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Sample records for aberdeen angus-sired beef

  1. Hydrogen and methane emissions from beef cattle and their rumen microbial community vary with diet, time after feeding and genotype.

    Rooke, John A; Wallace, R John; Duthie, Carol-Anne; McKain, Nest; de Souza, Shirley Motta; Hyslop, Jimmy J; Ross, David W; Waterhouse, Tony; Roehe, Rainer

    2014-08-14

    The aims of the present study were to quantify hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) emissions from beef cattle under different dietary conditions and to assess how cattle genotype and rumen microbial community affected these emissions. A total of thirty-six Aberdeen Angus-sired (AAx) and thirty-six Limousin-sired (LIMx) steers were fed two diets with forage:concentrate ratios (DM basis) of either 8:92 (concentrate) or 52:48 (mixed). Each diet was fed to eighteen animals of each genotype. Methane (CH4) and H2 emissions were measured individually in indirect respiration chambers. H2 emissions (mmol/min) varied greatly throughout the day, being highest after feed consumption, and averaged about 0·10 mol H2/mol CH4. Higher H2 emissions (mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet. Higher CH4 emissions (mol/d and mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet (Pbeef cattle. PMID:24780126

  2. Effect of residual feed intake on hypothalamic gene expression and meat quality in Angus-sired cattle grown during the hot season.

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Marvin, M N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between heat stress, meat quality, and residual feed intake (RFI) is unknown in growing steers. To address this issue, high RFI (HRFI) and low RFI (LRFI) individuals were compared by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70-d feeding trial conducted during July through September to identify steers with calculated RFI at least 2 SD apart. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded every 14 d. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI and HRFI) as the independent variable. The least square means for RFI were -1.2 and 0.99 kg DMI/d, respectively, for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P grade (P meat quality. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related protein (AGRP), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 3 receptor, and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) mRNA were expressed 280, 185, 202, 183, and 163% greater, respectively (P < 0.01), while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was expressed 42% lower in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.05). Hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was 67% lower while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) mRNA was 209% higher in LRFI than HRFI animals (P < 0.01). Pituitary expression of FSHβ and LHβ correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels (P < 0.05) indicating changes in gene expression within the hypothalamus had functional consequences. Leptin mRNA expression levels were not different between adipose tissue of LRFI or HRFI steers (P < 0.84). These data indicate that animals with superior RFI evaluated during warm conditions have higher expression of orexigenic neuropeptide genes independent of the expression of adipose-derived leptin. Furthermore, the gonadotropin axis may

  3. Residual feed intake studies in Angus-sired cattle reveal a potential role for hypothalamic gene expression in regulating feed efficiency.

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, 2 divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70 d feeding trial to identify steers with divergent RFI. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded at 14 d intervals. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI, HRFI) as the independent variable. The least-square means (lsmeans) for RFI were -1.25 and 1.51 for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P grade (P meat quality. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and GnRH mRNA expression was 64%, 59%, 58%, 86% lower (P < 0.05), respectively, while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression was 198% and 350% higher (P < 0.01) in the arcuate nucleus of LRFI steers. Expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), and melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA was similar between LRFI and HRFI animals. Pituitary expression of FSHβ (P < 0.03) and LHβ (P < 0.01) was correlated to hypothalamic GnRH levels suggesting that changes in gene expression within the arcuate nucleus had functional consequences. Leptin mRNA expression was 245% higher in the adipose tissue of LRFI steers consistent with lower levels of NPY and higher expression of POMC in their hypothalami. These data support the hypothesis that differences in hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression underlie variation in feed

  4. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  5. The effects of breed and level of nutrition on whole-body and muscle protein metabolism in pure-bred Aberdeen angus and Charolais beef steers.

    Lobley, G E; Sinclair, K D; Grant, C M; Miller, L; Mantle, D; Calder, A G; Warkup, C C; Maltin, C A

    2000-09-01

    Eighteen pure-bred steers (live weight 350 kg) from each of two breeds, Aberdeen Angus (AA) and Charolais (CH), were split into three equal groups (six animals each) and offered three planes of nutrition during a 20-week period. The same ration formulation was offered to all animals with amounts adjusted at 3-week intervals to give predicted average weight gains of either 1.0 kg/d (M/M group) or 1.4 kg/d (H/H group). The remaining group (M/H) were offered the same amount of ration as the M/M group until 10 weeks before slaughter when the ration was increased to H. Data on animal performance, carcass characteristics and fibre-type composition in skeletal muscle are presented elsewhere (Maltin et al. 2000; Sinclair et al. 2000). On three occasions (17, 10 and 2 weeks before slaughter) the animals were transferred to metabolism stalls for 1 week, during which total urine collection for quantification of Ntau-methylhistidine (Ntau-MeH) elimination was performed for 4 d. On the last day, animals were infused for 11 h with [2H5]phenylalanine with frequent blood sampling (to allow determination of whole-body phenylalanine flux) followed by biopsies from m. longissimus lumborum and m. vastus lateralis to determine the fractional synthesis rate of mixed muscle protein. For both breeds, the absolute amount of Ntau-MeH eliminated increased with animal age or weight (P meat eating quality (Sinclair et al. 2000). PMID:10967606

  6. Organic Beef Production - Sire Breed Comparison

    Fallon, Richard; Leavy, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The results to date, from this sire breed comparison study indicate that with the contrasting Aberdeen Angus and Charolais sire breeds that is possible to achieve animal performance data comparable to well managed conventional suckler calf to beef systems (300 kg carcass for heifers in Nov and 400 kg carcass for steers in March). Similarly the responses to sire breed type, sex and date of slaughter for the organic beef animals are biologically compatible. Organic beef is produced under organi...

  7. Polymorphisms in calpastatin and mu-calpain genes are associated with beef iron content.

    Casas, E; Duan, Q; Schneider, M J; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Reecy, J M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of markers in the calpastatin and mu-calpain loci with iron in beef cattle muscle. The population consisted of 259 cross-bred steers from Beefmaster, Brangus, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford and Angus sires. Total iron and heme iron concentrations were measured. Markers in the calpastatin (referred to as CAST) and mu-calpain (referred to as CAPN4751) genes were used to assess their association with iron levels. The mean and standard error for iron and heme iron content in the population was 35.6 ± 1.3 μg and 27.1 ± 1.4 μg respectively. Significant associations (P < 0.01) of markers were observed for both iron and heme iron content. For CAST, animals with the CC genotype had higher levels of iron and heme iron in longissimus dorsi muscle. For CAPN4751, individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of iron and heme iron than did animals with the CC and CT genotypes. Genotypes known to be associated with tougher meat were associated with higher levels of iron concentration. PMID:24303986

  8. Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers

    Vasconcellos Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

  9. Effects of supplemental zinc concentration and source on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum values in finishing beef steers.

    Malcolm-Callis, K J; Duff, G C; Gunter, S A; Kegley, E B; Vermeire, D A

    2000-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine the effects of zinc concentration or source in diets of finishing beef steers. In Exp. 1, 108 (British x Continental) beef steers were supplemented with concentrations of added zinc (as ZnSO4) at 20, 100, or 200 mg/kg of dietary DM. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted among treatments for ADG or gain:feed for the 112-d finishing period. However, a linear (P 0.10) were noted in hot carcass weight; dressing percentage; longissimus muscle area; percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat; or marbling score. There were, however, quadratic increases in s.c. fat thickness (P 0.10) were observed in cholesterol or fatty acids among the supplemental zinc levels. In Exp. 3, 84 Brangus- and Angus-sired steers were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing 30 mg of supplemental zinc per kilogram of dietary DM from one of the following sources: 1) ZnSO4, 2) Zn amino acid complex, or 3) a zinc polysaccharide complex. No differences (P > 0.10) were noted for the overall 126-d trial for ADG, DMI, or gain:feed ratio. Percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was increased (P 0.10) among zinc sources. Supplemental zinc concentration in finishing diets did not seem to influence feedlot performance and had a minimal impact on carcass quality. Either the organic or inorganic source can be included in finishing diets without affecting feedlot performance. PMID:11063302

  10. The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System.

    Kulkarni, V; Hutchison, J M; Mallard, J R

    1989-01-01

    The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System is designed to reconstruct 2 dimensional images of the average distribution of the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance within a 3 dimensional region. The system uses the four electrode technique in a 16 electrode split-array. The system hardware consists of task-orientated electronic modules for: driving a constant current, multiplexing the current drive, demultiplexing peripheral voltages, differential amplification, phase sensitive detection and low-pass filtration, digitisation with a 14 bit analog to digital converter (ADC), and -control logic for the ADC and multiplexors. A BBC microprocessor (Master series), initiates a controlled sequence for the collection of a number of data sets which are averaged and stored on disk. Image reconstruction is by a process of convolution-backprojection similar to the fan-beam reconstruction of computerised tomography and is also known as Equipotential Backprojection. In imaging impedance changes associated with fracture healing the changes may be large enough to allow retrieval of both the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance. Sequential imaging of these changes would necessitate monitoring electronic and electrode drift by imaging an equivalent region of the contralateral limb. Differential images could be retrieved when the image of the normal limb is the image template. Better characterisation of tissues would necessitate a cleaner retrieval of the quadrature signal. PMID:2742979

  11. Clean-ups at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    The Department of Defense has utilized radiative material in numerous applications over several decades. Aberdeen Proving Ground has been an integral player in the Army's Research, Development, and Testing of items incorporating radionuclides, as well as developing new and innovative applications. As new information becomes available and society progresses, we find that the best management practices used decades, or even sometimes years earlier are inadequate to meet the current demands. Aberdeen Proving Ground is committed to remediating historic disposal sites, and utilizing the best available technology in current operations to prevent future adverse impact. Two projects which are currently ongoing at Aberdeen Proving Ground illustrates these points. The first, the remediation of contaminated metal storage areas, depicts how available technology has provided a means for recycling material whereby preventing the continued stock piling, and allowing for the decommissioning of the areas. The second, the 26Th Street Disposal Site Removal Action, shows how historic methods of disposition were inadequate to meet today's needs

  12. Comparisons among Tuli-, Brahman-, and Angus-sired heifers: intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior.

    Forbes, T D; Rouquette, F M; Holloway, J W

    1998-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of Tuli crossbred cattle, forage intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior were estimated in two Texas environments. In humid east Texas, Tuli x Brahman heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Angus x Brahman heifers. Fecal output, forage intake, compartmental mass, and compartmental residence time did not differ among breeds. Angus and Brahman heifers had different (P x Brahman or Angus x Brahman heifers. Angus heifers had shorter (P x Brahman (552+/-16.8 min/d and 10+/-.4), Angus x Brahman (507+/-18.4 min/d and 9+/-.5), and Brahman (560-/+ 16.8 min/d and 9+/-.4, respectively) heifers. In semiarid southwest Texas, Tuli x Angus heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Brahman x Angus heifers. Fecal output and forage intake were similar in Tuli x Angus and Brahman x Angus heifers (14.2+/-.69 and 14.9+/-.91 g fecal DM/ [d.kg BW] and 24.5+/-1.33 and 25.6+/-1.75 g/d of forage DMI, respectively) but higher (P Brahman heifers (12.2+/-.64 and 20.3+/-1.23 g/[d.kg BW] of fecal DM and forage DMI, respectively). Grazing times did not differ among breeds. We conclude that Tuli-sired heifers are likely to be as productive as Brahman crossbred heifers in Texas, based on the similarities in intake, digesta dynamics, and grazing behavior. PMID:9464902

  13. Beef lovers

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef consum...

  14. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  15. Lipogenic activity of intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues from steers produced by different generations of angus sires.

    May, S G; Burney, N S; Wilson, J J; Savell, J W; Herring, A D; Lunt, D K; Baker, J F; Sanders, J O; Smith, S B

    1995-05-01

    Simmental and Hereford cows (n = 74) were inseminated with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1960s or with semen from purebred Angus bulls from the 1980s. The F1 calves provided the foundation for two investigations, one addressing growth and carcass characteristics, and another measuring the impact of sire generation on lipid metabolism and adiposity. Calves sired by the 1980s-type bulls had greater (P carcass weights. They also had larger (P .05) in any measure of fatness between groups (adjusted fat thickness, kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, or marbling scores), but yield grade was higher numerically (P carcass traits and adipose tissue metabolism. A subset of six steers for each generation type (from Simmental cows) were selected and samples were collected at slaughter for measurements in vitro. For both generation types, intramuscular (i.m.) adipocytes had lesser (P < .05) cell volumes than subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue. Correspondingly. i.m. adipose tissue exhibited lower (P < .05) rates of 14C-labeled acetate incorporation into lipids as measured immediately after slaughter. Intramuscular and s.c. adipocytes from 1980s-type steers were smaller (P < .05) than those from the 1960s-types steers, with correspondingly more cells per gram of tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665362

  16. Health assessment for Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Aberdeen, Maryland, Region 3. CERCLIS Nos. MD3210021355 and MD10020036. Preliminary report

    1989-01-19

    The Aberdeen Proving Grounds site is located in Aberdeen (Harford County) Maryland. Preliminary on-site groundwater and surface water sampling results have identified various metals, phosphorus, and volatile organic compounds. They include: 1,2-dichloroethylene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, 1,4-dithiane and 1,2-dichloroethylene. In addition, it has been reported that among the substances disposed of on-site are significant quantities of toxic metals, cyanide compounds, phosphorus, phosgene, napalm, and mustard gas. The site is considered to be of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of human exposure to hazardous substances. Potential environmental pathways include those related to contaminated groundwater, surface water, on-site soils, and volatilization of contaminants in ambient air.

  17. Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

  18. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  19. European consumers and beef safety

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver;

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  20. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  1. An air quality survey and emissions inventory at Aberdeen Harbour

    Marr, I. L.; Rosser, D. P.; Meneses, C. A.

    A network of 10 stations, with passive sampling for VOCs (including benzene), NO 2, and SO 2, over 2-week periods, grab sampling for CO, and 48-h pumped sampling for PM 10, was set up to make an air quality survey for 12 months around Aberdeen Harbour. Benzene, CO, SO 2 and PM 10 were always well below the AQS target values. However, NO 2 frequently showed a pronounced gradient across the harbour reaching its highest concentrations at the city end, indicating that the road traffic was the principal source of the pollution. This was backed up by the predominance of aromatics in the VOCs in the city centre, derived from petrol engined vehicles, compared to the predominance of alkanes and alkenes around the docks, derived from diesel engined heavy trucks and possibly ships. Black carbon on the PM 10 filters also showed a gradient with highest levels in the city centre. It is proposed that for such surveys in future, NO 2 and black carbon would be the two most informative parameters. This emissions inventory has shown first, that trucks contribute very little to the total, and second, that the ro-ro ferries are the major contributors as they burn light fuel oil while the oil platform supply vessels burn low-sulphur marine gas oil with around 0.1% S. When the whole picture of the emissions from the city is considered, the emissions from the harbour constitute only a small part.

  2. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  3. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Mandell, W.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [Dept. of Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  4. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

  5. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing

  6. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which...

  7. Health promoting values of beef

    Migdał W.; Živković B.; Migdał Ł.

    2009-01-01

    The beef meat is mainly used as culinary cuts. The culinary value of beef and veal meat is determined by tenderness and palatability. 23% of meat produced in Europe (about 7,5 mln ton) is beef, veal production is estimated about 800 000 ton per year. Biggest producers of beef and veal are France (30%), Netherlands (26%), Italy (18%) Belgium (7%) and Germany (6%). 70% of beef and veal produced in Europe is consumed by French and Germans. Beef contains proteins (18 -23%) which have high biologi...

  8. Environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Daudt, C.R.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    Geophysical data collected at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, were used in the characterization of the natural hydrogeologic framework of the J-Field area and in the identification of buried disturbances (trenches and other evidences of contamination). Seismic refraction and reflection data and electrical resistivity data have aided in the characterization of the leaky confining unit at the base of the surficial aquifer (designated Unit B of the Tertiary Talbot Formation). Excellent reflectors have been observed for both upper and lower surfaces of Unit B that correspond to stratigraphic units observed in boreholes and on gamma logs. Elevation maps of both surfaces and an isopach map of Unit B, created from reflection data at the toxic burning pits site, show a thickening of Unit B to the east. Abnormally low seismic compressional-wave velocities suggest that Unit B consists of gassy sediments whose gases are not being flushed by upward or downward moving groundwater. The presence of gases suggests that Unit B serves as an efficient aquitard that should not be penetrated by drilling or other activities. Electromagnetic, total-intensity magnetic, and ground-penetrating radar surveys have aided in delineating the limits of two buried trenches, the VX burning pit and the liquid smoke disposal pit, both located at the toxic burning pits site. The techniques have also aided in determining the extent of several other disturbed areas where soils and materials were pushed out of disposal pits during trenching activities. Surveys conducted from the Prototype Building west to the Gunpowder River did not reveal any buried trenches.

  9. High resolution seismic reflection profiling at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland

    The effectiveness of shallow high resolution seismic reflection (i.e., resolution potential) to image geologic interfaces between about 70 and 750 ft at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland (APG), appears to vary locally with the geometric complexity of the unconsolidated sediments that overlay crystalline bedrock. The bedrock surface (which represents the primary geologic target of this study) was imaged at each of three test areas on walkaway noise tests and CDP (common depth point) stacked data. Proven high resolution techniques were used to design and acquire data on this survey. Feasibility of the technique and minimum acquisition requirements were determined through evaluation and correlation of walkaway noise tests, CDP survey lines, and a downhole velocity check shot survey. Data processing and analysis revealed several critical attributes of shallow seismic data from APG that need careful consideration and compensation on reflection data sets. This survey determined: (1) the feasibility of the technique, (2) the resolution potential (both horizontal and vertical) of the technique, (3) the optimum source for this site, (4) the optimum acquisition geometries, (5) general processing flow, and (6) a basic idea of the acoustic variability across this site. Source testing involved an accelerated weight drop, land air gun, downhole black powder charge, sledge hammer/plate, and high frequency vibrator. Shallow seismic reflection profiles provided for a more detailed picture of the geometric complexity and variability of the distinct clay sequences (aquatards), previously inferred from drilling to be present, based on sparse drill holes and basewide conceptual models. The seismic data also reveal a clear explanation for the difficulties previously noted in correlating individual, borehole-identified sand or clay units over even short distances

  10. Shivers Junior/Senior High School: Aberdeen School District in Mississippi. Case Study in Sustainable Design.

    Zimmerman, David

    Design information, floor plan, photos, and energy use data are presented of a combined 45,000 square foot junior/senior high school in Mississippi's Aberdeen School District, built in 1956, and retrofitted over time to improve its usability. Exterior and interior photos are presented showing classrooms, the cafeteria, and gymnasium. Data are…

  11. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  12. Into beef consumers' mind

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results indica...

  13. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  14. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  15. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... or through the anus. Adults and children with pork tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor ...

