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Sample records for aberrant cholesterol levels

  1. Lysobisphosphatidic acid controls endosomal cholesterol levels.

    Chevallier, Julien; Chamoun, Zeina; Jiang, Guowei; Prestwich, Glenn; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan; Parton, Robert G; Gruenberg, Jean

    2008-10-10

    Most cell types acquire cholesterol by endocytosis of circulating low density lipoprotein, but little is known about the mechanisms of intra-endosomal cholesterol transport and about the primary cause of its aberrant accumulation in the cholesterol storage disorder Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). Here we report that lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), an unconventional phospholipid that is only detected in late endosomes, regulates endosomal cholesterol levels under the control of Alix/AlP1, which is an LBPA-interacting protein involved in sorting into multivesicular endosomes. We find that Alix down-expression decreases both LBPA levels and the lumenal vesicle content of late endosomes. Cellular cholesterol levels are also decreased, presumably because the storage capacity of endosomes is affected and thus cholesterol clearance accelerated. Both lumenal membranes and cholesterol can be restored in Alix knockdown cells by exogenously added LBPA. Conversely, we also find that LBPA becomes limiting upon pathological cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, because the addition of exogenous LBPA, but not of LBPA isoforms or analogues, partially reverts the NPC phenotype. We conclude that LBPA controls the cholesterol capacity of endosomes. PMID:18644787

  2. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Aug 9,2016 How’s your ... the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Interactive Cholesterol Guide Find videos, trackers and more with our ...

  3. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  4. What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean?

    ... goes beyond cholesterol levels alone and considers overall risk assessment and reduction. It's still important to know your numbers, but work with your healthcare provider to treat your risk. What numbers do ...

  5. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  6. Individual variation in serum cholesterol levels.

    Hegsted, D. M.; Nicolosi, R J

    1987-01-01

    The intraindividual variances in serum/plasma cholesterol levels from a variety of sources have been examined. It is apparent that these are very substantial with mean coefficients of variation usually between 5% and 10%, even when the diet is controlled in metabolic studies. Some subjects show extreme variability from one blood sample to the next. Thus, it is very difficult to assess the degree of risk of individuals according to the guidelines provided by the Consensus Conference on lowerin...

  7. Porcine artery elastin preparation reduces serum cholesterol level in rats

    Liyanage, Ruvini; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; Jayawardana, Barana Chaminda; HAN, Kyu-Ho; Tomoko, Okada; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; FUKUSHIMA, Michihiro; 福島, 道広; 島田, 謙一郎; 関川, 三男; 韓, 圭鎬

    2009-01-01

    The effect of porcine artery elastin on serum cholesterol level was investigated in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Rats were fed for 4 weeks, with a diet (ED) containing 15% casein and 5% of porcine artery elastin in comparison with a diet (CD) containing 20% casein. The total serum and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations were lower (P

  8. Ezetimibe and Simvastatin Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet

    Ji Sun Baek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol-fed zebrafish is an emerging animal model to study metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory vascular processes relevant to pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis. Zebrafish fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD develop hypercholesterolemia and are characterized by profound lipoprotein oxidation and vascular lipid accumulation. Using optically translucent zebrafish larvae has the advantage of monitoring vascular pathology and assessing the efficacy of drug candidates in live animals. Thus, we investigated whether simvastatin and ezetimibe, the principal drugs used in management of hypercholesterolemia in humans, would also reduce cholesterol levels in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. We found that ezetimibe was well tolerated by zebrafish and effectively reduced cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. In contrast, simvastatin added to water was poorly tolerated by zebrafish larvae and, when added to food, had little effect on cholesterol levels in HCD-fed larvae. Combination of low doses of ezetimibe and simvastatin had an additive effect in reducing cholesterol levels in zebrafish. These results suggest that ezetimibe exerts in zebrafish a therapeutic effect similar to that in humans and that the hypercholesterolemic zebrafish can be used as a low-cost and informative model for testing new drug candidates and for investigating mechanisms of action for existing drugs targeting dyslipidemia.

  9. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  10. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents Measuring Cholesterol Levels Learn more at MedlinePlus: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  11. Construction of minimum generalized aberration two-level orthogonal arrays

    Evangelaras, Haralambos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the problem of constructing two-level Minimum Generalized Aberration (MGA) orthogonal arrays with strength $t$, $n$ runs and $q>t$ columns, using a method that employs the $J$-characteristics of a two-level design. General results for the construction of MGA orthogonal arrays with $t+1$, $t+2$ and $t+3$ columns are given, while all MGA designs with strength $t\\ge 2$, $n \\equiv$ 0 mod 4 runs and $q\\le 6$ are constructed. Results are also given for two-level orthogonal ...

  12. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention. PMID:8690811

  13. Oxidised LDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol levels in patients of coronary artery disease

    Ghosh, Joya; T K Mishra; Rao, Y. N.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and has various risk factors. Lipid profile i.e. low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides playing important role in its causation. Recently interest has been shown in the oxidized fraction of LDL as one of the risk factors. In the present study 60 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals were taken as controls and 60 patients of CAD were taken. Cholesterol was measured by enzymatic method,...

  14. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs

    Mostafa Hosseini; Shervin Taslimi; Mahmoud Yousefifard; Fereshteh Asgari; Koorosh Etemad; Hamid Heidarian Miri; Ali Rafei; Jalil Koohpayehzadeh; Iman Navid; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2013-01-01

    Background: High cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Understanding the distribution of serum cholesterol levels in each country is valuable index for use in public health planning. This study aimed to construct nomograms of total cholesterol (TC) levels and establish the cut-points specific to Iranian population. Methods: Data on serum TC levels of 19,630 non-institutionalized individuals aged 25–64 years from third national survey on no...

  15. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Up-Regulates the Cholesterol Transporters ATP-Binding Cassette A1 and G1 and Reduces Cholesterol Levels in the Developing Rat Brain

    Zhou, Chunyan; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Cholesterol plays a pivotal role in many aspects of brain development; reduced cholesterol levels during brain development, as a consequence of genetic defects in cholesterol biosynthesis, leads to severe brain damage, including microcephaly and mental retardation, both of which are also hallmarks of the fetal alcohol syndrome. We had previously shown that ethanol up-regulates the levels of two cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 (ATP binding cassette-A1) and ABCG1, leading to increased cho...

  16. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    ... non-missing response to cholesterol questionnaire. Exclusion Criteria: Pregnant women. Estimates for 18-39 year olds were not ... for only one type of service, such as dental or vision care. Persons covered by ... and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics from the National ...

  17. Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: any correlation?

    Ayodeji A. Oluwole

    2014-04-01

    Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024. Conclusions: We can infer from the study that the low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia is associated with preterm delivery. We can therefore recommend on this basis that the concept of an optimal range for maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit and pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet and ensure regular antenatal visit to their healthcare provider. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 442-446

  18. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion. PMID:27207551

  19. Diet and lifestyle: its association with cholesterol levels among Nomad tribal populations of Rajasthan

    Bandana S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary pattern and lifestyle may enhance the risk factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Aim: This study examine the dietary pattern and other lifestyle known to be associated with threatening features related to metabolic disorders. Material and Method: 1440 subjects made up of 633 males and 807 females with age group >18 years were studied from a cluster of three districts. All subjects lived in different locations of these districts of Rajasthan. Dietary patterns, physical activities related with work, habit of consuming liquor were noted while cholesterol level, blood glucose levels, blood pressure, height, weight, waist girth, and hip circumference were measured. Results: The overall prevalence rate of borderline high cholesterol level (200-239 and high cholesterol (>240 was 21.1 % and 9.4 % among select tribal populations. It was found that 71.7% were non-vegetarian and 28.3% were vegetarian out which 82.6% were males and 63.2% were females. It was observed that males (10.7% had high cholesterol level as compared to females (8.4%. Females were slightly more at borderline high cholesterol level as compared to males. Working group (9.8% had high level of cholesterol level as compared to non-working group (6.7%. Conclusion: Specifically meat eaters were significantly associated with high cholesterol level and liquor consumers might be prone to risk factors like high cholesterol levels as they were not significantly associated but positively correlated with high cholesterol levels. Overall consumption of mustard oil was 100% among these populations. This might be the reason for having less prevalence rate of high cholesterol level as compared to rural and urban populations.

  20. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts. PMID:18803537

  1. Subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative phenotype.

    Kirsten B Holven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms for the possible atheroprotective effects of HDL cholesterol have still not been fully clarified, in particular in relation to clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To examine the inflammatory, anti-oxidative and metabolic phenotype of subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen subjects with low HDL cholesterol levels (eleven males and four females and 19 subjects with high HDL (three males and 16 females were recruited. Low HDL cholesterol was defined as ≤10th age/sex specific percentile and high HDL-C was defined as ≥90 age/sex specific percentile. Inflammatory markers in circulation and PBMC gene expression of cholesterol efflux mediators were measured. Our main findings were: (i subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels were characterized by increased plasma levels of CRP, MMP-9, neopterin, CXCL16 and ICAM-1 as well as low plasma levels of adiponectin, suggesting an inflammatory phenotype; (ii these individuals also had reduced paraoxonase (PON1 activity in plasma and PON2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC accompanied by increased plasma levels of oxidized LDL suggesting decreased anti-oxidative capacity; and (iii PBMC from low HDL subjects also had decreased mRNA levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, suggesting impaired reverse cholesterol transport. CONCLUSION: Subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative phenotype that could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerotic disorders in these subjects with low HDL levels.

  2. Effectiveness of altering serum cholesterol levels without drugs

    Rosenthal, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Drug therapy with statins and other agents can result in dramatic lipidlowering effects. Despite the wealth of data supporting the beneficial effects of pharmacologic therapy on cardiovascular risk, patients often express a desire to accomplish similar goals with diet alone. And, except for patients with extreme cholesterol elevations, consensus panels all promote dietary therapy as an initial step in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. This review examines a variety of dietary strategies design...

  3. Reasons for the upsetting cholesterol level during the community investigation from residents, physicians, and social aspects: The China Cholesterol Education Program (CCEP)

    XIE Jiang; GUAN Fei; WANG Jia-hong; HU Da-yi

    2011-01-01

    Background The community medical center is the first barrier for lipid control. We aimed to survey the residents' cholesterol condition in the community, and pursue the reasons for the upsetting results from various aspects.Methods Residents and physicians were recruited from four community centers. Residents completed questionnaires and a physical examination as well as biochemical analysis. Physicians were also asked to complete a questionnaire,some of which were about basic knowledge of lipids.Results About 37.0% male and 48.1% female had elevated cholesterol levels. Residents' blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose (FG), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were positively associated with their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Framingham risk scoring (FRS) was strongly related to cholesterol (P <0.001 for LDL-C and TC). Residents' higher education grade was positively related to a normal cholesterol condition (P<0.001), while personal income was negatively related to it. Rural residents had higher percent of population with normal cholesterol level (normal cholesterol rate) than their city counterpart (P <0.001). Although physicians with college education had a much higher lipid knowledge level themselves, the physicians' factors had almost no relationship with the residents' cholesterol levels.Conclusions Management of hypercholesterolemia should be an important component of health strategy in Beijing.Education is imperative for residents as well as for physicians.

  4. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes.

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Freidig, Andreas P; van Ommen, Ben; Woutersen, Ruud A; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2010-06-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define the scope of this model, it is essential to discriminate between important and less important processes influencing plasma cholesterol levels. To this end, we performed a systematic review of mouse knockout strains and used the resulting dataset, named KOMDIP, for the identification of key genes that determine plasma cholesterol levels. Based on the described phenotype of mouse knockout models, 36 of the 120 evaluated genes were marked as key genes that have a pronounced effect on the plasma cholesterol concentration. The key genes include well-known genes, e.g., Apoe and Ldlr, as well as genes hardly linked to cholesterol metabolism so far, e.g., Plagl2 and Slc37a4. Based on the catalytic function of the genes, a minimal conceptual model was defined. A comparison with nine conceptual models from literature revealed that each of the individual published models is less complete than our model. Concluding, we have developed a conceptual model that can be used to develop a physiologically based kinetic model to quantitatively predict plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:20176131

  5. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  6. Hemorrhagic stroke in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels study

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Szarek, M.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study, atorvastatin 80 mg/day reduced the risk of stroke in patients with recent stroke or TIA. Post hoc analysis found this overall benefit included an increase in the numbers of treated patients having...... hemorrhagic stroke (n = 55 for active treatment vs n = 33 for placebo). METHODS: We explored the relationships between hemorrhage risk and treatment, baseline patient characteristics, most recent blood pressure, and most recent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels prior to the hemorrhage. RESULTS...... disproportionately affect the hemorrhagic stroke risk associated with these other factors. There were no relationships between hemorrhage risk and baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level or recent LDL cholesterol level in treated patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/10...

  7. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or impulsivity.

  8. High level of deoxycholic acid in human bile does not promote cholesterol gallstone formation

    Ulf Gustafsson; Staffan Sahlin; Curt Einarsson

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study whether patients with excess deoxycholic acid (DCA) differ from those with normal percentage of DCA with respect to biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation of gallbladder bile.METHODS: Bile was collected during operation through puncturing into the gallbladder from 122 cholesterol gallstone patients and 46 gallstone-free subjects undergoing cholecystectomy. Clinical data, biliary lipids, bile acid composition,presence of crystals and nucleation time were analyzed.RESULTS: A subgroup of gallstone patients displayeda higher proportion of DCA in bile than gallstone free subjects.By choosing a cut-off level of the 90th percentile, a group of 13 gallstone patients with high DCA levels (mean 50percent of total bile acids) and a large group of 109 patients with normal DCA levels (mean 21 percent of total bile acids)were obtained. The mean age of the patients with high DCA levels was higher than that of the group with normal levels (mean age: 62 years vs45 years) and so was the mean BMI (28.3 vs. 24.7). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were slightly higher in the DCA excess groups compared with those in the normal DCA group. There was no difference in biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals in bile between patients with high and normal levels of DCA.CONCLUSION: Gallstone patients with excess DCA were of older age and had higher BMI than patients with normal DCA. The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals. It is concluded that DCA in bile does not seem to contribute to gallstone formation in cholesterol gallstone patients.

  9. Impact of prescription size on statin adherence and cholesterol levels

    Mehler Phillip S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapy with 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins improve outcomes in a broad spectrum of patients with hyperlipidemia. However, effective therapy requires ongoing medication adherence; restrictive pharmacy policies may represent a barrier to successful adherence, particularly among vulnerable patients. In this study we sought to assess the relationship between the quantity of statin dispensed by the pharmacy with patient adherence and total cholesterol. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 3,386 patients receiving more than one fill of statin medications through an integrated, inner-city health care system between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2002. Our measure of adherence was days of drug acquisition divided by days in the study for each patient, with adequate adherence defined as ≥ 80%. Log-binomial regression was used to determine the relative risk of various factors, including prescription size, on adherence. We also assessed the relationship between adherence and total cholesterol using multiple linear regression. Results After controlling for age, gender, race, co-payment, comorbidities, and insurance status, patients who obtained a majority of fills as 60-day supply compared with 30-day supply were more likely to be adherent to their statin medications (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.28–1.55, P Conclusion In a healthcare system serving predominantly indigent patients, the provision of a greater quantity of statin medication at each prescription fill contributes to improved adherence and greater drug effectiveness.

  10. Decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Roberta Gonçalves Marangoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of dyslipoproteinemia in a homogeneous cohort of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. METHODS: Based on the National Cholesterol Education Program, fasting lipoprotein levels and risk levels for coronary artery disease were determined in 28 patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The exclusion criteria included diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, smoking, proteinuria, lipid-lowering drugs, and hormone/diuretic therapy. Disease activity, disease duration, and therapy with corticosteroids and/or chloroquine were defined at the time of lipid measurements. RESULTS: Dyslipoproteinemia was identified in 20 of the 28 (71% patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The primary lipoprotein risk factor was decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (57%, followed by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (18%, triglycerides (14%, and total cholesterol (7%. The male patients had decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the female patients (p5 years disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and is primarily related to decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; therefore, early intervention is essential.

  11. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  12. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies.

    Revis, N W; McCauley, P; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G

    1986-01-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectant...

  13. Total serum cholesterol levels and suicide attempts in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients

    Plana, Teresa; Gracia, R.; Méndez, I.; Pintor, L.; Lazaro, L; Castro-Fornieles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Associations between cholesterol and suicidal behavior in adolescent patients have not been explored in depth. In this study, 66 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit following attempted suicide were compared with a control group of 54 patients with no history of suicide attempts. The age range of the sample was from 8 to 18 years old. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in attempted suicide patients than in controls (p < 0.02), supporting...

  14. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  15. Therapies to Increase ApoA-I and HDL-Cholesterol Levels

    William M. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is transported around the body in the form of lipoprotein (lipid/protein complexes, because it is almost insoluble in water. High-density lipoprotein (HDL particles transport cholesterol from tissues back to the liver for excretion. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between blood levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c and the incidence of clinically significant atherosclerosis. The beneficial effects of HDL in altering atherosclerotic disease are believed to involve elevated levels of HDL enhancing the efflux of cholesterol from arterial walls, increasing transport of cholesterol from arteries to the liver for excretion. This reverse cholesterol transport (RCT pathway is used to explain both HDL’s role in lipid metabolism and the inverse association between HDL-c plasma concentration and the risk of car- diovascular disease. Based on the RCT model, ApoA-I is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Experimental manipulations to increase production of ApoA-I have been associated with reduced atherogenicity. There is a continuing need for novel therapies that increase the biosynthesis of HDL, to inhibit the progression of and even bring about regression of atherosclerosis. Small molecule compounds that increase the production of endogenous ApoA-I would be attractive therapeutic agents for treating dyslipidemias.

  16. Persimmon fruit tannin-rich fiber reduces cholesterol levels in humans.

    Gato, Nobuki; Kadowaki, Akio; Hashimoto, Natsumi; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid-binding agents are known to lower blood cholesterol levels and have been clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. We previously showed that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruits had bile acid-binding properties. In this study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of tannin-rich fiber in humans. The subjects (n = 40, plasma total cholesterol levels 180-259 mg/dl) were divided into 3 groups and ingested cookie bars containing 0 g (placebo group, n = 14), 3 g (low-dose group, n = 13), or 5 g (high-dose group, n = 13) of tannin-rich fiber 3 times daily before meals for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the low-dose (12 weeks, p < 0.005) and high-dose (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001) groups. In addition, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the high-dose group (6 weeks, p < 0.05; 12 weeks, p < 0.001). These improvements were not accompanied by changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. Our findings indicate that tannin-rich fiber from young persimmon fruits is a useful food material for treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:23171573

  17. Effects of X-irradiation on the levels of serum cholesterol in mouse

    In the view of the importance of esterified and free cholesterol in lipid metabolism, as well as serum transaminase activity in the liver, the present study was designated to elucidate the effects of whole body X-irradiation on the levels of esterified cholesterol, free cholesterol and activity of serum transaminase in mouse. Also, in order to observe possible radioprotective action of reduced glutathione (GSH), a combination of X-irradiation and injection of GSH was done to see the effects of GSH on lipid metabolism. A total of 132 mice were divide into four groups as: Group I. 42 mice with whole body X-irradiation of 1,000 r, Group II. 42 mice which were injected with GSH (200 mg/100 gm Body Weight) prior to the X-irradiation, Group III. 42 mice which were injected with the same dose of GSH without the X-irradiation, and Group IV. The normal. Total and free cholesterol were estimated by the method Zak and serum transaminase activity was studied by the method described by Frankel. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The rate of cholesterol ester/total cholesterol showed a tendency of gradual decrease by X-irradiation both in Group I and Group II with no significant difference between them. 2. The value of cholesterol ester/total cholesterol at 24 hours post-irradiation revealed the lowest in both Group I and Group II, and there was no noticeable differences between Group III and the normal. 3. Serum transaminase activities in all groups showed with in the normallimit, and there may have been no significant parenchymatous changes in the liver

  18. Malaria parasite status and cholesterol level of malaria patients in parts of the IMO River Basin of Nigeria

    Chukwuocha UM; Eke KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between malaria parasite status and cholesterol level of 110consenting subjects (55patients and55controls) in parts of the Imo River Basin of Nigeria. Methods:Giemsa staining was used for malaria parasite examination while Randox cholesterol kit was used for cholesterol level estimation.Results:About49 persons (90%) with malaria had low cholesterol (<180mg/dL). Highest mean cholesterol levels were274 mg/dL for study patients and220 mg/dL for controls respectively; Lowest mean cholesterol levels were168mg/dL (patients) and138 mg/dL (controls) respectively. Low cholesterol levels (<180 mg/dL) were found in patients(84%)and controls(6%) respectively. However, 16.4% of controls and 6% of patients had borderline cholesterol level (200-239mg/dL). This study establishes a significant correlation (12.9%,P<0.01) between malaria parasite status and cholesterol level.Conclusions:These findings imply that cholesterol level estimation may be a potential concurrent and valuable diagnosis for malaria status.

  19. Cholesterol and bile acids regulate cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase expression at the transcriptional level in culture and in transgenic mice.

    Ramirez, M.I.; Karaoglu, D; Haro, D; Barillas, C; Bashirzadeh, R; Gil, G.

    1994-01-01

    Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (7 alpha-hydroxylase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. It is subject to a feedback control, whereby high levels of bile acids suppress its activity, and cholesterol exerts a positive control. It has been suggested that posttranscriptional control plays a major part in that regulation. We have studied the mechanisms by which cholesterol and bile acids regulate expression of the 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene and found it to be solely at the trans...

  20. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    Shreya Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262 were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04, and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02 was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  1. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM...... allowed postprandially. Blood samples were drawn at times 0 (fasting), 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 h (postprandial). In all samples, LDL-C was measured with modified beta quantification (separation by ultracentrifugation followed by measurement of infranate high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HLD-C) using a...... men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase...

  2. Effects of intensive atorvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment on apolipoprotein B-48 and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin at maximal doses are both highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Rosuvastatin has been shown to be more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL-C, small dense LDL-C and in raising high-density lipoprote...

  3. Genetic Variation in FADS Genes and Plasma Cholesterol Levels in 2-Year-Old Infants

    Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Jansen, Eugène; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Ronald P. Mensink; Plat, Jogchum; Penders, John; Mommers, Monique; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Thijs, Carel

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster) are associated with plasma lipid levels. We aimed to investigate whether these associations are already present early in life and compare the relative contribution of FADS SNPs vs traditional (non-genetic) factors as determinants of plasma lipid levels. Information on infants' plasma total cholesterol levels, genotypes of five FADS SNPs (rs174545, rs174546, rs174556, rs174561, and rs38...

  4. An influence of occupational exposure on level of chromosome aberrations in nuclear power plant workers

    analyzed for chromosome aberrations. Results. Chromosome aberration analyses revealed significant increase in the total chromosome aberration frequency for the radiation workers with internal exposure (2.42±0.40 CA/100 cells, P=0.01) and for those with additional neutron exposure (2.63±0.40 CA/100 cells, P=0.01). However, no significant differences between the workers with external gamma radiation exposure and the controls (1.62±0.25 vs. 1.65±0.15 CA/100 cells, P=0.83) was observed. There was no correlation between the chromosome aberration frequency and the cumulative dose, mean annual doses averaged over the last 3-years or the last year before the blood sampling. The confounding effects of internal and neutron exposure on the frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined. The impact of other factors (smoking habits, age, duration of employment, cumulative dose) was found to be not significant. Conclusion. Though no increase in chromosome aberration frequency was determined in workers exposed to external gamma radiation only, the demonstration of the elevated levels of chromosome aberrations in the workers with incorporated radionuclides and neutron exposure indicates their more hazardous work activities with consequential risk to health.

  5. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  6. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population

    Bazzaz J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=320 were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLPtechnique. Statistical Analysis: Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8 software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. Results: The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level <200 mg/dl (P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2. Conclusion: The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with

  7. The cholesterol levels in median nerve and post-mortem interval evaluation.

    Vacchiano, G; Maldonado, A Luna; Ros, M Matas; Di Lorenzo, P; Pieri, M

    2016-08-01

    Cholesterol levels in the median nerve were studied at various post-mortem intervals (PMIs). Single median nerve samples were collected from the wrists of 36 subjects during forensic autopsies of subjects with known circumstances and times of death. Although the absolute values varied, increments in cholesterol concentration were recorded. Subsequently, 16 subjects who did not suffer of any neurological and/or metabolic diseases with known times and circumstances of death were enrolled. For each enrolled subject, two samples were collected from the wrist at an interval of approximately two hours (t1 and t2). The obtained results revealed a gradual increase in cholesterol level with increasing time since death. The cholesterol concentration data obtained for each subject at t1 and t2 were correlated with the time since death, a linear interpolation was applied, and the PMI was back-calculated. Similar trends were obtained for the samples collected at similar PMIs; thus, three groups were considered: PMIPMIPMI>78h. Good correlation coefficients were obtained, especially for the first group (R(2)=0.9362) for which the PMI could be calculated with an error that ranged from -4 to 5.9h. Although it requires further confirmation via analyses of larger numbers of samples, the method proposed here can currently be applied to PMI determinations. PMID:26826850

  8. The level of the exchange chromosome aberrations in conditions of the long-term exposure to low doses of radiation

    Assessment of the chromosomal aberrations level induced by chronic radiation exposure was performed in the personnel of Siberia Chemical Center (radiochemical and fuel cycle centre) and in the population of t. Severs (Tomsk Region) being in the external zone of the above center. It is shown that environmental radioactivity of the Seversk town does not exceed the available standards. Chromosomal aberrations in residents correspond to the standard level, while in personnel of the center 3-5 times higher

  9. Modifying influence of occupational inflammatory diseases on the level of chromosome aberrations in coal miners.

    Volobaev, Valentin P; Sinitsky, Maxim Yu; Larionov, Aleksey V; Druzhinin, Vladimir G; Gafarov, Nikolay I; Minina, Varvara I; Kulemin, Jury E

    2016-03-01

    Coal miners are exposed to a wide range of genotoxic agents that can induce genome damage. In addition, miners are characterised by a high risk of the initiation of different occupational inflammatory as well as non-inflammatory diseases. The aim of this investigation is to analyse the modifying influence of occupational pulmonary inflammatory diseases on the level of chromosome aberrations (CAs) in miners working in underground coal mines in Kemerovo Region (Russian Federation). The study group included 90 coal miners with the following pulmonary diseases: chronic dust-induced bronchitis (CDB) and coal-workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) (mean age = 53.52±2.95 years; mean work experience in coal-mining conditions = 27.70±3.61 years). As a population control (control 1), we have used venous blood extracted from 124 healthy unexposed men. The mean age in this group was 50.92±4.56 years. Control 2 was the venous blood extracted from 42 healthy coal miners (mean age = 51.56±6.38 years; mean work experience in coal-mining conditions = 25.43±8.14 years). We have discovered that coal miners are characterised by an increased general level of CAs as well as an increased frequency of several types of CAs. The significant increase in the frequency of aberration per 100 cells and aberration of chromosome type was discovered in the group of pulmonary disease patients (study group). No correlations of the level of chromosome damage with age, smoking status and work experience in coal-mining conditions were discovered. PMID:26609129

  10. Characteristics of High-density Lipoprotein Subclasses Distribution for Subjects with Desirable Total Cholesterol Levels

    Xu Yanhua; Liu Yinghui; Fu Mingde; Long Shiyin; Tian Li; Jia Lianqun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate alteration of high density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in different total cholesterol (TC) levels, mainly the characteristics of HDL subclasses distribution in desirable TC levels and analyze the related mechanisms. Methods ApoA-I contents of plasma HDL subclasses were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection. 486 Chinese Adults subjects were assigned to different TC groups according to the third Report of N...

  11. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Understanding the distribution of serum cholesterol levels in each country is valuable index for use in public health planning. This study aimed to construct nomograms of total cholesterol (TC levels and establish the cut-points specific to Iranian population.Methods: Data on serum TC levels of 19,630 non-institutionalized individuals aged 25-64 years from third national survey on non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD in 2007 were used to construct cholesterol nomograms. We proposed cutoff values for borderline and high TC levels based on rounded 75th and 90th percentiles in three age groups (25-34, 35-44 and 45-64 respectively.Results: Average yearly increase of TC for males up to the age of 45 and females up to 64 were 1.15 and 1.03 mg/dl, respectively. TC levels were higher in females. In males, cutoff values for "borderline and high" TC levels were 195 and 220 mg/dl in 25-34, 210 and 240 mg/d in 35-44 and 215 and 245 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals. In women, these values were 200 and 225 mg/dl in 25-34,215 and 240 mg/dl in 35-44 and 235 and 265 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals respectively.Conclusion: Since TC levels are different in two sexes and change with age, we proposed different cutoffs for sex and age group. We think these cutoffs could be used in national public health planning.

  12. A fiber optic biosensor for the detection of cholesterol levels based on chitosan coated long period grating

    Mathews, C. Bobby; Libish, T. M.; Kaushalkumar, B.; Vivek, V.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor for the measurement of total cholesterol is designed and developed. The developed chitosan coated long period grating (LPG) sensor shows a sensitivity of 5.025×106 pm·mL/g in the measurement range of the sensor. The sensor also shows a linear response in the measured range of cholesterol levels, which is highly desirable for exploitation as a commercial cholesterol sensor.

  13. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  14. Beyond High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Evaluating High-Density Lipoprotein Function as Influenced by Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    deGoma, Emil M.; deGoma, Rolando L.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A number of therapeutic strategies targeting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reverse cholesterol transport are being developed to halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even induce regression. However, circulating HDL cholesterol levels alone represent an inadequate measure of therapeutic efficacy. Evaluation of the potential effects of HDL-targeted interventions on atherosclerosis requires reliable assays of HDL function and surrogate markers of efficacy. Promotion of macr...

  15. Very low levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship – a review of LCAT deficiency

    Savel, Julia; Lafitte, Marianne; Pucheu, Yann; Pradeau, Vincent; Tabarin, Antoine; Couffinhal, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. HDL is believed to retard the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by removing excess cholesterol from cells and preventing endothelial dysfunction. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a central role in the formation and maturation of HDL, and in the intravascular stage of reverse cholesterol transport: a majo...

  16. The Level and Distribution of Chromosomal Aberration of Tomato Seeds at Different Penetration Depths of Carbon Ions

    WANG Jufang; LI Wenjian; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the penetration depth and the level and distribution of chromosomal aberration of the root tip cells were investigated by exposure of the superposed tomato seeds to 80 MeV/u carbon ions. The results showed that on the entrance of the beam the chromosomal aberration level was low. Damage such as breaks and gaps were dominant. At the Bragg peak, the chromosomal aberration level was high. The yields of dicentrics, rings and disintegrated small chromosomes increased but the yields of breaks and gaps decreased. These results are consistent with the distribution of the physical depth dose profile of carbon ions. It is effective to deposit the Bragg peak on the seeds to induce hereditary aberration in the mutation breeding with heavy ions.

  17. Weekly Treatment of 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Improves Intracellular Cholesterol Levels in LDL Receptor Knockout Mice

    Sofie M. A. Walenbergh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of lysosomes in the context of the metabolic syndrome has received increased attention. Increased lysosomal cholesterol storage and cholesterol crystallization inside macrophages have been linked to several metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Two-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-B-CD is able to redirect lysosomal cholesterol to the cytoplasm in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. We hypothesize that HP-B-CD ameliorates liver cholesterol and intracellular cholesterol levels inside Kupffer cells (KCs. Hyperlipidemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr−/− mice were given weekly, subcutaneous injections with HP-B-CD or control PBS. In contrast to control injections, hyperlipidemic mice treated with HP-B-CD demonstrated a shift in intracellular cholesterol distribution towards cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester (CE storage and a decrease in cholesterol crystallization inside KCs. Compared to untreated hyperlipidemic mice, the foamy KC appearance and liver cholesterol remained similar upon HP-B-CD administration, while hepatic campesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol levels were back increased. Thus, HP-B-CD could be a useful tool to improve intracellular cholesterol levels in the context of the metabolic syndrome, possibly through modulation of phyto- and oxysterols, and should be tested in the future. Additionally, these data underline the existence of a shared etiology between lysosomal storage diseases and NAFLD.

  18. Sex specific response in cholesterol level in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after long-term exposure of difenoconazole

    Difenoconazole is a widely used triazole fungicide, its extensive application may potentially cause toxic effects on non-target organisms. To investigate the effect of difenoconazole on cholesterol content and related mechanism, adult zebrafish were exposed to environmental related dosage (0.1, 10 and 500 μg/L) difenoconazole. The body weight and hepatic total cholesterol (TCHO) level was tested at 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure (dpe). The expressions of eight cholesterol synthesis genes and one cholesterol metabolism gene were assessed via Quantitative PCR method. The significant decrease of TCHO level in male zebrafish liver was observed at 15 and 30 dpe, which was accompanied by apparent hepatic cholesterol-genesis genes expression decline. In comparison with males, female zebrafish showed different transcription modification of tested genes, and the cholesterol content maintain normal level during the whole exposure. - Highlights: • Difenoconazle could reduce TCHO level in male zebrafish liver. • Difenoconazole could inhibit sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. • Female zebrafish didn't show obvious change of TCHO level after exposure. • Difenoconazole could inhibit body weight of both male and female zebrafish. - Difenoconazle could reduce cholesterol level and sterol-genesis genes expression in male zebrafish. While female zebrafish showed no obvious cholesterol content change during exposure

  19. Cholesterol-induced suppression of membrane elastic fluctuations at the atomistic level.

    Molugu, Trivikram R; Brown, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for investigating the influences of lipid-cholesterol interactions on membrane fluctuations are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on understanding the energy landscapes and fluctuations at an emergent atomistic level. Solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy directly measures residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H labeled segments of the lipid molecules. Moreover, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of (13)C-(1)H bonds are obtained in separated local-field NMR spectroscopy. The distributions of RQC or RDC values give nearly complete profiles of the order parameters as a function of acyl segment position. Measured equilibrium properties of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids including their binary and tertiary mixtures with cholesterol show unequal mixing associated with liquid-ordered domains. The entropic loss upon addition of cholesterol to sphingolipids is less than for glycerophospholipids and may drive the formation of lipid rafts. In addition relaxation time measurements enable one to study the molecular dynamics over a wide time-scale range. For (2)H NMR the experimental spin-lattice (R1Z) relaxation rates follow a theoretical square-law dependence on segmental order parameters (SCD) due to collective slow dynamics over mesoscopic length scales. The functional dependence for the liquid-crystalline lipid membranes is indicative of viscoelastic properties as they emerge from atomistic-level interactions. A striking decrease in square-law slope upon addition of cholesterol denotes stiffening relative to the pure lipid bilayers that is diminished in the case of lanosterol. Measured equilibrium properties and relaxation rates infer opposite influences of cholesterol and detergents on collective dynamics and elasticity at an atomistic scale that potentially affects lipid raft formation in cellular membranes. PMID:27154600

  20. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat on the performance, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers

    M. Senthilkumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A biological trial was conducted for a period of seven weeks to study the effect of graded levels of tallow (saturated and sunflower oil (un saturated or combination of both on the production performance, carcass characteristics, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers. Materials and Methods: The experimental feeds were prepared by the addition of tallow (2% and 4% and sunflower oil (2% and 4% either alone or in combination of both (SF oil 1% + tallow 1% and SF oil 2% + tallow 2%. Results: Neither the fat source (sunflower oil or tallow nor their combinations had influenced the growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, livability and carcass characteristics in broilers. However, at 49 days of age, broilers fed with tallow alone had higher (P<0.01 abdominal fat than the rest of the treatment groups. When compared to control and tallow alone fed groups, the broilers fed with sunflower oil alone and mixture of sunflower oil and tallow had significantly (P<0.01 lower total serum and meat cholesterol level. Conclusion: The data suggest that the abdominal fat yield, serum and meat total cholesterol level of commercial broilers are inversely proportional to the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 159-162

  1. Cholesterol and bile acids regulate cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase expression at the transcriptional level in culture and in transgenic mice.

    Ramirez, M I; Karaoglu, D; Haro, D; Barillas, C; Bashirzadeh, R; Gil, G

    1994-04-01

    Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (7 alpha-hydroxylase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. It is subject to a feedback control, whereby high levels of bile acids suppress its activity, and cholesterol exerts a positive control. It has been suggested that posttranscriptional control plays a major part in that regulation. We have studied the mechanisms by which cholesterol and bile acids regulate expression of the 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene and found it to be solely at the transcriptional level by using two different approaches. First, using a tissue culture system, we localized a liver-specific enhancer located 7 kb upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. We also showed that low-density lipoprotein mediates transcriptional activation of chimeric genes, containing either the 7 alpha-hydroxylase or the albumin enhancer in front of the 7 alpha-hydroxylase proximal promoter, to the same extent as the in vivo cholesterol-mediated regulation of 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA. In a second approach, using transgenic mice, we have found that expression of an albumin enhancer-7 alpha-hydroxylase-lacZ fusion gene is restricted to the liver and is regulated by cholesterol and bile acids in a manner quantitatively similar to that of the endogenous gene. We also found, that a liver-specific enhancer is necessary for expression of the rat 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene, in agreement with the tissue culture experiments. Together, these results demonstrate that cholesterol and bile acids regulate the expression of the 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene solely at the transcriptional level. PMID:8139578

  2. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  3. An Elevated Level of Cholesterol Impairs Self-Assembly of Pulmonary Surfactant into a Functional Film

    Leonenko, Zoya; Gill, Simardeep; Baoukina, Svetlana; Monticelli, Luca; Doehner, Jana; Gunasekara, Lasantha; Felderer, Florian; Rodenstein, Mathias; Eng, Lukas M.; Amrein, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    In adult respiratory distress syndrome, the primary function of pulmonary surfactant to strongly reduce the surface tension of the air-alveolar interface is impaired, resulting in diminished lung compliance, a decreased lung volume, and severe hypoxemia. Dysfunction coincides with an increased level of cholesterol in surfactant which on its own or together with other factors causes surfactant failure. In the current study, we investigated by atomic force microscopy and Kelvin-probe force micr...

  4. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil; E. M. Tanvir; Rizwana Afroz; Siti Amrah Sulaiman; Siew Hua Gan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey...

