound in MS+2 mg1-1NAA. 98-100% survival was found in all the ex-vitro hardening media of sand,soil:FYM (2:1 and soil:vermicompost (2:1.

  5. Aberrations of Genetic Material as Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Effects

    Milacic, S.

    2004-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most powerful mutagen in environmental and working conditions. The result of genotoxic effect of radiation is the development of chromosome aberrations. The structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are dicentric, ring, acentric fragment. The observation of chromosome aberration frequency in lymphocyte karyotype is the conclusive method to assess the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. Our study compared the incidence of chromosome aberrations in occupationally exposed healthy medical workers and in non-exposed healthy population. We analyzed the effect of working place, dose by thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD), duration of occupational exposure (DOE) and age to the sum of aberrant cells and aberrations. four-year study included 462 subjects, mean-aged 42.3 years, who were occupational exposed to ionizing radiation and 95 subjects, mean-aged 35,2 years, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, during the same time period and from the same territory. All of them possess thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD) which is read by scanner for thermo luminescence dosimeters. Modified Moorheard's micro method for peripheral blood lymphocytes and conventional cytogenetic technique of chromosome aberration analysis were used for analysis of chromosome aberrations. Stained preparations (Giemsa) are observed in immersion by light microscope. The karyotype of 200 lymphocytes in metaphase is analyzed the most characteristic aberration: dicentric, then the ring and acentric fragments. The increased incidence of chromosome aberrations was found to tbe 21.6% in the exposed group and 2.1% in the controls, while the findings within the limits (non-specific chromosome lesions-gaps breaks, elongations, and exchanges) were equal in both groups (22%). Among occupationally exposed medical workers, the highest incidence was found in nuclear medicine workers (42.6%), then in orthopedists (27.08%). There is highly

  6. Independent Control of Organogenesis and Shoot Tip Abortion are Key Factors to Developmental Plasticity in Kiwifruit (Actinidia)

    Foster, Toshi M.; Seleznyova, Alla N.; Barnett, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In kiwifruit (Actinidia), the number of nodes per shoot is highly variable and is influenced by genotype and environmental conditions. To understand this developmental plasticity, three key processes were studied: organogenesis by the shoot apical meristem during shoot growth; expansion of phytomers; and shoot tip abortion. Methods Studies were made of organogenesis and shoot tip abortion using light and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of temperature on shoot growth cessation was investigated using temperature indices over the budbreak period, and patterns of shoot tip abortion were quantified using stochastic modelling. Key Results All growing buds began organogenesis before budbreak. During shoot development, the number of phytomers initiated by the shoot apical meristem is correlated with the number of expanding phytomers and the mean internode length. Shoot tip abortion is preceded by growth cessation and is not brought about by the death of the shoot apical meristem, but occurs by tissue necrosis in the sub-apical zone. For most genotypes studied, the probability of shoot tip abortion is higher during expansion of the preformed part of the shoot. Lower temperatures during early growth result in a higher probability of shoot tip abortion. Conclusions Organogenesis and shoot tip abortion are controlled independently. All buds have the potential to become long shoots. Conditions that increase early growth rate postpone shoot tip abortion. PMID:17650513

  7. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  8. Morphological variability of leaves of Sorbus torminalis (L. Crantz in Poland

    Leszek Bednorz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on morphological variability of leaves of a scattered tree species Sorbus torminalis (L. Crantz in Poland. The leaves from short- and long shoots were collected from 17 localities widespread within the range of the species in Poland. Leaves were measured according to 15 morphological traits. The biometric data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in attempt to define variability between local populations. Most of the leaf traits are significantly correlated and are characterised by moderate level of variation. The average among population component of variation was 32.82% and 27.46% for leaves on short- and long shoots, respectively. The differences between sampled populations are significant, but only a weak geographical pattern of this differentiation was detected. Clinal type of variation was ascertained in two traits. Leaf traits which discriminate best the studied populations are also indicated. It was proved that leaves on short shoots differ markedly in shape and size from those of long shoots. Leaves on long shoots are steadier, but morphological trait values are less correlated. The study also confirmed the occurrence of individuals with leaves characteristic for S. torminalis var. perincisa Borbas et Feck and S. torminalis f. mollis Beck in a few Polish populations.

  9. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric,aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    Florian; T; A; Kretz; Tamer; Tandogan; Ramin; Khoramnia; Gerd; U; Auffarth

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting,monofocal intraocular lens(IOL).·METHODS: Twenty-one patients(34 eyes) aged 50 to83 y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL(Tecnis ZCB00,Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected(UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity(CDVA), contrast sensitivity(CS)under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations(HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight(C-Quant).· RESULTS: Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 log MAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27(primary coma components) and-0.04 ±0.16(spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed(P ≥0.28).· CONCLUSION: The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataractsurgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration(HOA) and normal straylight.

  10. Lymphocyte chromosome aberrations in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy

    a relationship between lymphocyte chromosome aberration yields which occur in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy and those yields measured in vitro is derived. These calculations are applied to the case of patients undergoing radiation therapy for mammary carcinoma. (author)