  16. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  17. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  18. Analysis of cosmic-ray-muon induced spallation neutrons in Aberdeen Tunnel experiment in Hong Kong

    Cui, Kexi; 崔科晰

    2014-01-01

    The muon-induced radioactive isotopes, especially neutrons, are dangerous background component for rare-event detection in underground experiments, like neutrino-less double-beta decay and dark matter search. Understanding these cosmogenic backgrounds is crucial for these experiments. An underground experiment aiming at measuring the cosmic-ray muons' flux and their neutron production yield in liquid scintillator through spallation process is being carried out in the Aberdeen Tunnel laborator...

  19. Improvising innovation in UK urban district heating: The convergence of social and environmental agendas in Aberdeen

    Research on district heating has focused on technical-economic appraisal of its contribution to energy and carbon saving in urban centres. There is however lack of analysis of political and social processes which govern its actual take up. This paper examines these processes through a case study of Aberdeen, Scotland. Interviews and documentary analysis are used to examine the 2002 development of Aberdeen Heat and Power (AHP), an independent energy services company (ESCo). Technical-economic feasibility was a necessary component of appraisal, but not sufficient to govern decision-making. In the UK centralised energy market, DH investment is unattractive to commercial investors, and local authorities lack capacity and expertise in energy provision. In Aberdeen, the politics of fuel poverty converged with climate politics, creating an a-typical willingness to innovate through improvisation. The welfare priority resulted in creation of a non-profit locally-owned ESCo, using cost- rather than market-based heat tariffs. AHP has developed three combined heat and power energy centres and heat networks, supplying 34 MWh/pa of heat. Carbon savings are estimated to be 45% in comparison with electric heating, and heating costs are reduced by a similar amount. The conclusion outlines potential policy improvements. - Highlights: • UK policy proposes district heating for urban low carbon heat. • Technical and economic feasibility are insufficient to drive take-up. • In Aberdeen convergence of social and environmental goals gave impetus to improvisation. • The resulting non-profit ESCo has three CHP and district heat networks, supplying 34 MWh of heat pa. • Carbon and cost savings are 45% in comparison with electric heating

  20. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    ... to hire a Federal Grader to certify the quality of its product. Beef grades are USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, ... beef within 2 days after purchase for maximum quality. What is the safe food ... (not ready-to-eat) meat and poultry packages. The label tells the consumer ...

  1. Comparison of production characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls.

    Baker, J F; Lunt, D K

    1990-06-01

    Birth, weaning, growth and carcass records for calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls were used to evaluate the potential contribution of Piedmontese to beef production in the U.S. Bulls were mated by AI to Hereford and crossbred cows and heifers. Calves were born during fall 1985 or spring 1986. Statistical models used to analyze the importance of sire breed used sire nested within sire breed as a random effect. Effects of sex, birth season, contemporary group, dam breed and parity were considered fixed and tested with the residual error. Piedmontese-sired calves had the longest gestation length, followed by Charolais and Angus-sired calves (287.5, 285.0 and 282.8 d, respectively). Breed of sire was not significant for birth weight, but Piedmontese- and Charolais-sired calves had longer cannon bones than Angus-sired calves. Differences were found for weaning hip height, but weaning weights, weaning muscle scores and ADG during the preweaning period were similar for calves by the three sire breeds. When fed to a similar fat thickness, Angus-sired calves required fewer days on feed, produced lighter carcasses and gained less per day than Charolais- or Piedmontese-sired calves. Piedmontese-sired calves required more days on feed than Charolais-sired calves when slaughtered at a similar subcutaneous fat thickness. Piedmontese-sired calves produced carcasses with a larger average rib eye area, higher dressing percentage and lower (more desirable) yield grade than Charolais- or Angus-sired calves. No significant sire breed differences were detected for tissue cholesterol content. PMID:2384357

  2. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    2010-01-01

    .... (d) Fabricated steak. Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef..., Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped—Molded—Cubed—Frozen, Hydrolyzed...

  3. Proteomic profiling of bovine M. longissimus lumborum from Crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue sired steers varying in genetic merit for carcass weight.

    Keady, Sarah M; Kenny, David A; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, Sinéad M

    2013-02-01

    Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB) × Holstein Friesian and Aberdeen Angus (AA) × Holstein Friesian. Twenty AA (n = 10) and BB (n = 10) sired steers, the progeny of sires of either high or low genetic merit, expressed as expected progeny difference for carcass weight (EPDcwt), and bred through AI, were evaluated as 4 genetic groups, BB-High, BB-Low, AA-High, and AA-Low (n = 5 per treatment). Chemical composition analysis of M. longissimus lumborum showed greater protein and moisture and decreased lipid concentrations for BB-sired compared with AA-sired steers. To investigate the effects of both sire breed and EPDcwt on M. longissimus lumborum, proteomic analysis was performed using 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified from their peptide sequences, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Swiss-prot databases. Metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoglycerate mutase) and the citric acid cycle (aconitase 2, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) were increased in AA- vs. BB-sired steers. Expression of proteins involved in cell structure, such as myosin light chain isoforms and troponins I and T, were also altered due to sire breed. Furthermore, heat shock protein β-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, involved in cell defense, had increased abundance in muscle of AA-sired relative to BB-sired steers. Protein abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, enolase-3, and pyruvate kinase was greater in AA-sired animals of High compared with Low

  4. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  5. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  6. Designing a Voluntary Beef Checkoff

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Winn, Chris; Chung, Chanjin; Ward, Clement E.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court considered whether the mandatory fees imposed by the beef checkoff violates the First Amendment. As a precaution, many states began forming voluntary beef checkoffs, where funds would be raised through voluntary contributions. This study conducted a survey of Oklahoma cattle producers to determine what type ofvoluntary checkoff design would receive the greatest support. The most popular checkoff placed a large emphasis on advertising and a slightly lower check...

  7. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  8. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  9. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  10. Molecular Signature of the Ebola Virus Associated with the Fishermen Community Outbreak in Aberdeen, Sierra Leone, in February 2015

    Gruber, Cesare E. M.; Carletti, Fabrizio; Meschi, Silvia; Castilletti, Concetta; Vairo, Francesco; Biava, Mirella; Minosse, Claudia; Strada, Gino; Portella, Gina; Miccio, Rossella; Minardi, Valeria; Rolla, Luca; Kamara, Abdul; Chillemi, Giovanni; Desideri, Alessandro; Di Caro, Antonino; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Ebola virus from a health worker linked to a cluster of cases occurring in the fishing community of Aberdeen, Sierra Leone (February 2015), which were characterized by unusually severe presentation. The sequence, clustering in the SL subclade 3.2.4, harbors mutations potentially relevant for pathogenesis. PMID:26404609

  11. Breeding soundness evaluation of young beef bulls

    Persson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    The overall aims were to learn more about factors affecting fertility in Swedish beef sires in general and in yearling beef bulls in particular, focusing mainly on sexual maturity and hind limb health finding useful tools in order to be able to routinely perform a complete bull breeding soundness evaluations in Swedish beef bulls. Semen was collected from yearling beef bulls, postmortem, and the sperm morphology was evaluated. Using a strict definition, based on sperm morphology, we could dem...

  12. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Beef production without mature cows.

    Seidel, G E; Whittier, J C

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients in animal feed get partitioned to growth, lactation, pregnancy, fat accretion, and/or maintenance. For mature beef cows, >80% of nutrients consumed annually go to unproductive maintenance. Integrated over the entire U.S. beef cattle production system, nearly one-half of the nutrients consumed go to maintenance of cow herds. This accounts for much of the inefficiency of beef production and can be minimized by the single-calf heifer system, in which heifers are fattened and slaughtered after having their first calf. We propose a modification, use of sexed semen, so that most heifers replace themselves with a heifer calf. This greatly decreases the size of the inherently inefficient cow herd required for beef production and greatly increases efficiency of beef production in terms of nutrients consumed and waste produced, such as methane, by increasing the ratio of nutrients used for growth to those used for maintenance. Additional management is required including AI, early weaning, and the attention required when calving 2-yr-old heifers. Low conception rates with sexed semen and less efficient growth of females than males also must be considered. However, these issues seem greatly outweighed by the benefits of increased efficiency from decreasing cow herd size while eliminating the need for breeding back lactating first-calf heifers, the need for castration, and health problems inherent in older cows such as mastitis and lameness. Moreover, the decreased generation interval can greatly accelerate genetic progress. PMID:26440323

  13. Use of expected progeny differences for marbling in beef: I. Production traits.

    Vieselmeyer, B A; Rasby, R J; Gwartney, B L; Calkins, C R; Stock, R A; Gosey, J A

    1996-05-01

    Six Angus bulls with HIGH ( > .4) and six bulls with LOW ( carcass traits. Bulls were randomly bred to MARC II (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Simmental, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Gelbvieh) composite cows in each of 2 yr to calve in the spring. At weaning, steers and heifers were separated and managed in different production systems. Steers (n = 131) were fed a growing diet (1.1 Mcal of NEg/kg) for 48 d followed by adaptation to a 93% concentrate finishing diet. Heifers (n = 125) were fed a growing diet (.79 Mcal of NEg/kg) for 191 d followed by adaptation to the same 93% concentrate diet. Steers and heifers from each treatment were slaughtered at two times spaced about 60 d apart within both years. Marbling EPD class had no effect on fat thickness, USDA yield grade, carcass weight, finishing daily gain, finishing DMI, or finishing efficiency (P > .18). More (P carcasses of calves from sires with HIGH EPD for marbling graded USDA Choice than from LOW EPD sires, 74% vs 47%, respectively. Angus sires can be selected to produce progeny that have increased ability to grade Choice without increasing yield grade or decreasing animal growth or feed efficiency. PMID:8726732

  14. Fractal Feature Analysis Of Beef Marblingpatterns

    Chen, Kunjie; Qin, Chunfang

    The purpose of this study is to investigate fractal behavior of beef marbling patterns and to explore relationships between fractal dimensions and marbling scores. Authors firstly extracted marbling images from beef rib-eye crosssection images using computer image processing technologies and then implemented the fractal analysis on these marbling images based on the pixel covering method. Finally box-counting fractal dimension (BFD) and informational fractal dimension (IFD) of one hundred and thirty-five beef marbling images were calculated and plotted against the beef marbling scores. The results showed that all beef marbling images exhibit fractal behavior over the limited range of scales accessible to analysis. Furthermore, their BFD and IFD are closely related to the score of beef marbling, suggesting that fractal analyses can provide us a potential tool to calibrate the score of beef marbling.

  15. An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory

    Blyth, S C; Chen, X C; Chu, M C; Hahn, R L; Ho, T H; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lau, Y P; Lee, K P; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, G L; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Luk, W H; Ngai, H Y; Ngan, S Y; Pun, C S J; Shih, K; Tam, Y H; Tsang, R H M; Wang, C H; Wong, C M; Wong, H L; Wong, H H C; Wong, K K; Yeh, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 meter water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises of six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the e?ciency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented.

  16. An Inventory of Beef Slaughter & Processing Facilities for Virginia Direct Marketers of Beef

    Denise Y. Mainville; Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of producers in Virginia are seeking facilities where they can have their beef slaughtered and processed. This inventory provides information about the availability of beef slaughter and processing facilities to help meet this need.

  17. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra;

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness......, United Kingdom and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with...... insights obtained from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating...

  18. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  19. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  20. The beef market in the European Union

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960?s with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef's share of...... total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand analyses...... can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  1. ECONOMICS OF PURCHASING GENETICALLY SUPERIOR BEEF BULLS

    Clary, Gregory M.; Jordan, Johnny W.; Thompson, Carl Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Net present value analysis is used to derive the marginal bid price for a beef herd sire from after-tax net revenues and cash flow influenced by genetic improvements. Marginal bid price represents the additional amount a producer could pay, above the present value of the current beef herd sire, for a sire expected to exhibit superior performance as reflected by increased average weaning weights of offspring. An analysis of the profitability of purchasing a breeding bull for a commercial beef ...

  2. Consumer Reaction to Beef Safety Scares

    Saghaian, Sayed H.; Reed, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two beef safety scares on retail-level meat per capita consumption and prices in Japan. The objective is to investigate the Japanese consumer reactions to the news of FMD and BSE discoveries, as reflected in the quantity and price changes in the immediate neighborhood of each event. Better understanding of consumer reactions to beef safety scares helps the beef industry restore consumer confidence after food safety crises and provides opportunities for nation...

  3. Eficiência produtiva em vacas primíparas das raças Aberdeen Angus e Charolês Productive efficiency of Angus and Charolais primiparous cows

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas de corte. Foram utilizadas 30 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus e 32 da raça Charolês primíparas, prenhes no início do experimento, com bezerros puros ou mestiços Nelore. As vacas foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos alimentares durante o inverno e a primavera: T1 - pastagem natural, T2 - pastagem cultivada por 60 dias (24 horas/dia, do início de setembro ao início de novembro, T3 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, T4 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, e mais 60 dias (24 horas/dia de pastagem cultivada do início de setembro ao início de novembro. As medidas de eficiência produtiva foram: EPPARTO = (P205/PVP*100; EPDESMAME = (P205/PVD*100; EPMBPARTO = (P205/PVP0,75; EPMBDESMAME = (P205/PVD0,75; e EPNDT = NDTTOTAL/P205, em que P205 é o peso ao desmame dos bezerros; PVP e PVD, os pesos das vacas ao parto e ao desmame, respectivamente; e NDTTOTAL, a exigência em energia para manutenção e produção de leite das vacas. As vacas Aberdeen Angus, com bezerros machos e aquelas com bezerros mestiços, foram mais eficientes. Vacas que utilizaram a pastagem cultivada por um período de tempo maior (T4 tiveram melhor desempenho do que aquelas que permaneceram apenas em pastagem natural(T1; as vacas dos outros tratamentos tiveram desempenhos intermediários.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive efficiency of beef cows. Thirty Angus and 32 Charolais primiparous cows, pregnant at the beginning of the experiment with straightbred or crossbred calves, were evaluated. The cows were submitted to different feeding management during winter and spring: T1 -- Native pasture, T2 -- Cultivated pasture for 60 days (24 hours/day, from early September to early November, T3

  4. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE LAW OF CATTLE AND BEEF TRACEABILITY IN MARKETING CHANNELS ON THE DOMESTIC HANWOO BEEF INDUSTRY

    Jeon, Sanggon; Lee, Jungmin; Chai, Sanghyen; Lee, Hyungwoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability in marketing channels on the domestic Hanwoo beef industry. The Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability might affect the demand and supply of Hanwoo beef. After introducing the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability into the marketing channels, the price of Hanwoo beef has increased a lot in the Korean beef market. Domestically produced Hanwoo beef has a price premium compared with the imported b...

  5. Disposition of fuel elements from the Aberdeen and Sandia pulse reactor (SPR-II) assemblies

    Mckerley, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bustamante, Jacqueline M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Drypolcher, Anthony F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hickey, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We describe the disposition of fuel from the Aberdeen (APR) and the Sandia Pulse Reactors (SPR-II) which were used to provide intense neutron bursts for radiation effects testing. The enriched Uranium - 10% Molybdenum fuel from these reactors was shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for size reduction prior to shipment to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for final disposition in the H Canyon facility. The Shipper/Receiver Agreements (SRA), intra-DOE interfaces, criticality safety evaluations, safety and quality requirements and key materials management issues required for the successful completion of this project will be presented. This work is in support of the DOE Consolidation and Disposition program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has operated pulse nuclear reactor research facilities for the Department of Energy since 1961. The Sandia Pulse Reactor (SPR-II) was a bare metal Godiva-type reactor. The reactor facilities have been used for research and development of nuclear and non-nuclear weapon systems, advanced nuclear reactors, reactor safety, simulation sources and energy related programs. The SPR-II was a fast burst reactor, designed and constructed by SNL that became operational in 1967. The SPR-ll core was a solid-metal fuel enriched to 93% {sup 235}U. The uranium was alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum to ensure the phase stabilization of the fuel. The core consisted of six fuel plates divided into two assemblies of three plates each. Figure 1 shows a cutaway diagram of the SPR-II Reactor with its decoupling shroud. NNSA charged Sandia with removing its category 1 and 2 special nuclear material by the end of 2008. The main impetus for this activity was based on NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino's six focus areas to reenergize NNSA's nuclear material consolidation and disposition efforts. For example, the removal of SPR-II from SNL to DAF was part of this undertaking. This project was in support of NNSA's efforts

  6. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  8. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  9. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

  10. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  11. Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.

  12. Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

  13. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field

  14. Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

  15. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  16. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.

  17. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  18. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or...

  19. Briefing note on the beef industry

    Bruce, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Sheep and beef farmers around the UK were interviewed to find out if they would adopt a range of technologies to reduce methane emissions.* Beef farmers produced a diverse range of outputs including environmental management as well as food production. Farmers worked in a range of different environments and are influenced by a variety of values.

  20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  1. Relationships among Ergot Alkaloids, Cytochrome P450 Activity, and Beef Steer Growth

    Rosenkrans, Charles; Ezell, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Determining a grazing animal’s susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 μM of ergotamine (ET), dihydroergotamine (DHET), and ergonovine (EN)] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800). With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 d of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg) after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 d. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control). Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = -0.31; P animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins.

  2. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...

  3. Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

  4. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  5. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires

  6. The Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership Approach to the Adoption of New Beef Industry Technologies

    Griffith, Garry R.; Clark, R.E.; Parnell, Peter F.; Timms, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Technology adoption in the Australian beef industry has been low and slow compared to the intensive livestock and cropping industries. The principles of accelerated adoption provide an innovative solution to this problem. In the Beef CRC, Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership (BPP) members will meet regularly to measure their current performance, set targets for future productivity increases, and use a profitability framework to assess the potential impact of new technology. Capacity building a...

  7. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  8. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  9. Expression Marker-Based Strategy to Improve Beef Quality

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    For beef cattle research, a main objective is to control concomitantly the development of muscles and the qualities of beef cuts. Beef quality is a complex phenotype that is only detectable after slaughter and is highly variable. The beef industry is in need of tools to estimate beef quality of live cattle or online in abattoirs, with specific attention towards sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, and colour). Identification of relevant genetic and genomic markers is ongoing, especially for tenderness—a top priority quality attribute. In this paper, we describe the steps of an expression marker-based strategy to improve beef sensory quality, from the discovery of biomarkers that identify consistent beef and the biological functions governing beef tenderness to the integration of the knowledge into detection tests for desirable animals. These tools should soon be available for the management of sensory quality in the beef production chain for meeting market's demands and assuring good quality standards. PMID:27066527

  10. Intelligence, Social Class of Origin, Childhood Behavior Disturbance and Education as Predictors of Status Attainment in Midlife in Men: The Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…

  11. Desempenho reprodutivo pós-parto de vacas de corte submetidas a indução/sincronização de cio Postpartum reproductive performance of beef cows in moderate body condition submitted to estrus induction/synchronization

    Cássio Cassal Brauner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte submetidas à indução/sincronização de cio, foram utilizadas 42 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus com condição corporal 3 (escala de 1-5 sob manejo extensivo. A produção de leite foi estimada pelo método pesagem-mamada-pesagem. Nos exames ginecológicos, utilizou-se aparelho de ultra-sonografia e palpação trans-retal. Foram considerados fatores fixos nível de produção de leite (acima e abaixo da média de produção das vacas, gestação, condição reprodutiva pré-acasalamento (CRPA, anestro superficial (tônus uterino, folículos > 10 mm e ausência de CL e anestro profundo (ausência de tônus uterino, folículos To assess the reproductive performance of beef cows submitted to estrus induction/synchronization, 42 Aberdeen Angus cows with body condition 3 (1-5 scale under extensive management were used. The milk production was estimated through the weight-suckling-weight method. For gynecological examinations, ultrasound equipment and trans-rectal palpation were used. The milk production level (above and below the average production of cows, pregnancy, prebreeding reproductive condition (CRPA, surface anoestrus (uterine tone, follicles > 10 mm and absence of CL and deep anoestrus (no uterine tone, follicles <10 mm and absence of CL and the estrus induction/synchronization response (RISC were considered as constant factors. The variables analyzed were the pre-delivery, delivery weight, mating and conception weights, weaning weight, the average daily weight gain from birth to weaning and total milk production. The prebreeding reproductive condition influenced the pre-birth and birth weights, showing that the better pre-birth and birth performance favors the restoration of reproductive activity in cows with moderate body condition (CC in the post-partum period. The classification of the pre-breeding reproductive condition in beef cows can be a resource to determine the

  12. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  13. The beef market in the European Union

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    different countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960's with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows are...... instrumental measures of these characteristics has made the sorting int consumer-relevant quality categories impossible. Recently, schemes have been set up in several countries to produce beef under certain controlled conditions with the aim of assuring a certain quality. These schemes involve participation of...