  5. Favorable Impact of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cholesterol Levels in Turner Syndrome

    Kohno, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Yutaka; Ozono, Keiichi; Ohyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Masamichi; Osada, Hisao; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Seino, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Tajima, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Fujieda, Kenji; Fujita, Keinosuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoya, Susumu; Yorifuji, Toru; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to having metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in increased risks of developing atherosclerotic diseases. Objective: To determine the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on serum cholesterol levels in prepubertal girls with TS enrolled in the Turner syndrome Research Collaboration (TRC) in Japan. Patients and methods: Eighty-one girls with TS were enrolled in the TRC, and their total cholesterol (TC) levels before GH therapy were compared with reported levels of healthy school-aged Japanese girls. TC levels after 1, 2 and 3 yr of GH treatment were available for 28 of the 81 patients with TS. GH was administered by daily subcutaneous injections, 6 or 7 times/wk, with a weekly dose of 0.35 mg/kg body weight. Results: Baseline TC levels revealed an age-related increase in TS that was in contrast to healthy girls showing unchanged levels. During GH therapy, TC decreased significantly after 1 yr of GH treatment and remained low thereafter. Conclusions: Girls with untreated TS showed an age-related increase in TC that was a striking contrast to healthy girls, who showed unchanged levels. GH therapy in girls with TS brought about a favorable change in TC that indicates the beneficial impact of GH on atherogenic risk. PMID:23926408

  6. [Effects of a low-fat diet including vegetables on total blood cholesterol levels in the aged].

    Pentimone, F; Bertoncini, P; Laghi, G; Del Corso, L; Giuliano, G

    1990-11-30

    High total serum cholesterol and low HDL levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease before the age of 65. Currently in older populations their role has not yet been defined. In the elderly a low-cholesterol diet is therefore preferable to pharmacological treatment, in view of the absence of collateral effects. In this study 40 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia were divided at random into two groups. They were respectively fed their usual diet and a legume-supplemented normal caloric diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol levels significantly decreased in the latter group from the 2nd week onward. PMID:2150025

  7. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  9. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general...

  10. Genetic variation in FADS genes and plasma cholesterol levels in 2-year-old infants: KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Carolina Moltó-Puigmartí

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with plasma lipid levels. We aimed to investigate whether these associations are already present early in life and compare the relative contribution of FADS SNPs vs traditional (non-genetic factors as determinants of plasma lipid levels. METHODS: Information on infants' plasma total cholesterol levels, genotypes of five FADS SNPs (rs174545, rs174546, rs174556, rs174561, and rs3834458, anthropometric data, maternal characteristics, and breastfeeding history was available for 521 2-year-old children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. For 295 of these 521 children, plasma HDLc and non-HDLc levels were also known. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to study the associations of genetic and non-genetic determinants with cholesterol levels. RESULTS: All FADS SNPs were significantly associated with total cholesterol levels. Heterozygous and homozygous for the minor allele children had about 4% and 8% lower total cholesterol levels than major allele homozygotes. In addition, homozygous for the minor allele children had about 7% lower HDLc levels. This difference reached significance for the SNPs rs174546 and rs3834458. The associations went in the same direction for non-HDLc, but statistical significance was not reached. The percentage of total variance of total cholesterol levels explained by FADS SNPs was relatively low (lower than 3% but of the same order as that explained by gender and the non-genetic determinants together. CONCLUSIONS: FADS SNPs are associated with plasma total cholesterol and HDLc levels in preschool children. This brings a new piece of evidence to explain how blood lipid levels may track from childhood to adulthood. Moreover, the finding that these SNPs explain a similar amount of variance in total cholesterol levels as the non-genetic determinants studied reveals the potential

  11. Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl. (Thymelaeaceae Leaves Increase SR-BI Expression and Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Yosie Andriani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies of the activity of Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl (Thymelaeaceae leaves against the therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia were done using the HDL receptor (SR-BI and hypercholesterolemia-induced Sprague Dawley rats. The in vitro study showed that the active fraction (CF6 obtained from the ethyl acetate extract (EMD and its component 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxybenzophenone increased the SR-BI expression by 95% and 60%, respectively. The in vivo study has proven the effect of EMD at 0.5 g/kgbw dosage in reducing the total cholesterol level by 224.9% and increasing the HDL cholesterol level by 157% compared to the cholesterol group. In the toxicity study, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT activity were observed to be at normal levels. The liver histology also proved no toxicity and abnormalities in any of the treatment groups, so it can be categorized as non-toxic to the rat liver. The findings taken together show that P. macrocarpa leaves are safe and suitable as an alternative control and prevention treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Sprague Dawley rats.

  12. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients

  13. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... in families. Lowering Cholesterol Using Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) TLC is a set of lifestyle changes you ... cholesterol. The main parts of TLC are: The TLC Diet. The TLC Diet. This is a low- ...

  14. Effects of ginseng on TNF-α, leptin and plasma lipid levels of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

    ALTIN, Mehmet; Keskin, Ercan; ULUISIK, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of ginseng root powder on plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, and TNF-α levels of adult rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In this study, 48 healthy adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: a control group (K), a cholesterol group (C), and a cholesterol+ginseng group (CG). The K group was fed a standard rat diet, whereas the C and CG groups were fed the same standard diet containing 5% cholester...

  15. Gene transfection in high serum levels: case studies with new cholesterol based cationic gemini lipids.

    Santosh K Misra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2On- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD. We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50% greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies.

  16. THE IMPACTS OF ZINC ON LIVER AND SERUM PROTEINS AND CHOLESTEROL LEVELS OF FISH (CIRRHINUS MRIGALA

    ANAND KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to observe the impacts of Zinc (Zn on the protein levels in liver, serum andcholesterol of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings and experiments were designed having control without Zn and threetreatments T1, T2 and T3 containing Zn at concentrations 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 ppm, respectively in triplicates. Thedecreasing trends were observed in the protein levels of liver tissue in C. mrigala with an increase in theconcentrations of Zn from T1 then T2 to T3 i.e. 16.40% (56.00±0.45 μg/g, 32.83% (44.26±0.52 μg/g and47.76% (34.86±0.81μg/g, respectively w. r. t. control (T0 67.10±0.45 μg/g for 45 days. The decline in liverproteins was found to be maximally i.e. up to 47.76% in liver proteins. The declines in serum protein level wereobserved in T1, T2 and T3 i.e. 4.76% (8. 00 ± 2.54 μg/g, 11.90% (7.33 ± 4.34 μg/g and 24.06% (6.34±0.72μg/g at concentrations 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 ppm of Zn, respectively w. r. t. control (T0 8.40±0.58(μg/g. After 45days, the levels of cholesterol were increased with an increase in the concentrations of Zn in treatments T1, T2and T3 and it was increased up to 69 % at 0.04ppm (T3. In conclusion, the levels of liver and serum proteinsdecrease while cholesterol increases when C. mrigala is subjected to Zn metal toxicity

  17. Dietary Cholesterol Affects Plasma Lipid Levels, the Intravascular Processing of Lipoproteins and Reverse Cholesterol Transport without Increasing the Risk for Heart Disease

    Jacqueline Barona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The associations between dietary cholesterol and heart disease are highly controversial. While epidemiological studies and clinical interventions have shown the lack of correlation between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk, there is still concern among health practitioners and the general population regarding dietary cholesterol. In this review, several clinical studies utilizing cholesterol challenges are analyzed in terms of changes that occur in lipoprotein metabolism resulting from excess consumption of cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase both LDL and HDL in those individuals who respond to a cholesterol challenge without altering the LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, a key marker of CVD risk. Further, dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase only HDL with no changes in LDL with average cholesterol consumption and during weight loss interventions. Ingestion of cholesterol has also been shown to increase the size of both LDL and HDL particles with the associated implications of a less atherogenic LDL particle as well as more functional HDL in reverse cholesterol transport. Other changes observed in lipoprotein metabolism are a greater number of large LDL and decreases in small LDL subfractions. All this information put together points to specific roles of dietary cholesterol in substantially altering intravascular processing of lipoproteins as well as reverse cholesterol transport.

  18. Quantitative comparison of the efficacy of various compounds in lowering intracellular cholesterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.

    Zachary T Wehrmann

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC is a lethal, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 cholesterol transport proteins. NPC's hallmark symptoms include an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the late endosomal and lysosomal cellular compartments, causing progressive neurodegeneration and death. Although the age of onset may vary in those affected, NPC most often manifests in juveniles, and is usually fatal before adolescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of various drugs, many of which modify the epigenetic control of NPC1/NPC2 gene expression, in lowering the otherwise harmful elevated intracellular cholesterol levels in NPC cells. Our studies utilized a previously described image analysis technique, which allowed us to make quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of these drugs in lowering cholesterol levels in a common NPC1 mutant model. Of the drugs analyzed, several that have been previously studied (vorinostat, panobinostat, and β-cyclodextrin significantly lowered the relative amount of unesterified cellular cholesterol, consistent with earlier observations. In addition, a novel potential treatment, rapamycin, likewise alleviated the NPC phenotype. We also studied combinations of effective compounds with β-cyclodextrin; the addition of β-cyclodextrin significantly enhanced the cholesterol-lowering activity of vorinostat and panobinostat, but had mixed effects with rapamycin. Collectively, these results may provide a basis for the eventual development of improved NPC therapies.

  19. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

    Madalina Rujoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  20. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Ob...

  1. Dietary Cholesterol Affects Plasma Lipid Levels, the Intravascular Processing of Lipoproteins and Reverse Cholesterol Transport without Increasing the Risk for Heart Disease

    Jacqueline Barona; Maria Luz Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The associations between dietary cholesterol and heart disease are highly controversial. While epidemiological studies and clinical interventions have shown the lack of correlation between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, there is still concern among health practitioners and the general population regarding dietary cholesterol. In this review, several clinical studies utilizing cholesterol challenges are analyzed in terms of changes that occur in lipoprotein metabolis...

  2. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  3. Normal cholesterol levels with lovastatin (Mevinolin) therapy in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia following liver transplantation

    Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia produce no normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and as a result, LDL accumulates in plasma, causing severe premature atherosclerosis. Two years ago, liver transplantation was performed in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, restoring LDL receptor activity to about 60% of normal and reducing the LDL cholesterol level by 81%. However, the patient's lipoprotein levels remained significantly elevated for her age and sex. Treatment with lovastatin (mevinolin) one year after transplantation produced a marked improvement in the patient's lipoprotein profile. The total and LDL cholesterol levels fell 40% and 49%, respectively, to values within the normal range. The level of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fell 41%, and the level of total triglycerides declined 28%. While lovastatin therapy decreased the production rate of LDL by 35%, it did not affect the LDL fractional clearance rate. Thus, the combination of liver transplantation and lovastatin restored total and LDL cholesterol levels to normal in this patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

  4. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation. PMID:24888391

  5. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  6. Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1 coding variants do not contribute to low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    Genest Jacques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Niemann-Pick disease type A and B is caused by a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase due to mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1 gene. In Niemann-Pick patients, SMPD1 gene defects are reported to be associated with a severe reduction in plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. Methods Two common coding polymorphisms in the SMPD1 gene, the G1522A (G508R and a hexanucleotide repeat sequence within the signal peptide region, were investigated in 118 unrelated subjects of French Canadian descent with low plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol (th percentile for age and gender-matched subjects. Control subjects (n = 230 had an HDL-cholesterol level > the 25th percentile. Results For G1522A the frequency of the G and A alleles were 75.2% and 24.8% respectively in controls, compared to 78.6% and 21.4% in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.317. The frequency of 6 and 7 hexanucleotide repeats was 46.2% and 46.6% respectively in controls, compared to 45.6% and 49.1% in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.619. Ten different haplotypes were observed in cases and controls. Overall haplotype frequencies in cases and controls were not significantly different. Conclusion These results suggest that the two common coding variants at the SMPD1 gene locus are not associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels in the French Canadian population.

  7. Characteristics of High-density Lipoprotein Subclasses Distribution for Subjects with Desirable Total Cholesterol Levels

    Xu Yanhua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate alteration of high density lipoproteins (HDL subclasses distribution in different total cholesterol (TC levels, mainly the characteristics of HDL subclasses distribution in desirable TC levels and analyze the related mechanisms. Methods ApoA-I contents of plasma HDL subclasses were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection. 486 Chinese Adults subjects were assigned to different TC groups according to the third Report of NCEP (ATP- III guidelines. Results The increase in contents of small preβ1-HDL, HDL3c, HDL3b, and HDL3a particles clustered and reduce in HDL2b with increased of TC. The distribution of HDL subclasses have shown abnormality characterized by the lower HDL2b (324.2 mg/L contents and the higher preβ1-HDL (90.4 mg/L contents for desirable TC Chinese subjects. Among 176 desirable TC subjects, 58.6% subjects with triglyceride (TG Conclusions The particles size of HDL subclasses shifted towards smaller with increased TC levels. The TC was liner with HDL2b contents and those can be reduced 17 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TC levels. The HDL subclasses distribution phenotype was not expectation for Chinese Population with desirable TC levels. Thus, from the HDL subclasses distribution point, when assessing the coronary heart disease(CHD risk not only rely on the TC levels, but also the concentrations of TG, HDL-C and LDL-C must considered in case the potential risk for desirable TC subjects with other plasma lipids metabolism disorders.

  8. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  9. What's Cholesterol?

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  10. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  11. Effects of dietary cellulose, psyllium husk and cholesterol level on fecal and colonic microbial metabolism in monkeys.

    Costa, M A; Mehta, T; Males, J R

    1989-07-01

    The effect of long-term feeding of dietary fiber and two levels of cholesterol on monkey colonic microbial metabolism was studied. Three groups of African green monkeys were fed for 3.5 yr purified diets containing 9.7% cellulose or psyllium husk and 0.8 mg cholesterol per kcal or 9.7% cellulose and 0.1 mg cholesterol per kcal. Total viable anaerobe and aerobe counts, microbial beta-glucuronidase activity, volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen concentrations, dry matter and pH were determined in fecal and colonic samples. Compared to cellulose, psyllium husk feeding decreased (P less than 0.05) percentage dry matter, beta-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) activity and pH, and increased (P less than 0.05) ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acid output in feces and in colon contents. In all groups, colonic beta-glucuronidase activity was greater (P less than 0.05) than in fecal samples. Microbial beta-glucuronidase activity, pH or percentage dry matter in the ascending colon was not different from that in the transcending or descending segments. The ratio of anaerobic to aerobic bacteria was lower in colon contents from monkeys fed psyllium husk compared to those fed cellulose. Total viable bacterial counts were lower in monkeys fed low cholesterol compared to high cholesterol diets. The results suggest that chronic intake of dietary psyllium husk resulted in greater colonic microbial metabolism compared to cellulose feeding. PMID:2547038

  12. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effe...

  13. The effect of aberrations and light scatter on visual performance at photopic and mesopic light levels

    Tsang, Yik Chong

    2013-01-01

    The Contrast Acuity Assessment (CAA) test was developed to assess the minimum spatial vision requirements for commercial pilots. The goal of the CAA test was for it to be sensitive to retinal image degradation in subjects who had undergone excimer laser refractive surgery. Increased aberrations and scattered light or abnormal processing of visual information in the retina and/or the visual pathway are the main causes of retinal image degradation. The purpose of this study was to further inv...

  14. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipid peroxidation (LPO products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40 were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate transaminase (AST, cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO products (TBARS and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST. Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  15. Body mass index and cholesterol level predict surgical outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan - a cohort study.

    Lee, Ya-Ling; Li, Wan-Chun; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Ting, Chin-Tsung

    2016-04-19

    Curative surgical resection (CSR) remains the most effective therapeutic intervention for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, frequent post-surgical recurrence leads to high cancer related mortality. This study aimed to clarify the role of body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level in predicting post-surgical outcomes in HCC patients after CSR. A total of 484 HCC patients including 213 BMIhigh and 271 BMIlow patients were included. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were examined in patients with differential BMI and serum cholesterol level. The analysis showed that significant different 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates (P-value=0.015) and RFS rate (P-value=0.010) between BMIlow and BMIhigh patients. Further analysis in groups with differential serum cholesterol levels among BMIlow and BMIhigh patients indicated that the BMIlow/Chollow patients exhibited the significant lower cumulative OS and RFS rates in comparison with the remaining subjects (P-value=0.007 and 0.039 for OS and RFS rates, respectively). In conclusion, the coexistence of low BMI and low serum cholesterol level could serve as prognostic factors to predict post-operative outcomes in HCC patients undergoing surgical hepatectomy. PMID:27027345

  16. The effect of dietary phytosphingosine on cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    Snel, M.; Sleddering, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Frölich, M.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Jazet, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sphingolipids, like phytosphingosine (PS) are part of cellular membranes of yeasts, vegetables and fruits. Addition of PS to the diet decreases serum cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in rodents and improves insulin sensitivity.Objective:To study the effect of dietary suppleme

  17. SHORT-TERM EFFICACY OF PLANT STEROLS CONSUMED AT BREAKFAST OR AT EACH MEAL IN LOWERING BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS

    Objective: To compare under controlled conditions the effect of plant sterol consumed as a single morning dose or divided through the day on blood lipid profile. Method: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-feeding, single blind trial was conducted in 19 subjects with LDL- cholesterol level...

  18. Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Adriana Jaramillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in Colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. Methods: In this study 192 (28.4% advanced and 256 (37.8% moderate periodontitis patients were  investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8% controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: Advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher HDL and TG levels were present in periodontitis. BMI <30 and smoking were associated with increased HDL, HDL-35, LDL and TG, while glycemia >100 mg/dL associated with HDL, HDL-35 and TG. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with HDL-35 in bivariate analysis and serum IgG1 against P. gingivalis associated with HDL-35 and serum IgG1 against T. forsythia associated with TG and serum IgG2 against A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of HDL y HDL-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from Cali presented reduced HDL levels as compared to Bogotá and Medellín patients. Presence of IgG1 antibodies against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced HDL levels. Conclusion: This study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria seems to be the biological link. 

  19. Genetic Variation in FADS Genes and Plasma Cholesterol Levels in 2-Year-Old Infants: KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Jansen, Eugène; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Ronald P. Mensink; Plat, Jogchum; Penders, John; Mommers, Monique; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Thijs, Carel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster) are associated with plasma lipid levels. We aimed to investigate whether these associations are already present early in life and compare the relative contribution of FADS SNPs vs traditional (non-genetic) factors as determinants of plasma lipid levels. Methods Information on infants’ plasma total cholesterol levels, genotypes of five FADS SNPs (rs174545, rs174546, rs174556, ...

  20. Cholesterol Test

    ... seen when there is an existing problem like malnutrition , liver disease , or cancer . However there is no ... cholesterol levels include anabolic steroids, beta blockers , epinephrine, oral contraceptives, and vitamin D. ^ Back to top ... Health Professionals Get the Mobile App iTunes | Android | Kindle ...

  1. Significant improvement in statin adherence and cholesterol levels after acute myocardial infarction

    Brogaard, Hilde Vaiva Tonstad; Køhn, Morten Ganderup; Berget, Oline Sofie; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Gerke, Oke; Mickley, Hans; Diederichsen, Axel C P

    2012-01-01

    Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time.......Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time....

  2. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  3. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.;

    2006-01-01

    abnormal or racial differences in serum lipid profiles seem to modulate the extent of complement activation and associated adverse responses. In accordance with our earlier observations, cholesterol-rich (45 mol% cholesterol) liposomes activated human complement, as reflected by a significant rise in serum...... level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed...... liposome-mediated SC5b-9 generation considerably. While intravenous injection of cholesterol-rich liposomes into pigs was associated with an immediate circulatory collapse, the drop in systemic arterial pressure following injection of liposomes preincubated with human lipoproteins was slow and extended...

  4. The association between cholesterol levels and brachial/aortic augmentation index versus cognitive status in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Joacabine Catalin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular pathology appears to have a major impact in cognitive decline, and early identification and correction of cardiovascular morbidity could have a major protective impact on cognitive functioning. However, it is not clear how the risk factors for vascular disease can also be risk factors for a general cognitive decline. Regarding cholesterol, its implications in cognitive decline are not very well understood, considering that a high level of cholesterol has been associated with both an increased and decreased risk of dementia. In the present context, we decided to study correlations between cholesterol concentration and the various subdomains of some main psychometric tests, such as MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination and MoCA (The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, as well as some measurements for systemic arterial stiffness (brachial and aortic augmentation index and how they correlate with the aforementioned psychometric parameters. Our results provide additional evidence for a correlation between cholesterol levels and cognitive subdomains (with special focus on orientation, attention, recent memory and long-term memory. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between the brachial and aortic augmentation index and the results of both MMSE and MOCA tests.

  5. A predictor of atheroma progression in patients achieving very low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    An aggressive reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins produces regression or stabilization of coronary artery plaques. However, after achieving very low levels of LDL-C, atheroma regression is not observed in all patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of atheroma progression despite achieving very low levels of LDL-C. The effects of 8-month statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated using virtual histology intra...

  6. Ethnic differences in maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride levels during pregnancy: the contribution of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics.

    Vrijkotte, Tanja; Schreuder, Ysbrand; Van Eijsden, Manon; Hutten, Barbara; Jansen, Eugene; Twickler, Marcel; Vissers, Maud

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: Lipid disturbances during pregnancy may lead to early onset of metabolic diseases in the offspring. However, there is little knowledge on ethnic differences in lipid levels during pregnancy. We evaluated ethnic differences in non-fasting total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels during early gestation and the role of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics. Subjects/Methods: Non-diabetic pregnant women (N=3025) fr...

  7. Very low levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship – a review of LCAT deficiency

    Savel J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Savel,1,2 Marianne Lafitte,1 Yann Pucheu,1,3 Vincent Pradeau,1 Antoine Tabarin,2,3 Thierry Couffinhal1,3,41Centre d'Exploration, de Prévention et de Traitement de l'Athérosclérose, Hôpital Cardiologique, 2Service d'endocrinologie, CHU Bordeaux, Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France; 3Université de Bordeaux Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, 4INSERM, Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, U1034, Pessac, FranceAbstract: A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL level is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. HDL is believed to retard the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by removing excess cholesterol from cells and preventing endothelial dysfunction. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a central role in the formation and maturation of HDL, and in the intravascular stage of reverse cholesterol transport: a major mechanism by which HDL modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis. A defect in LCAT function would be expected to enhance atherosclerosis, by interfering with the reverse cholesterol transport step. As such, one would expect to find more atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in LCAT-deficient patients. But this relationship is not always evident. In this review, we describe contradictory reports in the literature about cardiovascular risks in this patient population. We discuss the paradoxical finding of severe HDL deficiency and an absence of subclinical atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient patients, which has been used to reject the hypothesis that HDL level is important in the protection against atherosclerosis. Furthermore, to illustrate this paradoxical finding, we present a case study of one patient, referred for evaluation of global cardiovascular risk in the presence of a low HDL cholesterol level, who was diagnosed with LCAT gene mutations.Keywords: atherosclerosis, LCAT function

  8. Znf202 affects high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and promotes hepatosteatosis in hyperlipidemic mice.

    Carlos L J Vrins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zinc finger protein Znf202 is a transcriptional suppressor of lipid related genes and has been linked to hypoalphalipoproteinemia. A functional role of Znf202 in lipid metabolism in vivo still remains to be established. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated mouse Znf202 expression vectors, the functionality of which was established in several in vitro systems. Next, effects of adenoviral znf202 overexpression in vivo were determined in normo- as well as hyperlipidemic mouse models. Znf202 overexpression in mouse hepatoma cells mhAT3F2 resulted in downregulation of members of the Apoe/c1/c2 and Apoa1/c3/a4 gene cluster. The repressive activity of Znf202 was firmly confirmed in an apoE reporter assay and Znf202 responsive elements within the ApoE promoter were identified. Adenoviral Znf202 transfer to Ldlr-/- mice resulted in downregulation of apoe, apoc1, apoa1, and apoc3 within 24 h after gene transfer. Interestingly, key genes in bile flux (abcg5/8 and bsep and in bile acid synthesis (cyp7a1 were also downregulated. At 5 days post-infection, the expression of the aforementioned genes was normalized, but mice had developed severe hepatosteatosis accompanied by hypercholesterolemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. A much milder phenotype was observed in wildtype mice after 5 days of hepatic Znf202 overexpression. Interestingly and similar to Ldl-/- mice, HDL-cholesterol levels in wildtype mice were lowered after hepatic Znf202 overexpression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Znf202 overexpression in vivo reveals an important role of this transcriptional regulator in liver lipid homeostasis, while firmly establishing the proposed key role in the control of HDL levels.

  9. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    Gårevik Nina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

  10. Characteristics of mRNA levels of hepatic key enzymes in cholesterol metabolism of genetically gallstone-susceptible mice

    许国强; 赵力

    2004-01-01

    @@ Our previous study1 indicated that biliary cholesterol hypersecretion was the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation. Lith genes determine biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice.

  11. Association of loss-of-function mutations in the ABCA1 gene with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and risk of ischemic heart disease

    Frikke-Schmidt, R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Stene, M.C.A.; Sethi, A.A.; Remaley, A.T.; Schnohr, P.; Grande, P.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    . Main Outcome Measures Levels of HDL cholesterol in the general population, cellular cholesterol efflux, and the association between IHD and HDL cholesterol and genotype. Results Heterozygotes vs noncarriers for 4 ABCA1 mutations ( P1065S, G1216V, N1800H, R2144X) had HDL cholesterol levels of 41 mg/ d......L ( interquartile range, 31- 50 mg/ dL) vs 58 mg/ dL ( interquartile range, 46- 73 mg/ dL), corresponding to a reduction in HDL cholesterol of 17 mg/ dL ( P <. 001). A 17- mg/ dL lower HDL cholesterol level in the CCHS was associated with a multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for IHD of 1.70 ( 95% confidence......Context Low levels of high- density lipoprotein ( HDL) cholesterol are inversely related to cardiovascular risk. Whether this is a causal effect is unclear. Objective To determine whether genetically reduced HDL cholesterol due to heterozygosity for 4 loss- of- function mutations in ABCA1 cause...

  12. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  13. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients...

  14. Cholesterol Balance in Prion Diseases and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Samia Hannaoui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals. They are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an aberrantly folded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrPC, in the brains of affected individuals. PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI anchor. Specifically, it is associated with lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphinoglipids. It has been established that inhibition of endogenous cholesterol synthesis disturbs lipid raft association of PrPC and prevents PrPSc accumulation in neuronal cells. Additionally, prion conversion is reduced upon interference with cellular cholesterol uptake, endosomal export, or complexation at the plasma membrane. Altogether, these results demonstrate on the one hand the importance of cholesterol for prion propagation. On the other hand, growing evidence suggests that prion infection modulates neuronal cholesterol metabolism. Similar results were reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD: whereas amyloid β peptide formation is influenced by cellular cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the brains of affected individuals increase during the clinical course of the disease. In this review, we summarize commonalities of alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and discuss consequences for neuronal function and therapy of prion diseases and AD.

  15. About Cholesterol

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More About Cholesterol Updated:Aug 10,2016 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  16. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    Stroes, E. S. G.; Hovingh, G. K.; Kuivenhoven, J. A.; Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, however, are inversely associated with CVD. This is commonly ascribed to a concept called "reverse cholesterol transport" a mechanism by which the HDL particle takes up cholesterol from the...

  17. A Review on Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Performance and Cholesterol Levels of Egg and Meat

    Tarekegn Getachew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microbial food/feed ingredients that have a beneficial effect on health that stimulates the growth of beneficial microorganisms and reduces the amount of pathogens, thus improving the intestinal microbial balance of the host and lowering the risk of gastro-intestinal diseases. Probiotics can be harmful to debilitated and immuno-compromised populations. An accurate dosage of administration has yet to be established despite the wide-use of probiotics. Probiotics have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, anti-osteoporosis, and immunomodulatory effects. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Bacillus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Pediococcus species are most commonly used probiotics in poultry production. When supplemented to chicken probiotics improve feed-intake, growth performance, meat quality, egg production, egg quality and have cholesterol lowering potential in poultry products. However, some studies reported no significant effect of probiotics on feed-intake, production traits, products’ quality and cholesterol level.

  18. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G;

    2011-01-01

    levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial...... infarction (MI) and mortality in 10 440 individuals in the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 31 years. Results were validated in an independent case-control study (n = 16 035). Additionally, we determined plasma ratios of mutant to wildtype (WT) apoA-I in human heterozygotes and functional.......3-4.8), respectively, in heterozygotes compared with noncarriers. Mean reduction in survival time in heterozygotes was 10 years (P < 0.0001). Results for IHD and MI were confirmed in the case-control study. Furthermore, the ratio of mutant S164 to WT A164 apoA-I in plasma of heterozygotes was reduced. In addition, A...

  19. Identification of a new subclass of ALK-negative ALCL expressing aberrant levels of ERBB4 transcripts.

    Scarfò, Irene; Pellegrino, Elisa; Mereu, Elisabetta; Kwee, Ivo; Agnelli, Luca; Bergaggio, Elisa; Garaffo, Giulia; Vitale, Nicoletta; Caputo, Manuel; Machiorlatti, Rodolfo; Circosta, Paola; Abate, Francesco; Barreca, Antonella; Novero, Domenico; Mathew, Susan; Rinaldi, Andrea; Tiacci, Enrico; Serra, Sara; Deaglio, Silvia; Neri, Antonino; Falini, Brunangelo; Rabadan, Raul; Bertoni, Francesco; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

    2016-01-14

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a clinical and biological heterogeneous disease that includes systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and ALK-negative entities. To discover biomarkers and/or genes involved in ALK-negative ALCL pathogenesis, we applied the cancer outlier profile analysis algorithm to a gene expression profiling data set including 249 cases of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and normal T cells. Ectopic coexpression of ERBB4 and COL29A1 genes was detected in 24% of ALK-negative ALCL patients. RNA sequencing and 5' RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends identified 2 novel ERBB4-truncated transcripts displaying intronic transcription start sites. By luciferase assays, we defined that the expression of ERBB4-aberrant transcripts is promoted by endogenous intronic long terminal repeats. ERBB4 expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Lastly, we demonstrated that ERBB4-truncated forms show oncogenic potentials and that ERBB4 pharmacologic inhibition partially controls ALCL cell growth and disease progression in an ERBB4-positive patient-derived tumorgraft model. In conclusion, we identified a new subclass of ALK-negative ALCL characterized by aberrant expression of ERBB4-truncated transcripts carrying intronic 5' untranslated regions. PMID:26463425

  20. Aberrant Levels of Hematopoietic/Neuronal Growth and Differentiation Factors in Euthyroid Women at Risk for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    Elske T Massolt

    Full Text Available Subjects at risk for major mood disorders have a higher risk to develop autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD and vice-versa, implying a shared pathogenesis. In mood disorder patients, an abnormal profile of hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors is observed, suggesting that growth/differentiation abnormalities of these cell lineages may predispose to mood disorders. The first objective of our study was to investigate whether an aberrant profile of these hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors is also detectable in subjects at risk for AITD. A second objective was to study the inter relationship of these factors with previously determined and published growth factors/cytokines in the same subjects.We studied 64 TPO-Ab-negative females with at least 1 first- or second-degree relative with AITD, 32 of whom did and 32 who did not seroconvert to TPO-Ab positivity in 5-year follow-up. Subjects were compared with 32 healthy controls (HCs. We measured serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, Stem Cell Factor (SCF, Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP-2, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF and IL-7 at baseline.BDNF was significantly lower (8.2 vs 18.9 ng/ml, P<0.001, while EGF (506.9 vs 307.6 pg/ml, P = 0.003 and IGFBP-2 (388.3 vs 188.5 ng/ml, P = 0.028 were significantly higher in relatives than in HCs. Relatives who seroconverted in the next 5 years had significantly higher levels of SCF than non-seroconverters (26.5 vs 16.7 pg/ml, P = 0.017. In a cluster analysis with the previously published growth factors/cytokines SCF clustered together with IL-1β, IL-6 and CCL-3, of which high levels also preceded seroconversion.Relatives of AITD patients show aberrant serum levels of 4 hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors similar to the aberrancies found in mood disorder patients, suggesting that shared growth and differentiation defects in both the hematopoietic and neuronal system may underlie thyroid autoimmunity and mood disorders. A

  1. The photo biological effect of low level laser therapy on serum level of leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides in overweight and obese females

    The use of low level laser for body contouring and weight reduction depends on the photochemical non thermal effect of laser light on the adipose tissue. LLLT was reported to liquefy or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment The concentration of leptin in adipose tissue and serum closely parallel the mass of adipose tissue and adipocyte size and triglycerides content. Thus, leptin increases in obesity and falls with weight loss. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on leptin hormone, Cholesterol and triglyceride in both overweight and obese females. Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30-40 years. They were divided into two equal groups. Group A (Overweight group): included 10 females with BMI between 25 and 29.9 Kg/m2 -Group B (Obese group): included 10 females with BMI . 30. Both groups received LLL to the abdomen using laser scanner for uniform distribution of the beam above and below the umbilicus. Duration of treatment was 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. Serum level of leptin was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). As regards serum cholesterol and triglyceride they were determined by enzymatic colorimetric test. Biochemical assessments were done before and after treatment. Results of the present study showed that in the overweight group laser treatment resulted in highly significant reduction in leptin serum level accompanied by highly significant increase in serum triglycerides level. Meanwhile, the increase in cholesterol level was insignificant. As regards the obese group, alteration in serum leptin level caused by laser treatment was not significant. In this group the increase in triglycerides and cholesterol serum levels after treatment were highly significant

  2. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    Misra, Santosh K; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)(n)- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings: To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using ...

  3. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  4. Chromosomal aberration

    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G1 phase. (author)

  5. Serum total cholesterol level and some cancer mortality:A 7 years follow-up study in 698796 people

    ZHANG Qin-feng; WU Duo-wen; Jong Ku Park; Sang Baek Koh; Chun Bae Kim; Sei Jin Chan

    2003-01-01

    were lung cancer during the follow up period. Meanwhile serum total cholesterol levels were inversely and significantly related to overall cancer and liver cancer mortality in population, in both male and female. Overall cancer and liver cancer mortality decreased with increasing cholesterol levels at the lowest levels in both gender. This effect is still apparent when deaths within three years are excluded in population and male. A weak inverse association between cholesterol and stomach cancer. This is not significant for cholesterol and lung cancer. Conclusion: There is important relation between lower serum cholesterol increased the risk of overall cancer and liver cancer mortality. Low serum cholesterol concentration as predictor of overall cancer and liver cancer is importance in both genders.

  6. Cholesterol levels in panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and major depression Níveis de colesterol no transtorno de pânico, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e depressão maior

    ACIOLY L.T. LACERDA; DORGIVAL CAETANO; Caetano, Sheila C.

    2000-01-01

    Serum plasma total cholesterol levels were measured in 85 male or female outpatients with panic disorder (PD; N=41), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; N=23) and major depression (MD; N=21) according to DSM-IV criteria. All the patients had a mean cholesterol level within the normal range; males (N=22) and females (N=63) had approximately the same serum cholesterol levels (p > .05). No significant differences in cholesterol levels emerged between PD, GAD and MD patient groups. Both female PD ...

  7. Association between apolipoprotein E promoter-219G/T polymorphism and total cholesterol level in patients with Alzheimer disease

    Fang Liu; Xiao Sun; Jing Wang; Yan Kong; Li Cui; Xiangdang Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many researches have suggested that apolipoprotein E (APOE) and total cholesterol metabolism are closely related with dementia. In the supposed theory, 219 site of APOE promoter region is near gene coding region, so its polymorphism may result in the abnormality of APOE gene and protein expression,and finally lead to dementia.OBJECTIVE: To observe the association between APOE promoter-219G/T polymorphisms with serum total cholesterol in patients with Alzheimer disease, and compare it with non-dementia people.DESIGN: Case-control, comparative observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital of Shenyang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five dementia patients including 27 males and 28 females aged (66±3) years and treated in the Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital were selected from January 2002 to December 2005 as the Alzheimer disease group. They all diagnosed according to the DSM- Ⅳ diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer disease instituted by American Psychiatry Association in 1994. Meanwhile, 44 none-dementia patients including 21 males and 23 females aged (66±3) years were selected from other clinical departments of Fengtian Hospital as control group. All the participants were informed the detection and agreed.METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of all subjects, then "NEST"PCR, DNA sequence and enzyme digestion were adopted to detect the expression of APOE promoter-219 polymorphism,following by biomedical statistics analysis based on the clinical total cholesterol level.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Polymorphism of APOEpromoter-219 G/T and total cholesterol level.RESULTS: All 55 dementia patients and 44 non-dementia ones were involved in the result analysis. ①Allele and genotype frequency: The T allele frequency of the Alzheimer disease group was significantly higher than that in the control group [88.2% (97/110), 54.5% (48/88)], while G allele frequency was remarkably lower than that in the control group [11

  8. Relationship between expression of CD40-CD40 ligand system and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia

    严金川; 吴宗贵; 李莉; 仲人前; 孔宪涛

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Enhanced levels of thrombin, fibrinogen and factor Ⅶc directly correlate with cholesterol levels.1 Activated platelets adhere to the intact endothelium and induce inflammatory responses in the endothelium, which substantially contribute to the early phase of atherosclerosis. Emerging lines of evidence support the role of CD40-CD40L interactions in atherosclerosis, thrombosis and inflammation.2 In atherosclerosis, inhibition of the CD40-CD40L interaction in LDL receptors or ApoE-deficient mice prevents the initiation of atherosclerosis and the evolvement of established atherosclerotic lesions to more advanced lesions.