  14. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... quality; 4) marinating by submerging aiming for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement and restructuring through enzyme binding; 6) shock wave treatment and 7) thermal processing. Participants' attitudes towards beef, their innovativeness and risk aversion were also assessed. In total, 65...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  15. ESTIMATING CROSS ELASTICITIES OF DEMAND FOR BEEF

    Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which observed changes in per capita beef consumption can be accounted for by changes in relative prices and per capita real income. Particular attention was given to specifying the functional form by focusing on the nature of demand shifts over time. These considerations led to selection of the Fourier flexible form with a Fourier series expansion in relative meat prices. The results support the hypothesis that recent shifts in demand for beef can be attribu...

  16. ROMANIAN BEEF & VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  17. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  18. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  19. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  20. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

  2. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA sequencing reveals that hepatic interferon-induced genes may be associated with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    Paradis, F; Yue, S; Grant, J R; Stothard, P; Basarab, J A; Fitzsimmons, C

    2015-07-01

    In beef cattle, production feedstuffs are the largest variable input cost. Beef cattle also have a large carbon footprint, raising concern about their environmental impact. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of dietary energy is directed toward protein deposition and muscle growth whereas the majority supports body maintenance. Improving feed efficiency would, therefore, have important consequences on productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the beef industry. Various measures of feed efficiency have been proposed to improve feed utilization, and currently, residual feed intake (RFI) is gaining popularity. However, the cost associated with measuring RFI and the limited knowledge of the biology underlying improved feed efficiency make its adoption prohibitive. Identifying molecular mechanisms explaining divergence in RFI in beef cattle would lead to the development of early detection methods for the selection of more efficient breeding stock. The objective of this study was to identify hepatic markers of metabolic feed efficiency in replacement beef heifers. A group of 87 heifers were tested for RFI adjusted for off-test backfat thickness (RFIfat). Preprandial liver biopsies were collected from 10 high- and 10 low-RFIfat heifers (7 Hereford–Aberdeen Angus and 3 Charolais–Red Angus–Main Anjou per group) and gene expression analysis was performed using RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. The heifers used in this study differed in RFIfat averaging 0.438 vs. –0.584 kg DM/d in high- and low-RFIfat groups, respectively. As expected, DMI was correlated with RFIfat and ADG did not differ between high- and low-RFIfat heifers. Through a combination of whole transcriptome and candidate gene analyses, we identified differentially expressed genes involved in inflammatory processes including hemoglobin β (HBB), myxovirus resistance 1 interferon-inducible protein p78 (MX1), ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15), hect domain and RLD 6 (HERC6), and

  3. Performance and ultrasound measurements of beef cattle fed diets based on whole corn or oats grains

    Hugo M Arelovich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to contrast dietary effects of whole grain oats versus corn included in rations with moderate roughage content on animal performance, beef ultrasound measurements, rumen and blood parameters. Ten Aberdeen Angus steers (203 kg in individual pens were fed twice daily on either whole oats (OD or corn (CD based diets. Measurements were: DM intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed to gain ratio (F/G; back fat (BF and rib eye area (RA; blood parameters. Four cannulated steers were used to study rumen pH, NH3-N and grain degradability. Rations dietary components were 55% grain, 30.1% barley straw, and 10.6% whole soybeans. Despite calculated higher ME supply (P = 0.0887 no differences were found for DMI, ADG, or F/G. Metabolizable protein intake (19.4% was larger and degradable protein intake (43.3% smaller for CD compared with OD (P < 0.01. The growth rate (cm² d-1 for RA was 40% grater for OD, but larger BF deposition (P = 0.0787 was found for CD. Blood Mg was higher for OD (p = 0.0564, nevertheless other blood parameters remained unaffected. Rumen pH and NH3-N were not influenced by diet, variations were only observed within time periods. Rumen pH decreased linearly from 7.05 to 6.13 and 7.11 to 6.37 for OD and CD respectively (P < 0.05. Minimum NH3-N concentrations (mg dL-1 were reached 12 and 18 h after morning meal for OD (7.10 and CD (5.82 respectively. Rumen degradation was larger for oats than corn. Whole oats rather than corn fed up to 55% of total DM seems to improve protein deposition, without significant changes in animal performance, rumen environment or blood parameters.

  4. Consumer impressions of Tender Select beef.

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Meade, M K; Reagan, J O; Byrnes, B L; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-10-01

    With the recent development of technology to classify beef for tenderness, it is now possible for packers and retailers to market brands of beef known to be consistently tender. The present experiment was conducted to determine consumer impressions of Tender Select, a model beef brand comprised of cuts from tender U.S. Select carcasses. A telephone survey was conducted in metropolitan Denver, CO, to recruit consumers (n = 1,036) for this study. Consumers who met minimal limits for household income, age, and beef consumption were invited to participate in a beef shopping and usage study in a local supermarket. Point-of-purchase material was developed that described Tender Select as "the only steak guaranteed tender and lean." When shown a copy of the Tender Select concept card, 89% of participating consumers (n = 759) indicated that they would definitely or probably buy that product. Of those consumers that said they would buy the product, 35% indicated that their purchases of Tender Select would be in addition to their current fresh meat purchases. Most consumers (54.1%) indicated that if Tender Select was available at their grocery store, 1 or 2 of their next 10 purchases of beef cuts would be Tender Select. Sixty-five percent of consumers indicated that if a grocery store carried a line of beef cuts guaranteed to be tender, they would buy all of their beef at that store. Both strip loins from 104 U.S. Select beef carcasses, representing a broad range (8.7 to 43.4 kg; CV = 42%) in slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem, were used to determine the effect of SSF classification on consumer satisfaction and the correlation among trained sensory panel descriptive attribute ratings and in-home consumer ratings of beef longissimus steaks. Both trained sensory panelists and consumers rated low-SSF steaks higher than the high-SSF steaks for all traits (P premium to purchase guaranteed-tender U.S. Select steaks. PMID:11721839

  5. Características da carcaça de bovinos Canchim e Aberdeen Angus e de seus cruzamentos recíprocos terminados em confinamento Carcass traits of Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and reciprocal crosses finished in confinement

    Daniel Perotto; José Luiz Moletta; Antonio Carlos Cubas

    1999-01-01

    Foram analisadas quatorze características quantitativas das carcaças de 137 machos bovinos inteiros pertencentes aos grupos Canchim (Ca), Aberdeen Angus (Ab), 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab e 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, nascidos na Estação Experimental Fazenda Modelo, em Ponta Grossa-PR, no período de 1988 a 1993. As médias para a idade e para o peso ao início do confinamento, duração do confinamento, idade e peso ao abate foram, respectivamente, 737 dias, 356kg, 97 dias, 834 dias e 468kg. Durante o ...

  6. Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire

    Flávia de Jesus Leal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessária a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil. MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo. Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas.BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary to accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil. METHODS: The process consisted of two

  7. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  8. Impact of Free Trade Agreements on the Colombian Beef Sector

    Gomez, Miguel I.; Frank, Julieta; Parra, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Colombia negotiated bilateral Trade Agreements (TAs) with the United States and with the MERCOSUR region (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Colombian cattle and beef interest groups argue that TAs hurt the local beef supply chain. We employ a partial equilibrium framework to assess the impact of these TAs on the welfare of cattle producers, beef marketers and meat consumers in Colombia. Our results suggest that with free imports of chicken parts from the U.S, beef consumption and ret...

  9. Beef duis brisket pariatur cow veniam tempor filet hhh

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Beef duis brisket pariatur cow veniam tempor filet mignon mollit aute ham hock culpa drumstick. Dolor in jerky beef ribs consectetur andouille ham swine aliquip mollit beef fugiat nostrud et. Eiusmod consequat pork, turducken capicola ham hock tongue sint ribeye officia. Irure in ex swine duis kevin tenderloin incididunt meatball cillum doner enim strip steak short ribs pork chop. Swine duis irure rump, exercitation jerky capicola aliqua kevin pancetta shankle. Ullamco chuck corned beef, ut b...

  10. Beef Marbling Image Segmentation Based on Homomorphic Filtering

    Bin Pang; Xiao Sun; Deying Liu; Kunjie Chen

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of uneven illumination and reflect light for beef accurate segmentation, a beef marbling segmentation method based on homomorphic filtering was introduced. Aiming at the beef rib-eye region images in the frequency domain, homomorphic filter was used for enhancing gray, R, G and B 4 chroma images. Then the impact of high frequency /low frequency gain factors on the accuracy of beef marbling segmentation was investigated. Appropriate values of gain factors were ...

  11. Comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef production

    A national assessment is being conducted by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, a contractor to the beef checkoff, to develop better scientific understanding of the sustainability of beef. This includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions along with other environmental, ...

  12. Willingness to Pay for Tennessee Beef among Tennessee Consumers

    Dobbs, Leah; Jensen, Kimberly; Leffew, Megan; English, Burton; Lambert, Dayton; Clark, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines willingness to pay among consumers in five metropolitan areas in Tennessee for steaks and ground beef produced in Tennessee. Consumers are willing to pay a positive premium for Tennessee beef. The choice of shopping outlets for Tennessee beef is also examined. Demographics, prior shopping patterns, and product preferences influence shopping outlet choices.

  13. Food safety issues and the microbiology of beef

    World demand for high-quality animal protein presents opportunities for growth and expanded trade which is predicted to increase more than 6% for major beef producing countries and their beef industries. Contingent upon an increased consumer demand for beef is the production of high quality and mic...

  14. Stratégie bas carbone écossaise : l’exemple de la ville d’Aberdeen

    Guyet, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A l’instar de l’Ecosse, le modèle énergétique de la ville d’Aberdeen se caractérise par un paradoxe : comment transformer une économie reposant essentiellement sur le gaz et le pétrole en un modèle de développement bas carbone ? Sans renier la manne financière que représente encore à court terme les énergies fossiles, l’Ecosse poursuit également une stratégie de déploiement d’énergie bas carbone dans le secteur de l’électricité et de la chaleur. Elle a même défini des objectifs...

  15. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  16. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn;

    and novel beef products and processes. Method: Eight focus groups, each with between 7 and 9 participants were conducted in the capital cities of Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom in May 2008. In total 65 individuals aged between 19 and 60 years took part in the discussions. The focus group...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...

  17. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  18. Childhood IQ and life course socioeconomic position in relation to alcohol induced hangovers in adulthood: the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study

    Batty, G D; Deary, I J; MacIntyre, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between scores on IQ tests in childhood and alcohol induced hangovers in middle aged men and women. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 12 150 people born in Aberdeen (Scotland) who took part in a school based survey in 1962 when IQ test scores were extracted from educational records. Between 2000 and 2003, 7184 (64%) responded to questionnaire inquiries regarding drinking behaviour. Main outcome measures: Self reported hangovers attr...

  19. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple ...

  20. Are consumers beef quality perceptions in accordance with objective beef quality?

    Banović, Marija; Cristina Monteiro, Ana; Lemos, Jose Pedro Cardoso; Madalena Barreira, Maria; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    The consumer has the final word in food choice, which is determined by his perceived quality. Within a project coordinated by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine we tried to relate objective quality with the consumer quality evaluation. To do so, we have measured the expected and experienced quality of a sample of Portuguese consumers towards three types of beef (PDO, national and imported) at the shop, and compared this subjective evaluation with the beef objective quality. Results at the con...

  1. Heterose sobre os pesos de bovinos Canchim e Aberdeen Angus e de seus cruzamentos recíprocos Heterosis upon weights in Canchim and Aberdeen Angus calves and in their reciprocal crosses

    DANIEL PEROTTO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para estimar a heterose sobre os pesos ao nascimento (PNT, à desmama (P210 e ao ano (P365 e sobre os ganhos de pesos médios diários do nascimento à desmama (G210 e da desmama ao ano (G365 nas quatro primeiras gerações do sistema de cruzamentos alternados entre as raças Canchim (C e Aberdeen Angus (A. Os dados de 1.147 bezerros nascidos de 1981 a 1998 foram analisados pelo método dos mínimos quadrados, ajustando-se um modelo linear que incluiu os efeitos linear e quadrático da idade da mãe do bezerro e os efeitos fixos de sexo, grupo genético, mês e ano de nascimento do bezerro. Estimativas de heterose e de outras diferenças genéticas foram estimadas por contrastes entre médias e testadas pelo teste t. O contraste "CA" foi positivo e significativo (PThe study was conducted to estimate heterosis upon birth weight (PNT, weaning weight (P210, yearling weight (P365 and daily weight gain from birth to weaning (G210 and from weaning to one year of age (G365 in the first, second, third and fourth generations of a rotational crossbreeding system between Canchim (C and Aberdeen Angus (A. Data from 1,147 calves born from 1981 to 1998 were analyzed by least squares procedures fitting a linear model that included the linear and the quadratic effects of age of the dam of the calf plus the fixed effects of sex, genetic group, month and year of birth of calf. Estimates of heterosis and of other genetic differences were obtained by linear contrasts of appropriate means and tested by the t test. The contrast CA was positive and significant (P<0.001 for all five traits. The contrast F1CAF1AC was negative and highly significant (P<0.001 for P210 and for G210 and significant (P<0.05 for P365. The F1 generation exhibited heterosis of 4.8% for P210 and of 4.9% for G210. Maternal heterosis was 3.7%, 5.8%, 6.3% and 20.4%, respectively, for P210, G210, P365 and G365. The heterosis estimated for the mean of the third and fourth

  2. Genomics and the global beef cattle industry

    After two decades of developing DNA-based tools for selection, we are at an interesting juncture. Genomic technology has essentially eliminated the potentially large negative impact of spontaneous single mutation genetic defects as the management of recent examples of beef defects has demonstrated....

  3. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  4. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  5. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  6. Relationships among Ergot Alkaloids, Cytochrome P450 Activity, and Beef Steer Growth

    Charles F. Rosenkrans

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining a grazing animal’s susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 μM of ergotamine (ET, dihydroergotamine (DHET, and ergonovine (EN] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800. With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P < 0.001 by an interaction between alkaloids and concentration. That interaction resulted in no concentration effect of EN, but within ET and DHET 20 and 40 µM concentrations inhibited CYP450 activity when compared with controls. In experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 d of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 d. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control. Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7 was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = -0.31; P < 0.05. Steers were genotyped at CYP450 single nucleotide polymorphism, C994G. Steer genotype affected (P < 0.03 inhibition of CYP450 activity by urine; heterozygous steers had the least amount of CYP450 inhibition suggesting that genotyping cattle may be a method of identifying animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins.

  7. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models. PMID:24398839

  8. A TARGET CONSUMER PROFILE AND POSITIONING FOR PROMOTION OF A NEW LOCALLY BRANDED BEEF PRODUCT

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Thulin, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the consumer profile and positioning for a new locally branded beef product. The research involves 413 beef consumers in California. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are approximately one-third of beef consumers in the local area. They are older, married, and from higher dual-income households. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are likely to have purchased other branded beef products. Approximately one-half of the...

  9. Estimating the Value of Retail Beef Product Brands and Other Attributes

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper finds wide variation in brand premiums and discounts across types of branded beef cuts, ranging from -98 cents for a brand of ground beef targeting cost-conscious consumers to $4.15 for a brand of steak produced by a family-operated beef alliance. Other factors affecting beef cut prices include package size, price promotions, store format, ground beef leanness, type of steak cut, and geographic region where the beef was purchased.

  10. 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement: Forecast Simulation Analysis

    Wahl, Thomas I.; Williams, Gary W.; Dermot J. Hayes

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses dynamic simulation analysis to consider the likely consequences of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement (BMAA) on the Japanese livestock industry and beef imports. Using a simultaneous equations, econometric model of Japanese livestock markets, a forecast baseline up to 1997 was first established, asswning that the Japanese beef import quota continues to increase by 9,000 tons annually as under the 1984 agreement The restrictions of the new agreement were then impose...

  11. An audit to review the characteristics and management of placenta praevia at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, 2009-2011.

    Pande, B; Shetty, A

    2014-07-01

    Placenta praevia (PP) is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity. We reviewed the characteristics and management of PP at the Aberdeen Maternity Hospital (AMH) to evaluate performance. In the years 2009-2011, a total of 60 cases with confirmed PP underwent caesarean section (CS) at the AMH. Two-fifths of cases had previous CS and two-thirds were posterior praevias. Four-fifths were major praevias. Diagnosis was mostly by trans-abdominal scanning (TAS). A little less than two-thirds underwent hospital admission (half of them for antepartum haemorrhage). Most received steroid and ferrous sulphate as appropriate. The majority were delivered at greater than 36 weeks' gestation. There was good support in theatre by senior obstetricians and anaesthetists. Cell salvage was used in theatre. Overall, the outcomes were good. Improvements could be made on documentation of counselling preoperatively and practice of trans-vaginal scans (TVS) to confirm low lying placentae even at the 20-week scan for better diagnosis, as per the RCOG guidelines. PMID:24702527

  12. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys

  13. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  14. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in beef sold in Kosovo

    HAMDI ALIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in beef used in three regions of Kosovo. Total numbers of 89 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local meat shops for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. Among the beef samples, 14 (15.7% of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones. The mean levels (±SE of quinolones were found to be in average of 28.22 ± 1.11 µg/kg in samples respectively for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and flumequin. This study indicated that some beef meat sold in Kosovo contains residues of quinolone antibiotics. From the evaluation of tested samples is found positive the presence of enrofloxacin in 6 (6.7% beef meat samples and respectively for ciprofloxacin and fumequin in 3 (3, 35% and in 5(5, 6% beef meat samples. Study results confirmed quinolone residues in beef sold in Kosovo as constitute and serious risk for public health. Use of quinolones in treatment of cattle diseases in Kosovo remain an effective method of diseases control but are considered a common way of residues in beef produced and sold in Kosovo.

  15. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  16. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  17. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  18. Selection and Development of Replacement Beef Heifers

    Stenquist, Norris J.; Bennett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Selection, development, management, and nutrition of heifer calves to be used as herd replacements are key factors in maintaining beef herd productivity. A cow/calf producer, to be successful, must have some goals or criterion for heifer selection and development. For practically all Utah cattle production areas, economics dictate that heifers must calve as two-year-olds. Heifers must be properly developed and managed to permit this. The following factors are important: Heifers should 1) beco...

  19. Optimal utilization of the beef chuck

    Benito-Delgado, Julian

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a prerigor CaC12 injection and blade tenderization on several sensory and physical characteristics of beef infraspinatus and longissimus muscles were determined. Blade tenderization resulted in increased tenderness (PO.05), sensory scores for postrigor longissimus muscle. However, no improvements (P>O.05) in tenderness of prerigor CaC12 injected muscles were observed due to blade tenderization. Objective and subjective measurements revealed that prerigor CaCl2 injected muscl...

  20. Valuing Beef Herd Dam Genetic Pedigree Management

    Robertson-Carolan, Jessica; Parcell, Joseph L.; Patterson, David J.; Eakins, Roger; Franken, Jason R.V.

    2011-01-01

    An important component of the beef cow herd is the contribution of the dam to herd profitability. Yet, no research has contributed to valuing the dam’s genetic contribution to herd quality performance or profitability. This paper examines how managing for dam genetic pedigree quality grade affected the outcome of calf crop quality, and simulates the economic impact for different levels of quality premium. The results show that managing for dam pedigree genetics beyond three generations in t...

  1. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  2. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  3. Forecasting beef prices for military subsistence procurement

    Borza, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Defense Subsistence Region Pacific (DSRPAC) is responsible for the acquisition of food products (meat, fresh fruit and vegetables, etc.) for military personnel located west of the Rocky Mountains. In the author's review of current DSRPAC operations, it was observed that capitalizing on price movements was not a consideration during acquisition cf beef products. Using time-series analysis, it was shown that significant...

  4. Características da carcaça de bovinos Canchim e Aberdeen Angus e de seus cruzamentos recíprocos terminados em confinamento Carcass traits of Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and reciprocal crosses finished in confinement

    Daniel Perotto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas quatorze características quantitativas das carcaças de 137 machos bovinos inteiros pertencentes aos grupos Canchim (Ca, Aberdeen Angus (Ab, 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab e 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, nascidos na Estação Experimental Fazenda Modelo, em Ponta Grossa-PR, no período de 1988 a 1993. As médias para a idade e para o peso ao início do confinamento, duração do confinamento, idade e peso ao abate foram, respectivamente, 737 dias, 356kg, 97 dias, 834 dias e 468kg. Durante o confinamento, os garrotes receberam silagem de milho à vontade mais uma ração concentrada (79% de NDT, 17,8% de PB fornecida à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. Os grupos Ca e Ab diferiram entre si para todas as características, exceto para percentagem de costilhar (PEC. O Ca foi superior ao Ab para peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, área de olho de lombo (AOL, conformação, percentagem de músculos (PEM, peso da porção comestível da carcaça (PPC e peso de carcaça quente por dia de vida ao abate (PCQ/DDV. O Ab superou o Ca quanto à espessura de gordura de cobertura (ECG e à percentagem de gordura (PEG. Houve heterose para PCQ, RCQ, AOL, PPC e PCQ/DDV. As duas gerações avançadas de cruzamentos alternados Ca x Ab apresentaram desempenho superior à média das raças paternas para PCQ, RCQ, AOL, PPC e PCQ/DDV. O desempenho de um esquema alternado de cruzamentos entre Ca e Ab seria melhor que o de qualquer dessas duas criada isoladamente.Fourteen quantitative carcass traits of 137 Canchim; 5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, (Ca, Aberdeen Angus (Ab, 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab and 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, born at Est. Exp. Fazenda Modelo, in Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil, from 1988 to 1993, were analyzed. Averages for age at beginning of confinement, initial weight, length of confinement period, final age and final weight were, respectively, 737 days, 356kg, 97 days, 834 days and 468kg. During the confinement period

  5. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  6. Surveying the Feasibility of a Voluntary Beef Checkoff

    Winn, Chris; Norwood, F. Bailey; Chung, Chanjin; Ward, Clement E.

    2004-01-01

    With the possible elimination of the mandatory beef checkoff, some state are considering a voluntary beef checkoff. This study conducts a choice experiment to estimate the feasibility of a state and nationwide voluntary checkoff. Results indicate that a lower fee and a greater focus on advertising may produce a feasible voluntary checkoff.

  7. Yield of warm beef carcass meat from simmental breed

    Kuzelov, Aco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of live weight upon yield of warm beef carcass meat from Simmental breed. Twenty 12 - 18 month-old male bullocks were assigned with average live weight 450,52 ± 4,68 kg. The yield of warm beef carcass meat, edible and non-edible by-products was determined

  8. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  9. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH3 ...

  10. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  11. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments

  12. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  13. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan: consumers’ food safety perceptions and willingness to pay for tested beef

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Ouchi, Hiromi; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as ‘mad cow disease’, in Japan caused anxiety about consuming beef and beef products. As a result, there was a sudden fall in sales of beef that hurt the Japanese beef industry as well as major beef exporters to Japan. We analyse factors that affect Japanese consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) price premiums for BSE-tested beef and estimate the mean WTP for BSE-tested beef using data obtained from a consumer survey in Jap...

  14. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  15. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  16. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  17. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  18. Vertical Coordination in the Evolving High Quality Beef Market (PowerPoint)

    Schroeder, Ted C.

    2010-01-01

    Panelists will discuss vertical aspects of vertical coordination in the beef industry. Focus will include cow herd production management and genetics, calf market price incentives, costs of producing high quality beef, and retail marketing of high quality beef and premium brands. Together this complete vertical supply chain discussion will provide a comprehensive assessment of how the U.S. beef industry can improve beef quality and enhance consumer demand. Implicit in this overview is an asse...

  19. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune; de Smet, Stefaan; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-01-01

    investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... and beef technologies. Information becomes either less relevant when the product is actually tasted, as indicated by the findings in Norway, or more relevant when information is confirmed by own experience during tasting, as indicated by the findings in Belgium....

  20. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  1. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  2. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. PMID:27180327

  3. Pedigree analysis of Italian beef cattle breeds.

    O. Franci; Forabosco, F.; F. Sirtori; Bozzi, R.

    2003-01-01

    Trend in inbreeding is the most frequently used method to quantify the rate of genetic drift but, as pointed out by Maignel et al. (1996), it relies on some assumption that could be not fully satisfied in cattle populations. In fact, trend in inbreeding is very sensitive to the quality of the available pedigree information and some beef cattle populations might have a large amount of missing information. An alternative way to quantify the genetic drift is to utilise the method based on probab...

  4. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  5. Canadian beef quality audit 1998-99.

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Bygrove, S; Gillis, K; Malchow, D.; McLeod, G.

    2001-01-01

    The second beef quality audit was conducted in Canada in 1998-99 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in slaughtered cattle and to monitor changes since the first audit in 1995. Approximately 0.6% of the number of cattle processed annually in Canada were evaluated. Brands were observed on 49% and tag was observed on 43% of the hides. Both brands and tag had increased from 1995. Seventy percent of the cattle were polled and 5% had full horns; thus, the number of horned cattle had dec...

  6. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns. PMID:22063690

  7. The Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies and the “Accelerated Adoption through Sustainable Beef Profit Partnerships†Project

    Griffith, Garry R.; Parnell, Peter F.; Clark, Richard A.; Timms, Janice; Hyland, Paul W.; Mulholland, Cynthia; Alford, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    Technology adoption in the Australian beef industry has been low and slow compared to that in the intensive livestock and cropping industries. Adoption needs to be higher and faster to fully capture the benefits from new beef genetic and other technologies. The principles of rapid improvement and innovation, and accelerated adoption, provide an innovative solution to this problem. In the Beef CRC, Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership (BPP) teams meet regularly to assess their current performan...

  8. THE DEMAND FOR WHOLESALE BEEF CUTS BY SEASON AND TREND

    Namken, Jerry C.; Farris, Donald E.; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This study estimates demand during the 1980-90 period for wholesale beef cuts by season and by trend. A data set containing monthly nominal prices for wholesale cuts and average choice boxed beef from January 1980 to December 1990 was collected from multiple sources. The approach expressed the change in demand for wholesale cuts as the change in the price ratio of individual cuts relative to the price of boxed beef. This approach shows changes in amount by season and over time relative to the...

  9. Beef Meat Allergy in Cow’s Milk Allergic Adults

    Maged Refaat; Amany Kamal; Mohamed Fares; Eman Ossman; Mohamed Attia; Alsayed Elokda

    2011-01-01

    Milk has been recognized as a leading cause of food allergy in children; however, studies on cow’s milk allergy (CMA) in adults are scanty. The known cross-reactivity of bovine serum albumin and bovine γ-globulin which are present in both milk and beef is recognized, so that, patients with allergy to cow’s milk are often instructed to avoid beef. Our Objective was to determine the prevalence of allergy to beef meat in adult patients with allergy to cow’s milk. Thirty adults with CMA were incl...

  10. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  11. Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at

  12. Impact of Government Reform on Beef Market

    Z. Malá, M. Malý

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the simulation of the impact of selected measures of government reforms in the beef market in the Czech Republic. The selected measures of government reforms are defined and specified on the base of available resources in the introduction. Subsequently, these measures are simulated by the model of partial equilibrium of defined market in the practical part. The impacts of the measures on both supply and demand of selected market are then commented, based on formal econometric quantification and verification of model outputs. The analyzed government measures are included in the form of an expected increase in VAT, the movement of the Czech crown, the development of consumer income and the price expectancy in vertical of beef. The results predict negative consequences on domestic market, in particular on the supply side, in the form of a relatively significant reduction in the number of pieces of cattle. These can result in reducing the number of enterprises with intensive fattening or in shifting their focus to other commodities of vegetable nature. On the demand side, the analyzed measures are likely to bring short-term price reductions. However, the steep growth accompanied by a reduction in quality of meat products can be reasonable expected in the long run. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSMT 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  13. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia. PMID:22856572

  14. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Economic considerations related to U.S. beef herd expansion.

    Tonsor, G T; Schulz, L L

    2015-09-01

    Significant attention perpetually surrounds possible changes in breeding herd inventories in the U.S. beef cattle industry. This article outlines economic considerations of U.S. herd expansion. Factors restricting expansion include land availability, increasing production efficiency, operator demographics, capital requirements, and commodity price volatility. Several offsetting factors support herd expansion including unprecedented cow-calf returns, ongoing global beef demand growth, and timing within the current cattle cycle. In addition to these industry-wide factors, several important variations in individual ranch considerations are outlined. The authors' expectations on future herd dynamics are provided, highlighting broader implications for individual operations, industry leaders, and the entire beef-cattle supply chain. The substantial economic impact and importance of the cow-calf sector warrants broader appreciation of these economic factors impacting herd expansion. The future size of the U.S. cattle industry is determined by the individual decisions of over 70,000 cattle owners, making this issue worthy of review by all industry stakeholders. PMID:26440321

  15. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  16. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts representation on... distribution, marketing strategies, and other distinguishing factors that will bring different perspectives...

  17. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would adjust... Shackelford, Marketing Programs Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA,...

  18. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  19. Transmission of beef and veal prices in different marketing channels

    El Benni, Nadja; Finger, Robert; Hediger, Werner

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates price transmission in beef and veal markets in Switzerland. We extend earlier research by analyzing both prices in one system and considering two different marketing channels for meat. VAR and VEC models are estimated using monthly up- and downstream prices collected at the processors’ level for 2004-2013. Tests on Granger causality for these markets suggest that a) multiple product investigation should be preferred over beef (or veal) only analysis and b) the results ...

  20. DOWN MARKET EFFECTS IN BEEF COW-CALF HERDS

    Ott, Stephen L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, prices for weaned calves were at the lowest point for the current cattle market cycle. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Beef ,97 Study examined the effects of the down market on beef cow-calf herd management practices. Most producers did not alter management practices in response to the down market. Among producers who made changes, costs were cut largely in the area of herd health management. Specific management practices in which costs were cut included...

  1. Consumer preferences for ground beef packaged under a modified atmosphere

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H.; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Roosen, Jutta; Sven M. Anders

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify factors that determine consumers’ purchase decisions for ground beef offered with different packaging technologies. Consumers’ increasing knowledge about food technologies and changes in food labeling regulation influence agribusiness’ future product development and marketing strategies. Non-hypothetical choice experiments with ground beef, conducted in the USA, are used to quantify consumers’ valuation of technology-related attributes namely sh...

  2. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chi...

  3. A Market Analysis for Specialty Beef in Virginia

    Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Virginia beef producers have been overwhelmed with increasing costs and decreasing profits as well as facing challenges such as development pressures, drought, increasing competition for grazing land. Together these have reduced opportunities for expansion and often increased incentives for farmers to sell land for non-agriculture use. Nevertheless, opportunities exist for the Virginia beef market. Consumer demand is changing and consumers are seeking food from alternative production systems ...

  4. Tenderness and taste qualification of red brangus beef in Mexico

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte; Ana María Sifuentes-Rincón; Williams Arellano-Vera; Juan Gabriel Magaña-Monforte; José Alberto Ramírez-De León; Gonzalo Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Beef tenderness is an important trait in consumer satisfaction and has been considered as the main trait for palatability, for which reason it is important to evaluate its variability in different cattle breeds. An experiment was designed to evaluate the Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) of Red Brangus cattle rib eye steaks and consumer acceptance. The tenderness of beef rib eye steaks was evaluated by the WBSF. A consumer preference evaluation test was carried out to quantitatively estimate...

  5. Flavour perception of oxidation in beef.

    Campo, M M; Nute, G R; Hughes, S I; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I

    2006-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is a major factor in meat quality. In order to relate human perceptions of lipid oxidation, as determined by a trained taste panel, to a chemical measurement of oxidation, we studied meat from animals with a wide range of potential oxidation through differences in their PUFA composition and by displaying the meat in high oxygen modified atmosphere packs for varying lengths of time. Meat was obtained from 73 Angus- and Charolais-cross steers from different trials that had been raised on 10 different diets: grass silage (high in C18:3, n-3), cereal concentrate (high in C18:2, n-6), three diets with 3% added fat consisting of three levels of protected lipid supplement (high in C18:2, n-6 and C18:3, n-3, ratio 1:1), a control with Megalac(®) (relatively saturated), three diets with three levels of inclusion of protected fish oil (high in C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3) plus a constant amount of unprotected fish oil and a final diet with an unprotected fish oil control. The longissimus dorsi muscle was excised from the left carcass side, aged vacuum packaged for 10-13 days depending on the projects and frozen for less than eight months. TBARS and sensory analyses were performed on steaks displayed for 0, 4 or 9 days under simulated retail conditions, exposed to light in modified atmosphere packaging (CO(2):O(2); 25:75). Meat oxidation increased throughout display for each of the diets, as shown by a rise in TBARS values. This increase was not linear, differences between 0 and 4 days of display were smaller than between 4 and 9 days of display. The lowest TBARS and lowest increment occurred in the two control diets and the grass-fed animals, probably due to the more saturated fat of meat from animals fed the control diets and the higher content of vitamin E. Sensory attributes were also influenced by time of display. Positive attributes, such as beef flavour or overall liking, decreased throughout display, whereas negative attributes, such as abnormal and

  6. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 107 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  7. Beef Marbling Image Segmentation Based on Homomorphic Filtering

    Bin Pang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the influence of uneven illumination and reflect light for beef accurate segmentation, a beef marbling segmentation method based on homomorphic filtering was introduced. Aiming at the beef rib-eye region images in the frequency domain, homomorphic filter was used for enhancing gray, R, G and B 4 chroma images. Then the impact of high frequency /low frequency gain factors on the accuracy of beef marbling segmentation was investigated. Appropriate values of gain factors were determined by the error rate of beef marbling segmentation, and the results of error rate were analyzed comparing to the results without homomorphic filtering. The experimental results show that the error rates of beef marbling segmentation was remarkably reduced with low frequency gain factor of 0.6 and high frequency gain factor of 1.425; Compared with other chroma images, the average error rate (5.38% of marbling segmentation in G chroma image was lowest; Compared to the result without homomorphic filtering, the average error rate in G chroma image has decreased by 3.73%.

  8. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods, and...

  9. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory;

    combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit......Utility cut-off values allow consumers to use simplifying decision strategies to lower the cognitive burden of decision making. Product attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or considered but with a great discount on their values....... This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...

  10. Beef quality grading using machine vision

    Jeyamkondan, S.; Ray, N.; Kranzler, Glenn A.; Biju, Nisha

    2000-12-01

    A video image analysis system was developed to support automation of beef quality grading. Forty images of ribeye steaks were acquired. Fat and lean meat were differentiated using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Muscle longissimus dorsi (l.d.) was segmented from the ribeye using morphological operations. At the end of each iteration of erosion and dilation, a convex hull was fitted to the image and compactness was measured. The number of iterations was selected to yield the most compact l.d. Match between the l.d. muscle traced by an expert grader and that segmented by the program was 95.9%. Marbling and color features were extracted from the l.d. muscle and were used to build regression models to predict marbling and color scores. Quality grade was predicted using another regression model incorporating all features. Grades predicted by the model were statistically equivalent to the grades assigned by expert graders.

  11. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juaneda, Pierre; Durand, Denis; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA co...

  12. De brest à Aberdeen, la croisière 48 du Glomar Challenger From Brest to Aberdee, Glomar Challenger Sails on Leg 48

    L'équipe Scientifique Embarquée

    2006-01-01

    La croisière 48 du Glomar Challenger s'est déroulée en 1976 entre Brest et Aberdeen sur la marge septentrionale du Golfe de Gascogne et le Banc de Rockall. Les sept sites forés ont permis de comparer la structure et l'histoire géologique de deux marges de types différents, formées par rifting, l'une dans une mer épicontinentale, l'autre dans un craton. L'histoire de la subsidence a pu être établie. De nombreux hiatus ont été mis en évidence dans les séries déposées en mer profonde, dont certa...

  13. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  14. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer reacti

  15. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer reactions in light of beef food safety events is critical for policy makers and industry participants. We examine whether consumers altered their beef consumption behavior because of their risk aversion ...

  16. Relationship between Portuguese consumer preferences and textural properties, chemical composition and nutritional value of beef

    Monteiro, Ana Cristina Saragoça Melgado Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Beef is a nutritionally rich product with a high economic value. However in the last decades beef has been target of negative publicity by the media, mainly due to the high content of cholesterol as well as saturated and trans fatty acids (FA). The increasing number of food scares across the Europe over the last years has increased even more consumers’ concerns about beef quality and safety. Despite the health concerns beef sensory properties still remain the main purchasing an...