  9. Study of cholesterol and vitamin E levels in broiler meat from different feeding regimens by TOF-SIMS.

    Marzec, Magdalena E; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Połtowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Joanna; Pedrys, Roman

    2016-06-01

    The quality of chicken meat, which is one of the most widely consumed meats in the world, has been the subject of research and studies for many years. There are several ways to improve the quality of this type of meat, including changing the concentrations of individual molecular components. Such important components of meat are inter alia, cholesterol, vitamin E, and some fatty acids such as ω-3 and ω-6. Manipulation of ingredient levels may be achieved by enriching chicken feed with elements of different types such as vegetable oils, garlic, or selenium. Thus far, various biochemical and biophysical methods have been used to study quality of different meat types, especially broiler meat. Here, the authors demonstrate the use of high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) mass spectrometry to assess how variations in animal nutrition affect concentrations of specific lipids in the meat, such as cholesterol and vitamin E. In the presented experiment, there were four different dietary treatments. Feed for animals in the first group was supplemented with soy oil in 50%, the second group's feed was supplemented with linseed oil in 50%, a combination of these two oils in the proportion of 44%:56% was used for the third group, and in the reference group, animals were fed with beef tallow. From each group, four individuals were selected for further analysis. Positive and negative ion mass spectra were generated from the pectoralis superficialis muscle tissue of the left carcass side of each one animal. Using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source (Bi3 (+)), and based on characteristic peaks for cholesterol in the positive mode and vitamin E in the negative mode, the authors have illustrated the relationship of these lipids levels to the various feeding regimens. Simultaneously, the authors characterized the varying dependences on the concentrations of measured lipids in fat and muscle fibers. The cholesterol concentration in muscle

  10. In Situ Probing of Cholesterol in Astrocytes at the Single Cell Level using Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging with Colloidal Silver

    Perdian, D.C.; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-18

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  11. The Expression of Estrogen Receptor is Dependent on the Estrogen Level and Associated with Cholesterol-Rich Diet in Female Rat's Heart and Vascular Endothelial Cells

    吴赛珠; 刘建国; 周可祥; 刘长青; 马瑞; 孙飞; 隗和明

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of estrogen level and cholesterol - rich diet on the ex-pression of estrogen receptor (ER) in cardiovasculartissues including vascular endothelial cells (VEC) offemale rats. Methods The receptor binding assay(RBA) was adopted to measure the estrogen receptorlevel in aortic wall, heart and vascular endothelialcells of female rats on a cholesterol- rich diet. A ra-dioimmunoassay was employed to measure the level ofserum estradiol. Results The number of ER signif-icantly decreased in hearts, aorta and vascular en-dothelial cells in the ovariectomized rats and the ratson a cholesterol- rich diet. In contrast, the adminis-tration of estrogen somewhat restored the expression ofER. Conclusions For female rats, the level of es-trogen affects the expression of ER in cardiovascularsystem. The number of ER decreases along with thedecrease in the level of estrogen. A cholesterol -richdiet also can decrease the expression of ER in cardio-vascular system of female rats.

  12. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  13. A Possible Mechanism Linking Hyperglycemia and Reduced High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Diabetes

    高峰; 严同; 赵艳; 尹凡; 胡翠宁

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of glucose in the biogenesis of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C).Mouse primary peritoneal macrophages were harvested and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium(DMEM) containing glucose of various concentrations.The cells were divided into 3 groups in terms of different glucose concentrations in the cultures:Control group(5.6 mmol/L glucose),high glucose concentration groups(16.7 mmol/L and 30 mmol/L glucose).ATP-binding cassette transporter A1(ABCA1) mRN...

  14. A predictor of atheroma progression in patients achieving very low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    An aggressive reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins produces regression or stabilization of coronary artery plaques. However, after achieving very low levels of LDL-C, atheroma regression is not observed in all patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of atheroma progression despite achieving very low levels of LDL-C. The effects of 8-month statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in the TRUTH study. Of these, 33 patients who achieved an on-treatment LDL-C level of cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI and decreases in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL were observed only in regressors. The changes in the n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios significantly differed between the 2 groups. Multivariate regression analysis showed that a decrease in the eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio was a significant predictor associated with atheroma progression (β= -0.512, p= 0.004). In conclusions, n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios affected coronary artery plaque progression and regression in patients who achieved very low levels of LDL-C during statin therapy. PMID:24224137

  15. Low-level laser treatment improves longstanding sensory aberrations in the inferior alveolar nerve following surgical trauma

    Khullar, Shelley M.; Brodin, P.; Barkvoll, P.; Haanoes, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) damage following removal of 3rd molar teeth or saggital split osteotomy has been reported as high as up to 5.5% and 100% respectively. Sensory aberrations in the IAN persisting for longer than 6 months leave some degree of permanent defect. Low level laser treatment (LLL) has a reported beneficial effect on regeneration of traumatically injured nerves. The purpose of this double blind clinical trial was to examine the effects of LLL using a GaAlAs laser (820 nm, Ronvig, Denmark) on touch and temperature sensory perception following a longstanding post surgical IAN injury. Thirteen patients were divided into two groups, one of which received real LLL (4 by 6 J per treatment along the distribution of the IAN to a total of 20 treatments during a time period between 36 - 69 days) and the other equivalent placebo LLL. The degree of mechanoreceptor injury as assessed by Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments (North Coast Medical, USA) were comparable in the two groups prior to treatment (p equals 0.9). Subsequent to LLL the real laser treatment group showed a significant improvement in mechanoreceptor sensory testing (p equals 0.01) as manifested by a decrease in load threshold (g) necessary to elicit a response from the most damaged area. The placebo LLL group showed no significant improvement, In addition, the real LLL group reported a subjective improvement in sensory function too. The degree of thermal sensitivity disability as assessed using a thermotester (Philips, Sweden) was comparable between the two groups prior to LLL p equals 0.5). However, there was no significant improvement in thermal sensitivity post LLL for either the real or placebo laser treated groups. In conclusion, GaAlAs LLL can improve mechanoreceptor perception in longstanding sensory aberration in the IAN.

  16. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  17. Reproductive effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in immature male rats and its relation to cholesterol, testosterone, and thyroxin levels.

    Botelho, Giuliana G K; Golin, Munisa; Bufalo, Aedra C; Morais, Rosana N; Dalsenter, Paulo R; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J

    2009-11-01

    Phthalates are chemicals employed in several industrial products and there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that they induce numerous adverse effects on the reproductive system. This study was carried out to assess possible alterations induced by the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on cholesterol, testosterone, and thyroxine (total T4) levels, as well as to discuss the significance of these data in global changes observed in the reproductive tract of pubertal animals. Wistar rats aged 21 days received DEHP orally at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and were examined for different reproductive endpoints. At the end of the treatment, significant decreases in relative weight of testosterone-dependent organs, delayed preputial separation, and low serum testosterone were observed at the highest DEHP dose. The plot of the relationship between DEHP dose and serum cholesterol revealed a biphasic effect. The concentration of cholesterol in serum was significantly reduced at 250 mg/kg/day DEHP but returned to control values at 750 mg/kg/day. Cholesterol levels measured in testicular tissue increased with DEHP treatment. Serum T4 levels were not affected by DEHP at any dose, indicating the absence of a link between total thyroxin concentration and phthalate effects on cholesterol levels. Taken together these results indicate that effects observed in serum and testicular cholesterol levels may reflect distinct effects of DEHP on cholesterol synthesis and usage. These results confirm and extend previously reported findings showing that alterations in cholesterol balance may play a role in the suppression of steroidogenesis induced by DEHP in rats. PMID:19330368

  18. Soy milk powder supplemented with phytosterol esters reduced serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia independently of lipoprotein E genotype: a random clinical placebo-controlled trial.

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Ran; Ji, Ya-Cheng; Hao, Jia-Yin; Ma, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xu-Dong; Xiao, Rong; Yu, Huan-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Phytosterols (PSs) are reported to lower the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations enriched in some fatty foods, such as margarine. However, these high-fat foods are not very suitable for older people. Soy milk is the favorite food for elderly people in China; therefore, we hypothesized that the consumption of soy milk powder supplemented with PSs would decrease the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese people independent of the genotypes of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Mild to moderate hyperlipidemic patients (n = 170) were recruited from different communities and treated with placebo soy milk powder or 3.4 g PS esters-enriched soy milk powder (2.0 g/d free PS in 30 g soy milk powder). The fasting serum lipid profiles at the baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention were measured. The ApoE genotype was also determined. After 3 months of PS intervention, the serum lipid profile was not changed significantly in either group. The serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 9.3%, 11.4%, and 12.6%, respectively, in the PS group at the end of the intervention (6 months) compared with the control group, whereas the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not affected significantly. In the PS group, both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers had a similar response to PS consumption. These findings suggested that PS-fortified soy milk powder was effective in lowering the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese volunteers with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers. PMID:27440543

  19. Cholesterol (image)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  20. Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study

    Papaioannou Ioanna

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, 1376 were men (45 ± 12 years old, range: 18 – 86 and 1396 women (45 ± 13 years old, range: 18 – 88. We assessed the relationship between physical activity status (measured in kcal/min expended per day and several lipids, after taking into account the effect of several characteristics of the participants. Results 578 (42% men and 584 (40% women were classified as physically active. Compared to sedentary physically active women had significantly lower levels of total serum cholesterol (p Conclusions Substantial independent increases in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, in a Mediterranean cohort.

  1. Reducing Cholesterol Intake: Are the recommendations valid?

    Chan, Joanna K.; McDonald, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors question dietary recommendations for the general public calling for reduced cholesterol intake. Metabolic studies have shown that dietary cholesterol normally induces only small increases in blood cholesterol level. There is evidence that only a portion of the population responds to a change in cholesterol intake; hence lowering dietary cholesterol will be effective for only some.

  2. A predictor of atheroma progression in patients achieving very low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    An aggressive reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins produces regression or stabilization of coronary artery plaques. However, after achieving very low levels of LDL-C, atheroma regression is not observed in all patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of atheroma progression despite achieving very low levels of LDL-C. The effects of 8-month statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis were evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in the TRUTH study. Of these, 33 patients who achieved an on-treatment LDL-C level of <70 mg/dl were divided into 2 groups according to increase in plaque volume (progressors, n= 16) or decrease in plaque volume (regressors, n= 17) during an 8-month follow-up period. At the 8-month follow-up, serum LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels were significantly lower in progressors than in regressors; however, significant increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI and decreases in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL were observed only in regressors. The changes in the n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios significantly differed between the 2 groups. Multivariate regression analysis showed that a decrease in the eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio was a significant predictor associated with atheroma progression (β= -0.512, p= 0.004). In conclusions, n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios affected coronary artery plaque progression and regression in patients who achieved very low levels of LDL-C during statin therapy. PMID:24224137

  3. Genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster are associated with plasma LDL cholesterol levels in Japanese males.

    Sone, Yasuko; Kido, Toshimi; Ainuki, Tomomi; Sonoda, Mariko; Ichi, Ikuyo; Kodama, Satoru; Sone, Hirohito; Kondo, Kazuo; Morita, Yutaka; Egawa, Shigenobu; Kawahara, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) compositions in tissues are related to metabolic disorders, and consequently the appropriate management of underlying FA compositions in tissues is considered to be important. However, the relationship among the serum lipid profiles, the FA composition of the red blood cell (RBC) membranes and genetic variations in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes in Japanese men is unclear. In this study, the subjects recruited were 137 Japanese men, 40 to 60 y old, who had a regular health checkup. Their serum lipid profile and the relative FA composition of the RBC membranes were measured. They were genotyped for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs174553, rs174546, rs99780 and rs174583 in FADS gene. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to detect the relationship among hyperlipidemia, the FA composition of the RBC and the FADS genotypes. As a result, the homozygous genotype for the minor alleles in rs174553, rs174546, rs99780 were found to be associated with lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and a lower LDL-C/total-cholesterol ratio. The homozygous genotype for the minor alleles reduced the risk of high LDL-C level (R2=0.50, β=-0.20, p=0.009), whereas, the arachidonic acid (AA) levels in the carriers of the homozygous genotype for the minor alleles tended to be lower compared with the carriers of the major alleles. However, no significant differences were observed in any FA level among the three genotypes for four SNPs. These results indicate that the appropriate management of serum LDL-C levels depending on genetic predisposition in FADS genotypes should be encouraged. PMID:24064733

  4. National Cholesterol Education Month

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  6. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

    Seixas Magda O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic subphenotype characterized by low HDL-C with hypertriglyceridemia and high VLDL-C in association with other biomarkers, including those related to inflammation. This represents an important step toward a more reliable clinical prognosis. Additional studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and the probably mechanisms involved in this complex network of markers and their role in SCD pathogenesis.

  7. Aberrant Levels of Hematopoietic/Neuronal Growth and Differentiation Factors in Euthyroid Women at Risk for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Massolt, Elske T.; Effraimidis, Grigoris; Korevaar, Tim I. M.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Visser, W. Edward; Peeters, Robin P.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjects at risk for major mood disorders have a higher risk to develop autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and vice-versa, implying a shared pathogenesis. In mood disorder patients, an abnormal profile of hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors is observed, suggesting that growth/differentiation abnormalities of these cell lineages may predispose to mood disorders. The first objective of our study was to investigate whether an aberrant profile of these hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors is also detectable in subjects at risk for AITD. A second objective was to study the inter relationship of these factors with previously determined and published growth factors/cytokines in the same subjects. Methods We studied 64 TPO-Ab-negative females with at least 1 first- or second-degree relative with AITD, 32 of whom did and 32 who did not seroconvert to TPO-Ab positivity in 5-year follow-up. Subjects were compared with 32 healthy controls (HCs). We measured serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Stem Cell Factor (SCF), Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP-2), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and IL-7 at baseline. Results BDNF was significantly lower (8.2 vs 18.9 ng/ml, PTPO-Ab seroconversion in the next 5 years. PMID:27092550

  8. Increased IL18 mRNA levels in peripheral artery disease and its association with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels: a pilot study.

    Deser, Serkan Burc; Bayoglu, Burcu; Besirli, Kazım; Cengiz, Mujgan; Arapi, Berk; Junusbekov, Yerik; Dirican, Ahmet; Arslan, Caner

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) typically refers to lower limb vessel ischemia caused by atherosclerotic stenosis of lower extremity arteries. IL18 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine reported to function as an inflammatory biomarker in cardiovascular diseases. IL18 activity is balanced by high-affinity naturally occurring IL18-binding protein (IL18BP). This study aimed to determine whether IL18, IL18 BP mRNA levels and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism, which was previously associated with IL18 gene transcriptional activity, were associated with PAD etiology. IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RT-PCR, respectively, in 55 PAD patients (26 aorta-iliac, 29 femoro-popliteal) and 61 disease-free controls. IL18 mRNA levels were increased in PAD patients compared with healthy controls (p = 0.09); however, did not reach a statistical significant level, also did not significantly differ between aorta-iliac and femoro-popliteal occlusive PAD subgroups (p = 0.285). However, IL18BP mRNA levels were significantly lower in PAD group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Genotype frequencies of rs187238 polymorphism did not significantly differ between PAD patients and controls (p = 0.385). IL18 mRNA levels were significantly correlated with triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients (p = 0.003, p = 0.014, respectively). HDL cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with IL18 mRNA levels in controls (p = 0.05). This report is a preliminary study to show an association between IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels and PAD and suggests that the IL18 gene may have a significant relationship with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients. PMID:26438531

  9. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation.

    Thornton, J R; Heaton, K. W.; Macfarlane, D G

    1981-01-01

    The association of cholesterol gall stones with coronary artery disease is controversial. To investigate this possible relation at the biochemical level, bile cholesterol saturation and the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) were measured in 25 healthy, middle-aged women. Bile cholesterol saturation index was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. It was positively correlated with plasma triglycerides and ...

  10. Statin treatment and stroke outcome in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Zivin, J.; Messig, M.; Altafullah, I.; Callahan, A.; Hennerici, M.; MacLeod, M.J.; Sillesen, H.; Zweifler, R.; Michael, K.; Welch, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laboratory experiments suggest statins reduce stroke severity and improve outcomes. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial was a placebo-controlled, randomized trial designed to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin reduces...... strokes in subjects with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (n=4731). We analyzed SPARCL trial data to determine whether treatment favorably shifts the distribution of severities of ischemic cerebrovascular outcomes. METHODS: Severity was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke...... or no event), there was only a trend toward lesser severity with treatment based on the modified Rankin Scale score (P=0.0647) with no difference based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale or Barthel Index. CONCLUSIONS: The present exploratory analysis suggests that the outcome of...

  11. Preventive effects of atorvastatin on atherosclerosis in experimental rabbits are associated with reduction in cholesterol level and VCAM-1 expression

    Yu, Lei; Ling, Qin; Rui, Qu; Jiaying, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, blood samples of rabbits were collected to measure plasma total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol. After 16 weeks of high cholesterol diet with or without atorvastatin treatment, the rabbits were sacrificed and morphological changes in tissues were examined with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and the expression of vascular-cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was determined by immunostaining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We ...

  12. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol level inversely correlated with coronary flow velocity reserve in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    Jie Yu; Jiang-Li Han; Li-Yun He; Xin-Heng Feng; Wei-Hong Li; Jie-Ming Mao; Wei Gao; Guang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the association of coronary artery endothelial function and plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Methods We investigated 90 participants from our institution between October 2007 to March 2010: non-DM (n = 60) and DM (n = 30). As an indicator of coronary endothelial dysfunction, we used non-invasive Doppler echocardiography to quantify coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in the distal part of the left descending artery after rest and after intravenous adenosine administration. Results Plasma level of LDL-C was significantly higher in patients with DM than in non-DM (3.21 0.64 vs. 2.86 0.72 mmo/L, P < 0.05), but HDL-C level did not differ between the groups (1.01 0.17 vs. 1.05 0.19 mmo/L). Furthermore, the CFVR value was lower in DM patients than non-diabetics (2.45±0.62 vs. 2.98±0.68, P < 0.001). Plasma levels of LDL-C were negatively correlated with CFVR in all subjects (r = 0.35, P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52 -C0.15) and in the non-DM (r = 0.29, P < 0.05; 95% CI: 0.51–0.05), with an even stronger negative correlation in the DM group (r = 0.42, P < 0.05; 95% CI: 0.68 –0.06). Age (β = 0.019, s = 0.007, sβ = 0.435, 95% CI: 0.033 –0.005, P = 0.008), LDL-C (β = 0.217, s = 0.105, sβ = 0.282, 95% CI: 0.428 –0.005, P = 0.045) remained independently correlated with CFVR in the DM group. However, we found no correlation between HDL-C level and CFVR in any group. Conclusions Diabetes may contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD) by inducing dysfunction of the coronary artery endothelium. Increased LDL-C level may adversely impair coronary endothelial function in DM. HDL-C may lose its endothelial-protective effects, in part as a result of pathological conditions, especially under abnormal glucose metabolism.

  13. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Si-Yuan Pan; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hang Dong; Chun-Jing Xiang; Wang-Fun Fong; Kam-Ming Ko

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significant...

  14. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Mar 23,2016 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  15. Systematic review of green tea epigallocatechin gallate in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of humans.

    Momose, Yuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nabetani, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the literature for the ability of green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Study subjects were limited to healthy individuals and randomized, controlled trials on human serum lipid levels, especially LDL-C, conducted. A total of 17 trials (n = 1356) met all of the inclusion criteria. According to weighted mean differences for changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI), 107-856 mg/d of EGCG for 4 to 14 weeks reduced LDL-C by -9.29 mg/dl (95% CI, -12.27 to -6.31). Sub-analysis was performed to compare the EGCG lowering effect on LDL-C between non-obese and obese subjects, EGCG dose, baseline of LDL-C levels, or BMI. We concluded that consumption of green tea EGCG resulted in a significant reduction of LDL-C at any baseline level and any dose between 107 and 856 mg/d, and the effect size was slightly dependent on the baseline lipid level of the subjects. PMID:27324590

  16. Primary Low Level of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risks of Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and Death: Results From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Ahmed, Haitham M; Miller, Michael; Nasir, Khurram; McEvoy, John W; Herrington, David; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-05-15

    Prior studies observing associations between low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have often been conducted among persons with metabolic or other lipid abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the association between primary low HDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and all-cause death after adjustment for confounders in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants who were free of clinical CVD were recruited from 6 US research centers from 2000 to 2002 and followed for a median duration of 10.2 years. We defined "primary low HDL cholesterol" as HDL cholesterol level death were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 4.21; P = 0.011), 1.93 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; P = 0.020), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.84; P = 0.69), respectively. Participants with primary low HDL cholesterol had higher risks of CHD and CVD than participants with optimal lipid profiles but no difference in survival after a median 10.2 years of follow-up. PMID:27189327

  17. Modeling of environmental effects in genome-wide association studies identifies SLC2A2 and HP as novel loci influencing serum cholesterol levels.

    Wilmar Igl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 38 larger genetic regions affecting classical blood lipid levels without adjusting for important environmental influences. We modeled diet and physical activity in a GWAS in order to identify novel loci affecting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. The Swedish (SE EUROSPAN cohort (N(SE = 656 was screened for candidate genes and the non-Swedish (NS EUROSPAN cohorts (N(NS = 3,282 were used for replication. In total, 3 SNPs were associated in the Swedish sample and were replicated in the non-Swedish cohorts. While SNP rs1532624 was a replication of the previously published association between CETP and HDL cholesterol, the other two were novel findings. For the latter SNPs, the p-value for association was substantially improved by inclusion of environmental covariates: SNP rs5400 (p(SE,unadjusted = 3.6 x 10(-5, p(SE,adjusted = 2.2 x 10(-6, p(NS,unadjusted = 0.047 in the SLC2A2 (Glucose transporter type 2 and rs2000999 (p(SE,unadjusted = 1.1 x 10(-3, p(SE,adjusted = 3.8 x 10(-4, p(NS,unadjusted = 0.035 in the HP gene (Haptoglobin-related protein precursor. Both showed evidence of association with total cholesterol. These results demonstrate that inclusion of important environmental factors in the analysis model can reveal new genetic susceptibility loci.

  18. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Anjali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of Southern Rajasthan and nearby region to see if low serum HDL-C is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We studied serum HDL-C level in 50 female patients of breast cancer along with their menopausal status and compared it to their respective controls. We found that breast cancer patients had significantly low level of serum HDL-C and presented in advanced stage of cancer. It supports that low serum HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. So one should think about those dietary and lifestyle measures, which maintain high serum HDL-C level so that it might become preventive measure for breast cancer.

  19. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • Detection of Aberrant Responding on a Personality Scale in a Military Sample: An Application of Evaluating Person Fit With Two-Level Logistic Regression

      Woods, Carol M.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

      2008-01-01

      Person-fit assessment is used to identify persons who respond aberrantly to a test or questionnaire. In this study, S. P. Reise’s (2000) method for evaluating person fit using 2-level logistic regression was applied to 13 personality scales of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; L. Clark, 1996) that had been administered to military recruits (N = 2,026). Results revealed significant person-fit heterogeneity and indicated that for 5 SNAP scales (Disinhibition, Entitlem...

  1. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Anjali; Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of South...

  2. Combined Effect of heat stress and radiation exposure on levels of testosterone lactate dehydrogenase, total lipids and cholesterol in blood plasma and testicular tissue of male albino rats

    Hyperthermia and radiotherapy are used as relatively successful modalities in the treatment of some diseases. This work aims to gain a better understanding about the testicular physiological changes caused by a combined stress of heat and gamma radiation. Rats were divided into four groups : 1.Control, 2.Irradiated at a dose level 6 Gy, 3.Exposed to heat tress for one, 3, 5 and 7 days and group 4 exposed to heat tress as group 3 followed by irradiation directly at the end of heat treatment. Plasma levels of testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as, testicular content of total lipids and total cholesterol were detected. Results showed that irradiation (6 Gy) induced significant decreases (P<0.001) in plasma testosterone level, whereas, it elevated significantly the plasma levels of LDH activity and total cholesterol. The heat stress caused significant declines in plasma testosterone , LDH (after 1, 3 and 5 days) and total lipids, but not testicular content of total lipids. Conversely, it increased the rectal temperature and both, plasma and testicular tissue content of total cholesterol levels. The whole-body gamma irradiation direcrly post heat stress intervals boosted the heat stress effect on all the examined parameters. Hence it could be concluded that exposure to whole-body gamma irradiation in high ambient temperatures diminished the testicular function by decreasing the sexual hormone testosterone although its precursor cholesterol increased in both plasma and testicular tissue. This combined treatment seemed to block the mechanism of testosterone formation in testicular tissue, and in turn, decresed its levels in plasma. Further investigations are needed to study such combined effect of heat stress andirradiation on the testicular potency and the testicular function

  3. Low high density lipoprotein cholesterol level is a significant risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes : Data from the Hawaii-Los Angeles-Hiroshima study

    Hirano, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction: A low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) is a common feature of metabolic syndrome. We have reported that Japanese-Americans who share a virtually identical genetic makeup with native Japanese, but who have lived Westernized lifestyles for decades, have lower HDLC levels and a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese. However, the impact of low HDLC level on type 2 diabetes is unclear. The aims of the present study were to evaluate ...

  4. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  5. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  6. Phosphatidylcholine: Greasing the Cholesterol Transport Machinery

    Lagace, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux. These same mechanisms could play a generic role in homeostatic responses to acute changes in membrane free cholesterol levels. Here, I discuss the established and emerging roles of PC metabolism in promoting intracellular cholesterol trafficking and membrane lipid homeostasis. PMID:27081313

  7. How cholesterol homeostasis is regulated by plasma membrane cholesterol in excess of phospholipids

    Lange, Yvonne; Ye, Jin; Steck, Theodore L.

    2004-01-01

    How do cells sense and control their cholesterol levels? Whereas most of the cell cholesterol is located in the plasma membrane, the effectors of its abundance are regulated by a small pool of cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The size of the ER compartment responds rapidly and dramatically to small changes in plasma membrane cholesterol around the normal level. Consequently, increasing plasma membrane cholesterol in vivo from just below to just above the basal level evoked an ac...

  8. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Moroti Camila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group, aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 108 UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 108 UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. Results The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05 in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P P Conclusion The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00123456

  9. Polymorphisms of CYP51A1 from cholesterol synthesis: associations with birth weight and maternal lipid levels and impact on CYP51 protein structure.

    Monika Lewińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the housekeeping cytochrome P450 CYP51A1 encoding lanosterol 14α-demethylase from cholesterol synthesis that was so far not directly linked to human disorders. By direct sequencing of CYP51A1 in 188 women with spontaneous preterm delivery and 188 unrelated preterm infants (gestational age <37 weeks we identified 22 variants where 10 are novel and rare. In infants there were two novel CYP51A1 variants where damaging effects of p.Tyr145Asp from the substrate recognition region, but not p.Asn193Asp, were predicted by PolyPhen2 and SIFT. This was confirmed by molecular modeling showing that Tyr145Asp substitution results in changed electrostatic potential of the CYP51 protein surface and lengthened distance to the heme which prevents hydrogen bonding. The CYP51 Tyr145Asp mutation is rare and thus very interesting for further structure/function relationship studies. From the 12 identified known variants rs6465348 was chosen for family based association studies due to its high minor allele frequency. Interestingly, this CYP51A1 common variant associates with small for gestational age weight in newborns (p = 0.028 and lower blood total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mothers in 2nd trimester of pregnancy (p = 0.042 and p = 0.046 respectively. Our results indicate a new link between a cholesterol synthesis gene CYP51A1 and pregnancy pathologies.

  10. Coexistence of High Fibrinogen and Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Predicts Recurrent Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Xin Ma; Xun-Ming Ji; Paul Fu; Yu-Chuan Ding; Qiang Xue; Yue Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may lead to serious neurological disorders;however,little is known about the risk factors for recurrent CVT.Our aim was to determine the association between elevated fibrinogen and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with recurrent CVT.Methods:This retrospective cohort study included participants if they had a first episode of objectively defined CVT and were admitted to Xuan Wu Hospital,Capital Medical University from August 2005 to September 2009.Demographic and clinical variables were collected,as well as laboratory parameters,including plasma fibrinogen and HDL-C.Patients with CVT were followed for recurrent symptomatic CVT.Follow-up was through the end of September 2010.Potential predictors of recurrence were analyzed using Cox survival analysis.Results:At the end of the follow-up,95 patients were eligible for the study.Twelve of 95 patients (12.6%) had recurred CVT.The median time of recurrence was 7 months (range:1-39 months).Eight of these 12 (66.7%) experienced recurrence within the first 12 months after their initial CVT.The recurrence rate of CVT was 2.76 per 100 patient-years.Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the coexistence of high fibrinogen (>4.00 g/L) and low HDL-C (<1.08 mmol/L) levels at baseline was the only independent predictor for recurrent CVT (hazard ratio:4.69;95% confidence interval:1.10-20.11;P < 0.05).Of the twelve patients with recurrent CVT in our study,7 (58.3%) had high fibrinogen plus low HDL-C levels.All 7 of these patients took warfarin for 3-12 months,and 6 of 7 had recurrent CVT after the discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment.Conclusions:Concomitant high fibrinogen and low HDL-C levels may be associated with recurrence of CVT.The effect of potential risk factors related to atherothrombosis on recurrent CVT should be closely monitored.

  11. The Level of Serum Cholesterol is Negatively Associated with Lean Body Mass in Korean non-Diabetic Cancer Patients

    2016-01-01

    Due to poor nutrition and abnormal energy metabolism, cancer patients typically experience the loss of muscle mass. Although the diabetic conditions or dyslipidemia have been reported as a causal link of cancer but the consequence of such conditions in relation to gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of lean body mass and systemic parameters related to lipid metabolism in non-diabetic cancer patients using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. As results the level of serum total cholesterol (total-C) was negatively associated with both total lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass in cancer patients after adjustment for sex, physical activity, energy intake and comorbidity. The associations between consumption of dietary factors (energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat) and lean body mass were disappeared after adjusting comorbidities of cancer patients. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis by quartiles of serum total-C showed that higher quartile group of total-C had significantly lower percent of lean body mass than reference group in cancer patients. The data indicate that serum lipid status can be the potential estimate of loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients and be referenced in nutrition care of cancer patients under the onset of cachexia or parenteral/enteral nutrition. This data need to be confirmed with large pool of subjects and should be specified by stage of cancer or the site of cancer in future studies. PMID:27152302

  12. The Level of Serum Cholesterol is Negatively Associated with Lean Body Mass in Korean non-Diabetic Cancer Patients.

    Han, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun Yeup; Bu, So Young

    2016-04-01

    Due to poor nutrition and abnormal energy metabolism, cancer patients typically experience the loss of muscle mass. Although the diabetic conditions or dyslipidemia have been reported as a causal link of cancer but the consequence of such conditions in relation to gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of lean body mass and systemic parameters related to lipid metabolism in non-diabetic cancer patients using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. As results the level of serum total cholesterol (total-C) was negatively associated with both total lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass in cancer patients after adjustment for sex, physical activity, energy intake and comorbidity. The associations between consumption of dietary factors (energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat) and lean body mass were disappeared after adjusting comorbidities of cancer patients. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis by quartiles of serum total-C showed that higher quartile group of total-C had significantly lower percent of lean body mass than reference group in cancer patients. The data indicate that serum lipid status can be the potential estimate of loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients and be referenced in nutrition care of cancer patients under the onset of cachexia or parenteral/enteral nutrition. This data need to be confirmed with large pool of subjects and should be specified by stage of cancer or the site of cancer in future studies. PMID:27152302

  13. Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome

    Song, Guohua; Li, Min; Sang, Hui; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiuhong; Yao, Shutong; Yu, Yang; Zong, Chuanlong; Xue, Yazhuo; Qin, Shucun

    2013-01-01

    We have found that hydrogen (dihydrogen; H2) has beneficial lipid-lowering effects in high-fat diet-fed Syrian golden hamsters. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of H2-rich water (0.9–1.0 l/day) on the content, composition, and biological activities of serum lipoproteins on 20 patients with potential metabolic syndrome. Serum analysis showed that consumption of H2-rich water for 10 weeks resulted in decreased serum total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) l...

  14. [Attitude of blood donors towards cholesterol measurement].

    Flesland, O; Botten, G; Solheim, B G; Orjasaeter, H

    1992-05-20

    In analyses of cost-effectiveness it is customary to count knowledge of having a high serum cholesterol level as a negative factor. There is little support for this practice in the literature. We have studied the attitude of 305 Norwegian blood donors towards cholesterol testing. 63% stated that they were interested in their serum cholesterol level, and 40% said they knew their own serum cholesterol level. The attitude towards cholesterol testing was clearly positive, both among men and among women, regardless of age. Only one donor stated that she did not want to have her serum cholesterol tested in conjunction with blood donation. PMID:1509430

  15. Effect of plant extract of Tribulus terrestris and probiotics on the reproductive performance, total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams

    Sharawy, S. M.; Saleh, N. H.; Attalah, S. A.; Absy, G. M.; Doaa, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare between the effects of tribulus terrestris extract and probiotics on scrotal circumference, testicular volume, reaction time, semen characteristics, serum total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams. The study was carried out from February to July 2013 on eight sexually mature Rahmani rams. The eight rams were used as control group for one month before treatment (weekly assessment for all the parameters). Rams were divided into two...

  16. The Effect of Chromium Added into Basal Diet on Serum Total Protein, Urea, Triglyceride, Cholesterol and Serum and Tissue Chromium, Zinc, Copper Levels in Rabbits

    *, Kâzim ŞAHİN; *, Talat GÜLER; +, N. ŞAHİN; *, O. N. ERTAS; +, N. ERKAL

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemantal dietary chromium on serum total protein, urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, and serum and tissue chromium, zinc, and copper contents of pregnant rabbits, their offspring and their young rabbits. Treatment groups consisted of chromium level as follows: Control Group no supplementation chromium into basal diet, Treatment I (200 ppb Group) contained 200 ppb of supplemental chromium into basal diet, and Treatment II (400 ppb Group...

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in northern Denmark: a descriptive study

    Schmidt SA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir Schmidt,1 Uffe Heide-Jørgensen,1 Angelika D Manthripragada,2 Vera Ehrenstein1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Background: With the emergence of new lipid-lowering therapies, more patients are expected to achieve substantial lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. However, there are limited data examining the clinical experience of patients with low (<1.3 mmol/L or very low (<0.65 mmol/L levels of LDL-C. To provide information on patients with low LDL-C, we identified and characterized persons with low LDL-C using data from Danish medical databases. Methods: Using a population-based clinical laboratory database, we identified adults with at least one LDL-C measurement in northern Denmark between 1998 and 2011 (population approximately 1.5 million persons. Based on the lowest measurement during the study period, we divided patients into groups with low (<1.3 mmol/L, moderate (1.3–3.3 mmol/L, or high (>3.3 mmol/L LDL-C. We described their demographic characteristics, entire comorbidity history, and 90-day prescription history prior to the lowest LDL-C value measured. Finally, we further restricted the analysis to individuals with very low LDL-C (<0.65 mmol/L. Results: Among 765,503 persons with an LDL-C measurement, 23% had high LDL-C, 73% had moderate LDL-C, and 4.8% had low LDL-C. In the latter group, 9.6% (0.46% of total had very low LDL-C. Compared with the moderate and high LDL-C categories, the low LDL-C group included more males and older persons with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, and obesity, as measured by hospital diagnoses or relevant prescription drugs for these diseases. Cancer and use of psychotropic drugs were also more prevalent. These patterns of distribution became even more pronounced when

  18. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  19. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments to reduce cholesterol levels, blood pressure and smoking for the prevention of coronary heart disease: evaluative study carried out in Spain.

    Plans-Rubió, P

    1998-05-01

    This study assessed the cost effectiveness of treatments for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease in Spain, which included smoking cessation and reductions in blood cholesterol levels and BP. Cost-effectiveness ratios (measured in terms of US dollars per life-year gained) ranged from 2,608 US dollars to 8,058 US dollars per life-year gained for therapies aimed at smoking cessation, from 7,061 US dollars to 126,990 US dollars per life-year gained for antihypertensive drug treatment, from 15,487 US dollars to 1,689,022 US dollars per life-year gained for the drug treatment of hypercholesterolaemia and from 12,792 US dollars to 149,246 US dollars per life-year gained for cholesterol-lowering diets. In individuals with blood cholesterol levels of 7.7 mmol/L, cost-effectiveness ratios of drug treatment ranged from 33,850 US dollars to 302,088 US dollars. Cost-effectiveness ratios were lower in men than in women for all programmes evaluated. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cholesterol-lowering drugs indicated that lovastatin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) was more cost effective than cholestyramine (bile acid sequestrant) and gemfibrozil (fibrate). Hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol and nifedipine were more cost effective antihypertensive treatments than prazosin and captopril. Cost-effectiveness ratios obtained in this study could be used to develop disease management strategies to facilitate the efficient use of healthcare resources and to reduce costs. When resources for coronary heart disease are limited, available treatments should be selected on the basis of their average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. PMID:17165328

  1. Cholesterol and Your Child

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  2. Women and Cholesterol

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... Glossary Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  3. HDL Cholesterol Test

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  4. LDL Cholesterol Test

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? LDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  5. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  6. Segregation analysis of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the collaborative Lipid Research Clinics Program Family Study.

    Bucher, K D; Kaplan, E B; Namboodiri, K K; Glueck, C J; Laskarzewski, P; Rifkind, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Complex segregation analysis with the unified mixed model in white families from nine lipid research clinics was carried out to delineate the mode of familial transmission of plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Three groups of families from the collaborative Lipid Research Clinics Program Family Study were assessed: 1,146 selected at random, 483 obtained through hypercholesterolemic probands, and 177 selected from the random sample because a number had low HDL-C, the sample s...

  7. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  8. Cholesterol Metabolism in Brain and Skin Fibroblasts from Sarda Breed Sheep With Scrapie-resistant and Scrapie-susceptible Genotypes

    Alessandra Pani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrapie is a fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep, a transmissible form of prion disease caused by neuronal accumulation of the aberrantly conformed prion protein (PrPsc. Currently, no ante-mortem diagnostic tests are available to detect this untreatable disease in the pre-clinical stage, thus making difficult to control its spread. Recent evidence suggests that the production of PrPsc can be modulated by the levels of membrane cholesterol in neuronal cells. Since cholesterol levels in cell membranes are dependent on cholesterol homeostasis in the whole organism, we studied cholesterol metabolism in brain tissues, plasma and skin fibroblasts of Sarda breed sheep with scrapie-resistant (ARR/ARR and scrapie-susceptible (ARQ/ARQ prion protein genotypes, both not infected (ARQ/ARQ- and infected (ARQ/ARQ+ with scrapie. We found that, the levels of cytoplasmic cholesterol esters (CE in brains and skin fibroblasts from sheep with the ARQ/ARQ genotype were consistently higher than those from sheep with the ARR/ARR genotype. Conversely, the levels of free cholesterol (FC were lower in ARQ/ARQ, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep, thus resulting in a sharp reduction of the FC/CE ratio. Moreover, both uninfected and infected ARQ/ARQ sheep showed abnormally low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C in their plasma, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep. These data other than adding new strength to the notion that altered levels of intracellular cholesterol may indicate the presence of a lipid metabolic state that predisposes to infection with, and accumulation of, PrPsc in the brain, discriminate for the first time between two distinct but related cellular pools of cholesterol, namely membrane FC on one hand and cytoplasmic CE on the other.

  9. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  10. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  11. Strategies for Establishing Policy, Environmental, and Systems-Level Interventions for Managing High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol in Health Care Settings: A Qualitative Case Study

    Victoria V. Anwuri, MPH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPolicy, environmental, and systems-level interventions are part of a comprehensive approach to managing high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which are key risk factors for heart disease and stroke. In this qualitative case study, we identified clinical practices in health care organizations that used policy, environmental, or systems-level interventions to improve patient outcomes for these conditions. Our 4 objectives were to describe 1 policy, environmental, and systems-level interventions; 2 enabling factors and barriers that affected implementation; 3 methods for evaluating the success of the intervention; and 4 lessons learned from the health care practices that implemented these interventions.MethodsThrough literature review and expert guidance, we identified 34 health care practices that used policy, environmental, and systems-level interventions to manage high blood pressure and high cholesterol. In 2003, we conducted case study interviews with key informants for 9 health care practices that 1 demonstrated improved patient outcomes for blood pressure or cholesterol; 2 implemented the interventions for at least 1 year; and 3 remained committed to sustaining or institutionalizing interventions. We taped and transcribed the interviews and used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EZ-Text software (www.cdc.gov/hiv/software/ez-text.htm to code, categorize, and analyze the responses.ResultsThe health care practices we studied implemented specialized lipid clinics, disease management programs, physician reminder systems, and participation in the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Bureau of Primary Care Health Disparities Collaboratives. All practices used comprehensive systems for patient care that were well-defined, measurable, and linked to desirable patient outcomes. Most relied on data systems to identify patients targeted for the interventions and practice areas that needed improvement, and to track the

  12. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp. and hepatic triglyceride (TG levels (up to 528% in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g. significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35% and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g. significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%, it elevated the hepatic index (by 77% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.

  13. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

  14. Cerebral cholesterol granuloma in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    Francis, Gordon A; Johnson, Royce L.; Findlay, J. Max; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by the accumulation of excess cholesterol in tissues including the artery wall and tendons. We describe a patient with homozygous FH who presented with asymptomatic cholesterol granuloma of the brain. The patient's plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was remarkably responsive to combination hypolipidemic therapy with statin plus ezetimibe. This case illustrates another potential complication of whole-body cholesterol excess and ...

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis

    Steve eMeaney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g. the Hedgehog system. A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more ‘traditional’ regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review.

  16. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  17. What Is Cholesterol?

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  18. Thyroid stimulating hormone, independent of thyroid hormone, can elevate the serum total cholesterol level in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional design

    Xu Chao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between TSH and the lipid profile is contradictory because few studies have excluded the potential influence of the thyroid hormones (TH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profile independent of TH. Methods 1302 CHD patients diagnosed by coronary angiography were retrospectively studied. The prevalence and distribution of thyroid dysfunction were analyzed first. To assess the impact of TSH on serum lipids, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed after adjustments for classic factors and TH. To calculate the extent of the effect of TSH on the serum cholesterol level, the partial least squares method and additional statistical methods were used. Results After the exclusions, a total of 568 patients (270 males and 298 females with a mean age of 63.56 ± 11.376 years were selected. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among the patients was 18.66%, and the prevalence of hypothyroidism (15.32% was higher than that of hyperthyroidism (3.34%. Even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as sex, age, smoking status, fasting plasma glucose levels and TH, a significant positive impact of TSH on the serum total cholesterol (TC level was revealed (r = 0.095, p = 0.036. Each 1 mIU/L increase in the TSH level might be linked to a 0.015580712 mmol/L elevation of the serum TC value. Conclusions TSH can increase the TC level in CHD patients independent of TH. The present study suggests a potential physiological role of TSH and the importance of maintaining an appropriate TSH level in CHD patients.

  19. Cholesterol Worships a New Idol

    Ira G. Schulman

    2009-01-01

    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Elevated serum IL-10 levels in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a mechanism of aberrant JAK2 activation

    Gupta, Mamta; Han, Jing Jing; Stenson, Mary; Maurer, Matthew; Wellik, Linda; Hu, Guangzhen; Ziesmer, Steve; Dogan, Ahmet; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines are deregulated in cancers and can contribute to tumor growth. In patients with diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we observed higher levels of JAK/STAT pathway-related serum cytokines (ie, IL-6, IL-10, epidermal growth factor, and IL-2) compared with controls. Of these, only IL-10 activated the JAK2 pathway in lymphoma cells in vitro. Patients with high serum IL-10 had shorter event-free survival (EFS) than patients with low levels (P > .01) and high IL-10 was correlated with hig...

  1. The Effect of Residing Altitude on Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Pilot Study From the Omani Arab Population.

    Al Riyami, Nafila B; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Waili, Khalid; Rizvi, Syed G; Al-Yahyaee, Said; Hassan, Mohammed O; Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Bayoumi, Riad A

    2015-07-01

    Lower mortality rates from coronary heart disease and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been observed in populations residing at high altitude. However, this effect has not been investigated in Arab populations, which exhibit considerable genetic homogeneity. We assessed the relationship between residing altitude and HDL-C in 2 genetically similar Omani Arab populations residing at different altitudes. The association between the levels of HDL-C and other metabolic parameters was also investigated. The levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in the high-altitude group compared with the low-altitude group. Stepwise regression analysis showed that altitude was the most significant factor affecting HDL-C, followed by gender, serum triglycerides, and finally the 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose. This finding is consistent with previously published studies from other populations and should be taken into consideration when comparing cardiovascular risk factors in populations residing at different altitudes. PMID:25078070

  2. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000099.htm Cholesterol and lifestyle To use the sharing features on ... Stroke Serious heart or blood vessel disease Your Cholesterol Numbers All men should have their blood cholesterol ...

  3. Cholesterol testing and results

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000386.htm Cholesterol testing and results To use the sharing features ... can tell you what your goal should be. Cholesterol Tests Some cholesterol is considered good and some ...

  4. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  5. Brain cholesterol in normal and pathological aging

    Vanmierlo Tim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aberrations in cerebral cholesterol homeostasis can lead to severe neurological diseases. Recent findings strengthen the link between brain cholesterol metabolism and factors involved in synaptic plasticity, a process essential for learning and memory functions, as well as regeneration, which are affected in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Cholesterol homeostasis within the brain is independent of that in the rest of the body and needs to be strictly regulated for optimal brain functioning. In contrast with what was initially assumed brain cholesterol homeostasis can be modulated by extra-cerebral factors. We have found that enhancement of the cholesterol-turnover in the brain by administration of the synthetic activator of liver x receptos (LXRs, T0901317, leads to restoration of memory functions in an AD mouse-model.Memory in C57Bl6NCrl mice was not further improved by the same treatment. Moreover, it was found that in contrast with cholesterol, the structurally very similar dietary derived plant sterols can enter the brain. Plant sterols may be natural activators of LXRs. Evidence is provided suggesting that brassicasterol may be a novel additional biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients. Insight into the regulation of cerebral cholesterol homeostasis will provide possibilities to modulate the key steps involved and may lead to the development of therapies for the prevention as well as treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  6. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats.

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  7. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Groen, Albert K

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins we

  8. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  9. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy.

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-07-26

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD. PMID:26225201

  10. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  11. Knowledge-driven multi-locus analysis reveals gene-gene interactions influencing HDL cholesterol level in two independent EMR-linked biobanks.

    Stephen D Turner

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are routinely being used to examine the genetic contribution to complex human traits, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Although HDL-C levels are highly heritable (h(2∼0.7, the genetic determinants identified through GWAS contribute to a small fraction of the variance in this trait. Reasons for this discrepancy may include rare variants, structural variants, gene-environment (GxE interactions, and gene-gene (GxG interactions. Clinical practice-based biobanks now allow investigators to address these challenges by conducting GWAS in the context of comprehensive electronic medical records (EMRs. Here we apply an EMR-based phenotyping approach, within the context of routine care, to replicate several known associations between HDL-C and previously characterized genetic variants: CETP (rs3764261, p = 1.22e-25, LIPC (rs11855284, p = 3.92e-14, LPL (rs12678919, p = 1.99e-7, and the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 locus (rs964184, p = 1.06e-5, all adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI, and smoking status. By using a novel approach which censors data based on relevant co-morbidities and lipid modifying medications to construct a more rigorous HDL-C phenotype, we identified an association between HDL-C and TRIB1, a gene which previously resisted identification in studies with larger sample sizes. Through the application of additional analytical strategies incorporating biological knowledge, we further identified 11 significant GxG interaction models in our discovery cohort, 8 of which show evidence of replication in a second biobank cohort. The strongest predictive model included a pairwise interaction between LPL (which modulates the incorporation of triglyceride into HDL and ABCA1 (which modulates the incorporation of free cholesterol into HDL. These results demonstrate that gene-gene interactions modulate complex human traits, including HDL cholesterol.

  12. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    Janine K Kruit; Albert K Groen; Theo J van Berkel; Folkert Kuipers

    2006-01-01

    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis,clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor to high density lipoprotein (HDL; good cholesterol) formation. The liver has a central position in the classical definition of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway by taking up peripheryderived cholesterol from lipoprotein particles followed by conversion into bile acids or its direct secretion into bile for eventual removal via the feces. During the past couple of years, however, an additional important role of the intestine in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis and regulation of plasma cholesterol levels has become apparent. Firstly, molecular mechanisms of cholesterol absorption have been elucidated and novel pharmacological compounds have been identified that interfere with the process and positively impact plasma cholesterol levels. Secondly, it is now evident that the intestine itself contributes to fecal neutral sterol loss as a cholesterol-secreting organ. Finally, very recent work has unequivocally demonstrated that the intestine contributes significantly to plasma HDL cholesterol levels.Thus, the intestine is a potential target for novel antiatherosclerotic treatment strategies that, in addition to interference with cholesterol absorption, modulate direct cholesterol excretion and plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

  13. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  14. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...

  15. The Role of Cholesterol in Cancer.

    Kuzu, Omer F; Noory, Mohammad A; Robertson, Gavin P

    2016-04-15

    The roles played by cholesterol in cancer development and the potential of therapeutically targeting cholesterol homeostasis is a controversial area in the cancer community. Several epidemiologic studies report an association between cancer and serum cholesterol levels or statin use, while others suggest that there is not one. Furthermore, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project using next-generation sequencing has profiled the mutational status and expression levels of all the genes in diverse cancers, including those involved in cholesterol metabolism, providing correlative support for a role of the cholesterol pathway in cancer development. Finally, preclinical studies tend to more consistently support the role of cholesterol in cancer, with several demonstrating that cholesterol homeostasis genes can modulate development. Because of space limitations, this review provides selected examples of the epidemiologic, TCGA, and preclinical data, focusing on alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and its consequent effect on patient survival. In melanoma, this focused analysis demonstrated that enhanced expression of cholesterol synthesis genes was associated with decreased patient survival. Collectively, the studies in melanoma and other cancer types suggested a potential role of disrupted cholesterol homeostasis in cancer development but additional studies are needed to link population-based epidemiological data, the TCGA database results, and preclinical mechanistic evidence to concretely resolve this controversy. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2063-70. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197250

  16. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-II influences apolipoprotein E-linked cardiovascular disease risk in women with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

    James P Corsetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects and high (designated as HR2 subjects levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. To assess whether apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II plays a role in apoE-associated risk in the two female groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Outcome event mapping, a graphical data exploratory tool; Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression; and curve-fitting modeling were used to examine apoA-II influence on apoE-associated risk focusing on HDL particles with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I without apoA-II (LpA-I and HDL particles with both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I:A-II. Results of outcome mappings as a function of apoE levels and the ratio of apoA-II to apoA-I revealed within each of the two populations, a high-risk subgroup characterized in each situation by high levels of apoE and additionally: in HR1, by a low value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio; and in HR2, by a moderate value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio. Furthermore, derived estimates of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II levels revealed for high-risk versus remaining subjects: in HR1, higher levels of LpA-I and lower levels of LpA-I:A-II; and in HR2 the reverse, lower levels of LpA-I and higher levels of LpA-I:A-II. Results of multivariable risk modeling as a function of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II (dichotomized as highest quartile versus combined three lower quartiles revealed association of risk only for high levels of LpA-I:A-II in the HR2 subgroup (hazard ratio 5.31, 95% CI 1.12-25.17, p = 0.036. Furthermore, high LpA-I:A-II levels interacted with high apoE levels in establishing subgroup risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that apoA-II plays a significant role in apoE-associated risk of incident CVD in women with high levels of HDL-C and CRP.

  18. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  19. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

    Małgorzata Ziarno; Ewa Sękul; Alvaro Aguado Lafraya

    2007-01-01

    The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultu...

  20. Serum apolipoprotein(a) levels and its effect on the measured values of low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    1995-01-01

    Serum low density lipoprotein cholesterl (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)]levels were analyzed in 1032 sequential cases on routine physical check up, with special attention to the effect of Lp(a) on the LDL-C values. Since the determination of LDL-C by various

  1. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relative contributions of baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lipoproteins on the risk of recurrent stroke or first major cardiovascular event (MCVE) and their potential impact on the benefit of statin treatment. METHODS AND...... cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels. After 4.9 years of follow-up, there were 575 primary end points (fatal and nonfatal stroke), including 491 ischemic strokes, and 740 MCVEs (stroke plus myocardial infarction and vascular death). Cox regression...

  2. Risk of stroke and cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    Callahan, Alfred; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik; Messig, Mike; Samsa, Gregory P; Altafullah, Irfan; Ledbetter, Lucy Y; MacLeod, Mary J; Scott, Russell; Hennerici, Michael; Zivin, Justin A; Welch, K Michael A

    2011-01-01

    To perform a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, which tested the effect of treatment with atorvastatin in reducing stroke in subjects with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, to explore the effects of treatment in su...... subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome (MetS)....

  3. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3. PMID:24271261

  4. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  5. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    ... You also get cholesterol by eating foods like egg yolks, fatty meats, and regular cheese. If you have too much cholesterol in your body, it can build up inside your blood vessels and make it hard for blood to ...

  6. Cholesterol levels in panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and major depression Níveis de colesterol no transtorno de pânico, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e depressão maior

    ACIOLY L.T. LACERDA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum plasma total cholesterol levels were measured in 85 male or female outpatients with panic disorder (PD; N=41, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; N=23 and major depression (MD; N=21 according to DSM-IV criteria. All the patients had a mean cholesterol level within the normal range; males (N=22 and females (N=63 had approximately the same serum cholesterol levels (p > .05. No significant differences in cholesterol levels emerged between PD, GAD and MD patient groups. Both female PD and female GAD subjects had a mean cholesterol level similar to their male counterparts (p>.05. It is concluded that both Hayward and colleagues and Bajwa et al. findings could not be replicated by our study.Foram medidos os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total em 85 pacientes ambulatoriais com transtorno de pânico (TP; N = 41, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (TAG; N = 23 e depressão maior (DM; N = 21, diagnosticados de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. O grupo de pacientes apresentou média do nível de colesterol dentro da faixa normal; homens (N = 22 e mulheres (N = 63 tiveram aproximadamente os mesmos níveis séricos de colesterol (p > 0,05. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis de colesterol entre os grupos de pacientes com TP, TAG e DM. Mulheres com TP e as com TAG apresentaram média dos níveis de colesterol semelhante aos seus pares masculinos (p > 0,05. Conclui-se que os resultados obtidos por Hayward et al. e por Bajwa et al. não foram replicados neste estudo.

  7. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jørgensen, Kent; Hunter, A.C.; Baranji, L.; Rosivall, L.; Szebeni, J.

    2006-01-01

    liposome-mediated SC5b-9 generation considerably. While intravenous injection of cholesterol-rich liposomes into pigs was associated with an immediate circulatory collapse, the drop in systemic arterial pressure following injection of liposomes preincubated with human lipoproteins was slow and extended....... Therefore, surface-associated lipoprotein particles (or apolipoproteins) seem to lessen liposome-induced adverse haemodynamic changes, possibly as a consequence of suppressed complement activation in vivo. PEGylated liposomes were also capable of activating the human complement system, and the presence of......-mPEG conjugate seemed to play a critical role in activation of both the classical and alternative pathways of the complement system....

  8. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    ... your doctor recommends. Learn more about eating a healthy diet. Thin people don't have to worry about high cholesterol. A person with any body type can have high cholesterol. Overweight people are more likely to have ... heart-healthy. Have your cholesterol checked regularly regardless of your ...

  9. Clays as green catalysts in the cholesterol esterification: spectroscopic characterization and polymorphs identification by thermal analysis methods. An interdisciplinary laboratorial proposal for the undergraduate level

    A laboratory experiment that enables the professor to introduce the problematic of sustainable development in pharmaceutical chemistry to undergraduate students is proposed, using a simple synthetic procedure. Cholesteryl acetate is prepared by the esterification of cholesterol using Montmorillonite K10 as heterogeneous catalyst. Cholesterol and cholesteryl acetate are characterized by spectroscopic (1H RMN, 13C RMN, FTIR) and thermal analysis techniques. The thermal methods are used to introduce the concepts of polymorphism and the nature of mesophases. (author)

  10. PCSK9 R46L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease: 3 independent studies and meta-analyses

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PCSK9 R46L on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and mortality.......The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PCSK9 R46L on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and mortality....

  11. REDUCTION DEGREE OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF STATINS; ITS EFFECT ON THE RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE ACUTE EPISODES DEPENDING ON TREATMENT DURATION; AND RISK OF ISCHEMIC AND THROMBOEMBOLIC STROKE. COMMENT ON THE PAPER OF LAW M.R., WALD N.J., RUDNICKA A.R. QUANTIFYING EFFECT OF STATINS ON LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE, AND STROKE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. BMJ 2003; 326:1423-1427

    N. V. Perova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dose-dependent ability of different statins to lower serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol was determined in three large meta-analysis. Besides, it was found that standardized decrease in LDL cholesterol levels on 1.0 or 1.8 mmol/l leads to rate reduction in ischemic heart disease acute episodes as well as stroke depending on treatment duration. Effect of LDL cholesterol reduction on stroke occurrence was more significant in studies, which included a major share of patients with vascular disease, because these patients have a higher risk of thromboembolic stroke (rather than haemorrhagic stroke in comparison with the general population.

  12. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau; Mitchell L. Jones; Divya Shah; Poonam Jain; Shyamali Saha; Satya Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and ch...

  13. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  14. Increased plasma total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels produced by the crude extract from the leaves of Viscum album (mistletoe).

    Ben, E E; Eno, A E; Ofem, O E; Aidem, U; Itam, E H

    2006-01-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Viscum album (Mistletoe) on plasma cholesterol and albumin levels in male Wistar rats was studied. Lethality studies revealed that the extract had an LD50 value of 417.0 mg/kg mice, intraperitoneally. The rats were randomly divided into seven (7) groups of 5 rats per group with one animal per metabolic cage. Group one served as the control (C1), groups two to six were treated with extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally and daily) for a maximum of ten (10) weeks, whereas, group seven (C2) received no extract treatment but was fed on normal rat chow. All the rats had free access to rat food and drinking water. The first group (C1) was sacrificed a fortnight after the commencement of the experiment, while group seven (C2) was sacrificed at the end (10th week) of the experiment. The extract-treated groups were sacrificed respectively in the order two, four, six, eight and ten week of extract administration. Whole blood was collected from these groups for analysis. Results showed significant [P control values. From the results, it is suggested that the crude aqueous extract from mistletoe leaf may be relatively safe for therapeutic use as it neither predisposes to cardiovascular risk nor adversely affects protein metabolism following prolonged period of administration. PMID:17242719

  15. Lower levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with a worse Duke treadmill score in men but not in women

    A F Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are inversely related to the atherosclerotic burden and are higher in women than in men. We aimed to investigate the sex-specific relationship between serum HDL-C levels and the Duke treadmill score (DTS in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients (59 men, 42 women with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD who underwent exercise treadmill test (EST were included. Fasting blood samples were obtained for the assessment of serum lipid levels. DTS was calculated for each patient based on EST findings including ST segment deviation and symptoms. Results: Patients were categorized into a moderate to high risk group based on the DTS score (group-I: 38 patients and a low risk group (group-II: 63 patients. There was a significant positive correlation between serum HDL-C levels and DTS (r = 0.230; P=0.021. The mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in group-II relative to group-I (49.25 ±11.21 vs. 44.43 ± 11.18, respectively, P = 0.04. An HDL-C level less than the cut-off value of 41.39 mg/dL predicted a moderate to severe risk DTS with 65% sensitivity and 69% specificity in men (area under curve = 0.732, P = 0.004, but not in women (area under curve = 0.505, P = 0.958. After adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors (age, sex, and smoking status, the relationship of DTS to HDL-C remained significant. (P = 0.030; adjusted OR = 0.948 [95% CI, 0.904-0.995]. Conclusion: Low HDL-C levels may be associated with a moderate to high risk Duke treadmill score in men, but not in women. Further research is required to clarify the sex-specific relationship between HDL-C and DTS.

  16. Dieta vegetariana e níveis de colesterol e triglicérides Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels

    Simone Grigoletto De Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores de triglicérides (TG, colesterol total (CT, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL entre indivíduos vegetarianos e onívoros. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras sangüíneas de 76 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, que foram separados em quatro grupos de dieta: onívoro, ovolacto, lacto e vegetariano restrito (ou "vegan". Foram dosados: CT, LDL, HDL e TG. RESULTADOS: Para as taxas de CT, LDL e TG, observa-se diferença significante entre as amostras, sendo o maior valor nos onívoros, havendo decréscimo nos vegetarianos, de acordo com o grau de restrição de produtos de origem animal, sendo a menor taxa observada nos "vegans". A média e o desvio padrão do CT foram de 208,09 ± 49,09 mg/dl no grupo de onívoros, e 141,06 ± 30,56 mg/dl no de vegan (p OBJECTIVE: Compare levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 76 individuals - both males and females - separated in four different diet groups: omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and restricted vegetarians (or vegans. Dosing was done for: TC, LDL, HDL and TG. RESULTS: Significant difference was reported for TC, LDL and TG levels among the samples. Higher levels were reported by omnivores, with decreased levels for vegetarians as animal products were restricted, with lowest levels having been reported by vegans. Mean and standard deviation for TC were 208.09 ± 49.09 mg/dl in the group of omnivores, and 141.06 ± 30.56 mg/dl in the group of vegans (p < 0.001. LDL values for omnivores and vegans were respectively: 123.43 ± 42.67 mg/dl and 69.28 ± 29.53 mg/dl (p < 0.001. As for TG, those values were 155.68 ± 119.84 mg/dl and 81.67 ± 81.90 mg/dl (p < 0.01. As for HDL level no difference was reported between the samples, but HDL/TC ratio was significantly higher in

  17. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  18. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess?

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:26993747

  19. Tissue storage and control of cholesterol metabolism in man on high cholesterol diets.

    Quintão, E C; Brumer, S; Stechhahn, K

    1977-03-01

    The possibility of accumulation of tissue cholesterol in human beings submitted to high cholesterol feeding was investigated in liver biopsies and through fecal sterol balance studies. Feeding to 10 individuals 3.1 to 3.4 g/day of cholesterol for 3 weeks raised the mean serum level from 293 to 349 mg/100 ml, namely 19%, whereas the liver cholesterol content was 417 mg/100 g of wet weight. In 10 control cases eating 0.1--0.4 g/day of cholesterol serum cholesterol remained stable throughout the experimental period and the liver cholesterol content was 256 mg/100 g. Difference of liver colesterol level between the two groups was 62%. In 7 patients submitted to two periods of balance investigation on a cholesterol-free synthetic formula diet respectively prior to (PI) and after (PIII) eating the high cholesterol solid food from 4 to 15 weeks (PII), fecal steroid excretion in PIII exceeded PI in 3 patients. Such data are a direct evidence for the existence of an efficient system to release acutely stored cholesterol. In one patient bile acid excretion accounted for the difference between PIII and PI. PMID:849375

  20. Evaluation of LDL-Cholesterol / HDL-Cholesterol Ratio as Predictor of Dyslipidemia in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Smita S. Kottagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as a serum TSH concentration above the upper limit of the reference range when serum T3 and T4 concentrations are within reference ranges. Subclinical thyroid disease is a laboratory diagnosis. Patients with subclinical disease have few or no definitive clinical signs or symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. It has been associated with higher levels of some cardiovascular risk factors. Despite some conflicting results, many studies have found that subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism have total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels higher than euthyroid subjects. The association between subclinical hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia is well known. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find the importance of Low Density Lipoprotein – Cholesterol / Higher Density Lipoprotein - Cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio rather than measurement of individual lipid profile parameters in bringing to light the dyslipidemic state associated with subclinical hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: We studied 30 subclinical hypothyroid cases with age above 35 yrs and 30 age matched euthyroid controls. Serum T3, T4, TSH were estimated by ELISA method, serum total cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol by enzymatic CHOD-PAP method, and LDL cholesterol using Friedewald formula. Results: We found the significant increase in the serum levels of TSH (p < 0.001, Total cholesterol (p<0.001, LDL cholesterol (p<0.001, and LDL-C/HDL-C (p<0.001, Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001. There was no significant change in the levels of serum T3, T4, HDL- cholesterol. Conclusion: Increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio are seen in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. LDL-C/HDLC ratio is a better indicator for dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroid cases.

  1. Increased plasma membrane cholesterol in cystic fibrosis cells correlates with CFTR genotype and depends on de novo cholesterol synthesis

    Sonawane Nitin D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous observations demonstrate that Cftr-null cells and tissues exhibit alterations in cholesterol processing including perinuclear cholesterol accumulation, increased de novo synthesis, and an increase in plasma membrane cholesterol accessibility compared to wild type controls. The hypothesis of this study is that membrane cholesterol accessibility correlates with CFTR genotype and is in part influenced by de novo cholesterol synthesis. Methods Electrochemical detection of cholesterol at the plasma membrane is achieved with capillary microelectrodes with a modified platinum coil that accepts covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase. Modified electrodes absent cholesterol oxidase serves as a baseline control. Cholesterol synthesis is determined by deuterium incorporation into lipids over time. Incorporation into cholesterol specifically is determined by mass spectrometry analysis. All mice used in the study are on a C57Bl/6 background and are between 6 and 8 weeks of age. Results Membrane cholesterol measurements are elevated in both R117H and ΔF508 mouse nasal epithelium compared to age-matched sibling wt controls demonstrating a genotype correlation to membrane cholesterol detection. Expression of wt CFTR in CF epithelial cells reverts membrane cholesterol to WT levels further demonstrating the impact of CFTR on these processes. In wt epithelial cell, the addition of the CFTR inhibitors, Gly H101 or CFTRinh-172, for 24 h surprisingly results in an initial drop in membrane cholesterol measurement followed by a rebound at 72 h suggesting a feedback mechanism may be driving the increase in membrane cholesterol. De novo cholesterol synthesis contributes to membrane cholesterol accessibility. Conclusions The data in this study suggest that CFTR influences cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane, which when depleted, leads to an increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis to restore membrane content.

  2. Computational model for monitoring cholesterol metabolism.

    Selvakumar, R; Rashith Muhammad, M; Poornima Devi, G

    2014-12-01

    A non-deterministic finite automaton is designed to observe the cholesterol metabolism with the states of acceptance and rejection. The acceptance state of the automaton depicts the normal level of metabolism and production of good cholesterol as an end product. The rejection state of this machine shows the inhibition of enzymatic activity in cholesterol synthesis and removal of free fatty acids. The deficiency in human cholesterol metabolism pathway results in abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in plasma, arterial tissues leading to diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis respectively and formation of gallstones. The designed machine can be used to monitor the cholesterol metabolism at molecular level through regulation of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol for the treatment of diseases incident due to the respective metabolic disorder. In addition, an algorithm for this machine has been developed to compare the programmed string with the given string. This study demonstrates the construction of a machine that is used for the development of molecular targeted therapy for the disorders in cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26396654

  3. Effect of elevated total cholesterol level and hypertension on the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease: a cohort study of Chinese steelworkers

    YANG Ying; GU Dong-feng; LI Jian-xin; CHEN Ji-chun; CAO Jie; LU Xiang-feng; CHEN Shu-feng; WU Xi-gui; DUAN Xiu-fang; MO Xing-bo

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased blood pressure and elevated total cholesterol (TC) level are the two most important modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the world.Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia co-exist more often than would be expected and whether there is a synergistic impact on fatal CVD between elevated TC and hypertension need to be further examined in Chinese population.Methods We conducted a cohort study which recruited 5092 Chinese male steelworkers aged 18-74 years in 1974-1980 and followed up for an average of 20.84 years.Totally 302 fatal CVD events were documented by the year of 2001.Cox proportional hazards regression models were undertaken to adjust for baseline variables with fatal CVD events as the outcome variable.Additive interaction model was used to evaluate the interaction between elevated TC and hypertension.Results Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension were significantly associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) of fatal CVD (1.67 (95% CI 1.18-2.38) and 2.91 (95% CI 2.23-3.80) respectively.Compared to participants with normotension and TC <240 mg/dl,the HRs were 1.11 (95% CI 0.56-2.21),2.74 (95% CI 2.07-3.64) for hypercholesterolemia and hypertension respectively,and 5.51 (95% CI 3.58-8.46) for participants with both risk factors.There was an additive interaction with a 2.65 (95% CI 0.45-4.85) relative excess risk (RERI) between hypercholesterolemia and hypertension on CVD.Conclusion We found that the risk of fatal CVD was significantly associated with an additive interaction due to hypercholesterolemia and hypertension besides a conventional main effect derived from either of them,which highlights that the prevention and treatment of both risk factors might improve the individual risk profile thus reduce the CVD mortality.

  4. Assessment of modes of action and efficacy of plasma cholesterol-lowering drugs : measurement of cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis and turnover using novel stable isotope techniques

    Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert

    2005-01-01

    Several processes are involved in control of plasma cholesterol levels, e.g., intestinal cholesterol absorption, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and transport and bile acid synthesis. Adaptation of either of these processes allows the body to adapt to changes in dietary cholesterol intake. Disturba

  5. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  6. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    Maria Franca Mulas; Antonella Mandas; Claudia Abete; Sandra Dessì; Alessandra Mocali; Francesco Paoletti

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes, and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels o...

  7. Relative and cumulative effects of lipid and blood pressure control in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels trial

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Messig, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relative contributions of on-treatment low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides, and blood pressure (BP) control on the risk of recurrent stroke or major cardiovascular events in patients with stroke is not well defined. METHODS: We...

  8. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was

  9. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was

  10. Polymorphisms of CYP51A1 from Cholesterol Synthesis: Associations with Birth Weight and Maternal Lipid Levels and Impact on CYP51 Protein Structure

    Monika Lewińska; Urska Zelenko; Franci Merzel; Simona Golic Grdadolnik; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Damjana Rozman

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the housekeeping cytochrome P450 CYP51A1 encoding lanosterol 14α-demethylase from cholesterol synthesis that was so far not directly linked to human disorders. By direct sequencing of CYP51A1 in 188 women with spontaneous preterm delivery and 188 unrelated preterm infants (gestational age

  11. HDL Cholesterol and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2015-01-01

    Observationally, low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether levels of HDL cholesterol are causally...... associated with type 2 diabetes is unknown. In a prospective study of the general population (n = 47,627), we tested whether HDL cholesterol-related genetic variants were associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and, in turn, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol-decreasing gene scores...... and allele numbers associated with up to -13 and -20% reductions in HDL cholesterol levels. The corresponding theoretically predicted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.44 (95% CI 1.38-1.52) and 1.77 (1.61-1.95), whereas the genetic estimates were nonsignificant. Genetic risk ratios for type 2...

  12. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; XU, XIAOPING; Chen, Minli

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Methods Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6–7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male ...

  13. Accessibility of Cholesterol in Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes and Activation of SREBP-2 Switch Abruptly at a Common Cholesterol Threshold

    Sokolov, Anna; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cooperative interactions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes between Scap, cholesterol, and Insig result in switch-like control over activation of SREBP-2 transcription factors. This allows cells to rapidly adjust rates of cholesterol synthesis and uptake in response to even slight deviations from physiological set-point levels, thereby ensuring cholesterol homeostasis. In the present study we directly probe for the accessibility of cholesterol in purified E...

  14. The hedgehog receptor patched is involved in cholesterol transport.

    Michel Bidet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling plays a crucial role in growth and patterning during embryonic development, and also in stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration in adults. Aberrant Shh pathway activation is involved in the development of many tumors, and one of the most affected Shh signaling steps found in these tumors is the regulation of the signaling receptor Smoothened by the Shh receptor Patched. In the present work, we investigated Patched activity and the mechanism by which Patched inhibits Smoothened. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the well-known Shh-responding cell line of mouse fibroblasts NIH 3T3, we first observed that enhancement of the intracellular cholesterol concentration induces Smoothened enrichment in the plasma membrane, which is a crucial step for the signaling activation. We found that binding of Shh protein to its receptor Patched, which involves Patched internalization, increases the intracellular concentration of cholesterol and decreases the efflux of a fluorescent cholesterol derivative (BODIPY-cholesterol from these cells. Treatment of fibroblasts with cyclopamine, an antagonist of Shh signaling, inhibits Patched expression and reduces BODIPY-cholesterol efflux, while treatment with the Shh pathway agonist SAG enhances Patched protein expression and BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. We also show that over-expression of human Patched in the yeast S. cerevisiae results in a significant boost of BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, we demonstrate that purified Patched binds to cholesterol, and that the interaction of Shh with Patched inhibits the binding of Patched to cholesterol. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Patched may contribute to cholesterol efflux from cells, and to modulation of the intracellular cholesterol concentration. This activity is likely responsible for the inhibition of the enrichment of Smoothened in the plasma membrane, which is an important step in Shh pathway

  15. Low high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol level is a significant risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes: Data from the Hawaii–Los Angeles–Hiroshima study

    Hirano, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kubota, Mitsunobu; Maeda, Shusaku; Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Kira, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction A low level of high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) is a common feature of metabolic syndrome. We have reported that Japanese–Americans who share a virtually identical genetic makeup with native Japanese, but who have lived Westernized lifestyles for decades, have lower HDLC levels and a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese. However, the impact of low HDLC level on type 2 diabetes is unclear. The aims of the present study were to e...

  16. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  17. Naringin administration inhibits platelet aggregation and release by reducing blood cholesterol levels and the cytosolic free calcium concentration in hyperlipidemic rabbits

    Xiao, Yang; LI, LAI-LAI; Guo, Jing-Jing; XU, WEN-PING; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of naringin on platelet aggregation and release in hyperlipidemic rabbits, and the underlying mechanisms. The safety of naringin was also investigated. The rabbits were orally administered 60, 30 or 15 mg/kg of naringin once a day for 14 days after being fed a high fat/cholesterol diet for four weeks. Following the two weeks of drug administration, the degree of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate and collagen was signifi...

  18. The Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin-Resistance Locus Near IRS1 Is A Determinant of HDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides Levels Among Diabetic Subjects

    Sharma, Rajani; Prudente, Sabrina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Powers, Christine; Mannino, Gaia; Bacci, Simonetta; Gervino, Ernest V.; Hauser, Thomas H.; Succurro, Elena; Mercuri, Luana; Goheen, Elizabeth H.; Shah, Hetal; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Sesti, Giorgio; Doria, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE SNP rs2943641 near the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene has been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin-resistance in genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether this SNP is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic individuals. METHODS SNP rs2943641 was typed in 2,133 White T2D subjects and tested for association with BMI, serum HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, hypertension history, and CAD risk. RESULTS HDL cholesterol decreased by 1 mg/dl (p=0.0045) and serum triglycerides increased by 6 mg/dl (p=0.018) for each copy of the insulin-resistance allele. Despite these effects, no association was found with increased CAD risk (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.88–1.13). CONCLUSIONS The insulin-resistance and T2D locus near the IRS1 gene is a determinant of lower HDL cholesterol among T2D subjects. However, this effect is small and does not translate into a detectable increase in CAD risk in this population. PMID:21353221

  19. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes

    Ogbevire L Aberare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes were used for this study between the 4 th of August and 7 th of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group, group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Result: Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05. The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05 in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes

  20. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. PMID:26710098

  1. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Parameters of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Postmenopausal Women

    Sierksma, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Lankhuizen, I.M.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. One of the main antiatherogenic functions of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport. Three early steps of reverse cholesterol transport are (1) cellular cholesterol efflux, (2) plasma choles

  2. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Oct 26,2015 As ... disease and stroke, your doctor may suggest some lifestyle changes. Regardless of whether your plan includes drug ...

  3. Mitochondrial cholesterol: mechanisms of import and effects on mitochondrial function.

    Martin, Laura A; Kennedy, Barry E; Karten, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria require cholesterol for biogenesis and membrane maintenance, and for the synthesis of steroids, oxysterols and hepatic bile acids. Multiple pathways mediate the transport of cholesterol from different subcellular pools to mitochondria. In steroidogenic cells, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) interacts with a mitochondrial protein complex to mediate cholesterol delivery to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone. In non-steroidogenic cells, several members of a protein family defined by the presence of a StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain play key roles in the delivery of cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes. Subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), form membrane contact sites with mitochondria and may contribute to the transport of ER cholesterol to mitochondria, either independently or in conjunction with lipid-transfer proteins. Model systems of mitochondria enriched with cholesterol in vitro and mitochondria isolated from cells with (patho)physiological mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial cholesterol levels affect mitochondrial function. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in several diseases, including cancer, ischemia, steatohepatitis and neurodegenerative diseases, and influence disease pathology. Hence, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms maintaining mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis may reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we give a brief overview of mitochondrial cholesterol import in steroidogenic cells, and then focus on cholesterol trafficking pathways that deliver cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes in non-steroidogenic cells. We also briefly discuss the consequences of increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels on mitochondrial function and their potential role in disease pathology. PMID:25425472

  4. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young; Cho, Youn-OK

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group ...

  5. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia.

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-01

    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux. PMID:24267242

  6. Studies on PCSK9 in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism

    Persson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma cholesterol, mainly in low density lipoproteins (LDL), are a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The level of plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is largely dependent on the number of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs). Increased number of LDLRs leads to higher uptake of LDL particles and lower concentration of plasma LDL-C. Proprotein convertase subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel key regulator in cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 reduces the numbe...