  17. Evaluation of Beef Marbling Grade Based on Advanced Watershed Algorithm and Neural Network

    Xiangyan Meng; Yonghai Sun; Yuan Ni; Yumiao Ren

    2014-01-01

    As to the problem of inaccurate in traditional grade method of beef marbling, a automatic grading system based on computer vision had been founded and was used to predict the beef quality grade of Chinese yellow cattle. Image processing was used to automatically evaluate the beef marbling grade. Segmentation methods used in rib-eye image of beef carcass was improved watershed algorithm. All grading indicators were obtained by image processing automatically. Four grading indicators, which char...

  18. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle (Longissimus dorsi Muscle) Transcriptome

    Dong CHEN; Li, Wufeng; Du, Min; Wu, Meng; Cao, Binghai

    2015-01-01

    Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H) group and low marbling (L) group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein...

  19. The Effect of Foot and Mouth Disease on Trade and Prices in International Beef Markets

    Jarvis, Lovell S.; Cancino, Jose P.; Bervejillo, Jose E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper develops and uses a two step quantitative model to analyze the effect of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) on international beef markets over time. Using monthly data from 1990-2002 for 7 major beef exporters and for 22 major beef importers, we use a probit equation to estimate the probability that country i exports to country j, taking account of foot and mouth status of exporter, sanitary policy of importer, beef quality, trade preferences, distance, and other factors affecting whether...

  20. Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth

    Persson Waller, Karin; Persson, Ylva; Nyman, Ann-Kristin; Stengärde, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Produ...

  1. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork and poultry products during chilling

    The ability of C. perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in ten commercially prepared acidified beef, pork and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted using organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commer...

  2. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  3. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore, wa

  4. MEASURING THE DEGREE OF MARKET POWER AMONG BEEF EXPORTERS TO JAPAN

    Saghaian, Sayed H.; Reed, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    A residual-demand model for beef exporters to Japan is specified to estimate market power. The analysis is disaggregated by beef cut and form. The results indicate U.S. frozen-ribs category enjoys the highest markup of price over marginal cost, while Australia and New Zealand have some market power, which includes five chilled-beef categories.

  5. Soil nutrients, bacterial communities, and veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle backgrounding confinement on karst environment

    The United States hosts the world’s largest grain fed beef production. Commercial beef production in the US consists of three tiers that include: cow-calf enterprises, cattle backgrounding/stockering, and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding/stockering represents an intermediate between the ...

  6. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: considerations on puberty in replacement beef heifers.

    Gasser, C L

    2013-03-01

    Many important changes occur throughout reproductive development in beef heifers, including during the prenatal, early postnatal, and peripubertal periods. Wave-like patterns of follicular development have been observed in heifer calves as early as 2 wk of age. Some dramatic changes occur from about 2 to 5 mo of age, most notably the transient increase in LH secretion. Most components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are fully competent by approximately 5 to 6 mo of age. Peripubertal changes include increases in LH secretion, estradiol production, follicular development, and reproductive tract size. Eventually, the process reaches the point that the initial ovulation is achieved. Heifers that reach puberty and experience multiple estrous cycles before the onset of their initial breeding season have a greater probability for early conception and optimal lifetime productivity. Attainment of puberty typically occurs at around 12 to 14 mo of age in beef heifers but varies greatly. Genetic differences and environmental factors contribute to this variation. In typical U.S. cow-calf operations, calves are generally weaned at approximately 200 d of age. The impact of postweaning management on age at puberty in heifers has been demonstrated, and there is considerable flexibility in the timing of gain from weaning to breeding. However, even when heifers are grown to the desired BW before the start of breeding, there remains a pronounced variation in the timing of puberty, which impacts pregnancy rates. Less attention has been focused on the impact of preweaning management on age at puberty. Heifer calves with increased growth rates from birth to weaning have reached puberty at earlier ages. Precocious puberty has also been induced in a majority of heifers with early weaning and feeding a high-concentrate diet. Nutritional control during early maturation in heifers exerts a substantial influence on the timing of puberty. Understanding the mechanisms involved in

  7. Prediction Method of Beef Marbling Standard Number Using Parameters Obtained from Image Analysis for Beef Ribeye

    口田, 圭吾; 鶴田, 彰吾; L.D. Van, Vleck; 鈴木, 三義; 三好, 俊三; KUCHIDA, Keigo; SUZUKI, Mitsuyoshi; Miyoshi, Shunzo

    1999-01-01

    Factors affecting the difference between the Beef Marbling Standard (BMS) numberassigned by examiners (BMSSUB) and the BMS number estimated from marbling percentage by imageanalysis (BMSFAT) were investigated. Pictures of ribeye area of 106 Japanese Black steers withBMSSUB were used. Marbling percentage in ribeye area,means and standard deviations of the areaand of the form score for marbling particles classified into 5 levels (over 0.01,0.05,0.1,0.5,and 1.0 cm2),and standard deviations of ma...

  8. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16......The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  9. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  10. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  11. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Karakaya, Mustafa; Hüsnü Yusuf GÖKALP; YETİM, Hasan

    1997-01-01

    Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver) and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil) were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC) was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the ...

  12. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products

    Jeon, Ki Hong; Hwang, Yoon Seon; Kim, Young Boong; Kim, Eun Mi; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP...

  13. Domestic and Trade Impacts of Foot and Mouth Disease and BSE on the Australian Beef Industry

    Tozer, Peter R.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Perevodchikov, Evgeniy V.

    2010-01-01

    Although Australia is the sixth largest producer of beef, with production of 2 million metric tonnes, behind regions such as the USA, Brazil and the EU it is the second largest exporter of beef behind Brazil. Average beef exports from Australia are approximately 65% of the total amount of beef produced or about 1.3 million metric tonnes. For these reasons Australia is particularly vulnerable to diseases that are not endemic to the country and could close or disrupt its export markets for beef...

  14. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  15. The relevance of methane emissions from beef production and the challenges of the Argentinean beef production platform.

    Rearte, D H; Pordomingo, A J

    2014-11-01

    The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems. In Argentina, the livestock area was reduced in favor of increasing the grain cropping area, which took place in the last two decades. Production systems were intensified to maintain cattle stock. Cattle programs changed from 100% pasture to pasture supplemented with cereal grains and conserved forages, and confinement on grain feeding for fattening was incorporated. Due to land sharing competition with cash crops, no increment of cattle stock is expected therefore improving production efficiency appears as the only way to increase beef production while reducing methane emissions intensity. Beef produced on intensive grazing systems on supplemented pastures maintained organoleptic, nutritional and lipid profile than that of beef produced on pure grazing systems. PMID:25027797

  16. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  17. Space Weather: Where Is The Beef?

    Koskinen, H. E. J.

    Space weather has become a highly fashionable topic in solar-terrestrial physics. It is perhaps the best tool to popularise the field and it has contributed significantly to the dialogue between solar, magnetospheric, and ionospheric scientist, and also to mu- tual understanding between science and engineering communities. While these are laudable achievements, it is important for the integrity of scientific space weather re- search to recognise the central open questions in the physics of space weather and the progress toward solving them. We still lack sufficient understanding of the solar physics to be able to tell in advance when and where a solar eruption will take place and whether it will turn to a geoeffective event. There is much to do to understand ac- celeration of solar energetic particles and propagation of solar mass ejecta toward the Earth. After more than 40 years of research scientific discussion of energy and plasma transfer through the magnetopause still deals mostly with qualitative issues and the rapid acceleration processes in the magnetosphere are not yet explained in a satisfac- tory way. Also the coupling to the ionosphere and from there to the strong induction effects on ground is another complex of research problems. For space weather science the beef is in the investigation of these and related topics, not in marketing half-useful space weather products to hesitant customers.

  18. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2009-01-01

    the perception of intrinsic quality cues. Furthermore, the study attempts to investigate how quality expectations are related to quality experience and future purchase intention after blind-tasting of beef steaks. Results show that extrinsic quality cues influence perception of intrinsic quality cues. Brand......The main objectives of the present study are to understand how Portuguese consumers perceive beef quality in a real-life purchase environment, which intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues consumers use when evaluating and forming beef quality expectations, and how extrinsic quality cues influence...... was found to be the predominant extrinsic quality cue. Consumers used brand both for perception of intrinsic quality cues and for inference of quality expectations. Future purchase intention is mainly influenced by experienced eating quality....

  19. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. PMID:20696533

  20. Competitiveness of the EU Beef Sector – a Case Study

    Z. Smeets Kristková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elements of competitiveness of the EU beef sector are assessed using the value chain approach. Consequently, the impact of the external factors represented by domestic policy and foreign trade policy is discussed, with the aim of deriving recommendations for policy makers. It is shown that investing in collaborative supply chains can improve the disadvantaged position of beef producers, which have the least power in the supply chain. Furthermore, the domains of science and innovation provide several opportunities that could be further explored, namely improving the logistics of the supply chain and developing more tailored quality systems. The main threats stem from potential free trade agreements, climate change and the internal competition between other agricultural crops. Better targeting of the CAP and environmental aspects are suggested to maintain the competitiveness of European beef producers.

  1. Beef production in balance: considerations for life cycle analyses.

    Place, Sara E; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2012-11-01

    Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) are useful tools to analyze a product's "carbon footprint" (e.g., the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions expressed as standardized carbon dioxide equivalents per unit of product) considering all phases of the production chain. For beef, an LCA would include the GHG emissions from feed production, from the enteric fermentation of the cattle, from the cattle's waste, and from processing and transportation. Identifying the scope and scale of the LCA is critical and key to preventing inappropriate applications of the analysis (e.g., applying a global LCA for beef to the regional or national scale). Ideally, a LCA can integrate the complex biogeochemical processes responsible for GHG emissions and the disparate animal and agricultural management techniques used be different phases of the beef production chain (e.g., feedlot vs. cow-calf) and different production systems (e.g., conventional vs. organic). PMID:22551868

  2. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  3. Beef HACCP: intervention and non-intervention systems.

    Bolton, D J; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J

    2001-05-21

    While there are several generic beef HACCP documents available to the beef industry, these lack sufficient detail to be of any use other than as a general guide to HACCP. A document which clearly identifies and provides a sound scientific basis for potential critical control points (CCPs') and details critical limits, monitoring and corrective actions is clearly required. The objective of this paper is to provide such information. A detailed description of CCPs' for two different HACCP systems (an intervention and a non-intervention system) are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Individual beef plants may then make an informed choice as to which HACCP system is most suitable for them and have all the specific information required for effective implementation. PMID:11407541

  4. ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF CHANGING FEED-BEEF PRICE RELATIONSHIPS ON BEEF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN HAWAII: A DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH

    van Poollen, H. Walter; Leung, PingSun

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic programming approach was used to evaluate the effect of changing the feed input to product price relationship on the beef production management decision process. The dynamic programming model consists of nine submodels describing and analyzing the time-dependent beef production management decision process. The model incorporates biological functions and economic principles. Results clearly showed the importance of the feed-beef price relationships in management decision making. Opti...

  5. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  6. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

  7. Evaluation of Beef Marbling Grade Based on Advanced Watershed Algorithm and Neural Network

    Xiangyan Meng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As to the problem of inaccurate in traditional grade method of beef marbling, a automatic grading system based on computer vision had been founded and was used to predict the beef quality grade of Chinese yellow cattle. Image processing was used to automatically evaluate the beef marbling grade. Segmentation methods used in rib-eye image of beef carcass was improved watershed algorithm. All grading indicators were obtained by image processing automatically. Four grading indicators, which characterize the size, number and distribution of marbling particles, were proposed for the inputs of neural network prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the image processing methods were effective. The grading system based on computer vision and neural network model can better predict the beef quality grading. The prediction accuracy of beef marbling grade was 86.84%. Algorithm proposed in this study proved the image processing and neural network modeling is an effective method for beef marbling grading.

  8. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  9. Irradiation of ground beef with the purpose of refrigerated storage

    Ground beef packaged in polyethylene film was irradiated at different dose levels ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 Mrad and stored at 3+-10C. Bacteriological and organoleptic evaluations were carried out immediately after irradiation and at weekly intervals thereafter. The red color of the meat was darker after irradiation and this darkening increased with radiation dose. This color change was limited to the surface of the samples. The results of the bacteriological and organoleptic examination indicate that irradiation at 0.25 Mrad permits refrigerated storage of ground beef for 3 weeks, 0,5 Mrad for 6 weeks. Coliforms were found only in non-irradiated samples

  10. U.S. Grass-Fed Beef: Marketing Health Benefits

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Li, Quan; Wandschneider, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Grass-fed beef is a product with health benefits that may appeal to health-conscious consumers. This article analyzes the results of a choice experiment to explore the importance of health benefits in the marketing of grass fed beef. Both price and fat and calories have a negative effect on the choice of the product, and higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids have a positive effect. Price is the most important attribute to respondents (39.5%), a low level of fat and calories is the second most ...

  11. De brest à Aberdeen, la croisière 48 du Glomar Challenger From Brest to Aberdee, Glomar Challenger Sails on Leg 48

    L'équipe Scientifique Embarquée

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La croisière 48 du Glomar Challenger s'est déroulée en 1976 entre Brest et Aberdeen sur la marge septentrionale du Golfe de Gascogne et le Banc de Rockall. Les sept sites forés ont permis de comparer la structure et l'histoire géologique de deux marges de types différents, formées par rifting, l'une dans une mer épicontinentale, l'autre dans un craton. L'histoire de la subsidence a pu être établie. De nombreux hiatus ont été mis en évidence dans les séries déposées en mer profonde, dont certains sont contemporains d'événements connus sur le plateau continental. Des marnes noires riches en matière organique d'origine détritique ont été trouvées dans le golfe de Gascogne. Elles ont pu se déposer aussi bien en mer profonde que sur le plateau continental. Des mesures de paléomagnétisme, de flux de chaleur et des diagraphies ont été effectuées avec succès. Leg 48 by the Glomar Challenger took place in 1976, between Brest and Aberdeen, on the northern margin of the Bay of Biscay and the Rockall Bank. The seven drilling sites enabled a comparison ta be made of the structure and geological history of two different types of margins, both formed by rifting, one in an epicontinental sea and the other in a craton. The history of subsidence was determined. A great many gaps were revealed in the series deposited in deep water, including some that are contemporary with events known on the continental shelf. Blackshales rich in organic motter of detrital origin were found in the Bay of Biscay. They may have been deposited either in deep water or on the continental shelf. Successful paleomagnetism and heat flow measurements were made, along with well logging.

  12. Chemical basis for beef charqui meat texture

    Elza Y. Youssef

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the relationship of charqui meat (CHM chemical composition with the tenderness throughout its production. CHM was prepared from beef Vastus lateralis of 4-5 years old. Shear force of fresh CHM showed an approx. 3-fold increase in toughness compared to the raw material while, in the case of cooked CHM it was 6-fold increased in relation to the raw charqui. The moisture content decreased by 39.0 and 58.0% (pEste trabalho avaliou a relação entre a composição química aproximada do charque (CHM com a maciez durante todas as etapas de sua produção. CHM foi produzida do m. Vastus lateralis bovino (patinho de aproximadamente 4-5 anos de idade. A força de cisalhamento do charque cru mostrou o valor aproximado de 3 vezes maior em dureza comparada à matéria prima enquanto que no caso do CHM cozido houve 6 vezes maior em aumento sob as mesmas condições.O índice de umidade diminui de 39 a 58% (p<0,05 para CHM cru e cozido, respectivamente, em relação à matéria prima. O modelo matemático da influência destes componentes mostrou que a força de cisalhamento aumentou exponencialmente com a perda de umidade. A textura do charque é o resultado da associação de multifatores envolvendo proteínas miofibrilares que provocam eventos bioquímicos dinâmicos como a sua ligação com as moléculas da água. É a quantidade destas que determina a textura final do charque.

  13. Factors affecting puberty in replacement beef heifers.

    Perry, G A

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is defined as when ovulation is accompanied by visual signs of estrus and subsequent normal luteal function. Age at puberty is an important trait in relation to reproductive success, productive life span, and profitability in beef operations. Although puberty and initiation of normal estrous cycles are complex events that require maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, it has been well documented that nutrition, age, and genetics are regulators of age at puberty. However, their role is mainly as regulators of the endocrine maturation that must occur for sustained ovarian cyclicity to be initiated. Increased growth rate between 4 and 7 months of age is apparently sufficient to induce early puberty, and this increased growth rate decreased the negative feedback of estradiol on LH secretion during the prepubertal period. As puberty approaches, a progressive decrease in the negative feedback of estradiol on GnRH secretion allows increased pulse frequency of LH, thus stimulating follicular growth and increased estradiol production. In addition, expression of estrogen receptors in the anterior hypothalamus and ventromedial nucleus is negatively correlated with LH pulse frequency. Although a significant number of genes and pathways are involved in neuromaturation for the initiation of normal estrous cycles, the inhibitory effects of neuropeptide Y on GnRH/LH release appear to decrease, and the stimulatory effect of melanocyte-stimulating hormone alpha on GnRH appears to increase as puberty approaches. Thus, a thorough understanding of the metabolic and neuroendocrine changes that occur to initiate normal estrous cycles is needed to facilitate management of the important reproductive event. PMID:27160450

  14. Qualidade do sêmen de touros das raças Aberdeen Angus e Brangus-Ibagé em frente à degeneração testicular experimental induzida por dexametasona Bulls semen quality of Aberdeen Angus and Brangus-Ibagé breeds after experimental testicular degeneration induced by dexamethasone

    Marilise Mesquita Horn

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi administrada dexametasona para indução de degeneração testicular experimental em touros de uma raça taurina pura (Aberdeen Angus e de sua sintética derivada (Brangus-Ibagé. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de averiguar a diferença de sensibilidade na função gametogênica em frente à degeneração experimental. Para tal, foram avaliados os aspectos físicos e morfológicos do sêmen. Os dados obtidos foram analisados considerando o dia de coleta e genótipo. Os resultados revelaram que os dois grupos raciais comportaram-se semelhantemente ao longo das coletas. A despeito do número de animais empregados, o uso da degeneração testicular experimental possibilitou evidenciar que não há diferença entre as duas raças quanto à intensidade da degeneração e tempo necessário para o restabelecimento do quadro espermático normal.Testicular degeneration was induced by dexamethasone injection in bulls from a European breed Aberdeen Angus and a derived synthetic crossbreed (Brangus-Ibagé. Aiming to investigate differential sensibility on gametogenic function in these genotypes, physical and morphological semen characteristics were evaluated. The data analysed considered the day of the semen samples and the breed. Our results reveal that both breeds behave similarly during the experimental period. Even considering the number of bulls used in this experiment, the employed methodology gives no evidence of any difference between breeds, intensity of degeneration or time required to the reestablishment of normal sperm frequencies after experimental induction of testicular degeneration.

  15. Proteomic profiling of bovine M. longissimus lumborum from Crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue sired steers varying in genetic merit for carcass weight

    Keady, S.M.; Kenny, D. A.; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB)...