  7. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance.

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-09-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes of oxysterols as well as pathological conditions induced by oxysterols. PMID:26956952

  8. Cholesterol Balance in Prion Diseases and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Samia Hannaoui; Su Yeon Shim; Yo Ching Cheng; Erica Corda; Sabine Gilch

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals. They are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an aberrantly folded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrPC, in the brains of affected individuals. PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor. Specifically, it is associated with lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphinog...

  9. Effect of Processing Methods on Cholesterol Contents and Cholesterol Oxides Formation in Some Dairy Products

    The effects of pasteurization, boiling, microwaving, processing and storage of milk and some locally produced dairy products on cholesterol contents and cholesterol oxides formation were studied and evaluated. The 7-ketocholesterol were not detected (ND) in all raw milk samples. On the contrary, heating of milk led to formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), mostly, 7- ketocholesterol in different quantities. No significant effect of heating of milk on cholesterol level was observed with the exception of the ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk prepared from milk powder heated at 140 + - 1.0 degree C for 4 sec showed the highest value of 7-ketocholesterol (80.97 mgg-1), followed by microwave heated milk for 5 min (31.29 mgg-1), whereas the lowest value was in milk pasteurized at 85 + - 1.0 degree C for 16 sec (3.125 mgg-1). Commercial storage showed no significant effect on cholesterol and 7-ketocholestrol but lowered cholesterol concentration and increased 7-ketocholestrol level of UHT reconstituted milk. Cholesterol content of both yogurt and labaneh strained by centrifugal separator showed significant decrease while 7-ketochostrol level was increased significantly with refrigerated storage. The findings are discussed in the context with the results of previous similar studies. (author)

  10. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  11. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  12. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  13. In vitro cholesterol uptake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2009-01-01

    Background. Some researchers have indicated that Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus may provide additional health benefits, reduce serum cholesterol level, for example. The aim of this study was to determine cholesterol uptake by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus commercial yoghurt starter isolates in artificial GIT fluids. Material and methods. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates were cultured in MRS broth and in artificial GIT fluids contained cholesterol at initial con...

  14. A review on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency.

    Saeedi, Ramesh; Li, Min; Frohlich, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which esterifies cholesterol, and plays a key role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Genetic disorders of LCAT are associated with lipoprotein abnormalities including low levels of HDL-C and presence of lipoprotein X, and clinical features mainly corneal opacities, changes in erythrocyte morphology and renal failure. Recombinant LCAT is being developed for the treatment of patients with LCAT deficiency. PMID:25172171

  15. The mechanism of dietary cholesterol effects on lipids metabolism in rats

    Wang Jing-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol administration has been reported to influence hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. In the present study, the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic activity and mRNA expression of the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed 1% cholesterol or cholesterol free AIN76 diets for 4 weeks. Results The serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased but the total cholesterol and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the cholesterol-fed rats compared with the control rats. And the concentrations of the hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride increased about 4-fold and 20-fold separately by dietary cholesterol. The activities of hepatic malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, phosphatidate phophatase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were depressed by the cholesterol feeding (40%, 70%, 50%, 15% and 25% respectively. The results of mRNA expression showed that fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2, and HMG-CoA reductase were down-regulated (35%, 30%, 50% and 25% respectively and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase were up regulated (1.6 and 6.5 folds in liver by the cholesterol administration. Conclusions The dietary cholesterol increased the triglyceride accumulation in liver, but did not stimulate the activity and the gene expression of hepatic enzymes related to triglyceride and fatty acid biosynthesis.

  16. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. -- Highlights: ► Develops the analogy between light and electron optics in aberration calculations. ► Optimized spherical and chromatic aberrations for an electrostatic einzel lens. ► Comparison between analytic and numerical aberration calculations.

  17. In vitro cholesterol uptake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some researchers have indicated that Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus may provide additional health benefits, reduce serum cholesterol level, for example. The aim of this study was to determine cholesterol uptake by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus commercial yoghurt starter isolates in artificial GIT fluids. Material and methods. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates were cultured in MRS broth and in artificial GIT fluids contained cholesterol at initial concentration ca. 560 µg/mL, as well as in MRS broth with cholesterol addition. Results. All Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus showed ability to uptake of cholesterol from MRS broth and artificial GIT fluids. The isolates incubated in artificial gastric fluid removed the minimal amounts of cholesterol in comparison to the same isolates incubated in MRS broth. Only two isolates removed significantly more cholesterol from MRS broth that from duodenal fluid. The amount of removed cholesterol from artificial duodenal fluid ranged from 20 µg/mL to 78 µg/mL. All Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates survived worse in artificial GIT fluids than in MRS broth. The viability of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in GIT fluids depended on isolate. Conclusions. These results proved that Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus shows ability to uptake cholesterol from MRS broth and artificial GIT fluids, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depends on isolate and incubation environment. The ability of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to survive in GIT varies according to the isolates and incubation environment.

  18. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  19. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  20. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells.

    Mulas, Maria Franca; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Dessì, Sandra; Mocali, Alessandra; Paoletti, Francesco

    2011-08-31

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3) and acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol export (caveolin-1) in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC), in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells. PMID:22184540

  1. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    Mulas, Maria Franca; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Dessì, Sandra; Mocali, Alessandra; Paoletti, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3) and acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol export (caveolin-1) in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC), in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells. PMID:22184540

  2. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend cells

    Maria Franca Mulas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes, and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3 and acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT and cholesterol export (caveolin-1 in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC, in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA. FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells.

  3. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris;

    2008-01-01

    cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating......Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by...

  4. Effect of dietary Maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on plasma cholesterol and hepatic gene expression in cholesterol-fed mice.

    Sato, Mayumi; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Yoneyama, Shozo; Fujii-Akiyama, Kyoko; Kinoshita, Mikio; Chiji, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary Grifola frondosa on cholesterol, normal mice were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol (HC group) or 1% cholesterol and 10% freeze-dried G. frondosa powder (HC+G group) for 4 weeks and hepatic and plasma lipid levels were compared with those of a cholesterol-free diet-fed mice (N group). Hepatic total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol contents were considerably increased and plasma TC / phospholipid (PL) was also increased significantly in the HC group compared with the N group. However, plasma TC content decreased in the HC+G group compared with the HC group. To characterize the mechanisms responsible for lowered plasma cholesterol in G. frondosa-supplemented mice, hepatic gene expression was profiled using DNA microarray and gene ontology. Genome analyses revealed that de novo cholesterol synthesis genes were suppressed following cholesterol intake. However, expression of bile acid biosynthesis and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes showed little change. Scarb1, Abcg5, and Abcg8, involved in cholesterol transport and excretion, were slightly upregulated in the HC+G group compared with the HC group. These data indicate the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of G. frondosa. Moreover, fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation was promoted via adipocytokine signaling pathways, and Saa, encodes serum amyloid A related to arteriosclerosis, was suppressed in the HC+G group. PMID:24292357

  5. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health

    Tyler F. Daniels, Karen M. Killinger, Jennifer J. Michal, Raymond W. Wright Jr., Zhihua Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  6. Cholesterol assimilation by Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria: an in vitro investigation.

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55 mg/10(10) cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33 mg/10(10) cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic. PMID:25295259

  7. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD, an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55 mg/1010 cfu in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33 mg/1010 cfu of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic.

  8. New horizons for cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors.

    Schwartz, Gregory G

    2012-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels bear an inverse relationship to cardiovascular risk. To date, however, no intervention specifically targeting HDL has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular risk. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates transfer of cholesterol ester from HDL to apolipoprotein B-containing particles. Most, but not all observational cohort studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms of CETP associated with reduced activity and higher HDL cholesterol levels are also associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Some, but not all studies indicate that CETP inhibition in rabbits retards atherosclerosis, whereas transgenic CETP expression in mice promotes atherosclerosis. Torcetrapib, the first CETP inhibitor to reach phase III clinical development, was abandoned due to excess mortality associated with increases in aldosterone and blood pressure. Two other CETP inhibitors have entered phase III clinical development. Anacetrapib is a potent inhibitor of CETP that produces very large increases in HDL cholesterol and large reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, beyond those achieved with statins. Dalcetrapib is a less potent CETP inhibitor that produces smaller increases in HDL cholesterol with minimal effect on LDL cholesterol. Both agents appear to allow efflux of cholesterol from macrophages to HDL in vitro, and neither agent affects blood pressure or aldosterone in vivo. Two large cardiovascular outcomes trials, one with anacetrapib and one with dalcetrapib, should provide a conclusive test of the hypothesis that inhibition of CETP decreases cardiovascular risk. PMID:22083134

  9. Otimização da determinação de colesterol por clae e teores de colesterol, lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em camarão rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis Optimization of cholesterol determination by HPLC and levels of cholesterol, total lipids and fatty acids of the pink shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis

    Neura BRAGAGNOLO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de camarões no Brasil é expressiva com condições propícias para expansão. Apesar de ser bem apreciado em termos culinários e ser uma fonte rica de proteínas, o camarão é apontado como um alimento de alto conteúdo de colesterol. Considerando que o nível de colesterol sangüíneo humano é dependente não só do teor de colesterol, mas também da quantidade de gordura e do tipo de ácidos graxos na dieta, um estudo integrado destes três constituintes foi realizado em camarão rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis, tamanho médio proveniente de São Paulo. A extração e a determinação do teor de lipídios totais foram realizadas de acordo com método de Folch, Less & Stanley. O método para determinação de colesterol por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com coluna C18 e detector por conjunto de diodos, foi estabelecido no nosso laboratório. Este método mostrou-se eficiente, rápido e simples. A composição de ácidos graxos foi obtida por cromatografia gasosa com coluna capilar de sílica fundida com DB-WAX. Os teores de colesterol e lipídios totais para camarão rosa médio foram 127 ± 9mg/100 g e 1,0 ± 0,1 g/100 g, respectivamente. Foram detectados oitenta e sete ácidos graxos, sendo 20:5w3 (EPA, 16:0, 22:6w3 (DHA, 18:0, 18:1w9, 16:1w7, 20:4w6 e 18:1w7 os principais. O teor de colesterol encontrado no camarão analisado é alto. Por outro lado, o teor de gordura é baixo e os níveis de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, especialmente EPA e DHA, são altos.Shrimp production in Brazil is substantial, with good potential for expansion. Although well appreciated in culinary terms and as a rich source of protein, shrimp is classified as a high cholesterol food. Considering that the human cholesterol blood level depends not only on dietary cholesterol, but also on the amount of fat and the type of fatty acids in the diet, an integrated study of these three constituents was carried out in the Brazilian shrimp Penaeus

  10. Effects of dietary cholesterol on cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis in patients with cholesterol gallstones.

    Kern, F

    1994-01-01

    We examined changes in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism produced by dietary cholesterol in gallstone subjects and matched controls. Healthy women were recruited and, after confirming the presence or absence of radiolucent gallstones, they were studied on regular diets and again on the same diet supplemented with five eggs daily for 15-18 d. Studies included plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, dietary records, cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, plasma clearance of ...

  11. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cholesterol from Midlife through Late Life according to Apolipoprotein E Allele Status

    Brian Downer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE, a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life. Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed models and mixed-effects regression models. Results: APOE e2+ subjects had lower total cholesterol levels, higher HDL cholesterol levels, and lower total: HDL cholesterol ratios from midlife to late life compared to APOE e3 and APOE e4+ subjects. Statistically significant differences in life span cholesterol trajectories according to gender and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were also detected. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide evidence that variations in APOE modify trajectories of serum cholesterol from midlife to late life. In order to efficiently modify cholesterol through the life span, it is important to take into account APOE allele status.

  12. A public health approach to cholesterol. Confronting the 'TV-auto-supermarket society'.

    Bodenheimer, T

    1991-01-01

    Coronary heart disease has been proved to be associated with a "high-risk" diet and with elevated blood cholesterol levels. The National Cholesterol Education Program has embarked on a campaign based on intensive medical treatment of 60 million Americans with high blood cholesterol levels, but the degree of benefit of dietary change or pharmaceutical intervention or both to reduce blood cholesterol values remains a subject of disagreement within the scientific community. Evidence from compara...

  13. Cholesterol as a Causative Factor in Alzheimer Disease: A Debatable Hypothesis

    Wood, W. Gibson; Li, Ling; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2014-01-01

    High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) levels. However, there are p...

  14. Lysosomes, cholesterol and atherosclerosis

    Jerome, W. Gray

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol-engorged macrophage foam cells are a critical component of the atherosclerotic lesion. Reducing the sterol deposits in lesions reduces clinical events. Sterol accumulations within lysosomes have proven to be particularly hard to mobilize out of foam cells. Moreover, excess sterol accumulation in lysosomes has untoward effects, including a complete disruption of lysosome function. Recently, we demonstrated that treatment of sterol-engorged macrophages in culture with triglyceride-c...

  15. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo;

    2009-01-01

    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins. In...... this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling...... lipid rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling...

  16. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-II Influences Apolipoprotein E-Linked Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women with High Levels of HDL Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein

    Corsetti, James P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Sparks, Charles E.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects) and high (designated as

  18. Importance of macrophage cholesterol content on the flux of cholesterol mass

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Drazul-Schrader, Denise; Asztalos, Bela F.; Weibel, Ginny L.; Rothblat, George H.

    2010-01-01

    Net flux of cholesterol represents the difference between efflux and influx and can result in net cell-cholesterol accumulation, net cell-cholesterol depletion, or no change in cellular cholesterol content. We measured radiolabeled cell-cholesterol efflux and cell-cholesterol mass using cholesterol-normal and -enriched J774 and elicited mouse peritoneal macrophage cells. Net cell-cholesterol effluxes were observed when cholesterol-enriched J774 cells were incubated with 3.5% apolipoprotein (a...

  19. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ono, Hiraku; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM)-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to modulate the flux

  20. Prolonged Caloric Restriction in Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Decreases Plasma CETP and Increases Apolipoprotein AI Levels Without Improving the Cholesterol Efflux Properties of HDL

    Wang, Yanan; Snel, Marieke; Jonker, Jacqueline T; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Lamb, Hildo J.; de Roos, Albert; Meinders, A. Edo; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Johannes W A Smit; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Using a mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism, we observed previously that reduction of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) content resulted in a decrease in plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and an increase in HDL levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of prolonged caloric restriction in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in a major reduction in hepatic TG content, on plasma CETP and HDL levels. RESEARCH DESIGN ...

  1. Efeito de probiótico na modulação dos níveis de colesterol sérico e no peso do fígado de ratos alimentados com dieta rica em colesterol e ácido cólico Evaluation of the probiotic effect in the modulation of the levels of seric cholesterol and in the weight of the liver of mices fed with rich diet in cholesterol and colic acid

    Dayse Fontes Machado

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Alimentos contendo probióticos são conhecidos como funcionais e têm sido recomendados para indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia. Com o objetivo de avaliar seu efeito na modulação dos níveis de colesterol sérico, foi conduzido um estudo de 28 dias, utilizando-se 90 ratos machos Wistar, distribuídos entre os tratamentos: Padrão, com 30 animais e Controle, LDR (Leite Desnatado Reconstituído e P (Probiótico, com 20 animais cada. O grupo Padrão recebeu a dieta AIN-93G durante todo o período experimental. Os demais grupos receberam a mesma dieta acrescida de 1% de colesterol e 0,1% de ácido cólico. Do 15º ao 28º dia, o grupo LDR recebeu 0,1mL/dia/animal de leite desnatado reconstituído a 10% de sólidos não gordurosos e o grupo P, recebeu 0,1mL/dia/animal de probiótico contendo 10(10 UFC/mL de Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. Avaliou-se o colesterol total, LDL-colesterol e HDL-colesterol e o peso do fígado, imediatamente após o término da administração do probiótico, onde os ratos tiveram o fígado retirado e o sangue coletado por punção cardíaca. A adição de colesterol e ácido cólico à dieta não elevou (p>0,05 os níveis de colesterol do grupo Controle, LDR e P em relação ao grupo Padrão, no entanto, promoveu aumento significativo de peso (p0,05 os níveis de colesterol sérico dos animais, uma vez que estes níveis se mantiveram normais durante todo o período experimental. Observou-se também que a administração de probiótico não impediu o acúmulo de gordura no fígado dos animais que receberam dieta rica em colesterol e ácido cólico.Probiotics are known as functional foods and have been recommended as dietary adjunct for individuals with high serum cholesterol levels. To evaluate probiotics effects on the modulation of serum cholesterol an experiment was carried out during 28 days, using 90 Wistar male rats, distributed in four treatments and individually housed, with initial average weight of 250±32g

  2. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. PMID:24461313

  3. Correction of enhanced endothelial permeability by cessation of cholesterol feeding

    Changes in endothelial permeability and the transport of macromolecules may be important in the initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We have previously shown, with a carotid artery preparation isolated in situ with intact adventitia, that long-term cholesterol feeding in rabbits will result in a seven- to tenfold increase in 125I albumin transport across the artery into the systemic circulation. The current studies were undertaken to determine whether this abnormality of enhanced permeability could be reversed by cessation of cholesterol feeding and correction of the hyperlipidemia. Two groups of rabbits were fed either a standard Rabbit Chow or a diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 5.2% corn oil for 12 to 15 weeks. Another group of rabbits was given cholesterol for 12 to 15 weeks with change to standard rabbit chow for an additional 22 to 24 weeks after which albumin transport studies were then performed. Mean plasma cholesterol level after 12 to 15 weeks of cholesterol feeding was 2052 +/- 395 mg/dl. After the animals were withdrawn from the cholesterol diet for 22 to 24 weeks, the mean plasma cholesterol level decreased to 80 +/- 21 mg/dl. The mean plasma cholesterol value in chow-fed animals was 39 +/- 6 mg/dl. Perfusion studies were done with 125I-labeled albumin and plasma radioactivity served as a measure of transport across the carotid artery. The average level of albumin transport across the artery into venous blood in the cholesterol-fed animals (13,911 dpm/ml of plasma) was significantly greater than that of control animals (2049 dpm/ml of plasma)

  4. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism influences aggressive behavior in prostate cancer cells by deregulating cholesterol homeostasis

    IFERE, GODWIN O.; Desmond, Renee; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Nagy, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    High circulating cholesterol and its deregulated homeostasis may facilitate prostate cancer progression. Genetic polymorphism in Apolipoprotein (Apo) E, a key cholesterol regulatory protein may effect changes in systemic cholesterol levels. In this investigation, we determined whether variants of the Apo E gene can trigger defective intracellular cholesterol efflux, which could promote aggressive prostate cancer. ApoE genotypes of weakly (non-aggressive), moderate and highly tumorigenic (aggr...

  5. Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Disease in the UK, 1950–2000, vol. 27.

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol began to be accepted after the Second World War as a significant cause of atherosclerosis and associated conditions such as coronary heart disease (CHD). This Witness Seminar, chaired by Professor Michael Oliver, included a discussion of the basic research on cholesterol. Moving on, early epidemiological studies demonstrated the relationship between excess saturated fat consumption and elevated levels of cholesterol, although cholesterol alone did not explain all population differ...

  6. Cholesterol Embolism: An Overlooked Diagnosis

    Sinem Nihal ESATOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure following angiography is usually due to radiocontrast nephropathy; however, cholesterol embolism should be kept in mind when making the differential diagnosis. Cholesterol embolism is a multisystem disease, usually seen in elderly men who have severe atherosclerosis. In this case report, we describe a patient with cholesterol embolism who had a typical clinical history of progressive renal failure. We hope that this case report will emphasize the importance of this overlooked syndrome.

  7. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  8. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    Van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; Van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; Van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; De Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; De Craen, Anton J M; Uh, Hae Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Jukema, J. Wouter; Van Der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; Van Ommen, Gert Jan B; De Bakker, Paul I W; Eline Slagboom, P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Elbers, Clara C.; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Peer, Itsik; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Van Oven, Mannis; Vermaat, Martijn; Li, Mingkun; Laros, Jeroen F J; Stoneking, Mark; De Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Veldink, Jan H.; Van Den Berg, Leonard H.; Byelas, Heorhiy; Den Dunnen, Johan T.; Dijkstra, Martijn; Amin, Najaf; Van Der Velde, K. Joeri; Van Setten, Jessica; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Van Schaik, Barbera D C; Bot, Jan; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Mei, Hailiang; Koval, Vyacheslav; Ye, Kai; Lameijer, Eric Wubbo; Moed, Matthijs H.; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Sohail, Mashaal; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Marschall, Tobias; Schönhuth, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Platteel, Mathieu; Pitts, Steven J.; Potluri, Shobha; Cox, David R.; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yuanping; Chen, Ruoyan; Cao, Hongzhi; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; Wang, Jun; Bovenberg, Jasper A.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (∼35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel crea...

  9. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields.

    Harvey, J E; Shack, R V

    1978-09-15

    This paper is an attempt to provide new insight into the behavior of near-field scalar diffraction phenomena by showing that the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral is equivalent to the Fourier transform integral of a generalized pupil function which includes a term that represents phase errors in the aperture. This term can be interpreted as describing a conventional wavefront aberration function. The resulting aberration coefficients are calculated and expressed in terms of the aperture diameter, observation distance, and appropriate field parameter for several different geometrical configurations of incident beam and observation space. These aberrations, which are inherently associated with the diffraction process, are precisely the effects ignored when making the usual Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations. PMID:20203910

  10. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet

    Chiralt Boix, Mª Amparo; Cases, Julien; Coussaert, Aurélie Coussaert; Roller, Marc; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels...

  11. Cholesterol efflux monitoring in macrophage form cells by using fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Song, Young Sik; Lee, Sang Hak; Park, Byoung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyeok; Hwang, Won Sang; Kim, Dug Young

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and rupture, since they accumulate large amounts of lipid through the uptake of modified lipoproteins which results in foam cell formation. Cholesterol efflux is the process of removing cholesterol from macrophages in the subintima of the vessel wall, and efflux mechanism in a cell is one of the critical issues for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. High density lipoproteins (HDL) stimulate cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in the arterial wall. Radioisotope-labeled cholesterol analysis method is well known conventional method for observing cholesterol efflux. The major drawback of this method is its long and complicated process. Fluorescence intensity imaging schemes are replacing the radioisotope-labeled method in recent years for cholesterol efflux monitoring. Various spectroscopic methods are also adapted for cholesterol efflux imaging. Here we present a fluorescence lifetime imaging method for more quantitative observation of cholesterol efflux process in macrophages, which enables us to observe cholesterol level changes with various conditions. We used J774 macrophage cell and 25-NBD-cholesterol which is a famous cholesterol specific dye. Our lifetime imaging results clearly show cholesterol efflux rate very effectively. We believe that fluorescence lifetime analysis is new and very powerful for cholesterol imaging or monitoring.

  12. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  13. Clinical Impact of Rapid Reduction of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level on Long-Term Outcome of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Statin Era: Subanalysis of the ALPS-AMI Study.

    Takashi Miura

    Full Text Available The optimal period to achieve target percent reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level for secondary prevention of acute myocardial infarction (AMI is not well established.The Assessment of Lipophilic vs. Hydrophilic Statin Therapy in AMI (ALPS-AMI study enrolled 508 patients (mean age, 66.0± 11.6 years; 80.6% male who were hospitalized for AMI and underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Of these patients, 81 were excluded because of the absence of LDL-C measurements at 4 weeks after randomization. In the remaining 427 patients, the target LDL-C level reduction of ≥30% was achieved and not reached within 4 weeks after randomization in 204 cases (early reduction group and 223 cases (late reduction group. The groups were formed prospectively and analyzed with regard to the composite end point (major adverse cardiovascular event [MACE]: all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke and clinical outcomes.MACE were significantly more frequent in the late reduction group compared to the early reduction group (9.4% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.013. The incidence of cardiac deaths was also significantly higher in the late reduction group (3.1% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.044. On age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis in statin-naïve patients, percent reduction of LDL-C level during the initial 4 weeks (HR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, P = 0.042 and baseline LDL-C level (HR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, P = 0.033 predicted adverse events.Rapid reduction of LDL-C level is strongly associated with favorable outcome in patients with AMI.

  14. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Kazemi-Fard M; Yousefi S; Dirandeh E; Rezaei M

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage). Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet) to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the e...

  15. Inhibition of pancreatic cholesterol esterase reduces cholesterol absorption in the hamster

    Heidrich, John E.; Contos, Linda M; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Deck, Lorraine M.; Vander Jagt, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cholesterol esterase has three proposed functions in the intestine: 1) to control the bioavailability of cholesterol from dietary cholesterol esters; 2) to contribute to incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles; and 3) to aid in transport of free cholesterol to the enterocyte. Inhibitors of cholesterol esterase are anticipated to limit the absorption of dietary cholesterol. Results The selective and potent cholesterol esterase inhibitor 6-chloro-3-(1-ethyl-2-cycl...

  16. Effect of a Konjac flour diet on the endogenous cholesterol metabolism in rats

    The influence of Konjac flour (KF), crude Konjac mannan prepared from the tubers of Amorphophallus Konjac K. Koch (Araceae), on the endogenous cholesterol metabolism in rats was studied. 1) The high levels of serum and liver cholesterol in the rats preliminary fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 1% cholesterol and 0.25% bile acids for 10 days were reduced to normal by changing that diet to cholesterol-free diets supplemented with or without KF, and their reduction rates were especially stimulated when shifted to a cholesterol-free diet with 5% KF. 2) The in vivo and in vitro incorporations of acetate-2-14C into liver cholesterol and the in vivo degradation of cholesterol-26-14C to the expired CO2 in rats fed a cholesterol-free, KF diet for 10 days were examined. The biosynthesis of cholesterol was substantially higher in the KF diet groups in vivo and in vitro than the control diet group, while degradation was not accelerated by the administration of KF. However, no significant alterations in the levels of both serum and liver cholesterol were shown in rats fed the KF diet as compared with the control group. 3) From these results, KF is inferred to stimulate the excretion of the undergraded liver cholesterol into bile, or subsequently into feces. Possible roles of the hypocholesterolemic activity of KF in relation to the intestinal reabsorption of endogenous enterohepatic circulating cholesterol or bile acids were also discussed. (auth.)

  17. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans[S

    van de Pas, Niek C. A.; Woutersen, Ruud A.; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was directly adapted from a PBK model for mice by incorporation of the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol ester transfer protein and contained 21 biochemical reactions and eight different cholesterol pools. The model was calibrated using published data for humans and validated by comparing model predictions on plasma cholesterol levels of subjects with 10 different genetic mutations (including familial hypercholesterolemia and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome) with experimental data. Average model predictions on total cholesterol were accurate within 36% of the experimental data, which was within the experimental margin. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was mainly dependent on hepatic transport of cholesterol to HDL, cholesterol ester transfer from HDL to non-HDL, and hepatic uptake of cholesterol from non-HDL-C. Thus, the presented PBK model is a valid tool to predict the effect of genetic mutations on cholesterol concentrations, opening the way for future studies on the effect of different drugs on cholesterol levels in various subpopulations in silico. PMID:23024287

  18. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans.

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was directly adapted from a PBK model for mice by incorporation of the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol ester transfer protein and contained 21 biochemical reactions and eight different cholesterol pools. The model was calibrated using published data for humans and validated by comparing model predictions on plasma cholesterol levels of subjects with 10 different genetic mutations (including familial hypercholesterolemia and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome) with experimental data. Average model predictions on total cholesterol were accurate within 36% of the experimental data, which was within the experimental margin. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was mainly dependent on hepatic transport of cholesterol to HDL, cholesterol ester transfer from HDL to non-HDL, and hepatic uptake of cholesterol from non-HDL-C. Thus, the presented PBK model is a valid tool to predict the effect of genetic mutations on cholesterol concentrations, opening the way for future studies on the effect of different drugs on cholesterol levels in various subpopulations in silico. PMID:23024287

  19. α-Defensins Induce a Post-translational Modification of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) That Promotes Atherosclerosis at Normal Levels of Plasma Cholesterol.

    Abu-Fanne, Rami; Maraga, Emad; Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Hankin, Aviel; Blum, Galia; Abdeen, Suhair; Hijazi, Nuha; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2016-02-01

    Approximately one-half of the patients who develop clinical atherosclerosis have normal or only modest elevations in plasma lipids, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to pathogenesis. In view of increasing evidence that inflammation contributes to atherogenesis, we studied the effect of human neutrophil α-defensins on low density lipoprotein (LDL) trafficking, metabolism, vascular deposition, and atherogenesis using transgenic mice expressing human α-defensins in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Def(+/+)). Accelerated Def(+/+) mice developed α-defensin·LDL complexes that accelerate the clearance of LDL from the circulation accompanied by enhanced vascular deposition and retention of LDL, induction of endothelial cathepsins, increased endothelial permeability to LDL, and the development of lipid streaks in the aortic roots when fed a regular diet and at normal plasma levels of LDL. Transplantation of bone marrow from Def(+/+) to WT mice increased LDL clearance, increased vascular permeability, and increased vascular deposition of LDL, whereas transplantation of WT bone marrow to Def(+/+) mice prevented these outcomes. The same outcome was obtained by treating Def(+/+) mice with colchicine to inhibit the release of α-defensins. These studies identify a potential new link between inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:26518877

  20. Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol

    ... Resources Stroke More Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 LDL (bad) cholesterol is ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol Guidelines: Putting the pieces together Myth vs. Truth – ...

  1. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders

    ... Medical Dictionary Additional Content Medical News Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders By Anne Carol Goldberg, MD ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Cholesterol Disorders Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders Dyslipidemia ...

  2. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000211.htm Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor To use the ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your body needs cholesterol to work properly. When you have extra cholesterol ...

  3. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  4. Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Xin-ting WANG; Jia LI; Li LIU; Nan HU; Shi JIN; Can LIU; Dan MEI; Xiao-dong LIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Diabetes is associated with elevated serum total cholesterol level and disrupted lipoprotein subfractions.The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the tissue cholesterol contents closely related to diabetic complications.Methods:Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.On d 35 after the injection,liver,heart,intestine,kidney,pancreas,cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated from the rats.The content of total and free cholesterol in the tissues was determined using HPLC.The ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) protein and ApoE mRNA were measured using Western blot and QT-PCR analyses,respectively.Results:In diabetic rats,the level of free cholesterol was significantly decreased in the peripheral tissues,but significantly elevated in hippocampus,as compared with those in the control rats.Diabetic rats showed a trend of decreasing the total cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues,but significant change was only found in kidney and liver.In diabetic rats,the level of the ABCA1 protein was significantly increased in the peripheral tissues and cerebral cortex; the expression of ApoE mRNA was slightly decreased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex,but the change had no statistical significance.Conclusion:Type 1 diabetes decreases the free cholesterol content in the peripheral tissues and increases the free cholesterol content in hippocampus.The decreased free cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues may be partly due to the increased expression of the ABCA1 protein.

  5. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels. PMID:26041199

  6. Rice bran proteins and their hydrolysates modulate cholesterol metabolism in mice on hypercholesterolemic diets.

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Gong, Lingxiao; Sun, Baoguo

    2016-06-15

    The hypolipidemic properties of defatted rice bran protein (DRBP), fresh rice bran protein (FRBP), DRBP hydrolysates (DRBPH), and FRBP hydrolysates (FRBPH) were determined in mice on high fat diets for four weeks. Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) contents, and the hepatic total cholesterol content were reduced while fecal total cholesterol and total bile acid (TBA) contents were increased in the FRBPH diet group. The expression levels of hepatic genes for cholesterol biosynthesis HMG-CoAR and SREBP-2 were lowest in the FRBPH diet group. The mRNA level of HMG-CoAR was significantly positively correlated with the hepatic TG content (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of genes related to bile acid biosynthesis and cholesterol efflux, CYP7A1, ABCA1, and PPARγ were up-regulated in all test groups. The results suggest that FRBPH regulates cholesterol metabolism in mice fed the high fat and cholesterol diet by increasing fecal steroid excretion and expression levels of genes related to bile acid synthesis and cholesterol efflux, and the down-regulation of the expression levels of genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27216972

  7. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  8. Reverse cholesterol transport: a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis

    Ying ZHAO

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of death in the Western society due to the development of acute clinical events such as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Currently, lowering plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using statins, inhibitors of de-novo cholesterol synthesis, is the main therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. The remaining high incidence of cardiovascular disease indicates a clear need for new therapies. Numerous epidemiological studies hav...

  9. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface

  10. LCAT, HDL Cholesterol and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study of HDL Cholesterol in 54,500 Individuals

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Ali Qayyum, Abbas;

    2012-01-01

    Background:Epidemiologically, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels associate inversely with risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Whether this is a causal relation is unclear.Methods:We studied 10,281 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and 50,523 participants in...... the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), of which 991 and 1,693 participants, respectively, had developed myocardial infarction (MI) by August 2010. Participants in the CCHS were genotyped for all six variants identified by resequencing lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in 380 individuals....... One variant, S208T (rs4986970, allele frequency 4%), associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both the CCHS and the CGPS was used to study causality of HDL cholesterol using instrumental variable analysis.Results:Epidemiologically, in the CCHS, a 13% (0.21 mmol/liter) decrease in plasma HDL...

  11. High-density lipoproteincholesterol, reverse cholesterol transport, and cardiovascular risk: a tale of genetics?

    Giovanni Cimmino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol deposition plays a central role in atherogenesis. The accumulation of lipid material is the result of an imbalance between the influx and efflux of cholesterol within the arterial wall. High levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol are considered the major mechanism responsible for the influx and accumulation of cholesterol in the arterial wall, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL- cholesterol seems responsible for its efflux. The mechanism by which cholesterol is removed from extra-hepatic organs and delivered to the liver for its catabolism and excretion is called reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. Epidemiological evidence has associated high levels of HDL-cholesterol/ApoA-I with protection against atherosclerotic disease, but the ultimate mechanism(s responsible for the beneficial effect is not well established. HDLs are synthesized by the liver and small intestine and released to the circulation as a lipid-poor HDL (nascent HDL, mostly formed by ApoA-I and phospholipids. Through their metabolic maturation, HDLs interact with the ABCA1 receptor in the macrophage surface increasing their lipid content by taking phospholipids and cholesterol from macrophages becoming mature HDL. The cholesterol of the HDLs is transported to the liver, via the scavenger receptor class B, type I, for further metabolization and excretion to the intestines in the form of bile acids and cholesterol, completing the process of RCT. It is clear that an inherited mutation or acquired abnormality in any of the key players in RCT mat affect the atherosclerotic process.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  13. Baseline chromosome aberrations in children

    Merlo, D.F.; Ceppi, M.; Stagi, E.; Bocchini, V.; Šrám, Radim; Rössner st., Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 172, - (2007), s. 60-67. ISSN 0378-4274 Grant ostatní: EU(EU) 2002-02198; EU(EU) 2005-016320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : chromosome aberrations * children * molecular epidemiology Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2007

  14. Aberrant methylation patterns in cancer

    Hudler, Petra; Videtič, Alja

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins affecting nucleosome remodelling, and regulation by small and large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) work in concert with cis and trans acting elements to drive appropriate gene expression. Advances in detection methods and development of dedicated platforms and methylation arrays resulted in an explo - sion of information on aberrantly methylated sequences linking devia...

  15. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers.

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown - at least in some bilayers - to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid-water interface. In this article we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27056099

  16. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes by fission neutrons

    Chromosome aberrations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation (low-LET) are well known and cytogenetic analyses of irradiated human lymphocytes have been widely applied to biological dosimetry. However, much less is known about chromosome aberrations induced by densely ionizing radiation (high LET), such as that of alpha particles or neutrons. Such particles induce DNA strand breaks, as well as chromosome breakage and rearrangements of high complexity. This damage is more localized and less efficiently repaired than after X- or γ-ray irradiation. This preferential production of complex aberrations by densely ionizing radiation is related to the unique energy deposition patterns, which produces highly localized multiple DNA damage at the chromosomal level. A better knowledge of the interactions between different types of radiation and cellular DNA is of importance, not only from the radiobiological viewpoint but also for dosimetric and therapeutic purposes. The objective of the present study was to analyse the cytogenetic effects of fission neutrons on peripheral blood lymphocytes in order to evaluate structural and numerical aberrations and number of cells in the different mitotic cycles. So, blood samples from five healthy donors, 22-25 years old, of both sexes, were irradiated in the Research Reactor IEA-R1 of our Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) with thermal and fast neutrons at doses of 0.2; 0.3; 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. The γ contribution to the total absorbed dose was about 30%. These doses were monitored by thermoluminescent dosemeters: LiF-600 (for neutrons) and LiF-700 (for γ-rays). The data concerning structural aberrations were evaluated with regard to three parameters: percentage of cells with aberrations, number of aberrations/cell and number of dicentric/cell. The cytogenetic results showed an increase in the three parameters after irradiation with neutrons, as a function of radiation dose. Apparently, there was no influence of neutrons on the kinetics of cellular

  17. to HDL-cholesterol functionality

    Malara Marzena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence concerning the effects of two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase – on the functions of HDL-cholesterol. It is well documented that disturbed circulating lipoproteins (a high total and high LDL-cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol bring about atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD which is recognised as the main cause of death all around the world. In consequence, numerous studies have focused on procedures which will improve the plasma lipoproteins profile by decreasing the total cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and increasing the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the anti-atherogenic role of HDL-C has been challenged in studies showing that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol does not offer protection against CVD. Moreover, it has been found that raising the circulating HDL-cholesterol fails to reduce atherosclerosis. The doubts concerning the protective role of HDL-C have been supported by in vitro studies which indicate that the HDL-C from patients with atherosclerosis does not have a protective action, but does stimulate inflammation and free radical synthesis. The above data suggests that HDL-C, commonly recognised as protective against atherosclerosis, in some circumstances becomes pro-atherogenic, and is thus dysfunctional. Our review focuses on two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO – which markedly affect the properties of HDL-C and contribute to its anti – or pro-atherogenic activity. Moreover, the effects of the diet and physical activity on PON1 and MPO are summarised with respect to the HDL-C functionality.