  16. Consumer assessment of beef palatability from four beef muscles from USDA Choice and Select graded carcasses.

    Hunt, M R; Garmyn, A J; O'Quinn, T G; Corbin, C H; Legako, J F; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2014-09-01

    Consumer sensory analysis was conducted to determine differences in beef palatability between two quality grade categories [Upper 2/3 (Top) Choice and Select] and four muscles [longissimus lumborum (LL), gluteus medius (GM), serratus ventralis (SV), and semimembranosus (SM)]. Generally, tenderness, flavor, and overall liking scores were more desirable for Top Choice compared to Select, regardless of muscle. Consumers rated LL as more tender (P0.05) between LL, GM, and SV, regardless of quality grade. Consumer overall liking was most highly correlated with flavor liking (r=0.85). When tenderness was acceptable, flavor and juiciness played a major role in determining overall acceptability. Overall liking of GM and SV from Top Choice carcasses was superior to LL from Select carcasses and comparable to LL from Top Choice carcasses. PMID:24807188

  17. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  18. Performance and carcass characteristics of beef cattle fed with ammoniated marandugrass hay Desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos de corte alimentados com fenos de capim-marandu amonizados

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted aiming to evaluate the effects of Brachiaria brizantha vegetative seed harvest residues hay treated with anhydrous ammonia (NH3 or urea, and protein sources on the steers performance, and carcass quality. Twenty-four male beef cattle were (12 F1 Nellore X Aberdeen Angus and 12 F1 Nellore X Red Angus, distributed in four treatments, with six replications. Animal crossbreed type and initial body weight were considered blocks. The diets were: Untreated hay supplemented with non-protein nitrogen (UHNPN; untreated hay supplemented with cottonseed meal (UHCM, hay treated with 5% urea (HTU, hay treated with 3% anhydrous ammonia (HTA of DM%. Diets were formulated to be isoproteic and isoenergetic. The initial body weight (kg, daily DM intake (kg, and percentage of body weight (% BW did not differ among treatments, and the average values observed were 422.6 kg, 10.24 kg, and 2.16% BW, respectively. Animals fed with HTA showed better daily weight gain, feed efficiency, 1.336 kg/day, and 7.78 kg/kg of weight gain, followed by the UHCM, 1.161 kg/day, and 8.98 kg/kg, respectively. Animals of the HTA showed highest NDF, ADF and cellulose intake. Carcass fat thickness was highest on the HTA animals, 6.3 mm.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão da amônia anidra ou ureia em fenos de resíduo pós-colheita de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha e da fonte proteica suplementar ao feno não-tratado sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de bovinos confinados. Vinte e quatro animais não-castrados (12 animais F1 Nelore Aberdeen Angus, variedade preta, e 12 F1 Nelore Aberdeen Angus, variedade vermelha foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos, totalizando seis repetições, considerando blocos o cruzamento e o peso inicial. As dietas experimentais consistiram de feno não-tratado suplementado com nitrogênio não-proteico; feno não-tratado suplementado com farelo de algodão; feno tratado com 5% de ureia; e

  19. DRY NONHEATED ANAEROBIC BIOGAS FERMENTATION USING AGED BEEF CATTLE MANURE

    Biogas production at beef cattle feedlots is hard to justify because of the large amounts of dilution water required and the high cost to design and operate conventional water-based digestion systems. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of producing biogas us...

  20. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  1. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds. PMID:27180326

  2. MODELING THE FARM-RETAIL PRICE SPREAD FOR BEEF

    Wohlgenant, Michael K.; Mullen, John D.

    1987-01-01

    A new model for the farm-retail price spread, which accounts for both farm supply and retail demand changes, is introduced. This model is applied to beef, and its empirical performance relative to the markup pricing formulation is evaluated using nonnested testing procedures. The results are consistent with theory and indicate the markup pricing model is misspecified.

  3. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    risks of each one of them. The obtained data was consecutively transcribed, coded and analysed by using the software package NVivo 7. The results reveal a dependency between the acceptance of novel beef products and how consumers perceive the characteristics of the innovation itself. Excess manipulation...

  4. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  5. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check. PMID:23261533

  6. Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

  7. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.

    1998-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  8. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  9. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  10. Water-quality and water-level data for a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, October 1998-September 1999

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Mount, Mastin M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents water-quality data for ground-water and surface-water samples and water-level data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1998 through September 1999 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network includes 88 wells or piezometers, including four 2-inch wells, two 4-inch wells, thirty 0.75-inch piezo-meters, and fifty-two 0.25-inch piezometers. Water levels were measured in 105 wells or piezometers. Surface-water samples were collected at five sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents during three sampling rounds: March, May through June, and July through August of 1999. Inorganic constituents and organic constituents were analyzed in samples collected from 0.25-inch piezometers during three sampling rounds in February through March, May, and September of 1999. Water levels were measured in October and November of 1998, and in February and May of 1999. Surface-water samples were collected between February and August of 1999 for analysis of organic constituents.

  11. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  12. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. PMID:23644048

  13. EFFECTS OF FORAGE SPECIES ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BEEF LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE FROM FORAGE-FINISHED BEEF

    Forty-seven Angus-crossbred steers were used to evaluate the effects of forage species grazed in the last 41 d of the finishing period on rib composition, color, and palatability in forage-finished beef and compared to traditional high concentrate finished. Steers grazed naturalized pastures (bluegr...

  14. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P < 0·01) to muscle to bone ratio R(2) = 0·41). Data suggest that muscle to bone ratios differ widely among beef carcasses of similar genetic-management history and that there are carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio. PMID:22054706

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland.

    Khen, B K; Lynch, O A; Carroll, J; McDowell, D A; Duffy, G

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the prevalence, concentration and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in the Irish beef chain. A total of 900 samples including bovine hides, carcasses and ground beef were examined for the pathogen over a 2-year study (July 2007-June 2009). Salmonella prevalence was low in all sample types; bovine hide (0.75%, 3 of 400); carcasses (0.25%, 1 of 400); and ground beef (3%, 3 of 100). All positive samples contained the pathogen in low concentrations (Dublin from hide and carcasses and S. Braenderup in ground beef. All isolates were susceptible to 13 anti-microbials. The study highlights that Salmonella can be found at low levels at all stages of beef chain production, processing and retail and that there is a need for multiple hurdle interventions and practices along the beef chain, which will reduce consumer exposure to this pathogen. PMID:24495534

  16. How Do Ratite Meats Compare with Beef?: Implications for the Ratite Industry

    Taylor, Gary; Andrews, Linda; Jeffrey M. Gillespie; Schupp, Alvin R.; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    1998-01-01

    Emu and ostrich meats were compared with beef to identify and quantify their sensory attributes. A sensory panel was used to compare U.S. Department of Agriculture Choice top sirloin beef with emu and ostrich meat, both ground and intact forms. Comparisons of sensory quality and acceptability were made after zero, two, four and six months of frozen storage. Differences in flavor, juiciness and texture were detected between ratite meats and beef (the control). The differences were more pronoun...

  17. Multi-criteria Assessment of Innovative Technology in the Beef Industry

    Hayley Moreland; Paul Hyland

    2010-01-01

    In Australia rural research and development corporations and companies expended over $AUS500 million on agricultural research and development. A substantial proportion of this is invested in R&D in the beef industry. The Australian beef industry exports almost $AUS5billionof product annually and invest heavily in new product development to improve the beef quality and improve production efficiency.  Review points are critical for effective new product development, yet many research and develo...

  18. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef

    Cheng, Jen-Hua; Ockerman, Herbert W.

    2013-01-01

    Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. T...

  19. PROFIT ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL BEEF CATTLE FARM IN MINAHASA REGENCY, INDONESIA

    Sahrun DALIE; Erwin WANTASEN; Selvie, D. ANIS; Stevie. P. PANGEMANAN

    2016-01-01

    A traditional beef cattle farm agribusiness needs the development in farmer’s way of thinking, from production for family or market need, to production for higher profit, and this could be achieved by adapting the economic principles. The objective of this study was to find out business information for profitable business. This study was carried out on beef cattle farmers group in Kanonang III Village, Kawangkoan District, Minahasa Regency. Results showed that raising 10 beef cattles resulted...

  20. Getting Access Into the EU Market: A Coordination Challenge for the Brazilian Beef Chain

    Soares, Manoel Rossi; Miranda, Silvia Helena Galvao de; Zuurbier, Peter J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is the world beef export leader since 2004, when he Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the United States and the severe draught in Australia dropped those countries beef exports and gave Brazilian beef chain a unique opportunity to enter in new markets. Brazil is facing now a major challenge in terms of aggregating value, since its export volume is already stabilizing. The European Union (EU) represents the most demanding market in terms of quality and one in which Brazil...

  1. What's for dinner?: viral metagenomics of US store bought beef, pork, and chicken

    Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the metagenomics-derived viral sequences detected in beef, pork, and chicken purchased from stores in San Francisco. In beef we detected four previously reported viruses (two parvoviruses belonging to different genera, an anellovirus, and one circovirus-like virus) and one novel bovine polyomavirus species (BPyV2-SF) whose closest relatives infect primates. Porcine hokovirus in beef indicated that this parvovirus can infect both ungulate species. In pork we detected four know...

  2. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING CONSUMERS' FRESH BEEF CUT PURCHASING DECISIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, JAPAN, AND AUSTRALIA

    Erikson, Glade R.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; SHI, HONGQI

    1998-01-01

    The effects of product and economic characteristics on consumers who purchase six cuts of fresh beef (blocks/parts, steak, thinly sliced, diced, chopped, and ground) in urban areas of the United States, Japan, and Australia will be examined in this paper. Certain product characteristics (such as product freshness and display case cleanliness) were important to consumers of beef in all three countries while other product characteristics (such as price considerations for ground beef consumers) ...

  3. Meat Standards Australia as an Innovation in the Australian Beef Production and Marketing System

    Griffith, Garry R.; Thompson, John M.; Polkinghorne, Rod; Gunner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Variable eating quality was identified as a major contributor to declining Australian beef consumption in the early 1990s. The primary issue was the inability to predict the eating quality of cooked beef before consumption. A R&D program funded by industry and Meat and Livestock Australia investigated the relationships between critical control points along the supply chain, cooking methods and beef palatability. These relationships were underpinned by extensive consumer taste panels. Out of t...

  4. Characterization of Genes for Beef Marbling Based on Applying Gene Coexpression Network

    Dajeong Lim; Nam-Kuk Kim; Seung-Hwan Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Yong-Min Cho; Han-Ha Chai; Heebal Kim

    2014-01-01

    Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large d...

  5. Core competences of brazilian beef exporters to Europe: a multi-case study

    Jose Stamato Neto; Rosane Chicarelli Alcantara

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the research was the analysis of the core competences of some of the most important Brazilian beef processors and exporters to European Union. These core competencies are sources of competitive advantage and could allow Brazilian beef processors increasing their competitiveness. The research was structured as a multi-case study. The research mapped 19 core competences which support beef exports to the European Union. The most important core competences which leverage Bra...

  6. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  7. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

    Shawish, Reyad R; Al-Humam, Naser A

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs) in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon) were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of S. aureus. Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates. The percentage presence of S. aureus in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted. PMID:27088066

  8. Interações entre monensina sódica, óleo de soja e fontes de nitrogênio no desempenho de novilhos Aberdeen Angus em confinamento

    Lana Rogério de Paula; Fox Danny G.

    2001-01-01

    Quarenta novilhos Aberdeen Angus foram usados para avaliar o efeito da monensina, óleo de soja e fontes de nitrogênio (farelo de soja ou uréia) sobre o desempenho de novilhos em dietas com 90% de concentrado. A monensina diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca em dietas contendo farelo de soja e o peso corporal aos 56 e 112 dias. O óleo diminuiu o ganho de peso nos períodos de 57-112 dias e 1-112 dias, enquanto a monensina diminuiu o ganho de peso nestes períodos nas dietas contendo farelo de soja...

  9. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  10. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  11. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  12. Experimental verification of the possibility to estimate senzoric and quality parameters of beef with use of bioimpedance

    Říha, J.; Kadlec, R.; Vondra, Vlastimil; Bezdíček, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2009), s. 38-49. ISSN 0139-7265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : beef quality * biompedance * basic chemical composition of beef Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  13. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  14. Heterosis para el peso y la ganancia de peso desde el nacimiento hasta los 18 meses en el cruce de bovinos aberdeen angus por cebú.

    Arango Ulloa Astrid Johanna

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se tuvieron en cuenta 2032 observaciones para el análisis de peso al nacimiento, ganancia predestete y peso al destete y 603 para ganancia de peso posdestete y peso a los 18 meses, de machos y hembras nacidas entre 1994 y 1996 en la "Hacienda Cuba", localizada en el municipio de Montelíbano, departamento de Córboba. Para determinar la influencia de los diferentes factores genéticos y no genéticos sobre las variables estudiadas, se utilizó el programa de mínimos cuadrados de Harvey (1988. En los modelos para el peso al nacimiento, ganancia diaria predestete, peso al destete, ganancia diaria posdestete y peso a los 18 meses fueron considerados los siguientes factores: año de nacimiento, época de nacimiento, grupo genético de la cría, (Aberdeen Angus x Cebú y Cebú Comercial,sexo de la cría, mes de destete, época de destete, año de destete, mes de pesaje a los 18 meses. Según el modelo estudiado se tuvieron en cuenta como variables al destete, el peso al nacimiento y el peso ajustado al destete. La mayor parte de los factores no genéticos tuvieron efecto significativo (P<0,05, no siendo significativa la época de destete para el modelo de peso a los 18 meses.

  15. Assessment of soil, surface-water, and ground-water contamination at selected sites at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water resources investigations

    Phelan, D.J.; Olsen, L.D.; Cashel, M.L.; Tegeler, J.L.; Marchand, E.H.

    1998-08-01

    J-Field is located at the southernmost tip of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay, in Harford County, Maryland. J-Field has been used by the U. S. Army since World War I as a testing ground for munitions, including chemical- warfare agents. From shortly after World War II into the 1970`s, chemical- warfare agents, high-explosive munitions, and industrial chemicals were tested and disposed of at J-Field by open-pit burning and by high-explosive demolition. Only emergency disposal operations have been conducted at J-Field since the early 1980`s. Soil, surface-water, and ground-water contamination has resulted from the migration of unburned chemicals and fuels from the disposal areas. Discharge of contaminants from ground water and runoff has resulted in surface- water contamination in the marshes and ponds in J-Field. This investigation was conducted from 1989 to 1994 as part of a remedial investigation of J-Field in response to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) requirements. The nature and extent of contamination was assessed at five sites: the toxic-materials disposal area, the white-phosphorus disposal area, the riot-control-agent disposal area, the Robins Point demolition area, and the prototype building area. The toxic-materials disposal area was the most contaminated of the five sites investigated. Most of the soil- and surface- water contamination was detected in the marsh area to the east of the disposal pits. High concentrations of lead, antimony, cadmium, copper, and mercury were detected in soils at the edge of this marsh. Lead concentrations as high as 51 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) and concentrations of other trace metals were highest in surface water at the edge of the marsh.

  16. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases. PMID:25654945

  17. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds.

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-02-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  18. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  19. Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–

    R. A. Al-Sanjary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

  20. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. PMID:25282702

  1. Stability during cooking of anthelmintic veterinary drug residues in beef

    Cooper, Kevin Mark; Whelan, Michelle; Danaher, Martin; Kennedy, David Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anthelmintic drugs are widely used for treatment of parasitic worms in livestock but little is known about the stability of their residues in food under conventional cooking conditions. As part of the European Commission-funded research project ProSafeBeef, cattle were medicated with commercially available anthelmintic preparations, comprising 11 active ingredients (corresponding to 21 marker residues). Incurred meat and liver were cooked by roasting (40 min at 190?C) or...

  2. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    B. Ronchi; P. P. Danieli; U. Bernabucci; A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova) were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenol (ZEN)]. Total mixed rations (TMR) resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  3. Sensory and Instrumental Texture Properties of Flaked and Formed Beef

    Cardello, Armand V.; Segars, Ronald A.; Secrist, John; Smith, Joseph; Cohen, Sam H.; Rosenkrans, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess the sensory textural properties, consumer acceptability and instrumental-sensory correlates of flaked and formed beef steaks. In Experiment 1, the effects of additions of NaCI, TPP and soy isolate on the texture of steaks were examined using a trained texture profile panel, and the texture of these steaks was compared to that of intact muscle (ribeye) steaks. Results showed large differences between the flaked and formed samples and the ribeye steak, ...

  4. Soybean silage in the diet for beef cattle

    João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Karina Guimarães Ribeiro; Rasmo Garcia; Andreia Santos Cezário

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of molasses with or without microbial additive on soybean silage regarding the intake, digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four treatments (diets with soybean silage (SS), SS with microbial inoculant, SS with molasses and SS with microbial inoculant and molasses) and seven replications. Animal were feedlot fed for 99 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio of 70:30, the forage...

  5. Economic Analysis of Pharmaceutical Technologies in Modern Beef Production

    Lawrence, John D.; Ibarburu, Maro A.

    2007-01-01

    Cattle production is the largest single agricultural sector in the U.S. with cash receipts of $49.2 billion in 2005. Like the rest of agriculture cattle producers have adopted efficiency and quality improving technology to meet consumer demands for a safe, wholesome, and affordable food supply. This research uses meta analysis to combine over 170 research trials evaluating pharmaceutical technologies in the cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot segments of beef production. These results were used to...

  6. Technology of production of beef of special quality

    Pavlovski Zlatica; Aleksić Stevica; Cmiljanić Ratimir; Škrbić Zdenka; Lukić Miloš; Stojanović Ljiljana

    2004-01-01

    By applying the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances with French fattening/meat breeds (Charolais and Limousine) young cattle is obtained with better fattening traits as well as traits of carcass and meat quality. Application of the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances, beside significant increase of the quantity of high quality beef meat, would also have positive effect on the economical...

  7. A survey of beef muscle color and pH.

    Page, J K; Wulf, D M; Schwotzer, T R

    2001-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to define a beef carcass population in terms of muscle color, ultimate pH, and electrical impedance; to determine the relationships among color, pH, and impedance and with other carcasses characteristics; and to determine the effect of packing plant, breed type, and sex class on these variables. One thousand beef carcasses were selected at three packing plants to match the breed type, sex class, marbling score, dark-cutting discount, overall maturity, carcass weight, and yield grade distributions reported for the U.S. beef carcass population by the 1995 National Beef Quality Audit. Data collected on these carcasses included USDA quality and yield grade data and measurements of muscle color (L*, a*, b*), muscle pH, and electrical impedance of the longissimus muscle. About one-half (53.1%) of the carcasses fell within a muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.49, and 81.3% of the carcasses fell within a longissimus muscle pH range of 5.40 to 5.59. A longissimus muscle pH of 5.87 was the approximate cut-off between normal and dark-cutting carcasses. Frequency distributions indicated that L* values were normally distributed, whereas a* and b* values were abnormally distributed (skewed because of a longer tail for lower values, a tail corresponding with dark-cutting carcasses). Electrical impedance was highly variable among carcasses but was not highly related to any other variable measured. Color measurements (L*, a*, b*) were correlated (P Brahman-type (pH = 5.46, L* = 39.75, a* = 25.17, and b* = 11.05) carcasses (P < 0.05). PMID:11263828

  8. The water footprint of English beef and lamb production

    Chatterton, Julia C.; Hess, Tim M.; Williams, Adrian G

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports highlighting large quantities of water required to produce a kilo of meat have attracted media attention, leading to debates over the role of meat in a sustainable diet. Such reports frequently quote figures based on global averages and therefore conceal significant regional variation, ignoring the source of the water required and local climatic conditions. This report attempts to quantify the water footprint of English beef and lamb production, combining the water simulation m...