  18. Cholesterol as a causative factor in Alzheimer's disease: a debatable hypothesis.

    Wood, W Gibson; Li, Ling; Müller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2014-05-01

    High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Ab) levels. However, there are problems with the cholesterol-AD hypothesis. Cholesterol levels in serum/plasma and brain of AD patients do not support cholesterol as a causative factor in AD.Prospective studies on statins and AD have largely failed to show efficacy. Even the experimental data are open to interpretation given that it is well-established that modification of cholesterol levels has effects on multiple proteins, not only amyloid precursor protein and Ab. The purpose of this review, therefore, was to examine the above-mentioned issues, discuss the pros and cons of the cholesterol-AD hypothesis, involvement of other lipids in the mevalonate pathway, and consider that AD may impact cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:24329875

  19. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  20. Formation of Cholesterol Bilayer Domains Precedes Formation of Cholesterol Crystals in Cholesterol/Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Membranes: EPR and DSC Studies

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2013-01-01

    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol%. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogs it was shown that the...

  1. Identification of liver CYP51 as a gene responsive to circulating cholesterol in a hamster model.

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for CVD, which is a leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The biosynthetic pathways for cholesterol metabolism are well understood; however, the regulation of circulating cholesterol by diet is still not fully elucidated. The present study aimed to gain more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating cholesterol levels and molecular effects in target tissues using the hamster model. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed with chow or diets containing 36 % energy from fat with or without 1 % cholesteyramine (CA) as a modulator of circulating cholesterol levels for 35 d. It was revealed that the expression of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) instead of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression was responsive to circulating cholesterol in hamsters fed hypercholesterolaemic diets. The high-fat diet increased circulating cholesterol and down-regulated CYP51, but not HMG-CoA reductase. The CA diet decreased cholesterol and increased CYP51 expression, but HMG-CoA reductase expression was not affected. The high-fat diet and CA diet altered the expression level of cholesterol, bile acids and lipid metabolism-associated genes (LDL receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor (LXR) α, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5/8 (ABCG5/8)) in the liver, which were significantly correlated with circulating cholesterol levels. Correlation analysis also showed that circulating cholesterol levels were regulated by LXR/retinoid X receptor and PPAR pathways in the liver. Using the hamster model, the present study provided additional molecular insights into the influence of circulating cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol metabolism pathways during hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:27110359

  2. HDL Cholesterol Efflux Capacity: Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Potential Therapeutic Target.

    Bhatt, Anish; Rohatgi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular events; however, many therapies targeting increases in HDL-C have failed to show consistent clinical benefit. Thus, focus has recently shifted toward measuring high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. HDL is the key mediator of reverse cholesterol transport, the process of cholesterol extraction from foam cells, and eventual excretion into the biliary system. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral macrophages to HDL particles has been associated with atherosclerosis in both animals and humans. We review the mechanism of cholesterol efflux and the emerging evidence on the association between cholesterol efflux capacity and cardiovascular disease in human studies. We also focus on the completed and ongoing trials of novel therapies targeting different aspects of HDL cholesterol efflux. PMID:26710794

  3. Chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells following exposure to 300 R X-ray to rabbits

    A comparison is made of the chromosome aberrations yield in peripheral blood lymphocytes and spermatogonia of rabbits following exposure to 300 R X-rays. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes immediately after irradiation revealed 28,0 per cent aberrant cells, including 0,17 dicentrics per cell. 120 days later less aberrations in primary spermatocytes at diakinesis - metaphasis I - 0,025 translocations per cell - were found. 60 days after irradiation the aberration rate in lymphocytes drops to the spontaneous level - 0,16 per cent aberrant cells - but analysis of karyotyped metaphases show anomalies which are unidentifiable after simple microscopic scoring. (A.B.)

  4. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  5. Biological dosimetry: chromosomal aberration analysis for dose assessment

    In view of the growing importance of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter, the present report provides a concise summary of the scientific background of the subject and a comprehensive source of information at the technical level. After a review of the basic principles of radiation dosimetry and radiation biology basic information on the biology of lymphocytes, the structure of chromosomes and the classification of chromosomal aberrations are presented. This is followed by a presentation of techniques for collecting blood, storing, transporting, culturing, making chromosomal preparations and scaring of aberrations. The physical and statistical parameters involved in dose assessment are discussed and examples of actual dose assessments taken from the scientific literature are given

  6. LEVEL OF CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACIDS IN THE EGGS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF POULTRY. TEORES DE COLESTEROL E ÁCIDOS GRAXOS EM OVOS DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE AVES

    T. T. OLIVEIRA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to evaluate the cholesterol level fatty acids of triacylglicerol and phosphofolipids of eggs of the different poultry species. The following results were observed: cholesterol: goose duck> turkey > chicken > quail. Fatty acids of triacylglicerols: palmitic acid: turkey > quail goose > duck chicken. Estearic acid: quail chicken> goose duck perua. Oleic acid : goose > chicken> quail duck turkey. α-Linoleic acid: chicken> turkey quail > goose duck. Arachidonic acid: turkey > quail duck> chicken> goose. Docosahexanoic acid: turkey> duck goose chicken > quail. Phospholipids of fatty acids: palmí]itic acid: duck> goose quail > chicken turkey. Estearic acid: chicken turkey > quail> goose > duck. Oleic acid: duck goose > quail > turkey> chicken. α-Linoleic acid: turkey > chicken quail > duck goose. Arachidonic acid: duck > goose > quail chicken > turkey. Docosahexanoic acid: chicken> goose > turkey> quail duck. These results can be of importance for food tables and dietetic treatment of patients.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de colesterol, ácidos graxos de triacilgliceróis e de fosfolipídeos de ovos de diferentes espécies de aves. Foram observados os seguintes resultados: As concentrações de colesterol foram maiores na: pata ≅ gansa > perua > galinha > codorna. As concentrações de ácidos graxos de triacilgliceróis: ácido palmítico: perua> gansa codorna > galinha >pata. Ácido esteárico: codorna galinha > gansa pata perua. Ácido oléico: gansa > galinha >codorna pata perua. Ácido -linoléico: galinha >codorna > perua > gansa pata. Ácido araquidônico: perua > codorna pata > galinha> gansa. Ácido docosaexanóico: perua > pata gansa galinha > codorna. Ácidos graxos de fosfolipídeos: ácido palmítico: pata > gansa codorna > galinha perua. Ácido esteárico: galinha

  7. Visualization of cholesterol deposits in lysosomes of Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts using recombinant perfringolysin O

    Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna; Marszałek–Sadowska, Ewelina; Traczyk, Gabriela; Koprowski, Piotr; Musielak, Małgorzata; Ługowska, Agnieszka; Kulma, Magdalena; Grzelczyk, Anna; Sobota, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Background Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is caused by defects in cholesterol efflux from lysosomes due to mutations of genes coding for NPC1 and NPC2 proteins. As a result, massive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes is observed. At the level of the organism these cholesterol metabolism disorders are manifested by progressive neurodegeneration and hepatosplenomegaly. Until now filipin staining of cholesterol deposits in cells has been widely used for NPC d...

  8. Cholesterol oxidase: sources, physical properties and analytical applications.

    MacLachlan, J; Wotherspoon, A T; Ansell, R O; Brooks, C J

    2000-04-01

    Since Flegg (H.M. Flegg, An investigation of the determination of serum cholesterol by an enzymatic method, Ann. Clin. Biochem. 10 (1973) 79-84) and Richmond (W. Richmond, The development of an enzymatic technique for the assay of cholesterol in biological fluids, Scand. J. clin. Lab. Invest. 29 (1972) 25; W. Richmond, Preparation and properties of a bacterial cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to enzyme assay of total cholesterol in serum, Clinical Chemistry 19 (1973) 1350-1356) first illustrated the suitability of cholesterol oxidase (COD) for the analysis of serum cholesterol, COD has risen to become the most widely used enzyme in clinical laboratories with the exception of glucose oxidase (GOD). The use is widespread because assays incorporating the enzyme are extremely simple, specific, and highly sensitive and thus offer distinct advantages over the Liebermann-Burchard analytical methodologies which employ corrosive reagents and can be prone to unreliable results due to interfering substances such as bilirubin. Individuals can now readily determine their own serum cholesterol levels with a simple disposable test kit. This review discusses COD in some detail and includes the topics: (1) The variety of bacterial sources available; (2) The various extraction/purification protocols utilised in order to obtain protein of sufficient clarification (purity) for use in food/clinical analysis; (3) Significant differences in the properties of the individual enzymes; (4) Substrate specificities of the various enzymes; (5) Examples of biological assays which have employed cholesterol oxidase as an integral part of the analysis, and the various assay protocols; (6) New steroidal products of COD. This review is not a comprehensive description of published work, but is intended to provide an account of recent and current research, and should promote further interest in the application of enzymes to analytical selectivity. PMID:10822008

  9. 阿尔茨海默病大鼠海马胆固醇水平升高对tau蛋白磷酸化程度增加的影响%Effect of high cholesterol levels in the hippocampus on tau protein phosphorylation increasing

    覃红斌; 魏蕾; 张京伟; 唐军民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the phosphorylation of tau protein after the step up of cholesterol in hippocampus and investigate the possible function of cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Rats were sieved with morris water maze for 7 days, injected with different dosage of cholesterol into hippocampus. Then ethology, abnormal tau phosphorylation and cholesterol level were examined by morris water maze, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results After injected 72 h with different dosage of cholesterol into hippocampus, the water maze latency of middle and high dose group were obvious extended (P <0. 01), the phosphorylation level of PHF-1 were increased ( P < 0.01), tau-1 were decreased (P < 0. 01), total tau (R1 34d) were no change. Conclusions The raise of cholesterol in brain which inducing the step up of tau phosphorylation could be a possible way to form AD.%目的 观察海马胆固醇含量升高后tau蛋白磷酸化程度的变化,探讨其在阿尔茨海默病(AD)中可能的作用.方法 水迷宫训练大鼠7d筛选合格大鼠后,海马直接注射不同剂量胆固醇,72 h后水迷宫检测行为学变化,并以免疫印迹和免疫组织化学方法检测大鼠海马tau蛋白磷酸化水平.结果 注射胆固醇后72 h,中高剂量组大鼠水迷宫潜伏期明显延长(P<0.01),tau蛋白PHF-1位点磷酸化水平明显增高(P<0.01),tau-1明显降低(P<0.01),总tau蛋白(R134d)无明显变化.结论 海马胆固醇水平升高可导致tau蛋白磷酸化程度增加,可能参与AD的形成.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations and bone marrow toxicity.

    Heddle, J A; Salamone, M F

    1981-01-01

    The importance of chromosomal aberrations as a proximate cause of bone marrow toxicity is discussed. Since chemicals that can cause nondisjunction are rare, numerical aberrations (aneuploidy, polyploidy) are not ordinarily important. Many structural aberrations, however, can lead directly to cell death and so are proximate causes of toxicity when they occur. The micronucleus test which utilizes the polychromatic erythrocyte is capable of detecting agents (clastogens) that can cause such struc...

  11. Effect of cholesterol oxidation products on cholesterol metabolism in the laying hen.

    Naber, E C; Allred, J B; Winget, C J; Stock, A E

    1985-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of purified cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol in the diet of the laying hen on egg production characteristics, in vitro - in ovo utilization of acetate for cholesterol biosynthesis, and the activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of cholesterol. Previous work has demonstrated inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by cholesterol oxides in tissue culture cells but not in hepatic tissues of animals through dietary administration. Feeding .5% of either purified or oxidized cholesterol had no effect on egg production, egg weight, body weight, or diet consumption. In both experiments egg yolk cholesterol was significantly increased by both cholesterol sources, but eggs from hens fed oxidized cholesterol had lower cholesterol contents than those from hens fed purified cholesterol. Relative utilization of acetate for cholesterol biosynthesis was significantly reduced by feeding both cholesterol sources. Hepatic enzyme activity measured by production of mevalonic acid was significantly inhibited by feeding purified cholesterol. A further significant reduction in enzyme activity was observed when oxidized cholesterol was fed, indicating that dietary cholesterol oxides are much more potent than purified cholesterol in limiting the activity of the enzyme. PMID:4001052

  12. Polarizable multipolar electrostatics for cholesterol

    Fletcher, Timothy L.; Popelier, Paul L. A.

    2016-08-01

    FFLUX is a novel force field under development for biomolecular modelling, and is based on topological atoms and the machine learning method kriging. Successful kriging models have been obtained for realistic electrostatics of amino acids, small peptides, and some carbohydrates but here, for the first time, we construct kriging models for a sizeable ligand of great importance, which is cholesterol. Cholesterol's mean total (internal) electrostatic energy prediction error amounts to 3.9 kJ mol-1, which pleasingly falls below the threshold of 1 kcal mol-1 often cited for accurate biomolecular modelling. We present a detailed analysis of the error distributions.

  13. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  14. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria Isolated from the Human Gut

    Dora I A Pereira; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human gut-derived lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria on cholesterol levels in vitro. Continuous cultures inoculated with fecal material from healthy human volunteers with media supplemented with cholesterol and bile acids were used to enrich for potential cholesterol assimilators among the indigenous bacterial populations. Seven potential probiotics were found: Lactobacillus fermentum strains F53 and KC5b, Bifidobacterium infantis...

  15. Cholesterol Accumulation Sequesters Rab9 and Disrupts Late Endosome Function in NPC1-deficient Cells*

    Ganley, Ian G.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2006-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to massive accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomes and lysosomes. To understand how cholesterol accumulation influences late endosome function, we investigated the effect of elevated cholesterol on Rab9-dependent export of mannose 6-phosphate receptors from this compartment. Endogenous Rab9 levels were elevated 1.8-fold in Niemann-Pick type C cells relative to wild type cells, and its half-l...

  16. AIBP: A Novel Molecule at the Interface of Cholesterol Transport, Angiogenesis, and Atherosclerosis

    Zhu, Laurence; Fang, Longhou

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, which is often driven by hypercholesterolemia and subsequent coronary atherosclerosis, is the number-one cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Based on long-term epidemiological studies, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely correlated with risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is responsible for cholesterol removal from the peripheral tissues and return to the liver for fin...

  17. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    Su-Myat Khine K; Khan Mohamed A; Ritchie Shawn A; Jayasinghe Dushmanthi; Ma Hong; Ahiahonu Pearson WK; Mankidy Rishikesh; Wood Paul L; Goodenowe Dayan B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies ...

  18. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport.

    Fernández-Suárez, María E; Escolà-Gil, Joan C; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [(3)H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages. PMID:27601313

  19. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    Su-Myat Khine K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies have been linked to AD, CVD, and cancer. Results Using plasmalogen deficient (NRel-4 and plasmalogen sufficient (HEK293 cells we investigated the effect of species-dependent plasmalogen restoration/augmentation on membrane cholesterol processing. The results of these studies indicate that the esterification of cholesterol is dependent upon the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-containing ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn present in the membrane. We further elucidate that the concentration-dependent increase in esterified cholesterol observed with PUFA-PlsEtn was due to a concentration-dependent increase in sterol-O-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1 levels, an observation not reproduced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. Conclusion The present study describes a novel mechanism of cholesterol regulation that is consistent with clinical and epidemiological studies of cholesterol, aging and disease. Specifically, the present study describes how selective membrane PUFA-PlsEtn enhancement can be achieved using 1-alkyl-2-PUFA glycerols and through this action reduce levels of total and free cholesterol in cells.

  20. 微波萃取技术在食用植物油与潲水油中胆固醇含量测定的应用%The application of microwave extraction method on determination of cholesterol level in vegetable oils and waste oils

    张亿; 杨梅; 陈红; 朱蓉; 谯斌宗; 蒲旭峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish a microwave extraction method for improving on determination of cholesterol in vegetable oils, (hot pot oil, waste oil, illegal cooking oil and edible vegetable oil) , and conduct quantitative analysis on technology by UP-LC - MS/MS. Methods: Cholesterol can be free from vegetable oils by microwave extraction method. After extracted by organic solvent, cholesterol 2,2,3,4,4,6 -d6 was taken as the internal standard to detect the cholesterol level by UPLC - MS/MS, AP-CI+ model and MRM mode. Results: The microwave extraction method is simpler and faster with higher efficiency and lower pollution, when compared to the traditional method. The contents of cholesterol in vegetable oils are similar on the above two methods. The recovery was 98%. Conclusion: The microwave extraction method is suitable before dispose of vegetable oils on determination of cholesterol.%目的:建立植物油类物质(火锅油、潲水油、地沟油及食用植物油)中胆固醇含量测定前处理的快捷方法,并采用超高液相-串联四极杆质谱(UPLC-MS/MS)技术定量分析.方法:采用微波萃取技术对植物油类物质进行皂化处理,再用石油醚-乙醚(1:1)提取后,以2,2,3,4,4,6-d6胆固醇为内标,采用UPLC-MS/MS法,大气压化学电离源(APCI)正离子模式,多反应检测方式测定胆固醇浓度.结果:与传统水浴加热皂化方法前处理植物油类物质比较,微波萃取皂化前处理方法简变、快捷、高效、低污染等优点,测得胆固醇的含量几乎无显著性差别,方法回收率为98%.结论:微波萃取皂化前处理方法可用于植物油类物质中胆固醇含量测定.

  1. Long-term persistence of chromosome aberrations in uranium miners.

    Mészáros, Gabriella; Bognár, Gabriella; Köteles, G J

    2004-07-01

    Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on blood samples from 165 active underground uranium miners between 1981 and 1985. After decommissioning the mine in 1997 chromosome aberration analyses were also included in the medical laboratory investigations of health conditions of 141 subjects between 1998 and 2002 within the framework of a follow-up-study. The numerical data are presented as functions of the exposure categories expressed in working level month up to 600. In the active groups the dicentric level was 7 to 12 times higher than in the unexposed population, the acentrics also higher with more than an order of magnitude, the frequency of total aberrations--including dicentrics, acentrics, rings, deletions, minits and numerical aberrations, i.e. both chromatid and chromosome type of aberrations were also well above the control level. In the group of former uranium miners although there were slight decreases in the dicentrics after 8 to 25 yr, the values were not significantly different from the values of active miners. The frequency of deletions was also maintained in the post-mining period. The frequency of acentrics, however, decreased significantly, but even the lowest values remained 2-3 times higher than the values in the unexposed population.The possibility is suggested that for the long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations the permanent production and presence of clastogenic factors might be responsible. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in a large fraction of persons investigated. PMID:15308832

  2. FLIM studies of 22- and 25-NBD-cholesterol in living HEK293 cells: plasma membrane change induced by cholesterol depletion.

    Ostašov, Pavel; Sýkora, Jan; Brejchová, Jana; Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Hof, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2013-01-01

    HEK293 cells stably expressing δ-opioid receptor were labeled first with fluorescent analog of cholesterol, 22-NBD-cholesterol, exposed to cholesterol-depleting agent β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) and analyzed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). In accordance with chemical analysis of cholesterol level, the total cellular signal of this probe was decreased to half. Distribution of lifetime (τtot) values of 22-NBD-cholesterol, however, when screened over the whole cell area indicated no significant difference between control (τtot=4.9±0.1 ns) and β-CDX-treated (τtot=4.8±0.1 ns) cells. On the contrary, comparison of control (τtot=5.1±0.1 ns) and β-CDX-treated (τtot=4.4±0.1 ns) cells by analysis of 25-NBD-cholesterol fluorescence implied highly significant decrease of lifetime values of this probe. The observation that 22-NBD-cholesterol appears to be indifferent to the changes in the membrane packing in living cells is in agreement with previous studies in model membranes. However, our data indicate that the alternation of plasma membrane structure induced by decrease of cholesterol level by β-CDX makes the membrane environment of NBD moiety of 25-NBD-cholesterol probe a significantly more hydrated. This finding not only encourages using 25-NBD-cholesterol in living cells, but also demonstrates that previously drawn discouraging conclusions on the use of 25-NBD-cholesterol in model membranes are not valid for living cells. PMID:23466534

  3. The ABC of cholesterol transport

    Plösch, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol fulfills an indispensable role in mammalian physiology. It is an important constituent of all cell membranes. Furthermore, it is the precursor of steroid hormones, which regulate a variety of physiological functions, and of bile salts, which are necessary for the generation of bile flow

  4. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity.

    Marangoni, M Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content. PMID:27119638

  5. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  6. Lack of Cholesterol Awareness among Physicians Who Smoke

    Richard E. Scranton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette use is a known risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD as it adversely affects HDL cholesterol levels and promotes thrombogenesis. Smoking may also be associated with behavioral characteristics that potentiate the risk of CAD. A lack of cholesterol knowledge would indicate an aversion to a prevention-oriented lifestyle. Thus, our goal was to determine the association between tobacco use and knowledge of self-reported cholesterol among male physicians. Using the 1982 and follow-up questionnaires from the physician health study, we report the changes in the frequencies of awareness of self-reported total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors among the 22,067 participants. We classified physicians as being aware of their cholesterol if they reported a cholesterol level and unaware if the question was left unanswered. In 1997, 207 physicians were excluded, as the recorded cholesterol was not interpretable, leaving 21,860 for our follow up analyses. Using unadjusted logistic models, we determined the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of not reporting a cholesterol level in either 1982 or 1997 for each specified risk factor. We then evaluated whether the lack of cholesterol awareness at both time points was associated with the use of tobacco throughout the study. After 14-years of follow up, cholesterol awareness increased from 35.9 to 58.6 percent. During this period, the frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia treatment increased (13.5 to 40.5% and 0.57% to 19.6% respectively, as did the diagnosis of diabetes (2.40 to 7.79%. Behavioral characteristics such as a sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increased (27.8 to 42% and 43.5 to 53.5%, respectively, however the proportion of current smokers deceased from 11.1 to 4.05%. The percentages of individuals being unaware of their cholesterol decreased in all risk factor groups. However, individuals were likely to be unaware of their cholesterol

  7. Apolipoprotein e genotype, plasma cholesterol, and cancer: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Trompet, Stella

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies have shown an association between low plasma cholesterol levels and increased risk of cancer, whereas most randomized clinical trials involving cholesterol-lowering medications have not shown this association. Between 1997 and 2002, the authors assessed the association between plasma cholesterol levels and cancer risk, free from confounding and reverse causality, in a Mendelian randomization study using apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. ApoE genotype, plasma cholesterol levels, and cancer incidence and mortality were measured during a 3-year follow-up period among 2,913 participants in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk. Subjects within the lowest third of plasma cholesterol level at baseline had increased risks of cancer incidence (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 2.70) and cancer mortality (HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.34) relative to subjects within the highest third of plasma cholesterol. However, carriers of the ApoE2 genotype (n = 332), who had 9% lower plasma cholesterol levels than carriers of the ApoE4 genotype (n = 635), did not have increased risk of cancer incidence (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.47) or cancer mortality (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.60) compared with ApoE4 carriers. These findings suggest that low cholesterol levels are not causally related to increased cancer risk.

  8. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector.

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L

    2016-09-01

    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily. PMID:26874289

  9. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  10. Non-linear character of dose dependences of chromosome aberration frequency in radiation-damaged root

    The dose dependences of the aberrant anaphases in the root meristem in 48 hours after the irradiation have non-linear character and a plateau in the region about 6-8 Gy. The plateau indicates the activation of recovery processes. In the plateau range, the level of damages for this genotype is 33% for aberrant anaphases (FAA), 2.3 aberrations per aberrant anaphase (A/AC), and 0.74 aberrations for the total number of anaphases. At 10 Gy, the dose curve forms the exponential region caused by the involvement of the large number of new cells with unrepaired damages in the mutation process. The increase of A/AC to 1.1 indicate the ''criticality'' of the meristem radiation damage.

  11. Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbit’s Nictitating Membrane Response

    Bernard G. Schreurs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease, including learning and memory changes. Although we have shown 2% cholesterol and copper in water can retard learning, other studies show feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition whereas feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explored this issue by manipulating cholesterol concentration and duration following classical trace conditioning of the rabbit’s nictitating membrane response and assessed conditioned responding after eight weeks on cholesterol. First, rabbits given trace classical conditioning followed by 0.5%, 1%, or 2% cholesterol for eight weeks showed body weight and serum cholesterol levels that were a function of dietary cholesterol. Although all concentrations of cholesterol showed some sign of retarding long-term memory, the level of memory retardation was correlated with serum cholesterol levels. Second, rabbits given trace conditioning followed by different durations of a 2% cholesterol diet combined with different durations of a 0% control diet for 8 weeks showed duration and timing of a 2% cholesterol diet were important in affecting recall. The data support the idea that dietary cholesterol may retard long-term memory.

  12. Calculation of aberration coefficients by ray tracing

    Oral, Martin; Lencová, Bohumila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (2009), s. 1365-1373. ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Aberrations * Aberration coefficients * Ray tracing * Regression * Fitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2009

  13. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  14. Aberration compensation in charged particle projection lithography

    Projection systems offer the opportunity to increase the throughput for charged particle lithography, because such systems image a large area of a mask directly on to a wafer as a single shot. Shots have to be imaged over a certain range of off-axis distances at the wafer to increase the writing speed, because shot sizes are limited to about 0.25x0.25 mm2 due to aberrations. In a projection system with only lenses, however, the aberrations for off-axis shots are still very large, and some aberration compensation elements need to be introduced. In this paper, three aberration compensation elements (deflectors, stigmators and dynamic focus lenses) are first discussed, a suite of newly developed software, called PROJECTION, based on this principle and our unified aberration theory is then described, and an illustrative example computed with the software is finally given

  15. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You

    ... risks of taking these medicines. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about all of the risks of taking your ... 20 should have their cholesterol checked by a doctor. Most people do not show ... Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Not all cholesterol in your blood ...

  16. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  17. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  18. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride...

  19. Higher-Order Aberrations in Myopic Eyes

    Farid Karimian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between refractive error and higher-order aberrations (HOAs in patients with myopic astigmatism. Methods: HOAs were measured using the Zywave II aberrometer over a 6 mm pupil. Correlations between HOAs and myopia, astigmatism, and age were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects with mean age of 26.4±5.9 years were studied. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error and refractive astigmatism were -4.94±1.63 D and 0.96±1.06 D, respectively. The most common higher-order aberration was primary horizontal trefoil with mean value of 0.069±0.152 μm followed by spherical aberration (-0.064±0.130 μm and primary vertical coma (-0.038±0.148 μm. As the order of aberration increased from third to fifth, its contribution to total HOA decreased: 53.9% for third order, 31.9% for fourth order, and 14.2% for fifth order aberrations. Significant correlations were observed between spherical equivalent refractive error and primary horizontal coma (R=0.231, P=0.022, and root mean square (RMS of spherical aberration (R=0.213, P=0.031; between astigmatism and RMS of total HOA (R=0.251, P=0.032, RMS of fourth order aberration (R=0.35, P<0.001, and primary horizontal coma (R=0.314, P=0.004. Spherical aberration (R=0.214, P=0.034 and secondary vertical coma (R=0.203, P=0.031 significantly increased with age. Conclusion: Primary horizontal trefoil, spherical aberration and primary vertical coma are the predominant higher-order aberrations in eyes with myopic astigmatism.

  20. Remnant Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Blood Pressure as Mediators From Obesity to Ischemic Heart Disease

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey;

    2015-01-01

    lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and C-reactive protein. METHODS AND RESULTS: Approximately 90 000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index and intermediate...... pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The 3 intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined...... obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increased IHD risk because of...

  1. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  2. Measurement of rates of cholesterol synthesis using tritiated water

    Rates of sterol synthesis in various tissues commonly are assessed by assaying levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase on isolated microsomes or by measuring the rates of incorporation of various 14C-labeled substrates or [3H]water into cholesterol by whole cell preparations in vitro or by the tissues of the whole animal in vivo. While measurement of activities of HMG-CoA reductase or rates of incorporation of 14C-labeled substrates into cholesterol give useful relative rates of sterol production, neither method yields absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis. The use of [3H]water circumvents the problem of variable and unknown dilution of the specific activity of the precursor pool encountered when 14C-labeled substrates are used and does yield absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis provided that the 3H/C incorporation ratio is known for a particular tissue. In 12 different experimental situations it has been found that from 21 to 27 micrograms atoms of 3H are incorporated into cholesterol from [3H]water in different tissues of several animal species, so that the 3H/C incorporation ratio is similar under nearly all experimental conditions and varies from 0.78 to 1.00. When administered in vivo, [3H]water rapidly equilibrates with intracellular water and is incorporated into sterols within the various organs at rates that are linear with respect to time. From such data it is possible to obtain absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis in the whole animal and in the various organs of the animal. Current data suggest, therefore, that use of [3H]water yields the most accurate rates of cholesterol synthesis both in vitro and in vivo

  3. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  4. Study on Cholesterol Renewal of Fatty Livers by Means of Tritiated Cholesterol

    It is known that ingestion by rats of a diet rich in cholesterol (2%) results in the formation of cholesterol-fatty liver. In the experiment, animals so fed for periods of one to three months were made to ingest the same diet in which the cholesterol had been replaced by tritiated cholesterol of known specific radioactivity. The rats were sacrificed after various ingestion periods up to a maximum of 51 d. Examination of the specific radioactivities of liver and serum cholesterol, free and esterified, gave the same values. Hence, the cholesterol of cholesterol-fatty livers is entirely renewed and does not represent an inert mass in the liver. (author)

  5. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol in 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in the General Population

    Ooi, Esther M; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Lipoprotein levels were measured in all and 25(OH)D levels in 31,435. A doubling in nonfasting remnant cholesterol levels was observationally and genetically associated with -6.0%(95% confidence interval [CI], -6.5% to......BACKGROUND: Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with high cardiovascular risk. This may be because that low 25(OH)D levels are associated with high levels of atherogenic lipoproteins, but whether these 2 risk factors are genetically associated is unknown. We tested this...... hypothesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a Mendelian randomization approach, potential genetic associations between plasma levels of atherogenic lipoproteins and 25(OH)D were examined in ≤85,868 white, Danish individuals in whom we genotyped for variants affecting plasma levels of 25(OH)D, nonfasting remnant...

  6. Cholesterol-mediated surfactant dysfunction is mitigated by surfactant protein A.

    Hiansen, Joshua Qua; Keating, Eleonora; Aspros, Alex; Yao, Li-Juan; Bosma, Karen J; Yamashita, Cory M; Lewis, James F; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2015-03-01

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce surface tension at the alveolar surface is impaired in various lung diseases. Recent animal studies indicate that elevated levels of cholesterol within surfactant may contribute to its inhibition. It was hypothesized that elevated cholesterol levels within surfactant inhibit human surfactant biophysical function and that these effects can be reversed by surfactant protein A (SP-A). The initial experiment examined the function of surfactant from mechanically ventilated trauma patients in the presence and absence of a cholesterol sequestering agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The results demonstrated improved surface activity when cholesterol was sequestered in vitro using a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). These results were explored further by reconstitution of surfactant with various concentrations of cholesterol with and without SP-A, and testing of the functionality of these samples in vitro with the CBS and in vivo using surfactant depleted rats. Overall, the results consistently demonstrated that surfactant function was inhibited by levels of cholesterol of 10% (w/w phospholipid) but this inhibition was mitigated by the presence of SP-A. It is concluded that cholesterol-induced surfactant inhibition can actively contribute to physiological impairment of the lungs in mechanically ventilated patients and that SP-A levels may be important to maintain surfactant function in the presence of high cholesterol within surfactant. PMID:25522687

  7. Genetic variation in the cholesterol transporter NPC1L1, ischaemic vascular disease, and gallstone disease

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Ezetimibe reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like protein 1 (NPC1L1), the transporter responsible for cholesterol uptake from the intestine into enterocytes and from the bile into hepatocytes. We tested the hypothesis that geneti...

  8. A Decreased Responsiveness of Platelet to Nitric Oxide in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    SUNJing; ZHANGAi-xia; LUOChun-xia; WANGWei; SUNYong-jun; ZHUDong-ya

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether endothelial dysfunction leads to an abnormal responsiveness of platelet to nitric oxide(NO)during the development of atherosclerosis. Methods:Rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol chow for 12 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. Sermn NOx levels and the responsiveness of platelet to NO donor SNP were determined every 4 weeks during maintaining on a chow containing 1% cholesterol. The measurement of serum lipids and the examination of morphological feature and endothelial-dependent relaxation of aorta were performed after 12 weeks of cholesterol diet. Resu/ts.Cholesterol diet significantly increased sermn levels of cholesterol and LDL, caused a remarkable platelet hyperaggregability, and produced an evident endothelial dysfunction as indicated by the diminished vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and endothelial cell lesion as exhibited by scanning electron microscope examination. The percentage of inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by NO donor SNIP was significantly smaller in cholesterol chow group than that in normal chow group although no significant difference in serum NOx levels between normal and cholesterol chow group was observed throughout the development of atherosclexosis. :The present study suggests that the endothelial dysfunction caused by enhanced sermn cholesterol and LDL levels induces a decreased responsiveness of platelet to NO.

  9. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    A. C. Beynen; Katan, M B; Gent, van, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and bile acids minus cholesterol intake. In addition, we determined serum concentrations of lanosterol, a precursor of cholesterol and a possible indicator of cholesterol biosynthetic activity. The stud...

  10. Sequestration of free cholesterol in cell membranes by prions correlates with cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activation

    Williams Alun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, otherwise known as the prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC to an alternatively folded isoform (PrPSc. The accumulation of PrPSc within the brain leads to neurodegeneration through an unidentified mechanism. Since many neurodegenerative disorders including prion, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases may be modified by cholesterol synthesis inhibitors, the effects of prion infection on the cholesterol balance within neuronal cells were examined. Results We report the novel observation that prion infection altered the membrane composition and significantly increased total cholesterol levels in two neuronal cell lines (ScGT1 and ScN2a cells. There was a significant correlation between the concentration of free cholesterol in ScGT1 cells and the amounts of PrPSc. This increase was entirely a result of increased amounts of free cholesterol, as prion infection reduced the amounts of cholesterol esters in cells. These effects were reproduced in primary cortical neurons by the addition of partially purified PrPSc, but not by PrPC. Crucially, the effects of prion infection were not a result of increased cholesterol synthesis. Stimulating cholesterol synthesis via the addition of mevalonate, or adding exogenous cholesterol, had the opposite effect to prion infection on the cholesterol balance. It did not affect the amounts of free cholesterol within neurons; rather, it significantly increased the amounts of cholesterol esters. Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 co-precipitated with PrPSc in ScGT1 cells. Furthermore, prion infection greatly increased both the phosphorylation of cPLA2 and prostaglandin E2 production. Conclusion Prion infection, or the addition of PrPSc, increased the free cholesterol content of cells, a process that could not be replicated by the stimulation of cholesterol

  11. Doses intermitentes de estatina em pacientes em hemodiálise com LDL-colesterol espontaneamente baixo Intermittent doses of statin in hemodialysis patients with spontaneous low LDL cholesterol levels

    Paulo Giovanni de Albuquerque Suassuna

    2008-02-01

    calcification, malnutrition and anemia, and a huge impact on the survival of these patients. The pleiotropic effects of statins can be a therapeutic option for reducing chronic inflammatory processes of patients undergoing hemodialysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of low doses of simvastatin on inflammatory markers, hematimetric and nutritional parameters of patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: Clinically-stable patients undergoing hemodialysis were classified according to their baseline LDL-cholesterol levels in two groups: those with levels below 100mg/dl (Group 1 and those with levels equal to or greater than 100mg/dl (Group-2, and were treated with simvastatin during eight weeks. Group 1 received 20mg only after each session of hemodialysis (intermittent dose, whereas Group 2 received 20mg/daily. Laboratory data, erythropoietin resistance index and nutritional parameters were obtained before and after treatment. RESULTS: A significant and equivalent reduction in C-reactive protein levels in both groups was observed (35.97±49.23% vs 38.32±32.69%, p=0.86. In group 1, there was also a tendency towards reduced resistance to erythropoietin (228.6±16.2 vs 208.9±16.2, p=0.058 and improvement of hematimetric parameters (hematocrit: 33.1±5.9% vs 36.1±4.5%, p=0.021. CONCLUSION: Intermittent doses proved to be as effective as the usual dose in reducing C-reactive protein levels and resistance to erythropoietin, besides improving the hematimetric parameters, indicating an important reduction of the cardiovascular risk evaluated by these parameters.

  12. Cholesterol-enriched diet causes age-related macular degeneration-like pathology in rabbit retina

    Singh Brij B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD and age-related macular degeneration (AMD share several pathological hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. The causes of AD and AMD are likely multi-factorial with several factors such as diet, environment, and genetic susceptibility participating in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Epidemiological studies correlated high plasma cholesterol levels with high incidence of AD, and feeding rabbits with a diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to induce AD-like pathology in rabbit brain. High intake of cholesterol and saturated fat were also long been suspected to increase the risk for AMD. However, the extent to which cholesterol-enriched diet may also cause AMD-like features in rabbit retinas is not well known. Methods Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed normal chow or a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet for 12 weeks. At necropsy, animals were perfused with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline and the eyes were promptly removed. One eye of each animal was used for immunohistochemistry and retina dissected from the other eye was used for Western blot, ELISA assays, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry analyses. Results Increased levels of Aβ, decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and gadd153 proteins, emergence of TUNEL-positive cells, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species were found in retinas from cholesterol-fed compared to normal chow-fed rabbits. Additionally, astrogliosis, drusen-like debris and cholesterol accumulations in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits were observed. As several lines of evidence suggest that oxidized cholesterol metabolites (oxysterols may be the link by which cholesterol contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined levels of oxysterols and found a dramatic increase in levels of oxysterols in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits

  13. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol at...... were 5000 vascular deaths (3000 IHD, 1000 stroke, 1000 other). Reported associations are with usual cholesterol levels (ie, corrected for the regression dilution bias). FINDINGS: 1 mmol/L lower total cholesterol was associated with about a half (hazard ratio 0.44 [95% CI 0.42-0.48]), a third (0.66 [0...... absolute effects of cholesterol and blood pressure were approximately additive. Of various simple indices involving HDL cholesterol, the ratio total/HDL cholesterol was the strongest predictor of IHD mortality (40% more informative than non-HDL cholesterol and more than twice as informative as total...

  14. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  15. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  16. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.; Rapaport, H.; Leiserowitz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers in a...... least initially, an intralayer cholesterol rearrangement in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transition. The preferred nucleation of the monoclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O followed by transformation to the stable monohydrate phase may be associated with an energetically more stable cholesterol...... bilayer arrangement of the former and a more favorable hydrogen-bonding arrangement of the latter. The relevance of this nucleation process of cholesterol monohydrate to pathological crystallization of cholesterol from cell biomembranes is discussed....