  9. Influence of pelvic suspension on beef meat quality

    Lundesjö Ahnström, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of pelvic suspension on beef with different background and different genders. The response to pelvic suspension was studied in longissimus, semimembranosus, adductor, gluteus and psoas muscles from young bulls, bulls, heifers and cows. Prolonged ageing time until 14 days was evaluated for longissimus from heifers. It was concluded that pelvic suspension reduced shear force values for pelvic- compared to achilles-suspended sides in all muscl...

  10. MARKETING IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NATIONAL CONSUMER BEEF STUDY

    Branson, Robert E.; Cross, H. Russell; Savell, Jeff W.; Smith, Gary C.; Edwards, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Increased consumer health concerns over ingestion of animal fats have spawned consumer research regarding effects of different degrees of leanness (marbling levels) on consumer demand. Previous research is reviewed and a recent multi-city consumer panel test is reported. Implications of the multi-city results are discussed from the viewpoint of applicability of normative consumer behavior demand theory, and implications of the findings for beef marketing structure and strategies. Suggestions ...

  11. Nutritional and dietary interrelationships with diseases of grazing beef cattle.

    Wikse, S E; Craig, T M; Hutcheson, D P

    1991-03-01

    This article describes current methods of controlling acute bovine pulmonary emphysema (ABPEE) and edema, lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes, and bloat in grazing beef cattle. Success in handling outbreaks of these conditions and in their prevention depends on an understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis. Supplementation with ionophore antibiotics is effective in prevention of ABPEE and bloat and may also prevent other diseases of cattle that graze lush pastures. PMID:1828709

  12. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    He Mao L; Mir Priya S; Okine Erasmus K; Napadajlo Helen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synth...

  13. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR MANDATORY LABELING OF BEEF FROM CATTLE ADMINISTERED GROWTH HORMONES OR FED GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Fox, John A.

    2002-01-01

    This study estimates the value of policies that would mandate labeling of beef from cattle produced with growth hormones or fed genetically modified corn. At no cost, 85 percent of resondents desired mandatory labeling of beef produced with growth hormones and 64 percent of respondents preferred mandatory labeling of beef fed genetically modified corn. Estimates suggest that consumers would be willing to pay 17.0 percent and 10.6 percent higher prices for beef on average to obtain information...

  14. An Analysis of Perceived Important Challenges Currently Facing the U.S. Grass-fed Beef Industry

    Sitienei, Isaac; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine U.S. grass-fed beef producer perceptions of important challenges facing the industry. The most important challenges facing grass-fed beef producers were shortage of processors, lack of a clear marketing system, pasture management problems, and the long period of time required to get animals to the desired market weight. Key words: Grass-fed beef, grain-fed beef, challenge, industry

  15. The Impact of Pork Advertising on US Meat Demand in the Presence of Competing Beef Advertising and Food Safety Events

    Piggott, Nicholas E.; Zhen, Chen; Beach, Robert H.; Wolhlgenant, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects of domestic advertising and promotion expenditures on meat demand, extending previous efforts in several areas, including the use of more recent data, employing a complete demand system and simultaneously measuring the impacts of generic pork and beef advertising and food safety information on the demand for beef, pork, and poultry. Using the Generalized Almost Ideal Demand System (GAIDS), own- and cross- beef and pork advertising and own- and cross- beef, pork, and pou...

  16. Supply Chain Practice, Supply Chain Performance Indicators and Competitive Advantage of Australian Beef Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    Jie, Ferry; Parton, Kevin A.; Cox, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on an Australian agribusiness supply chain, the Australian Beef Supply Chain. The definition of the Australian Beef Supply Chain is the chain or sequence of all activities from the breeding property to the domestic or overseas consumers. The beef sector in Australia is undergoing rapid change because of globalisation, a highly competitive beef market (local and export), quicker production cycle and delivery times and consequently reduced inventories, a general speed-up o...

  17. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  18. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education. PMID:26610557

  19. Estimation of Beef Marbling Standard Number Using a Neural Network

    Fukuda, Osamu; Nabeoka, Natsuko; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Okushi, Masaaki

    Up to the present time, estimation of Beef Marbling Standard (BMS) number based on ultrasound echo imaging of live beef cattle has been studied. However, it is difficult to establish the objective and high accurate estimation method. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel modeling technique based on a neural network to estimate the BMS number. The proposed method consists of three process steps: the extraction of texture features, principal component analysis, and the estimation of BMS number by the neural network. The neural network can be expected to model the non-linear mapping between the texture features and the BMS numbers. In the verification test with 27 live beef cows, the proposed method achieved high estimation performance. The correlation coefficient between estimated and actual BMS numbers was r=0.88 (P<0.01) by leave-one-out method. On the other hand, the correlation coefficient by conventional multple regression analysis was r=0.51(P<0.01). These results showed that the proposed method was effective in non-linear modeling between the texture features and the BMS numbers.

  20. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

    Gagea, Mihai I; Bateman, Kenneth G; van Dreumel, Tony; McEwen, Beverly J; Carman, Susy; Archambault, Marie; Shanahan, Rachel A; Caswell, Jeff L

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots. PMID:16566254

  1. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40) was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1). RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group), was validated in the groups of

  2. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  3. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  4. Application of an ELISA Milk Pregnancy Test in Beef Cows.

    Roberts, J N; Byrem, T M; Grooms, D L

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the binucleate giant cells of the ruminant placenta and enter maternal circulation at the time of placental attachment. The IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Test (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME) detects a subset of PAG in milk. Although designed as a management tool for dairy cows, there is potential for using the milk PAG test in beef cows. Our objective was to compare the performance of the milk PAG ELISA with a gold standard method for pregnancy diagnosis and determine the agreement between milk and serum PAG analysis in lactating beef cows. Angus and Angus-crossed cows (n = 332) from two Michigan beef herds were enrolled in this study. Cows were subjected either to timed artificial insemination followed by exposure to a bull or exclusively exposed to a bull. The bulls and cows were separated 30 days prior to examination. Serum and milk samples were collected and submitted within 24 h of collection to a commercial laboratory for PAG analysis using the IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Assay (milk) and the IDEXX Bovine Pregnancy Assay (serum). Concurrently with milk and serum collection, each cow was examined transrectally by palpation or ultrasonography. When compared to transrectal examination, the performance (and 95% confidence intervals) of the milk PAG ELISA was sensitivity of 99.7% (99.0-100.0%) and specificity of 80.8% (65.6-95.9%). The lower specificity is likely due to the low prevalence (9.9%) of open cows (n = 30) in the herds examined. Of the 332 cows examined, 1.8% (n = 6) were classified as rechecks using the milk PAG ELISA. Results of the milk and serum PAG ELISA were in high agreement (kappa coefficient = 0.91). The milk PAG ELISA was accurate in predicting pregnancy status using milk collected from beef cattle between days 37 and 125 post-insemination and may be useful for aiding management decisions in beef herds. PMID:26058919

  5. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef from Uruguay.

    2010-01-01

    ... FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED... following conditions: (a) The meat is beef from bovines that have been born, raised, and slaughtered in... slaughtering establishment, with no evidence found of vesicular disease. (f) The beef consists only of...

  6. Assessment of enhanced surveillance for non-O157 STEC in beef in the USA

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) classified E. coli O157:H7 as an adulterant in raw ground beef and began a verification testing program for this pathogen in 1994 in response to a large outbreak associated with undercooked ground beef. It has become evident that non-O157 Shiga tox...

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid

  8. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  9. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  10. Intensive vs. free-range organic beef. A preference study through consumer liking and conjoint analysis.

    García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate. PMID:26771143

  11. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  12. Animal-to-Animal Variation in Fecal Microbial Diversity among Beef Cattle▿

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Timothy P L Smith; Bono, James L.; DeSantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Keen, James E.; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified.

  13. Association of selenocysteine transfer RNA fragments with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    The objective was to identify transfer RNA fragments (tRFs) associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected...

  14. Bacterial growth in ground beef prepared from electrically stimulated and nonstimulated muscles.

    Butler, J L; Smith, G. C.; Savell, J W; Vanderzant, C.

    1981-01-01

    Ground beef samples prepared from electrically stimulated and nonstimulated biceps femoris and infraspinatus muscles were inoculated with Lactobacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., or a mixture of Lactobacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Moraxella sp., Microbacterium thermosphactum, and Erwinia herbicola. There were no significant differences in growth of various bacteria in ground beef made from electrically stimulated and nonstimulated muscles.

  15. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L* unit

  16. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  17. Proteome basis of animal effect on color stability of beef longissimus lumborum steaks

    Our objective was to characterize the correlation between the sarcoplasmic proteome and the color stability in beef Longissimus lumborum to explain animal-to-animal variation. Longissimus lumborum (36 h post-mortem) were obtained from 73 beef carcasses demonstrating similar marbling scores, aged for...

  18. Benchmarking beef production systems across the world for improved production and resource use efficiency

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The projected increase in global demand for animal-source food raises the question to what extent livestock production can be increased from the current levels. The aim of this research is to benchmark actual beef production against potential (i.e. the theoretical maximum) and feed-limited beef prod

  19. Identification and analysis of beef heifers with superior capacity for fertility

    Cattle production is highly dependent upon reproductive efficiency. Early pregnancy loss, estimated to be at least 25% in beef cattle and 45% in dairy cattle, is economically detrimental to both the beef and dairy industries. The majority of embryonic loss occurs between days 8 and 16 of gestation...

  20. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  1. The source and market development of a premium product - Beef from the Argentine Pampas.

    Champredonde, M

    2008-07-01

    The two main features of beef from the Argentine Pampas are its quality and geographical origin. In addition to the normal aspects of meat quality detected by sensory panels or measured by scientific instruments, the quality of Pampean beef includes the powerful symbolic quality of pampas life - the immensity of the green grasslands and the culture of the gaucho, living on horseback or sipping mate while making an asado (barbecue). This review defines the qualities and geographical origin of Pampean beef, and explains their interrelationships in terms of animal breed, nutrition and production systems. The objective is to help secure Pampean beef against unfair encroachment from competing products which lack the true authenticity of beef from the Argentine Pampas. PMID:22062914

  2. Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight States.

    Bogard, April K; Fuller, Candace C; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-12-01

    Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMID:24290692

  3. Gamma irradiation of beef for shelf-life extension and for improving its bacterial quality

    The effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 1-3 kGy on bacteriological, chemical and sensory quality of beef ball from commercial producer were investigated. The shelf-life at 3 degrees C of beef ball, irradiated at 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kGy was determined and compared to those packed under atmospheric condition. Two replications of beef ball were carried out. Changes in mesophilic count, psychrotrophic count, Lactobacillus count, pH, TB A number and sensory quality of irradiated and non-irradiated beef ball were determined every 1, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 24 days. The results indicated that irradiation of beef ball at 2 kGy eliminated Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and reduced bacterial load by 2-3 log cycles. Salmonella sp. was not detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated products. Significant changes in odor and TB A number were observed after 1 kGy treatment. The shelf-life of non-irradiated beef ball based on psychrotrophic count was approximately 7 days compared with 21 and 24 days for beef ball irradiated at 0.9 and 1.8 kGy. The sensory quality of irradiated beef ball tended to decrease during storage but was within the acceptable range even after 24 days of storage at 3 degrees C. Packing of beef ball under vacuum or atmospheric condition gave similar results. Dosage at 2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality and increasing the shelf-life of beef ball without affecting sensory quality

  4. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  5. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  6. Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James aquifers in the Aberdeen area, South Dakota

    Emmons, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in the study area are estimated to range from 1.3 to 4.3 ft/day. Using an infiltration

  7. Effect of gamma-irradiation on some microbial, organoleptic and chemical aspects of fresh meat, ground beef and beef burgers stored at 5 degree

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the microbial aspects, organoleptic quality and chemical composition of fresh beef, ground beef, and beef burgers were investigated. High bacterial counts were recorded for beef burger samples than fresh and ground beef. Treatment with gamma radiation at doses of 1.0 and 1.50 Kgy, resulted in an immediate reduction in total bacterial numbers during 2 weeks of storage at 5 degree C. No pseudomonal-like organisms survived irradiation (0.50-1.50 Kgy). The 1.50 kGy treated samples were judged brighter (redder) in surface colour than raw (unirradiated) and irradiation did not affect the internal colour until the end of storage (day 15).Spoilage odours were not detected in 1.50 kGy-treated samples after 15 days of storage at 5 degree. However, irradiation odours were detectable at 1.0 and 1.50-kGy levels, when samples were exposed to air. Irradiation did not cause an increase in free fatty acids but significantly increased the peroxide values in fresh, ground beef and burgers stored at 5 degree for 2 weeks

  8. Effects of Dry Chilling on the Microflora on Beef Carcasses at a Canadian Beef Packing Plant.

    Liu, Y; Youssef, M K; Yang, X

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the course of effects on the microflora on beef carcasses of a commercial dry chilling process in which carcasses were dry chilled for 3 days. Groups of 25 carcasses selected at random were sampled when the chilling process commenced and after the carcasses were chilled for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 67 h for determination of the numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The temperatures of the surfaces and the thickest part of the hip (deep leg) of carcasses, as well as the ambient air conditions, including air temperature, velocity, and relative humidity (RH), were monitored throughout the chilling process. The chiller was operated at 0°C with an off-coil RH of 88%. The air velocity was 1.65 m/s when the chiller was loaded. The initial RH levels of the air in the vicinity of carcasses varied with the locations of carcasses in the chiller and decreased rapidly during the first hour of chilling. The average times for shoulder surfaces, rump surfaces, and the deep leg of carcasses to reach 7°C were 13.6 ± 3.1, 16.0 ± 2.4 and 32.4 ± 3.2 h, respectively. The numbers of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli on carcasses before chilling were 5.33 ± 0.42, 1.95 ± 0.77, 1.42 ± 0.78 log CFU/4,000 cm(2), respectively. The number of aerobes on carcasses was reduced by 1 log unit each in the first hour of chilling and in the subsequent 23 h of chilling. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the numbers of aerobes recovered from carcasses after 24 and 67 h of chilling. The total numbers (log CFU/100,000 cm(2)) on carcasses before chilling and after the first hour of chilling were 3.86 and 2.24 for coliforms and 3.30 and 2.04 for E. coli. The subsequent 23 h of chilling reduced the numbers of both groups of organisms by a further log unit. No coliforms or E. coli were recovered after 67 h of chilling. The findings show that the chilling regime investigated in this study resulted in significant reductions of all

  9. Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale

    da Cunha, Michele Espinosa; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Moraes, Maria Silvana Aranda; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Almeida, Suelen Rodrigues; Caramao, Elina Bastos [Chemistry Institute/Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul/UFRGS - Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Jacques, Rosangela Assis [Federal University of Pelotas/Federal University of Pampa (UFPel/UNIPAMPA-Bage) (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves [Department of Organic Chemistry (DQO), Chemistry Institute (IQ), Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitario, s/n - Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas/RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In the present work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant has been studied using beef tallow as raw materials with methanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The biodiesel quality is regulated by Brazilian specifications (Resolution 42) by the National Agency of Petroleum (ANP). The alkaline transesterification of animal fat with methanol produces a biodiesel with high quality and also with a good conversion rate. The process is possible but the economical viability must be improved by recovering methanol and glycerin. The obtained results have been used for industrial scale up of the process. (author)

  10. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  11. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  12. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  13. Genetic improvement of beef cattle in the United States: cattle, people and their interaction.

    Willham, R L

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this essay is to develop a historic perspective of the beef cattle population and the legion of people directing its genetic change so that future leadership can increase the rate of breeding technology assimilation. Use of cattle for beef to feed millions is relatively recent. The beef industry of the United States has a rich, romantic heritage that combined Spanish exploitation with British tradition. Spanish cattle became adapted as the Texas longhorn and the European cattle became indigenous. Breeds developed in Britain replaced both. The Zebu was introduced to produce cattle adapted to the Gulf Coast. Selection for early maturity in the British breeds promoted by livestock shows was ended by the dwarf gene. The Charolais breed demonstrated growth potential. Then in 1967, Continental European breeds were imported, given an array of biological types from which to select. Beef cattle breeding research expanded after the second world war through the three regional projects. Performance Registry International was the focal point for performance. The Beef Improvement Federation produced guidelines for recording beef performance including those for national sire evaluation. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center evaluated the several newly introduced breeds. To date, breeding researchers have developed breeding technology for the use by breeder. The major breed association are keeping and utilizing performance records. The genetic structure of the beef breeds is being altered by the use of AI such that genetic change can be made rapidly by the use of superior sires evaluated on their progeny in many herds. PMID:7085522

  14. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  15. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    T. Ekowati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farm household consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts were purposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namely Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated by Two Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneously significant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investment with the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. The simulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service per conception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising of price of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and price of beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and 5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concluded that the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farm household consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor and price significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  16. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  17. Efeitos genéticos aditivos diretos e maternos e heterozigóticos sobre os desempenhos pré e pós-desmama em uma população multirracial Aberdeen Angus × Nelore Direct, maternal additive genetic and heterozygotic effects for pre- and post-weaning traits in a multi-breed Aberdeen Angus-Nelore population

    Carlos Júnior Kippert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos aditivos direto e materno e os efeitos não-aditivos e heterozigóticos sobre os desempenhos pré e pós-desmama e desenvolver equações para predizer o desempenho de genótipos de uma população multirracial Aberdeen Angus (Angus × Nelore. Nas análises, foram utilizados dois modelos. O modelo 1 foi adotado para as características pré-desmama peso à desmama ajustado para 205 dias (P205 e ganho de peso médio diário do nascimento à desmama (GMDND, considerando fixos os efeitos de grupo de contemporâneos (GC e de grupo genético (GG, além das co-variáveis idade do bezerro à desmama (IBD e idade da vaca ao parto (IVP. Para as características pós-desmama peso ao sobreano ajustado para 550 dias de idade (P550 e ganho médio de peso da desmama ao sobreano (GMDDS, utilizou-se o mesmo modelo, apenas substituindo a co-variável IBD pela idade do bezerro ao sobreano (IBS. O modelo 2 (M2, de regressão múltipla, foi utilizado depois que os dados foram ajustados para GC, IVP e IBD (P205 ou IBS (P550 e contemplou os efeitos genéticos aditivos diretos e maternos de raça e os efeitos de heterozigoses direta e materna. Os resultados das análises comprovaram diferenças entre os cruzamentos, uma vez que os animais com elevada heterozigose materna apresentaram melhor desempenho para P205 e GMDND, tendência semelhante à observada para a heterozigose direta. A influência do efeito direto sobre as características P550 e GMDDS foi maior que a do efeito materno. Os efeitos aditivos diretos da raça Angus determinaram maior desempenho. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores estimados pelo modelo 1 e os preditos pelo modelo 2 para P205, P550 e GMDDS.The objective of this study was to estimate direct and maternal additive genetic, non-additive and heterozygotic effects for pre and post-weaning traits and to develop equations to predict growth performance in a multi-breed Aberdeen Angus (Angus

  18. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had jerky packaging, ranging from 1.26 to 1.72 log CFU/cm(2); however, at 72 h, mean L. monocytogenes reductions were >2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage. PMID:21333136

  19. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.;

    2011-01-01

    acceptance of safety-improving interventions. More detailed descriptions of the processes or technologies involved in the interventions, on the other hand, led to lower acceptance. As a result, it is unlikely that one standard way of communicating about beef safety improvements will be most successful.......While safety interventions are applied on different stages of the beef chain, consumer acceptance remains largely uninvestigated and undiscussed though often taken for granted. In this study, European consumer acceptance of beef safety-enhancing interventions was investigated at three key stages of...