  17. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  18. Cholesterol and Alzheimer Type Dementia among Adults with Down Syndrome

    Buckley, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a summary of research by Warren Zigman and colleagues investigating the link between cholesterol levels and Alzheimer type dementia among adults with Down syndrome. Warren Zigman and colleagues followed 123 adults with Down syndrome between May 1998 and April 2006. The participants were aged between 41 and 78 years at the…

  19. The effect of hyperthyroidism on serum cholesterol in Sudanese females

    This study was done, essentially to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on lipid metabolism, respectively on total cholesterol in Sudanese females. Samples were collected from the referred patients to RIA lab in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC). Ninety eight subjects were selected as study group. 48 hyperthyroid females age range (18-60) years in addition 50 euthyroid specimens were collected from females (of the same ages range) and used as control. Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum total cholestrol were measured for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer program to compare the mean of cholesterol levels the control with the study group. The result showed that the significantly (P < 0.01). High levels of thyroid hormones in patients were accompanied by significantly (P< 0.01) decreased cholesterol levels. When this finding was compared in the control group serum total cholesterol levels kept the normal rang with the normal thyroid function.(Author)

  20. Combined effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and β-cyclodextrin on serum cholesterol in pigs.

    Alonso, L; Fontecha, J; Cuesta, P

    2016-01-14

    A total of twenty-four Yorkshire gilt pigs of 6-7 weeks of age were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to determine the individual and combined effects of the inclusion of two dietary factors (cholesterol rich, 3% β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures) on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in blood serum. Pigs were assigned randomly to treatment groups (n 6). Total serum cholesterol concentrations decreased after 3 weeks in all the experimental treatment groups, including diets with BCD, L. acidophilus or both. Similar trends were observed for serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental treatments. No statistically significant differences from the control group were observed in either total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol concentrations (Psterile milk. The combined treatment group exhibited 17·9% lower total serum cholesterol concentration after 3 weeks. Similar significant differences were observed when comparing the combined effect experimental group with the control group after 3 weeks. The combined treatment group exhibited 27·9% lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. PMID:26467089

  1. Viability and cholesterol uptake by Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in artificial git fluids

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus thermophilus is traditionally used in association with Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a starter culture for the production of yoghurt. Some researchers have indicated that S. thermophilus may provide additional health benefits, for example it may reduce cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the cholesterol uptake and the viability of S. thermophilus isolates in artificial GIT environments. Material and methods. Twelve isolates of S. thermophilus were cultured in artificial gastric fluid (with pepsin added and in artificial duodenal fluid (with the enzyme complex added, and in M17 broth containing cholesterol at an initial concentration of 600 µg/mL, as well as in M17 broth without cholesterol. Immediately after the adding of bacteria inoculums and at the end of experiment, the concentration of cholesterol and the number of bacteria were measured. Results. S. thermophilus did not remove statistically significant amounts of cholesterol from artificial gastric fluid. The isolates showed the ability to uptake cholesterol from M17 broth and artificial duodenal fluid, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depended on the isolate. All isolates of S. thermophilus remove much more cholesterol from M17 broth than from artificial duodenal fluid. All S. thermophilus isolates had worse survival in artificial gastric or duodenal fluids than in M17 broth. Conclusions. The ability of S. thermophilus cells to survive in artificial gastric fluid and artificial duodenal fluid varied according to the isolates.

  2. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  3. Effect of cholesterol on the biophysical and physiological properties of a clinical pulmonary surfactant.

    Keating, Eleonora; Rahman, Luna; Francis, James; Petersen, Anne; Possmayer, Fred; Veldhuizen, Ruud; Petersen, Nils O

    2007-08-15

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that forms a surface-active film at the air-water interface of alveoli capable of reducing surface tension to near 0 mN/m. The role of cholesterol, the major neutral lipid component of pulmonary surfactant, remains uncertain. We studied the physiological effect of cholesterol by monitoring blood oxygenation levels of surfactant-deficient rats treated or not treated with bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) containing zero or physiological amounts of cholesterol. Our results indicate no significant difference between BLES and BLES containing cholesterol immediately after treatment; however, during ventilation, BLES-treated animals maintained higher PaO2 values compared to BLES+cholesterol-treated animals. We used a captive bubble tensiometer to show that physiological amounts of cholesterol do not have a detrimental effect on the surface activity of BLES at 37 degrees C. The effect of cholesterol on topography and lateral organization of BLES Langmuir-Blodgett films was also investigated using atomic force microscopy. Our data indicate that cholesterol induces the formation of domains within liquid-ordered domains (Lo). We used time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry and principal component analysis to show that cholesterol is concentrated in the Lo phase, where it induces structural changes. PMID:17526587

  4. Effect of aberrations in vortex spatial filtering

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2012-11-01

    Edge enhancement is a very important operation in image processing and a spiral phase plate can be used as a radial Hilbert mask for isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper we analyze the effect of various Seidel aberrations on the performance of radial Hilbert mask or the vortex phase mask. The aberrated vortex phase mask is implemented optically with the help of a high resolution, spatial light modulator (SLM). It has also been shown that out of various aberrations astigmatism can introduce anisotropy in the Hilbert mask which causes selective edge enhancement.

  5. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  6. Cholesterol Regulates Syntaxin 6 Trafficking at trans-Golgi Network Endosomal Boundaries

    Meritxell Reverter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes causes cellular cholesterol imbalance, including cholesterol depletion in the trans-Golgi network (TGN. Here, using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 mutant cell lines and human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts, we show that altered cholesterol levels at the TGN/endosome boundaries trigger Syntaxin 6 (Stx6 accumulation into VAMP3, transferrin, and Rab11-positive recycling endosomes (REs. This increases Stx6/VAMP3 interaction and interferes with the recycling of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins and cell migration, possibly in a Stx6-dependent manner. In NPC1 mutant cells, restoration of cholesterol levels in the TGN, but not inhibition of VAMP3, restores the steady-state localization of Stx6 in the TGN. Furthermore, elevation of RE cholesterol is associated with increased amounts of Stx6 in RE. Hence, the fine-tuning of cholesterol levels at the TGN-RE boundaries together with a subset of cholesterol-sensitive SNARE proteins may play a regulatory role in cell migration and invasion.

  7. Single-step fermentative production of the cholesterol-lowering drug pravastatin via reprogramming of Penicillium chrysogenum

    McLean, Kirsty J; Hans, Marcus; Meijrink, Ben; van Scheppingen, Wibo B.; Vollebregt, Aad; Tee, Kang Lan; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W; van den Berg, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Statins are successful widely used drugs that decrease the risk of coronary heart disease and strokes by lowering cholesterol levels. They selectively inhibit the key regulatory enzyme of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, thus lowering levels of plasma LDL (bad) cholesterol. Pravastatin is one of the leading and most effective statins, derived from the natural product compactin. However, pravastatin production involves a costly dual-step fermentation and biotransformation process. Here we pr...

  8. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale. - Highlights: • Demonstration of nanometre scale resolution in magnetic field free environment using aberration correction in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • Implementation of differential phase contrast mode of Lorentz microscopy in aberration corrected STEM with improved sensitivity. • Quantitative imaging of magnetic induction of nanostructures in amorphous and cross-section samples

  9. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gondolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, res...

  10. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    Tromp, R.M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed.

  11. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed

  12. Relação entre teores de colesterol em filés de tilápias e níveis de óleo de linhaça na ração Relationship between content of cholesterol in filets of tilapias and levels of linseed oil ration

    Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito de rações contendo diferentes níveis de óleo de linhaça no teor de colesterol e na composição centesimal (umidade, cinza, proteína e lipídios totais de filés de tilápia. A determinação do colesterol foi realizada através de cromatográfica líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Esta metodologia foi avaliada no presente trabalho mostrando-se exata e precisa. Os teores de colesterol variaram de 58,3 a 75,5mg/100g de tecido muscular, sendo que a inclusão de óleo de linhaça em um nível de até 3,75% favoreceu a diminuição dos valores de colesterol nos filés de tilápia. No entanto, os níveis de colesterol foram próximos a outras espécies de peixes. Na composição centesimal não houve diferença significativa entre os diferentes tratamentos. Desta forma, a utilização de óleo de linhaça não apresentou influência na composição dos constituintes analisados.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fish feed containing different levels of linseed oil on the cholesterol content and proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein and total lipids of tilapia fillets. The cholesterol content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, the methodology being evaluated and validated and shown to be exact and precise. The cholesterol contents varied from 58 to 76mg/100g of muscle tissue, the inclusion of linseed oil up to a level of 3.75% favoring a decrease in the cholesterol content of the tilapia fillets, although the levels continued to be similar to those of other fish. There was no significant difference between the treatments with respect to the proximate composition. Thus the use of linseed oil presented no influence on the composition of the constituents analyzed.

  13. The phase behavior of hydrated cholesterol.

    Loomis, C R; Shipley, G G; Small, D M

    1979-05-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior of cholesterol monohydrate in water was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing light microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. In contrast to anhydrous cholesterol which undergoes a polymorphic crystalline transition at 39 degrees C and a crystalline to liquid transition at 151 degrees C, the closed system of cholesterol monohydrate and water exhibited three reversible endothermic transitions at 86, 123, and 157 degrees C. At 86 degrees C, cholesterol monohydrate loses its water of hydration, forming the high temperature polymorph of anhydrous cholesterol. At least 24 hours were required for re-hydration of cholesterol and the rate of hydration was dependent on the polymorphic crystalline form of anhydrous cholesterol. At 123 degrees C, anhydrous crystalline cholesterol in the presence of excess water undergoes a sharp transition to a birefringent liquid crystalline phase of smectic texture. The x-ray diffraction pattern obtained from this phase contained two sharp low-angle reflections at 37.4 and 18.7 A and a diffuse wide-angle reflection centered at 5.7 A, indicating a layered smectic type of liquid crystalline structure with each layer being two cholesterol molecules thick. The liquid crystalline phase is stable over the temperature range of 123 to 157 degrees C before melting to a liquid dispersed in water. The observation of a smectic liquid crystalline phase for hydrated cholesterol correlates with its high surface activity and helps to explain its ability to exist in high concentrations in biological membranes. PMID:458269

  14. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  15. Aberrant right hepatic artery; A case report

    We present a rare case of aberrant hepatic artery in a 40-year-old male with a history of chronic cholecystitis. During laparoscopic surgery, the artery found to pass anterior to the body the gallbladder and bifurcating anterior to the gallbladder body. The surgery was un eventful. We present this anomaly of the rare condition of aberrant right hepatic artery which should be in mind during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, because inadverant injury could lead to massive bleeding and increase co morbidities. (author)

  16. Effect of dietary fat on hepatic liver X receptor expression in P-glycoprotein deficient mice: implications for cholesterol metabolism

    Lee Stephen D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pgp (P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1 is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC family of proteins. Preliminary studies have reported that nonspecific inhibitors of Pgp affect synthesis and esterification of cholesterol, putatively by blocking trafficking of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that relative increases in Pgp within a given cell type are associated with increased accumulation of cholesterol. Several key efflux proteins involved in the cholesterol metabolic pathway are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR. Therefore, to examine the interplay between P-glycoprotein and the cholesterol metabolic pathway, we utilized a high fat, normal cholesterol diet to upregulate LXRα without affecting dietary cholesterol. Our research has demonstrated that mice lacking in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit alterations in hepatic total cholesterol storage, circulating plasma total cholesterol levels, or total cholesterol concentration in the bile when compared to control animals on either a normal (25% calories from dietary fat or high fat (45% calories from dietary fat diet. However, p-glycoprotein deficient mice (Mdr1a-/-/1b-/- exhibit increased hepatic LXRα protein expression and an elevation in fecal cholesterol concentration when compared to controls.

  17. Change in cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers in patients with coronary heart disease after combination therapy with simvastatin plus ezetimibe

    ZHANG Tao; WU Wen-feng; LIU Yang; WANG Qi-hui; WANG Lü-ya; MI Shu-hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Statins and ezetimibe have been reported to change the balance of cholesterol metabolism,but few studies have been performed on Chinese patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in cholesterol metabolism markers in patients with coronary heart disease.Methods Forty-five patients with coronary heart disease were treated with 20 mg/d of simvastatin for four weeks.Subjects were then divided into two different therapy groups according to whether they reached the target values for total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level.Patients who reached the target values remained on simvastatin and those who did not reach the target values took a combination of simvastatin plus 10 mg/d ezetimibe until the 12th week.The concentrations of cholesterol synthesis markers (lathosterol and desmosterol) and absorption markers (campesterol and sitosterol) were measured on the 1st,4th,and 12th week of the study by gas chromatography.Results After treatment with simvastatin for four weeks,the levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly compared to levels measured during the 1st week (P <0.05).On the 12th week the levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased significantly (P <0.001) compared to levels during the 4th week.By the 12th week the levels of campesterol and sitosterol in the combination group had decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with levels measured during the 4th week.Conclusions Coronary heart disease patients with high cholesterol synthesis at baseline might gain a greater benefit from simvastatin treatment.Combination therapy with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with low cholesterol synthesis at baseline might increase the success rate of lipid-lowering through decreasing the absorption of cholesterol.

  18. Effect of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor on some biochemical parameters in normal male rats

    M. S. Kalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous cholesterol acts as a precursor of testosterone and other steroids hormones, this study was conducted to evaluate if there is a counterproductive effect associated with inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway specially in high doses and the degree of these effects in normal male rats. Forty eight adult Wistar rats divided into four groups, the first is control while the remaining three groups were treated with simvastatin (cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 respectively. Serum samples were observed at the baseline then every fifteen days while tissue samples were observed at day 30 and 60. Results of statistic refered to a significant decrease (p≤ 0.05 in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (by 24 and 49% ± 3 respectively, also serum testosterone was significantly decreased (by 71% ± 2 in all groups compared to control after thirty and sixty days. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was increased (57% ± 3 versus to aspartate aminotransferase. Liver cholesterol was significantly decreased (by 72% ± 2 while testicular cholesterol was decreased except the group of 100 mg.kg-1 which in turns to elevate (61% ± 4, in addition also there was a decrease in body weight gain percentage neither the weights of liver nor testis was affected. In conclusion, the inhibition of denovo pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis negatively affects testosterone level in addition to cholesterol concentration in the tissues, body weight gain and alanine aminotransferase with no successful compensatory mechanism as related with testosterone level.

  19. Olive Leaf Extract Improves the Atherogenic Lipid Profile in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    Olmez, Ercument; Vural, Kamil; Gok, Sule; Ozturk, Zeynep; Kayalar, Husniye; Ayhan, Semin; Var, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Coronary heart disease because of atherosclerosis is still the most common cause of mortality. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the olive leaf extract on serum lipid profile, early changes of atherosclerosis and endothelium-dependent relaxations in cholesterol-fed rats. For this purpose, rats were fed by 2% cholesterol-enriched or standard chow for 8 weeks. Some rats in each group were also fed orally by olive leaf extract at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. Atorvastatin at dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight daily was also given as positive control. After 8 weeks, lipid profiles of rat serums were analyzed. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and degree of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) were also measured in the hearts isolated from rats. In addition, expression of adhesion molecules and endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated thoracic aortas of rats were evaluated. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be increased in cholesterol-fed rats, and both doses of olive leaf extract and atorvastatin significantly decreased those levels. In conclusion, because the olive leaf extract attenuates the increased cholesterol levels, it may have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. PMID:26328503

  20. Intra- and interindividual variability in lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations: implications for cancer risk assessment.

    Peters, Susan; Portengen, Lützen; Bonassi, Stefano; Sram, Radim; Vermeulen, Roel

    2011-08-15

    Chromosomal aberration frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy individuals has been found to be predictive of future cancer risk. The variability of chromosomal aberrations over time, which is largely unknown, should be clarified to interpret the strength of this association and to determine its use in cancer prediction. Intra- and interindividual variability in chromosomal aberration frequency was therefore determined. From a pooled database comprising 11 national cohorts (1965-2002), the authors included 9,433 blood samples from 3,550 subjects with at least one repeated chromosomal aberration measurement. The generalized concordance correlation coefficient of 0.19 was low, indicating high intraindividual variability compared with interindividual variability, resulting in a high likelihood of misclassification. The relation between chromosomal aberration frequency and future cancer risk has probably been underestimated in previous studies. A single chromosomal aberration measurement seems not to be representative of the whole lifespan level of chromosome instability and greatly limits the use of chromosomal aberration frequency-as measured with Giemsa staining-for individual risk assessment. PMID:21652601

  1. Related research on corneal higher-order aberrations after different ways refractive surgery

    Shu-Xi He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the changes of corneal high-order aberration(including Coma, Spab, RMShafter laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKwith femtosecond laser, sub-Bowman keratomileusis(SBKand laser epithelial keratomileusis(LASEK.METHODS: Of 82 myopic patients(164 eyes, 31 patients(62 eyeswere treated by FS-LASIK, 31 patients(62 eyeswere treated by SBK, 20 patients(40 eyeswere treated by LASEK. Sirius system was used for measuring the coma aberration, spherical aberration, and high order aberration at 1, 15d,1, 3mo after surgery.RESULTS: 1Vision: The uncorrected visual acuity of the three groups had no differences(P>0.05. 2Corneal aberrations: Three kinds of surgical procedure for patients with corneal aberration had significant impact. The C7, C8, C12 and RMSh of three groups were increased significantly(P0.05. The C7, C8, C12 and RMSh were not recovered to preoperative levels after 3mo. But the increase of patients after FS-LASIK was smaller than the other two groups, with statistical significance(P0.05.CONCLUSION: Compared with SBK and LASEK,FS-LASIK has better visual acuity in the early postoperative and corneal higher-order aberrations increase is relatively small.

  2. Retrospective chromosome aberration analysis of former uranium miners

    In this paper we present our data collected in the period of 1981-1985 on 165 persons exposed by different radon concentrations expressed in working level month (WLM) units from 100 up to 600. Following the decommissioning of the uranium mine in Hungary in 1997 cytogenetic status of 131 persons were within a follow-up-study of their health conditions initiated by the Hungarian Academy of Science. The persons have terminated their underground activities 5 to 20 years before testing. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in large percentages of persons investigated. The frequency of chromosome aberrations of uranium miners was found increased in function of their exposure to radon. The comparison of the miner's categories 20 years ago and in the recent years demonstrated the long-term existence of aberrations for many years after completion of underground mining activities. (authors)

  3. Studies on chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation

    Cytogenetic assays for unstable chromosomes were performed on 54 medical radiation workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation and 42 controls. A total of 15,577 metaphase cells were scored. The frequencies of dicentrics and acentric chromosomes on controls were 0.52*10-3 and 0.82*10-2, respectively. On radiation workers those were 2.28*10-3 and 1.34*10-2, respectively. Though the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the workers were higher than those in the controls, the only significant difference was found in the case of dicentrics (P 0.05) except exposure dose of recent one year (P < 0.05). These results could indicate that low level exposure to ionizing radiation can induce unstable chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes

  4. Urotensin II promotes atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Yafeng Li

    Full Text Available Urotensin II (UII is a vasoactive peptide composed of 11 amino acids that has been implicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether UII affects the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. UII was infused for 16 weeks through an osmotic mini-pump into male Japanese White rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions along with cellular components, collagen fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 were examined. Moreover, vulnerability index of atherosclerotic plaques was evaluated. UII infusion significantly increased atherosclerotic lesions within the entire aorta by 21% over the control (P = 0.013. Atherosclerotic lesions were increased by 24% in the aortic arch (P = 0.005, 11% in the thoracic aorta (P = 0.054 and 18% in the abdominal aorta (P = 0.035. These increases occurred without changes in plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides or body weight. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly enhanced by 2.2-fold and 1.6-fold in UII group. In vitro studies demonstrated that UII up-regulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by the UII receptor antagonist urantide. In conclusion, our results showed that UII promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  5. Dynamics of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of monkeys following prolonged irradiation

    The effect of prolonged gamma-irradiation with doses of low intensity (3.87 μA/kg) was studied in the bone marrow cells of monkeys (Macaca rhesus). The cumulative dose was 214.14-221.88 mC/kg. Statistically significant differences in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and the percentage of polyploid bone marrow cells, as compared to the level of spontaneous aberrations, were observed during 42 months following the exrosure

  6. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC

    Arne; Dikkers; Uwe; JF; Tietge

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the f inal step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the main pathophys...

  7. Colesterol e composição dos ácidos graxos nas dietas para humanos e na carcaça suína Fatty acids concentration and level of cholesterol in diets for humans and present in swine carcasses

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O colesterol é uma substância complexa do tipo lipídio-esteróide presente principalmente nas gorduras animais. Apresenta múltiplas funções no organismo, entretanto, problemas no metabolismo do colesterol no organismo podem acarretar aumento na sua concentração no sangue e conseqüentemente doenças coronárias como arterosclerose. Porém, já está comprovado que o consumo de colesterol é um fator de risco para pessoas que apresentam problemas genéticos de regulação do seu metabolismo. São pessoas que possuem níveis de colesterol acima de 200mg/dl e com concentração de HDL no sangue inferior a 35mg/dl. Apenas para estes indivíduos é importante o controle do colesterol através da dieta, na qual o consumo de carne suína, como de qualquer carne de outra espécie animal, deve ser considerada a composição dos ácidos graxos da gordura subcutânea e intramuscular. O fornecimento de dietas para suínos com maior concentração de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados apresentaram maior teor deste tipo de gordura nas suas carcaças. A suplementação destas gorduras de origem vegetal não pode ultrapassar a 4% nas dietas, devido à obtenção de carcaças com deficiência de conservação, apesar de originar uma carne mais benéfica à saúde do consumidor.Cholesterol is a complex lipid-steroid like substance mostly present in animal fat, and it has many essencial functions in living organisms. However, in humans, any metabolic problems can increase blood cholesterol concentration and, consequently, increase the risk of coronary heart disease, such as arteriosclerosis. It is a known fact that cholesterol consumption is a risk factor for people who have genetic disorders in the metabolic regulation of cholesterol. These people have plasma levels of cholesterol above 200mg/dl and a plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL under 35mg/dl. For these people, it is important to control the cholesterol level in the diet. The

  8. Eimeria bovis infection modulates endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism for successful replication.

    Hamid, Penny H; Hirzmann, Joerg; Kerner, Katharina; Gimpl, Gerald; Lochnit, Guenter; Hermosilla, Carlos R; Taubert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    During first merogony Eimeria bovis forms large macromeronts in endothelial host cells containing >120 000 merozoites I. During multiplication, large amounts of cholesterol are indispensable for the enormous offspring membrane production. Cholesterol auxotrophy was proven for other apicomplexan parasites. Consequently they scavenge cholesterol from their host cell apparently in a parasite-specific manner. We here analyzed the influence of E. bovis infection on endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism and found considerable differences to other coccidian parasites. Overall, free cholesterol significantly accumulated in E. bovis infected host cells. Furthermore, a striking increase of lipid droplet formation was observed within immature macromeronts. Artificial host cell lipid droplet enrichment significantly improved E. bovis merozoite I production confirming the key role of lipid droplet contents for optimal parasite proliferation. The transcription of several genes being involved in both, cholesterol de novo biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein-(LDL) mediated uptake, was significantly up-regulated at a time in infected cells suggesting a simultaneous exploitation of these two cholesterol acquisition pathways. E. bovis scavenges LDL-derived cholesterol apparently through significantly increased levels of surface LDL receptor abundance and LDL binding to infected cells. Consequently, LDL supplementation significantly improved parasite replication. The up-regulation of the oxidized LDL receptor 1 furthermore identified this scavenger receptor as a key molecule in parasite-triggered LDL uptake. Moreover, cellular cholesterol processing was altered in infected cells as indicated by up-regulation of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase and sterol O-acyltransferase. Overall, these results show that E. bovis considerably exploits the host cell cholesterol metabolism to guarantee its massive intracellular growth and replication. PMID:26395984

  9. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family of gram-positive bacterial toxins.

    Heuck, Alejandro P; Moe, Paul C; Johnson, Benjamin B

    2010-01-01

    The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are a family of beta-barrel pore-forming toxins secreted by Gram-positive bacteria. These toxins are produced as water-soluble monomeric proteins that after binding to the target cell oligomerize on the membrane surface forming a ring-like pre-pore complex, and finally insert a large beta-barrel into the membrane (about 250 A in diameter). Formation of such a large transmembrane structure requires multiple and coordinated conformational changes. The presence of cholesterol in the target membrane is absolutely required for pore-formation, and therefore it was long thought that cholesterol was the cellular receptor for these toxins. However, not all the CDCs require cholesterol for binding. Intermedilysin, secreted by Streptoccocus intermedius only binds to membranes containing a protein receptor, but forms pores only if the membrane contains sufficient cholesterol. In contrast, perfringolysin O, secreted by Clostridium perfringens, only binds to membranes containing substantial amounts of cholesterol. The mechanisms by which cholesterol regulates the cytolytic activity of the CDCs are not understood at the molecular level. The C-terminus of perfringolysin O is involved in cholesterol recognition, and changes in the conformation of the loops located at the distal tip of this domain affect the toxin-membrane interactions. At the same time, the distribution of cholesterol in the membrane can modulate toxin binding. Recent studies support the concept that there is a dynamic interplay between the cholesterol-binding domain of the CDCs and the excess of cholesterol molecules in the target membrane. PMID:20213558

  10. Structure of cholesterol/ceramide monolayer mixtures

    Scheffer, L.; Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.; Leiserowitz, L.; Addadi, L.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of monolayers of cholesterol/ ceramide mixtures was investigated using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, immunofluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements showed the existence of a crystalline mixed phase of the two...... was determined and modeled. Immunolabeling was performed with an antibody specific to the cholesterol monohydrate crystalline arrangement. The antibody recognizes crystalline cholesterol monolayers, but does not interact with crystalline ceramide. Immunofluorescence and atomic force microscopy data...

  11. Acrosome membrane integrity and cryocapacitation are related to cholesterol content of bull spermatozoa

    Srivastava N; Srivastava SK; Ghosh SK; Amit Kumar; Perumal P; Jerome A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cryoinjury prediction of spermatozoa in relation to its cholesterol content at fresh and frozen-thaw stages. Methods: Ejaculates (n=12) were processed for cryopreservation, acrosome integrity (fluorescent and giemsa stains), cryoinjury (distribution of non capacitated, capacitated and acrosome reacted, pattern F, B and AR, respectively of Chlortetracycline, CTC assay), in vitro fertiltiy (IVF) and cholesterol content of spermatozoa at fresh, pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages were evaluated. Values were fitted in prediction equation to predict acrosome integrity (AI) and cryoinjury. Results: Study indicated that cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict cholesterol content of spermatozoa at pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages of cryopreservation protocol with medium to high level of accuracy (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict AI, pattern B and AR and Penetration Index (PI) of IVF with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05) at frozen-thaw but not at pre-freeze stage. Similarly cholesterol content of frozen-thaw spermatozoa can be used to predict AI and pattern AR of frozen-thaw spermatozoa with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed strong evidence that cholesterol content of fresh as well as frozen-thaw bull spermatozoa can be a good predictor of level of cryoinjury following preservation at ultra low temperature.

  12. Molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in hepatocytes: a comparative study with Iovastatin

    Zuo-quan XIE; Gai LIANG; Lu ZHANG; Qi WANG; Yi QU; Yang GAO; Li-bo LIN; Sai YE; Ji ZHANG; Hui WANG; Guo-ping ZHAO; Qing-hua ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). Methods: Enzyme activity, cholesterol flux and changes in gene expression levels were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with GBE or Iovastatin. Results: GBE decreased the total cholesterol content in cultured hepatocytes and inhibited the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, as determined by an in vitro enzyme activity assay. In addition, GBE decreased cholesterol influx, whereas Iovastatin increased choles-terol influx. GBE treatment induced significant increases in the expression of cholesterogenic genes and genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, such as SREBF2, as determined by cDNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, INSIG2, LDLR, LRP1, and LRP10 were differentially regulated by GBE and Iovastatin. The data imply that the two compounds modulate cholesterol metabolism through distinct mechanisms. Conclusion: By using a gene expression profiling approach, we were able to broaden the understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which GBE lowers cellular cholesterol levels. Specifically, we demonstrated that GBE exhibited dual effects on the cellular choles-terol pool by modulating both HMG-CoA reductase activity and inhibiting cholesterol influx.

  13. Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    Toppozini, Laura; Meinhardt, Sebastian; Armstrong, Clare L.; Yamani, Zahra; Kučerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2014-11-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano-or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking, and lipid or protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules, we observe raftlike structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to ordering of the cholesterol molecules in the raftlike structures were observed and indexed by two different structures: a monoclinic structure of ordered cholesterol pairs of alternating direction in equilibrium with cholesterol plaques, i.e., triclinic cholesterol bilayers.

  14. Potential of BODIPY-cholesterol for analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells

    Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Röhrl, Clemens;

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is an abundant and important lipid component of cellular membranes. Analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells is hampered by the technical challenge of designing suitable cholesterol probes which can be detected for example by optical microscopy. One strategy is to...... use intrinsically fluorescent sterols, as dehydroergosterol (DHE), having minimal chemical alteration compared to cholesterol but giving low fluorescence signals in the UV region of the spectrum. Alternatively, one can use dye-tagged cholesterol analogs and in particular BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol......), whose synthesis and initial characterization was pioneered by Robert Bittman. Here, we give a general overview of the properties and applications but also limitations of BODIPY-tagged cholesterol probes for analyzing intracellular cholesterol trafficking. We describe our own experiences and...

  15. Intracellular transport of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is defective in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is characterized by substantial intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol. The accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in NPC fibroblasts cultured with low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to result from the inability of LDL to stimulate cholesterol esterification in addition to impaired LDL-mediated downregulation of LDL receptor activity and cellular cholesterol synthesis. Although a defect in cholesterol transport in NPC cells has been inferred from previous studies, no experiments have been reported that measure the intracellular movement of LDL-cholesterol specifically. We have used four approaches to assess intracellular cholesterol transport in normal and NPC cells and have determined the following: (a) mevinolin-inhibited NPC cells are defective in using LDL-cholesterol for growth. However, exogenously added mevalonate restores cell growth equally in normal and NPC cells; (b) the transport of LDL-derived [3H]cholesterol to the plasma membrane is slower in NPC cells, while the rate of appearance of [3H]acetate-derived, endogenously synthesized [3H]cholesterol at the plasma membrane is the same for normal and NPC cells; (c) in NPC cells, LDL-derived [3H]cholesterol accumulates in lysosomes to higher levels than normal, resulting in defective movement to other cell membranes; and (d) incubation of cells with LDL causes an increase in cholesterol content of NPC lysosomes that is threefold greater than that observed in normal lysosomes. Our results indicate that a cholesterol transport defect exists in NPC that is specific for LDL-derived cholesterol

  16. Effects of different fibre sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues of growing pigs.

    Kreuzer, M; Hanneken, H; Wittmann, M; Gerdemann, M M; Machmuller, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge is limited on the efficacy of hindgut-fermentable dietary fibre to reduce blood, bile and body tissue cholesterol levels. In three experiments with growing pigs the effects of different kinds and levels of bacterially fermentable fibre (BFS) on cholesterol metabolism were examined. Various diets calculated to have similar contents of metabolizable energy were supplied for complete fattening periods. In the first experiment, a stepwise increase from 12 to 20% BFS was performed by supplementing diets with fermentable fibre from sugar beet pulp (modelling hemicelluloses and pectin). Beet pulp, rye bran (modelling cellulose) and citrus pulp (pectin) were offered either independently or in a mixture in the second experiment. These diets were opposed to rations characterized in carbohydrate type by starch either mostly non-resistant (cassava) or partly resistant (maize) to small intestinal digestion. The third experiment was planned to explore the interactions of BFS from citrus pulp with fat either through additional coconut oil/palm kernel oil blend or full-fat soybeans. In all experiments the increase of the BFS content was associated with a constant (cellulose) or decreasing (hemicelluloses, pectin) dietary proportion of non-digestible fibre. In experiment 1 an inverse dose-response relationship between BFS content and cholesterol in blood serum and adipose tissue as well as bile acid concentration in bile was noted while muscle cholesterol did not respond. In experiment 2 the ingredients characterized by cellulose and hemicelluloses/pectin reduced cholesterol-related traits relative to the low-BFS-high-starch controls whereas, except in adipose tissue cholesterol content, the pectinous ingredient had the opposite effect. However, the changes in serum cholesterol mainly affected HDL and not LDL cholesterol. Adipose tissue cholesterol also was slightly lower with partly resistant starch compared to non-resistant starch in the diet. Experiment 3 showed that

  17. Aberrant histone H4 acetylation in dead somatic cell-cloned calves

    Lei Zhang; Shaohua Wang; Qiang Li; Xiangdong Ding; Yunping Dai; Ning Li

    2008-01-01

    In somatic cell-cloned animals, inefficient epigenetic reprogramming can result in an inappropriate gene expression and histone H4 acetylation is one of the key epigenetic modifications regulating gene expression. In this study, we investigated the levels of histone H4 acetylation of 11 development-related genes and expression levels of 19 genes in lungs of three normal control calves and nine aber-rant somatic cell-cloned calves. The results showed that nine studied genes had decreased acetylation levels in aberrant clones (p 0.05). Whereas 13 genes had significantly decreased expression (p 0.05), and only one gene had higher expression level in clones (p < 0.05). Furthermore, FGFR, GHR, HGFR and IGF1 genes showed lowered levels of both histone H4 acetylation and expression in aberrant clones than in controls, and the level of histone H4 acetylation was even more lowered in aberrant clones than those in controls. It was suggested that the lower levels of histone H4 acetylation in aberrant clones caused by the previous memory of cell differentiation might not support enough chromatin reprogramming, thus affecting appropriate gene expressions, and growth and development of the cloned calves. To our knowledge, this is the first study on how histone H4 acetylation affects gene expression in organs of somatic cell-cloned calves.

  18. Mast Cells and HDL Studies on Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    Kareinen, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in the arterial intima and consequently the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Formation of these plaques is initiated by the appearance of macrophage foam cell in the arterial intima. Foam cells are formed as excessive cholesterol accumulates in the cytosol of macrophages and finally the net influx exceeds the efflux of cholesterol. Excessive accumulation of chemically modified cholesterol in foam ...

  19. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-af...

  20. Comparative effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) pectin and pectin hydrolyzates on the cholesterol homeostasis of hamsters fed high-cholesterol diets.

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Li, Tuo-Ping; Chen, Gang; Peng, Xue; Duan, Wen-Bin; Zheng, Zheng-Zheng; Shi, Shu-Lei; Xu, Jing-Guo; Liu, Yan-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Yi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of feeding haw pectin (HP), haw pectin hydrolyzates (HPH), and haw pectin pentasaccharide (HPPS) on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters induced by high-cholesterol diets. The animals were fed a standard diet (SD), high-cholesterol diet (HCD), or HCD plus HP, HPH, or HPPS at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight for 4weeks. Results showed that HPPS was more effective than HP and HPH in decreasing the body weight gain (by 38.2%), liver weight (by 16.4%), and plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC; by 23.6% and 27.3%, respectively) of hamsters. In addition, the bile acid levels in the feces were significantly higher by 39.8% and 132.8% in the HPH and HPPS groups than in the HCD group. Such changes were not noted in the HP group. However, the HP group had higher cholesterol excretion capacities than the HPH and HPPS groups by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the diet, with a 21.7% increase in TC excretion and a 31.1% decrease in TC absorption. Thus, HPPS could be a promising anti-atherogenic dietary ingredient for the development of functional food to improve cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26070415

  1. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation. PMID:27282931

  2. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells.

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation. PMID:27282931

  3. Guanosine effect on cholesterol efflux and apolipoprotein E expression in astrocytes.

    Ballerini, Patrizia; Ciccarelli, Renata; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Giuliani, Patricia; Masciulli, Arianna; Nargi, Eleonora; Beraudi, Alina; Rathbone, Michel P; Caciagli, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    The main source of cholesterol in the central nervous system (CNS) is represented by glial cells, mainly astrocytes, which also synthesise and secrete apolipoproteins, in particular apolipoprotein E (ApoE), the major apolipoprotein in the brain, thus generating cholesterol-rich high density lipoproteins (HDLs). This cholesterol trafficking, even though still poorly known, is considered to play a key role in different aspects of neuronal plasticity and in the stabilisation of synaptic transmission. Moreover, cell cholesterol depletion has recently been linked to a reduction in amyloid beta formation. Here we demonstrate that guanosine, which we previously reported to exert several neuroprotective effects, was able to increase cholesterol efflux from astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells in the absence of exogenously added acceptors. In this effect the phosphoinositide 3 kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (PI3K/ERK1/2) pathway seems to play a pivotal role. Guanosine was also able to increase the expression of ApoE in astrocytes, whereas it did not modify the levels of ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1), considered the main cholesterol transporter in the CNS. Given the emerging role of cholesterol balance in neuronal repair, these effects provide evidence for a role of guanosine as a potential pharmacological tool in the modulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. PMID:18404467

  4. The membrane as the gatekeeper of infection: Cholesterol in host-pathogen interaction.

    Kumar, G Aditya; Jafurulla, Md; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-09-01

    The cellular plasma membrane serves as a portal for the entry of intracellular pathogens. An essential step for an intracellular pathogen to gain entry into a host cell therefore is to be able to cross the cell membrane. In this review, we highlight the role of host membrane cholesterol in regulating the entry of intracellular pathogens using insights obtained from work on the interaction of Leishmania and Mycobacterium with host cells. The entry of these pathogens is known to be dependent on host membrane cholesterol. Importantly, pathogen entry is inhibited either upon depletion (or complexation), or enrichment of membrane cholesterol. In other words, an optimum level of host membrane cholesterol is necessary for efficient infection by pathogens. In this overall context, we propose a general mechanism, based on cholesterol-induced conformational changes, involving cholesterol binding sites in host cell surface receptors that are implicated in this process. A therapeutic strategy targeting modulation of membrane cholesterol would have the advantage of avoiding the commonly encountered problem of drug resistance in tackling infection by intracellular pathogens. Insights into the role of host membrane cholesterol in pathogen entry would be instrumental in the development of novel therapeutic strategies to effectively tackle intracellular pathogenesis. PMID:26902688

  5. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  6. From blood to gut : Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol lowering therapies By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body For a long time this removal via

  7. Weak minimum aberration and maximum number of clear two-factor interactions in 2

    YANG; Guijun

    2005-01-01

    [1]Wu, C. F. J., Chen, Y., A graph-aided method for planning two-level experiments when certain interactions are important, Technometrics, 1992, 34: 162-175.[2]Fries, A., Hunter, W, G., Minimum aberration 2к-p designs, Technometrics, 1980, 22: 601-608.[3]Chen, H., Hedayat, A. S., 2n-l designs with weak minimum aberration, Ann. Statist., 1996, 24: 2536-2548.[4]Chen, J., Some results on 2n-к fractional factorial designs and search for minimum aberration designs, Ann.Statist., 1992, 20: 2124-2141.[5]Chen, J., Intelligent search for 213-6 and 214-7 minimum aberration designs, Statist. Sinica, 1998, 8: 1265-1270.[6]Chen, J., Sun, D. X., Wu, C. F. J., A catalogue of two-level and three-level fractional factorial designs with small runs, Internat. Statist. Rev., 1993, 61: 131-145.[7]Chen, J., Wu, C. F. J., Some results on 2n-к fractional factorial designs with minimum aberration or optimal moments, Ann. Statist., 1991, 19: 1028-1041.[8]Cheng, C. S., Mukerjee, R., Regular fractional factorial designs with minimum aberration and maximum estimation capacity, Ann. Statist., 1998, 26: 2289-2300.[9]Cheng, C. S., Steinberg, D. M., Sun, D. X., Minimum aberration and model robustness for two-level fractional factorial designs, J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B, 1999, 61: 85-93.[10]Draper, N. R., Lin, D. K. J., Capacity consideration for two-level fractional factorial designs, J. Statist. Plann.Inference, 1990, 24: 25-35.[11]Fang, K. T., Mukerjee, R., A connection between uniformity and aberration in regular fractions of two-level factorial, Biometrika, 2000, 87: 193-198.[12]Tang, B., Wu, C. F. J., Characterization of minimum aberration 2n-к designs in terms of their complementary designs, Ann. Statist., 1996, 24: 2549-2559.[13]Chen, H., Hedayat, A. S., 2n-m designs with resolution Ⅲ or Ⅳ containing clear two-factor interactions, J.Statist. Plann. Inference, 1998, 75: 147-158.[14]Tang, B., Ma, F., Ingram, D., Wang, H., Bounds on the maximum numbers of clear two factor

  8. Influence of psyllium preparations on plasma and liver lipids of cholesterol-fed rats.

    Kritchevsky, D; Tepper, S A; Klurfeld, D M

    1995-01-01

    Rats were fed a semi purified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 10% fiber (cellulose, pectin, psyllium seed and defatted psyllium husk). One additional group of rats was fed cholesterol (0.5%) as part of a fiber-free diet and another was fed the fiber free diet without cholesterol. Cellulose had virtually no effect on serum or liver lipids. Pectin had a lipid lowering effect. Psyllium seed exerted an effect on total serum cholesterol equal to that of pectin but gave higher levels of HDL-cholesterol. The effects of psyllium seed on liver lipids were more pronounced than those of pectin. Defatted psyllium husk feeding virtually normalized liver size and serum triglyceride levels and produced lower serum total cholesterol levels and higher HDL-cholesterol than observed in normal controls. Defatted psyllium husk feeding also yielded liver lipid values which were in the normal range. Fecal wet and dry weights were significantly higher in rats fed either psyllium preparation. PMID:8833230

  9. Cholesterol at the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Roles of the Sigma-1 Receptor Chaperone and Implications thereof in Human Diseases

    Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial data elucidating the roles of cholesterol in lipid rafts at the plasma membrane, the roles of cholesterol and related lipids in lipid raft microdomains at the level of subcellular membrane, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, remain less understood. Growing evidence, however, begins to unveil the importance of cholesterol and lipids on the lipid raft at the ER membrane. A few ER proteins including the sigma-1 receptor chaperone were identified at lipid raft-li...

  10. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypic...

  11. Protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet

    Constantinides Panayiotis P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to assess the effect of chronic administration of protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS on the plasma cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein (ApoE deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE deficient mice were divided into the following treatment groups: protonated NSAS 1.4% (w/w, untreated control and 2% (w/w stigmastanol mixed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet. Animals were treated for 12 weeks, blood samples were withdrawn every 4 weeks for determination of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the end of the study the aortic roots were harvested for assessment of atherosclerotic lesions. NSAS at 1.4% (w/w and stigmastanol at 2% (w/w treatment groups showed significant decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations at all time points relative to the control animals. The lesion sum area in 1.4% (w/w NSAS and 2% (w/w stigmastanol groups were significantly less from the control animals. In conclusion, in this study, the effectiveness of chronic administration of protonated NSAS material in the reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and decrease in development of atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated in Apo-E deficient mice model.

  12. Cholesterol oxidation products in whole milk powder: analytical, nutritional, processing and toxicological studies

    McCluskey, Sinead

    1997-01-01

    The possibility that consumption of aged whole milk powders containing significant levels of cholesterol oxides may be detrimental to health has stimulated extensive research. In this study, the effects of feeding regimen and processing technology on the oxidative stability of lipids and cholesterol in whole milk powders were evaluated. Animal feeding regimen had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the levels of total protein, true protein, casein protein and whey protein in standardised milk ...

  13. Cost Effectiveness of Treating Low HDL-Cholesterol in the Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

    Joel W. Hay; Kimberly L. Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Background: A low serum level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fibrates, particularly gemfibrozil, have been shown to raise HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce the incidence of CHD. The literature on fibrate cost effectiveness is quite limited. Objective: The objective of this analysis is to determine the cost effectiveness of the fibrates gemfibrozil and fenofibrate in the primary prevention of CHD. The target populat...

  14. Oxidation of cholesterols during irradiation treatment and frozen storage of mechanically separated minced turkey meat

    The effects of various antioxidants were studied to prevent cholesterol oxidation caused by irradiation and storage of mechanically separated turkey meat. The samples were treated with gamma irradiation dosage level of 4 kGy. Measurements were also performed after 4 months storage at-18 deg C with non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The results showed that 4 kGy dose level without addition of antioxidants initiated the oxidation of cholesterol. (author)

  15. Efectos de una intervención educativa sobre los niveles plasmáticos de LDL-colesterol en diabéticos tipo 2 Effects of an educational intervention on plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in type-2 diabetics

    Carlos Enrique Cabrera-Pivaral

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Demostrar las ventajas de una intervención educativa en el control del colesterol de baja densidad (LDL colesterol en el paciente diabético tipo 2. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio cuasi experimental con asignación aleatoria de dos grupos de pacientes diabéticos: un grupo de experimento y un grupo control. El grupo de experimento se integró con 25 diabéticos tipo 2 y el control con 24. La intervención educativa-participativa se organizó mediante el proceso de reflexión-acción. Se efectuaron mediciones de los niveles séricos del LDL colesterol basales y mensuales durante los nueve meses de la intervención educativa. Los grupos fueron controlados tomando en cuenta edad y sexo. El análisis estadístico se efectuó con el estadígrafo de Wilcoxon para variables ordinales y grupos relacionados. Resultados. El grupo que recibe la intervención educativa participativa logra un valor promedio de 148.4+/-21.3, en comparación con el grupo control (185+/-24.1 en la medición posterior del colesterol LDL (p£0.05. Conclusiones. La intervención educativa participativa, mediante la promoción de un nuevo estilo de vida en el paciente diabético del tipo 2, contribuye a mejorar el nivel de control metabólico del LDL colesterol. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To prove the benefit of an educational intervention for controlling LDL cholesterol levels in LDL cholesterol. Material and Methods. A quasi-experimental study was conducted; diabetic patients were randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group consisted of 25 patients and the control group of 24 patients. The educational intervention was organized through a reflection-action process. LDL cholesterol levels were measured at baseline and monthly during the nine months of the study. The groups were controlled for age and sex. Statistical analysis included

  16. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages

    Sapir Bechor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA, which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages.

  17. Zymosan-mediated inflammation impairs in vivo reverse cholesterol transport.

    Malik, Priya; Berisha, Stela Z; Santore, Jennifer; Agatisa-Boyle, Colin; Brubaker, Gregory; Smith, Jonathan D

    2011-05-01

    Inflammation has been proposed to impair HDL function and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated the effects of inflammation mediated by zymosan, a yeast glucan, on multiple steps along the RCT pathway in vivo and ex vivo. Acute inflammation with 70 mg/kg zymosan impaired RCT to plasma, liver, and feces similarly by 17-22% (P < 0.05), with no additional block at the liver. Hepatic gene expression further demonstrated no change in ABCG5, ABCB4, and ABCB11 expression but a decline in ABCG8 mRNA (32% P < 0.05). Plasma from zymosan-treated mice had a 21% decrease in cholesterol acceptor ability (P < 0.01) and a 35% decrease in ABCA1-specific efflux capacity (P < 0.01) in vitro. Zymosan treatment also decreased HDL levels and led to HDL remodeling with increased incorporation of serum amyloid A. In addition, cholesterol efflux from cultured macrophages declined with zymosan treatment in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that zymosan impairs in vivo RCT primarily by decreasing macrophage-derived cholesterol entering the plasma, with minimal additional blocks downstream. Our study supports the notion that RCT impairment is one of the mechanisms for the increased atherosclerotic burden observed in inflammatory conditions. PMID:21335620

  18. Effect of cholesterol supplementation on cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa

    Sunita Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sperm membrane cholesterol influences cryodamage during cryopreservation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying cholesterol levels in Tris based extenders on the freezability of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 ejaculates from two adults healthy sexually healthy Malabari bucks were utilized for the study. The collected and pooled ejaculates were divided into four groups with Group I serving as Control - I, Group II and III were treated with 1 mg and 2 mg of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa, respectively, and Group IV treated with 1 mg methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD served as Control - II. Manual freezing was carried out to cryopreserve the treated and control spermatozoa. Results: Treatment of semen samples with CLC resulted in improved maintenance of sperm motility at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation without affecting hypo-osmotic swelling response. Treatment of semen with 1 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa was observed to be better than treatment with 2 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. In general, MβCD treatment was found to result in significantly lower sperm characteristics than those of Control - I and CLC treatment at pre-feeze and post-thaw stages and when incubated up to 4 h. Conclusion: Cholesterol treatment of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen was found to hold promise for improving cryopreser-vability of spermatozoa.

  19. Effect of Daxx on cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells

    Qin-Hui Tuo; Lei Liang; Bing-Yang Zhu; Xuan Cao; Duan-Fang Liao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of Daxx on cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells. METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed a normal or high fat diet for 6 wk, and serum lipids and Daxx expression of hepatic tissues were measured by immunoblot assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with the pEGFP-C1/Daxx or pEGFP-C1 plasmid. Cells stably transfected with Daxx were identified by RT- PCR analysis. Total cholesterol levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Activated- SREBP and caveolin-1 were assayed by western blotting. RESULTS: Hepatic Daxx protein was higher in normal rats than in high fat diet-fed rats. Noticeable negative correlations were seen between Daxx and LDL-C (7 = -7.56, P = 0.018), and between Daxx and TC (y = -9.07, P = 0.01), respectively. The total cholesterol of HepG2/GFP-Daxx cells was lower than that of control cells or HepG2/GFP cells (9.28 ± 0.19 vs 14.36 ± 4.45 or 13.94 ± 2.62, both P < 0.05). Furthermore, in HepG2/GFP cells, the expression of activated SREBP was lower than that ofcontrol cells, whereas caveolin-1 expression was higher. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of Daxx in HepG2 cells decreased intracellular cholesterol accumulation, which might be associated with inhibition of SREBP activity and an increase in caveolin-1 expression.

  20. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    Sachs, R.K.; Tarver, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics); Yates, B.L.; Morgan, W.F. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G[sub 1] Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author).

  1. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G1 Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author)

  2. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  3. Inherited Cholesterol Disorder Significantly Boosts Heart Risks

    ... leaves her cholesterol untreated, her risk of coronary heart disease death or nonfatal heart attack would be comparable to ... Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cholesterol Heart Diseases--Prevention ... Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us ...

  4. Cholesterol modulates bitter taste receptor function.

    Pydi, Sai Prasad; Jafurulla, Md; Wai, Lisa; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-09-01

    Bitter taste perception in humans is believed to act as a defense mechanism against ingestion of potential toxic substances. Bitter taste is perceived by 25 distinct bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) which belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the overall context of the role of membrane lipids in GPCR function, we show here that T2R4, a representative member of the bitter taste receptor family, displays cholesterol sensitivity in its signaling function. In order to gain further insight into cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4, we mutated two residues Tyr114(3.59) and Lys117(3.62) present in the cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif in T2R4 with alanines. We carried out functional characterization of the mutants by calcium mobilization, followed by cholesterol depletion and replenishment. CRAC motifs in GPCRs have previously been implicated in preferential cholesterol association. Our analysis shows that the CRAC motif represents an intrinsic feature of bitter taste receptors and is conserved in 22 out of 25 human T2Rs. We further demonstrate that Lys117, an important CRAC residue, is crucial in the reported cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4. Interestingly, cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4 was observed at quinine concentrations in the lower mM range. To the best of our knowledge, our results represent the first report addressing the molecular basis of cholesterol sensitivity in the function of taste receptors. PMID:27288892

  5. Development of a combined chemical and enzymatic approach for the mass spectrometric identification and quantification of aberrant N-glycosylation.

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Fangjun; Tan, Yexiong; Sun, Zhen; Song, Chunxia; Ye, Mingliang; Wang, Hongyang; Zou, Hanfa

    2012-02-16

    Direct mass spectrometric analysis of aberrant protein glycosylation is a challenge to the current analytical techniques. Except lectin affinity chromatography, no other glycosylation enrichment techniques are available for analysis of aberrant glycosylation. In this study, we developed a combined chemical and enzymatic strategy as an alternative for the mass spectrometric analysis of aberrant glycosylation. Sialylated glycopeptides were enriched with reverse glycoblotting, cleaved by endoglycosidase F3 and analyzed by mass spectrometry with both neutral loss triggered MS(3) in collision induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Interestingly, a great part of resulted glycopeptides were found with fucose attached to the N-acetylglucosamine (N-GlcNAc), which indicated that the aberrant glycosylation that is carrying both terminal sialylation and core fucosylation was identified. Totally, 69 aberrant N-glycosylation sites were identified in sera samples from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Following the identification, quantification of the level of this aberrant glycosylation was also carried out using stable isotope dimethyl labeling and pooled sera sample from liver cirrhosis and HCC was compared. Six glycosylation sites demonstrated elevated level of aberrancy, which demonstrated that our developed strategy was effective in both qualitative and quantitative studies of aberrant glycosylation. PMID:22202184

  6. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Frewert, Simon [Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken (Germany); Efferth, Thomas, E-mail: efferth@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation.

  7. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation

  8. Biliary cholesterol excretion: A novel mechanism that regulates dietary cholesterol absorption

    Sehayek, Ephraim; Ono, Jennie G.; Shefer, Sarah; Nguyen, Lien B.; Wang, Nan; Batta, Ashok K.; Salen, Gerald; Smith, Jonathan D.; Tall, Alan R.; Breslow, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of dietary cholesterol absorption was examined in C57BL/6 and transgenic mice with liver overexpression of the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI Tg). In C57BL/6 animals, feeding 0.02 to 1% (wt/wt) dietary cholesterol resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the percentage of dietary cholesterol absorbed. A plot of total daily mass of dietary cholesterol absorbed versus the percentage by weight of cholesterol in the diet yielded a curve suggesting a saturable process with a Km of 0.4...

  9. Estimation of dose from chromosome aberration rate

    The methods and skills of evaluating dose from correctly scored shromsome aberration rate are presented, and supplemented with corresponding BASIC computer code. The possibility and preventive measures of excessive probability of missing score of the aberrations in some of the current routine score methods are discussed. The use of dose-effect relationship with exposure time correction factor G in evaluating doses and their confidence intervals, dose estimation in mixed n-γ exposure, and identification of high by nonuniform acute exposure to low LET radiation and its dose estimation are discussed in more detail. The difference of estimated dose due to whether the interaction between subleisoms produced by n and γ have been taken into account is examined. In fitting the standard dose-aberration rate curve, proper weighing of experiment points and comparison with commonly accepted values are emphasised, and the coefficient of variation σy√y of the aberration rate y as a function of dose and exposure time is given. In appendix I and II, the dose-aberration rate formula is derived from dual action theory, and the time variation of subleisom is illustrated and in appendix III, the estimation of dose from scores of two different types of aberrations (of other related score) is illustrated. Two computer codes are given in appendix IV, one is a simple code, the other a complete code, including the fitting of standard curve. the skills of using compressed data storage, and the production of simulated 'data ' for testing the curve fitting procedure are also given

  10. The Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    Toppozini, Laura; Armstrong, Clare L; Yamani, Zahra; Kucerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstaedter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking and lipid/protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short-lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules we observe raft-like structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to orderin...

  11. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.;

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers in a...... monoclinic cholesterol . H2O phase, has been monitored and their structures characterized to near atomic resolution. Crystallographic evidence is presented that this multilayer phase is similar to that of a reported metastable cholesterol phase of undetermined structure obtained from bile before...... transformation to the triclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O, the thermodynamically stable macroscopic form. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements and crystallographic data, a transformation from the monoclinic film structure to a multilayer of the stable monohydrate phase involves, at...

  12. Impact of SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation and dietary cholesterol on hepatic lipid accumulation.

    Klipsic, Devon; Landrock, Danilo; Martin, Gregory G; McIntosh, Avery L; Landrock, Kerstin K; Mackie, John T; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2015-09-01

    While a high-cholesterol diet induces hepatic steatosis, the role of intracellular sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) proteins is unknown. We hypothesized that ablating SCP-2/SCP-x [double knockout (DKO)] would impact hepatic lipids (cholesterol and cholesteryl ester), especially in high-cholesterol-fed mice. DKO did not alter food consumption, and body weight (BW) gain decreased especially in females, concomitant with hepatic steatosis in females and less so in males. DKO-induced steatosis in control-fed wild-type (WT) mice was associated with 1) loss of SCP-2; 2) upregulation of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP); 3) increased mRNA and/or protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP1 and SREBP2) as well as increased expression of target genes of cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcs1 and Hmgcr) and fatty acid synthesis (Acc1 and Fas); and 4) cholesteryl ester accumulation was also associated with increased acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) in males. DKO exacerbated the high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic cholesterol and glyceride accumulation, without further increasing SREBP1, SREBP2, or target genes. This exacerbation was associated both with loss of SCP-2 and concomitant downregulation of Ceh/Hsl, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), MTP, and/or L-FABP protein expression. DKO diminished the ability to secrete excess cholesterol into bile and oxidize cholesterol to bile acid for biliary excretion, especially in females. This suggested that SCP-2/SCP-x affects cholesterol transport to particular intracellular compartments, with ablation resulting in less to the endoplasmic reticulum for SREBP regulation, making more available for cholesteryl ester synthesis, for cholesteryl-ester storage in lipid droplets, and for bile salt synthesis and/or secretion. These alterations are significant findings, since they affect key processes in regulation of sterol metabolism. PMID:26113298

  13. Mechanism of the hepatic lipase induced accumulation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by cells in culture

    Bamberger, M.; Lund-Katz, S.; Phillips, M.C.; Rothblat, G.H.

    1985-07-02

    Hepatic lipase can enhance the delivery of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to cells by a process which does not involve apoprotein catabolism. The incorporation of HDL-free (unesterified) cholesterol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester by cells has been compared to establish the mechanism of this delivery process. Human HDL was reconstituted with /sup 3/H-free cholesterol and (/sup 14/C)sphingomyelin, treated with hepatic lipase in the presence of albumin to remove the products of lipolysis, reisolated, and then incubated with cultured rat hepatoma cells. Relative to control HDL, modification of HDL with hepatic lipase stimulated both the amount of HDL-free cholesterol taken up by the cell and the esterification of HDL-free cholesterol but did not affect the delivery of sphingomyelin. Experiments utilizing HDL reconstituted with /sup 14/C-free cholesterol and (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl oleoyl ether suggest that hepatic lipase enhances the incorporation of HDL-esterified cholesterol. However, the amount of free cholesterol delivered as a result of treatment with hepatic lipase was 4-fold that of esterified cholesterol. On the basis of HDL composition, the cellular incorporation of free cholesterol was about 10 times that which would occur by the uptake and degradation of intact particles. The preferential incorporation of HDL-free cholesterol did not require the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine. To correlate the events observed at the cellular level with alterations in lipoprotein structure, high-resolution, proton-decoupled /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (90.55 MHz) was performed on HDL3 in which the cholesterol molecules were replaced with (4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol by particle reconstitution.

  14. Mechanism of the hepatic lipase induced accumulation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by cells in culture

    Hepatic lipase can enhance the delivery of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to cells by a process which does not involve apoprotein catabolism. The incorporation of HDL-free (unesterified) cholesterol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester by cells has been compared to establish the mechanism of this delivery process. Human HDL was reconstituted with 3H-free cholesterol and [14C]sphingomyelin, treated with hepatic lipase in the presence of albumin to remove the products of lipolysis, reisolated, and then incubated with cultured rat hepatoma cells. Relative to control HDL, modification of HDL with hepatic lipase stimulated both the amount of HDL-free cholesterol taken up by the cell and the esterification of HDL-free cholesterol but did not affect the delivery of sphingomyelin. Experiments utilizing HDL reconstituted with 14C-free cholesterol and [3H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether suggest that hepatic lipase enhances the incorporation of HDL-esterified cholesterol. However, the amount of free cholesterol delivered as a result of treatment with hepatic lipase was 4-fold that of esterified cholesterol. On the basis of HDL composition, the cellular incorporation of free cholesterol was about 10 times that which would occur by the uptake and degradation of intact particles. The preferential incorporation of HDL-free cholesterol did not require the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine. To correlate the events observed at the cellular level with alterations in lipoprotein structure, high-resolution, proton-decoupled 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (90.55 MHz) was performed on HDL3 in which the cholesterol molecules were replaced with [4-13C]cholesterol by particle reconstitution

  15. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and b

  16. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC

    Garbarino, J.; Pan, M. H.; Chin, H. F.;

    2012-01-01

    small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT...... receptor (LDLR) levels were increased and decreased, respectively. We also observed a decrease in NPC1 protein expression, suggesting the induction of compensatory pathways to maintain cholesterol balance. These data indicate a role for STARD4 in nonvesicular transport of cholesterol from the plasma...... membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment to the endoplasmic reticulum and perhaps other intracellular compartments as well. -Garbarino, J., M. Pan, H.F. Chin, F.W. Lund, F.R. Maxfield, and J.L. Breslow. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma...

  17. Characteristics associated with compliance to cholesterol lowering eating patterns.

    Caggiula, A W; Watson, J E

    1992-02-01

    The achievement of high levels of adherence is the most important objective of nutrition intervention programs. In order to determine characteristics which were most highly related to adherence to a cholesterol lowering eating pattern, a group of 264 men were sampled. Participants had been enrolled for six years in a multi-risk reduction program for cardiovascular disease which included dietary intervention for blood cholesterol. They were asked to respond to 35 statements, each of which was designed to reflect one of seven characteristics: perception of threat of disease, cost-benefit of therapy, quality of care, social support, external environmental media, and internal as well as external health locus of control. There were seven possible responses to each statement, from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Using a reduced rank regression analysis the numerical answers to the items were treated as a set of predictors for the criterion measure, the food record rating (FRR) score which reflected compliance to a cholesterol lowering eating pattern. Overall the seven characteristics accounted for almost half of the variance in the FRR score (multiple R = 0.48). The most highly related characteristics were cost-benefit, quality of care and external environmental media. These results are highly consistent with those obtained in another population, and indicate the importance of minimizing the cost and increasing the benefits of cholesterol lowering programs by providing high quality treatment programs which emphasize tailoring the regimen to the individual. These results also support the importance of public information efforts such as the National Cholesterol Education Program. PMID:1298947

  18. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Accessibility in Membranes

    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata A.; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes mo...

  19. Adaptive optics full-field OCT: a resolution almost insensitive to aberrations (Conference Presentation)

    Xiao, Peng; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2016-03-01

    A Full-Field OCT (FFOCT) setup coupled to a compact transmissive liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) is used to induce or correct aberrations and simulate eye examinations. To reduce the system complexity, strict pupil conjugation was abandoned. During our work on quantifying the effect of geometrical aberrations on FFOCT images, we found that the image resolution is almost insensitive to aberrations. Indeed if the object channel PSF is distorted, its interference with the reference channel conserves the main feature of an unperturbed PSF with only a reduction of the signal level. This unique behavior is specific to the use of a spatially incoherent illumination. Based on this, the FFOCT image intensity was used as the metric for our wavefront sensorless correction. Aberration correction was first conducted on an USAF resolution target with the LSCLM as both aberration generator and corrector. A random aberration mask was induced, and the low-order Zernike Modes were corrected sequentially according to the intensity metric function optimization. A Ficus leaf and a fixed mouse brain tissue slice were also imaged to demonstrate the correction of sample self-induced wavefront distortions. After optimization, more structured information appears for the leaf imaging. And the high-signal fiber-like myelin fiber structures were resolved much more clearly after the whole correction process for mouse brain imaging. Our experiment shows the potential of this compact AO-FFOCT system for aberration correction imaging. This preliminary approach that simulates eyes aberrations correction also opens the path to a simple implementation of FFOCT adaptive optics for retinal examinations.

  20. Breast tumor copy number aberration phenotypes and genomic instability

    Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumors, although the underlying causes of chromosomal instability in tumors remain obscure. Genes likely to have genomic instability phenotypes when mutated (e.g. those involved in mitosis, replication, repair, and telomeres) are rarely mutated in chromosomally unstable sporadic tumors, even though such mutations are associated with some heritable cancer prone syndromes. We applied array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to the analysis of breast tumors. The variation in the levels of genomic instability amongst tumors prompted us to investigate whether alterations in processes/genes involved in maintenance and/or manipulation of the genome were associated with particular types of genomic instability. We discriminated three breast tumor subtypes based on genomic DNA copy number alterations. The subtypes varied with respect to level of genomic instability. We find that shorter telomeres and altered telomere related gene expression are associated with amplification, implicating telomere attrition as a promoter of this type of aberration in breast cancer. On the other hand, the numbers of chromosomal alterations, particularly low level changes, are associated with altered expression of genes in other functional classes (mitosis, cell cycle, DNA replication and repair). Further, although loss of function instability phenotypes have been demonstrated for many of the genes in model systems, we observed enhanced expression of most genes in tumors, indicating that over expression, rather than deficiency underlies instability. Many of the genes associated with higher frequency of copy number aberrations are direct targets of E2F, supporting the hypothesis that deregulation of the Rb pathway is a major contributor to chromosomal instability in breast tumors. These observations are consistent with failure to find mutations in sporadic tumors in genes that have roles in maintenance or manipulation of the genome

  1. The effects of the extracts from Carthamus tinctorius L. on gene expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats

    Teerakul Arpornsuwan*1, 1, 2 and 3

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower is in Thailand traditionally used for a herbal tea for health to reduce cholesteroland prevent atherosclerosis. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the crude extracts from safflower oncholesterol metabolism in high cholesterol fed rats. The crude extract was fractionated in hexane, dichloromethane, andmethanol. To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect, the safflower extracts were daily fed to normal and hyperlipidemic ratsinduced by 2%-cholesterol diet (W/W supplementation, at dose of 250 mg/kg body wt. During the 4-week study, bodyweight, food intake, organ weight, and plasma cholesterol levels were evaluated. Animals treated with 2%-cholesterol dietand dichloromethane fraction for a week exhibited decreased body weight. After treatment for 14 and 30 days, a significantreduction in total cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol and a significant induction in HDL-cholesterol wereobserved in the hypercholesterolemic rats treated with the dichloromethane extract. Higher expression of SRBI and ABCA1in the liver of the control group was observed after 4 weeks whereas no significant difference in the expression level of SRBIand ABCA1 was found in groups treated with extract after 2 and 4 weeks. The results of this study suggested that thedichloromethane extract can reduce the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol of hyperlipidemic rats. The expression of SRBIand ABCA1 mRNA may not be regulated by the crude extract of safflower, which may not in part explain the decrease inHDL-cholesterol and gene encoding enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

  2. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    Hawkes, P.W., E-mail: peter.hawkes@cemes.fr

    2015-09-15

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies.

  3. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation

  4. Prenatal hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels

    Lenz, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    With routine use of obstetric ultrasonography, fetal low-grade hydronephrosis is commonly detected, but may resolve spontaneously after birth. Two cases are presented to illustrate that in some cases such findings can express intermittent hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels. Renal det...

  5. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies

  6. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  7. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  8. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation

  9. Spatially incoherent illumination interferometry: a PSF almost insensitive to aberrations

    Xiao, Peng; Boccara, A Claude

    2016-01-01

    We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function width of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations that mostly induce a reduction of the signal level without broadening. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis, numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such result has been demonstrated.

  10. Harmonic imaging with fresnel beamforming in the presence of phase aberration.

    Nguyen, Man Minh; Shin, Junseob; Yen, Jesse

    2014-10-01

    Fresnel beamforming is a beamforming method with a delay profile similar in shape to a physical Fresnel lens. The advantage of Fresnel beamforming is the reduced channel count, which consists of four to eight transmit and two analog-to-digital receive channels. Fresnel beamforming was found to perform comparably to conventional delay-and-sum beamforming. However, the performance of Fresnel beamforming is highly dependent on focal errors. These focal errors result in high side-lobe levels and further reduce the performance of Fresnel beamforming in the presence of phase aberration. With the advantages of lower side-lobe levels and suppression of aberration effects, harmonic imaging offers an effective solution to the limitations of Fresnel beamforming. We describe the implementation of tissue harmonic imaging and pulse inversion harmonic imaging in Fresnel beamforming, followed by dual apodization with cross-correlation, to improve image quality. Compared with conventional delay-and-sum beamforming, experimental results indicated contrast-to-noise ratio improvements of 10%, 49% and 264% for Fresnel beamforming using tissue harmonic imaging in the cases of no aberrator, 5-mm pork aberrator and 12-mm pork aberrator, respectively. These improvements were 22%, 57% and 352% for Fresnel beamforming using pulse inversion harmonic imaging. Moreover, dual apodization with cross-correlation was found to further improve the contrast-to-noise ratios in all cases. Harmonic imaging was also found to narrow the lateral beamwidth and shorten the axial pulse length by at least 25% and 21%, respectively, for Fresnel beamforming at different aberration levels. These results suggest the effectiveness of harmonic imaging in improving image quality for Fresnel beamforming, especially in the presence of phase aberration. Even though this combination of Fresnel beamforming and harmonic imaging does not outperform delay-and-sum beamforming combined with harmonic imaging, it provides the

  11. Niemann Pick type C cells show cholesterol dependent decrease of APP expression at the cell surface its increased processing through the ?-secretase pathway

    Malnar, Martina; KOŠIČEK, MARKO; Mitterreiter, Stefan; Omerbašić, Damir; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Goate, Alison; Hećimović, Silva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The link between cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease has recently been revealed in Niemann Pick type C disease. We found that NPC1-/- cells show decreased expression of APP at the cell surface and increased processing of APP through the ?-secretase pathway resulting in increased C99, sAPP? and intracellular A?40 levels. This effect is dependent on increased cholesterol levels, since cholesterol depletion reversed cell surface APP expression and lowered A?/C99 levels in NPC...

  12. Perturbed cholesterol homeostasis in aging spinal cord.

    Parkinson, Gemma M; Dayas, Christopher V; Smith, Doug W

    2016-09-01

    The spinal cord is vital for the processing of sensorimotor information and for its propagation to and from both the brain and the periphery. Spinal cord function is affected by aging, however, the mechanisms involved are not well-understood. To characterize molecular mechanisms of spinal cord aging, microarray analyses of gene expression were performed on cervical spinal cords of aging rats. Of the metabolic and signaling pathways affected, cholesterol-associated pathways were the most comprehensively altered, including significant downregulation of cholesterol synthesis-related genes and upregulation of cholesterol transport and metabolism genes. Paradoxically, a significant increase in total cholesterol content was observed-likely associated with cholesterol ester accumulation. To investigate potential mechanisms for the perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, we quantified the expression of myelin and neuroinflammation-associated genes and proteins. Although there was minimal change in myelin-related expression, there was an increase in phagocytic microglial and astrogliosis markers, particularly in the white matter. Together, these results suggest that perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, possibly as a result of increased inflammatory activation in spinal cord white matter, may contribute to impaired spinal cord function with aging. PMID:27459933

  13. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  14. Effect of dietary vegetable (water convolvulus) on cholesterol metabolism in rats

    Male rats were fed diets containing 0.5% cholesterol with or without vegetable (water convolvulus) or neutral detergent fiber supplementation. After 2 weeks, rats were given [4-14C]cholesterol i.p. Feces were collected for 1 week. Three hours prior to necropsy, [3H]acetate was administered i.p. Samples of serum, liver, adipose tissue, muscle and brain were obtained for analysis. Concentrations of total lipids and cholesterol and synthesis and recovery of labeled steroids are reported. Results showed that the growth of animals and food utilization were not significantly affected by different dietary treatments. The notable effect of vegetable was that the elevated liver and serum cholesterol levels due to increased intake can be nearly offset by increasing the fecal excretion. The high rate of excretion of 14C-labeled steroids shown in vegetable-fed rats indicated that both decreased absorption and increased endogenous excretion occurred in these animals. The synthesis of total lipids as demonstrated by [3H]acetate incorporation was not affected appreciably by diet. In liver, however, cholesterol synthesis appeared to be lower in rats receiving cholesterol-supplemented diet, but higher in rats fed vegetable diets. The ratio of 3H:14C of liver cholesterol was significantly higher in rats fed the vegetable diet. In brain cholesterol we also found consistently high 3H:14C ratios, which were not affected by dietary intake. It appears that brain cholesterol level is maintained mainly by synthesis in situ and not by uptake from dietary or other sources

  15. A physiologically-based kinetic model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in the mouse.

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2011-05-01

    The LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are determined by the activity of a complex network of reactions in several organs. Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) computational models can be used to describe these different reactions in an integrated, quantitative manner. A PBK model to predict plasma cholesterol levels in the mouse was developed, validated, and analyzed. Kinetic parameters required for defining the model were obtained using data from published experiments. To construct the model, a set of appropriate submodels was selected from a set of 65,536 submodels differing in the kinetic expressions of the reactions. A submodel was considered appropriate if it had the ability to correctly predict an increased or decreased plasma cholesterol level for a training set of 5 knockout mouse strains. The model thus defined consisted of 8 appropriate submodels and was validated using data from an independent set of 9 knockout mouse strains. The model prediction is the average prediction of 8 appropriate submodels. Remarkably, these submodels had in common that the rate of cholesterol transport from the liver to HDL was not dependent on hepatic cholesterol concentrations. The model appeared able to accurately predict in a quantitative way the plasma cholesterol concentrations of all 14 knockout strains considered, including the frequently used Ldlr-/- and Apoe-/- mouse strains. The model presented is a useful tool to predict the effect of knocking out genes that act in important steps in cholesterol metabolism on total plasma cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C in the mouse. PMID:21320632

  16. 2-heptyl-formononetin increases cholesterol and induces hepatic steatosis in mice

    Andersen, Charlotte; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Tortzen, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F), on lipid and cholesterol metabolism...... level of total cholesterol. Supplementation with formononetin did not affect plasma cholesterol but increased plasma triglycerides levels. Supplementation with formononetin and C7F induced hepatic steatosis. However, formononetin decreased markers of inflammation and liver injury. The development of...... hepatic steatosis was associated with deregulated expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In conclusion, supplementation with formononetin and C7F to a cholesterol-enriched diet adversely affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6J mice....

  17. Mitotic spindle defects and chromosome mis-segregation induced by LDL/cholesterol-implications for Niemann-Pick C1, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis.

    Antoneta Granic

    consumption reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis or AD. These results suggest a novel, cell cycle mechanism by which aberrant cholesterol homeostasis promotes neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis by disrupting chromosome segregation and potentially other aspects of microtubule physiology.

  18. Diet serum cholesterol and coronary diseases

    Narindar Nath

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available The probable sequence of events leading to atherosclerotic disease of the coronary artery and heart attack are briefly described. Blood cholesterol as a casual agent in atherosclerosis and how blood cholesterol can be modified are discussed. The effects of various dietary components particularly quality and quantity of fat and protein on the blood cholesterol concentration are discussed and it is emphasized that more work needs to be done to ascertain the role of individual components of the diet and their relative importance in atherogenesis.

  19. The role of cholesterol in membrane fusion.

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kreutzberger, Alex J B; Lee, Jinwoo; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol modulates the bilayer structure of biological membranes in multiple ways. It changes the fluidity, thickness, compressibility, water penetration and intrinsic curvature of lipid bilayers. In multi-component lipid mixtures, cholesterol induces phase separations, partitions selectively between different coexisting lipid phases, and causes integral membrane proteins to respond by changing conformation or redistribution in the membrane. But, which of these often overlapping properties are important for membrane fusion?-Here we review a range of recent experiments that elucidate the multiple roles that cholesterol plays in SNARE-mediated and viral envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion. PMID:27179407

  20. Frequency of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Types of Cells After Proton and Fe Ion Irradiation

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    DNA damages induced by space radiation, consisting of protons and high-LET charged particles, can be complex in nature, which are often left unrepaired and cause chromosomal aberrations. Increased level of genomic instability is attributed to tumorigenesis and increased cancer risks. To investigate genomic instability induced by charged particles, human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblasts, and human mammary epithelial cells, as well as mouse bone marrow stem cells isolated from CBA/CaH and C57BL/6 strains were exposed to high energy protons and Fe ions. Metaphase chromosome spreads at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and, chromosome aberrations were analyzed with fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome-specific probes for human cells. With proton irradiation, levels of chromosome aberrations decreased by about 50% in both lymphocytes and epithelial cells after multiple cell divisions, compared to initial chromosome aberrations at 48 hours post irradiation in both cell types. With Fe ion irradiation, however, the frequency of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes after multiple cell divisions was significantly lower than that in epithelial cells at comparable cell divisions, while their initial chromosome aberrations were at similar levels. Similar to the human cells, after Fe ion irradiation, the frequency of late chromosome aberrations was similar to that of the early damages for radio-sensitive CBA cells, but different for radio-resistant C57 cells. Our results suggest that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values are dependent not only on radiation sources, but also on cell types and cell divisions.