  20. Nutritional characteristics and consumer acceptability of sausages with different combinations of goat and beef meats

    Fatemeh Malekian; Margarita Khachaturyan; Sebhatu Gebrelul; James Henson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef...

  1. The effects of river flooding on dioxin and PCBs in beef

    Lake, Iain; Foxall, C.D.; Fernandes, A.; Lewis, M.; White, O.; Mortimer, D.; Dowding, A.; Rose, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008-2010, samples of meat from 40 beef cattle, along with grass, soil and commercial feed, taken from ten matched pairs of flood-prone and control farms, were analysed for PCDD/Fs and PCBs. Concentrations were higher in soil and grass from flood-prone farms. The beef samples from flood-prone farms had total TEQ levels about 20% higher than on control farms. A majority of flood-prone farms (7/10) had higher median levels in beef than on the corresponding control farm. This first controlled...

  2. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Taponen Juhani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL were rejected (20.7% while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg. Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130. The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d. Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable.

  3. Fast biodiesel production from beef tallow with radio frequency heating

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States); Oh, Jun-Hyun [Department of Plant Science and Technology, Sangmyung University (Korea, Republic of); Herring, Josh L. [Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Efficient biodiesel production from beef tallow was achieved with radio frequency (RF) heating. A conversion rate of 96.3 {+-} 0.5% was obtained with a NaOH concentration of 0.6% (based on tallow), an RF heating for 5 min, and a methanol/tallow molar ratio of 9:1. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the influence of NaOH dose, RF heating time, and methanol/tallow ratio. The alkaline concentration showed the largest positive impact on the conversion rate. Similar fast conversion from canola oil to biodiesel was achieved in our previous work, indicating that RF heating, as an accelerating technique for biodiesel production, had a large applying area. Viscosities of biodiesel products from beef tallow and canola oil were measured as 5.23 {+-} 0.01 and 4.86 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, both meeting the specification in ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). (author)

  4. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  5. Occurrence of ectoparasiticides in Australian beef cattle feedlot wastes

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 6 ectoparasiticides – 2 synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin) and 4 macrocyclic lactones (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and eprinomectin) in biosolids. The method was used to investigate the occurrence of these ectoparasiticides in beef cattle feedlot wastes in Australia from 5 commercial feedlot operations which employ varying waste management practices. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin were not detected in any of the samples while abamectin, ivermectin, doramectin and eprinomectin were detected in some of the samples with concentrations ranging from 1 to 36 μg/kg dry weight (d.w.) freeze dried feedlot waste. Levels of macrocyclic lactones detected in the feedlot wastes varied and were dependent on sample type. The effect of seasonal variations and waste management practices were also investigated in this study. -- Highlights: ► A method by LC-MS/MS was developed for a small scale survey of 6 ectoparasiticides in cattle feedlot wastes. ► Pyrethroids were not detected in feedlot samples. ► Macrocyclic lactones were detected in the concentration range 1–36 μg/kg d.w. ► Concentrations varied and were dependent on type of sample. -- The first reported study on concentrations of ectoparasiticides in waste from Australian beef cattle feedlot operations

  6. Molecular traceability of beef from synthetic Mexican bovine breeds.

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, R; Arana, A; Alfonso, L; González-Córdova, A F; Torrescano, G; Guerrero Legarreta, I; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2011-01-01

    Traceability ensures a link between carcass, quarters or cuts of beef and the individual animal or the group of animals from which they are derived. Meat traceability is an essential tool for successful identification and recall of contaminated products from the market during a food crisis. Meat traceability is also extremely important for protection and value enhancement of good-quality brands. Molecular meat traceability would allow verification of conventional methods used for beef tracing in synthetic Mexican bovine breeds. We evaluated a set of 11 microsatellites for their ability to identify animals belonging to these synthetic breeds, Brangus and Charolais/Brahman (78 animals). Seven microsatellite markers allowed sample discrimination with a match probability, defined as the probability of finding two individuals sharing by chance the same genotypic profile, of 10(-8). The practical application of the marker set was evaluated by testing eight samples from carcasses and pieces of meat at the slaughterhouse and at the point of sale. The DNA profiles of the two samples obtained at these two different points in the production-commercialization chain always proved that they came from the same animal. PMID:22002129

  7. Nutrigenomics and Beef Quality: A Review about Lipogenesis

    Marcio M. Ladeira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to discuss the results of published studies that show how nutrition affects the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and how diet manipulation might change marbling and composition of fat in beef. Several key points in the synthesis of fat in cattle take place at the molecular level, and the association of nutritional factors with the modulation of this metabolism is one of the recent targets of nutrigenomic research. Within this context, special attention has been paid to the study of nuclear receptors associated with fatty acid metabolism. Among the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs stand out. The mRNA synthesis of these transcription factors is regulated by nutrients, and their metabolic action might be potentiated by diet components and change lipogenesis in muscle. Among the options for dietary manipulation with the objective to modulate lipogenesis, the use of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, starch concentrations, forage ratios and vitamins stand out. Therefore, special care must be exercised in feedlot feed management, mainly when the goal is to produce high marbling beef.

  8. Nutrigenomics and Beef Quality: A Review about Lipogenesis.

    Ladeira, Marcio M; Schoonmaker, Jon P; Gionbelli, Mateus P; Dias, Júlio C O; Gionbelli, Tathyane R S; Carvalho, José Rodolfo R; Teixeira, Priscilla D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present review is to discuss the results of published studies that show how nutrition affects the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and how diet manipulation might change marbling and composition of fat in beef. Several key points in the synthesis of fat in cattle take place at the molecular level, and the association of nutritional factors with the modulation of this metabolism is one of the recent targets of nutrigenomic research. Within this context, special attention has been paid to the study of nuclear receptors associated with fatty acid metabolism. Among the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) stand out. The mRNA synthesis of these transcription factors is regulated by nutrients, and their metabolic action might be potentiated by diet components and change lipogenesis in muscle. Among the options for dietary manipulation with the objective to modulate lipogenesis, the use of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, starch concentrations, forage ratios and vitamins stand out. Therefore, special care must be exercised in feedlot feed management, mainly when the goal is to produce high marbling beef. PMID:27294923

  9. Sensory profile of beef burger with reduced sodium content

    Camila Barbosa Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the sensory profile of three beef burger samples, namely, CON (control, F25 (25% sodium reduction and F50 (50% sodium reduction, based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The samples´ microbial, physical and chemical composition was evaluated. Twelve panelists were selected and trained using as criteria the panelists´ discrimination power, reproducibility and consensus. Eleven terms were generated by the method of network descriptors. The intensity of each descriptor in each sample was evaluated by unstructured scale of 9 cm. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan´s mean test and principal component analysis. The sensory profile shows that low sodium beef burgers had lower fat and salty flavor when compared to untreated control and greater flavor and spice aroma. The above proves that reducing sodium intake causes increased perception burger tasters when compared to the presence of spices in the product. Treatment with 50% sodium reduction obtained the best results for texture softness and appearance. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 in the chemical composition of ash, protein and fat in all burgers. In the case of general sensory attributes, treatments with sodium reduction obtained higher intensities of the attributes evaluated, except for meat and salt flavors.

  10. A characterization of direct-market beef processing and marketing in Virginia

    Denise Y. Mainville; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-; Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle; Webb, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    Describes the processing and marketing practices used by direct-marketers of beef in Virginia, including producersï_’ slaughter and processing decisions, as well as key marketing practices such as product form, advertising, and pricing.

  11. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    2013-06-10

    ... intact products, household consumers, hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions may incorrectly... notice, HACCP Plan Reassessment for Mechanically Tenderized Beef Products (May 26, 2005; 70 FR 30331... product is mechanically tenderized. This increases the likelihood that household consumers,...

  12. Characteristics of Fluid Composition of Left Displaced Abomasum in Beef Cattle Fed High-Starch Diets

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; KIKUCHI, Tomoko; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid. PMID:24813464

  13. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually...

  14. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. PMID:26998946

  15. Differential effects of negative publicity on beef consumption according to household characteristics in South Korea.

    Youn, Hyungho; Lim, Byung In; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines how South Korean households responded to an unprecedented boycott campaign against US beef from spring to summer of 2008, and investigates differential responses in relation to households' characteristics. It was found that beef consumption reduced by 4.8% immediately after the so-called candle-light demonstration. Instead, pork and chicken consumption increased by 17.2% and 16.6%, respectively. This confirms a substitution effect due to the negative publicity concerning US beef. It was also found that the negative publicity effect was transitory and the reactions of consumers were not uniform; they differed depending on their socio-economic characteristics. The econometric model revealed that younger, less-educated, and/or lower-income households were more susceptible to the negative publicity, and reduced their beef consumption more than other households. PMID:22482492

  16. Effect Of Gelatin Coating And Irradiation On The Quality Of Beef Patties

    This investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life and keeping quality of beef patties for consumption during cold storage by using gelatin coating and gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation had no effect on chemical composition and some physical properties of beef patties coated with gelatin. The pH values of all irradiated samples were slightly decreased with increasing radiation doses. Irradiation at the highest dose 8 kGy slightly increased total volatile nitrogen (TVN) of beef patties. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of irradiated samples was tended to increase with increasing irradiation dose directly after irradiation. During cold storage, the TVN and TBA values of all beef patties samples coated with gelatin either non-irradiated or irradiated were progressively increased as the time of cold storage increased. Irradiation of beef patties coated with gelatin with 4 kGy reduced the counts of total bacteria, Coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds counts as well as eliminating Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. Irradiation at dose 8 kGy eliminated completely Coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus. Beef patties coated with gelatin had low cooking loss percent than the uncoated sample and irradiation has slight effect on cooking loss percentage. Also, beef patties coated with gelatin showed less decrease weight loss percentage than the uncoated sample and irradiation had slight effect on weight loss. During cold storage, cooking loss percentage and weight loss percentage were increased by increasing the time of cold storage. The overall acceptability scores of beef patties coated with gelatin and irradiated at doses 4 and 8 kGy showed slight decrease. After 4 days of cold storage, beef patties coated with gelatin and irradiated had higher overall acceptability scores than the sample uncoated and non-irradiated. From these results, it could be noticed that edible film gelatin and irradiation at doses 4 and 8 kGy of

  17. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR CO-ORDINATION AND RISK SHARING WITHIN THE CANADIAN BEEF INDUSTRY

    Unterschultz, James R.

    2000-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Canadian beef industry has stated objectives of improving beef quality and consumer satisfaction while reducing unit costs of production. Suggested methods for achieving these goals include working towards value based marketing and improved information flows between different market levels through systems such as a birth to plate information system. These initiatives are designed to provide a more direct link between consumer product needs and breeding and management dec...

  18. Demand System Analysis of the South Korean Beef Market with the Free Trade Demand Model

    Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    In this study a demand system analysis for beef in South Korea is constructed. A free trade demand system was used in which the economic welfare of market participants are maximized. Recognizing implicit discrimination about non-locally sourced beef products, this study deduces market demand equations with respect to consumer preference in order to identify the marginal effect of change consumer preference has on market demand.

  19. Sorption, Leaching, and Surface Runoff of Beef Cattle Veterinary Pharmaceuticals under Simulated Irrigated Pasture Conditions

    Popova, Inna E.; Bair, Daniel A.; Kenneth W Tate; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals (i.e., oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, ivermectin) vi...

  20. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART V: QUALITY ASSURANCE PROFILE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with USDA:APHIS:VS to select a producer sample that was statistically designed to pr...

  1. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E;

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  2. Impact of electrically activated water fractions on functional and processing properties of beef and pork

    Віннікова, Людмила Григорівна; Пронькіна, Ксенія Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the influence of electrically activated water on functional and processing properties of beef and pork. It determines the dependence of pH, water-binding capacity, and losses during heating of test items on induced mixture of electrically activated water fractions. The article establishes that using electrically activated water fractions within ratio range of 30/70 – 100 % catholyte allows to purposefully change the active acidity of minced beef and pork; to change water-bin...

  3. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Bart Pardon; Evy Goossens; Stefanie Verherstraeten; Sophie Roelandt; Leen Timbermont; Nicky Van Der Vekens; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Linde Gille; Laura Van Driessche; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle; Filip Van Immerseel; Piet Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  4. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Kusuma Diwyanto; Atien Priyanti

    2008-01-01

    Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that i...

  5. THE DEMAND FOR BEEF PRODUCTS: CROSS-SECTION ESTIMATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS

    Heien, Dale; Pompelli, Greg

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the economic and demographic effects on the demand for steak, roast, and ground beef. Using an almost ideal demand system, the results indicate that demand is inelastic for steak and ground beef, elastic for roast, cross-price effects are significant, and all goods are Hicks-Allen substitutes. The impact of certain demographic effects, such as household size, region, tenancy, and ethnic origin, was generally quite significant. Other demographic variables, such...

  6. The Impacts of Beef Prices and VAT on Chicken Meat Consumption: A Partial Equilibrium Approach

    FİDAN, Halil

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the impact of beef prices and taxes on chicken meat consumption in Turkey. The model presents a partial equilibrium approach for beef prices and chicken meat consumption in Turkey that can be used for simulation and forecasting. The structure of the model follows the vertical chain of the chicken meat sector, allowing equations for the supply, demand and net trade of chicken meat. The price, income, cross-price and tax elasticities of chicken meat were estimated to determi...

  7. Optimal Stochastic Advertising Strategies for the U.S. Beef Industry

    Kun C. Lee; Stanley Schraufnagel; Earl O. Heady

    1982-01-01

    An important decision variable in the promotional strategy for the beef sector is the optimal level of advertising expenditures over time. Optimal stochastic and deterministic advertising expenditures are derived for the U.S. beef industry for the period `1966 through 1980. They are compared with historical levels and gains realized by optimal advertising strategies are measured. Finally, the optimal advertising expenditures in the future are forecasted.

  8. Study of the beef consumption pattern in the city of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

    Lana Diniz Brandão Dias; Luiza Isernhagen; Ricardo Carneiro Brumatti; Fábio José Carvalho Faria; Gumercindo Loriano Franco; Charles Kiefer; Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira Ítavo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify beef consumption patterns compared to the consumption of chicken meat, pork, fish and lamb. The data were collected by questionnaire applied to the population of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Social, educational, economic and specific factors of beef consumption in relation to the order of consumption, meat attributes and consumer preference were included. The study was conducted on 429 consumers interviewed at the entrance of supermarke...

  9. DEMAND FOR QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY IN BEEF, CHICKEN AND FISH CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA

    Ogundari, Kolawole

    2012-01-01

    This study examines income elasticity of demand for quantity and quality beef, chicken, and fish in Nigeria. The analysis is based on randomly selected 134 households in Ondo state. The empirical results show that income elasticity of demand for beef, chicken, and fish are inelastic. This suggests that these food items are considered necessities among households in the sample. The computed income elasticity of demand for quality was found to be positive for all food items. The implication of ...

  10. Prospects for the European beef sector over the next 30 years

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Chatellier, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The role of livestock production within the European society has changed much in recent years. In the future, this change is set to continue not only for the beef supply chains (competitiveness) but also for animal research: new strategies and revised objectives are necessary to meet the challenges. The demand for animal products including meat is increasing, notably in developing countries. In the 27 Member States of the EU, beef production declines slowly and the trade balance has been nega...

  11. Animal-to-animal variation in fecal microbial diversity among beef cattle.

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; Desantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M; Andersen, Gary L; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified. PMID:20472731

  12. Sensory quality of beef patties inoculated with strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum with potential as biopreservatives

    Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique; Jacques-Houssa, Charlotte; Kergourlay, Gilles,; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to perform a sensory evaluation of beef patties inoculated with potentially biopreservative strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Three different strains of C. maltaromaticum (lab. ref.: CM_824, CM_827 and CM_829) isolated from vacuum packaged beef with long shelf life were selected for this...

  13. USDA DATA REVISIONS OF CHOICE BEEF PRICES AND PRICE SPREADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND RESPONSES

    Marsh, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Reduced form price equations were estimated to compare market demand responses from two data sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) beef price and price spread data per revisions in 1978 and per revisions in 1990. The latest revisions were necessary to account for changing beef industry technology and product consumption in the 1980s. Results indicate the elasticities of retail and derived demands average about 25 and 17% lower, respectively, when using the 1990 revised data. Trends a...

  14. IMPACTS OF THE 2005 FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON BRAZILIAN BEEF EXPORTS

    Diana Cortes Carvalho Garcia; Claudia Valeria Gonçalves Cordeiro de Sá; Concepta Margareth McManus; Cristiano Barros de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) can lead to sanitary barriers to international trade and involves high investments for control and great losses in the event of an outbreak. This study investigated the impacts caused by FMD on the exports of fresh beef from Brazil after the 2005 outbreak and the observance of the regionalization principle of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) by countries member of the WTO that were listed as the top 10 beef importing co...

  15. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Seiki; Sukegawa, Shin; Yoshioka, Sachiyo; Takahagi, Youichi; MORITA, Mitsuo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Fujita, Tatsuo; Miyake, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in m...

  16. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    Fujita Tatsuo; Morimatsu Fumiki; Murakami Hiroshi; Morita Mitsuo; Takahagi Youichi; Yoshioka Sachiyo; Sukegawa Shin; Sasaki Seiki; Yamada Takahisa; Miyake Takeshi; Sasaki Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression differe...

  17. Consumers’ Willingness-to-Pay for Retail Branded Beef Products with Bundled Attributes

    Franken, Jason R.V.; Parcell, Joseph L.; Tonsor, Glynn T.

    2011-01-01

    With a declining share of the domestic meat market, some beef producers are becoming more attentive to opportunities for value-added products tailored to the desires of certain consumer segments. Using a survey of St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri meat consumers, this study investigates perceptions of and willingness-to-pay for various value-added attributes that could be supplied as retail branded beef products. Factor analysis identifies two alternative attribute bundles as branding strat...

  18. Effect of Some Food Preservatives on the Lipolytic Activity of Beef Luncheon Fungi

    Saleem, Abdel-Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Beef luncheon meat is one of the most popular meals in several countries in the world including Egypt. Thirty one fungal species and 3 species varieties were recovered from 30 samples of beef luncheon meat collected from different supermarkets in Qena. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Emericella, Mucor, Mycosphaerella, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most common genera on the two types of media. From the above genera, the most prevalent species were Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumi...

  19. Beef cattle on semi-natural grasslands - production of meat and nature conservation

    Hessle, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Beef production is performed in varying systems, with or without grazing, but the common goal is to obtain high-quality carcasses. Semi-natural grasslands are characterized by specific flora and fauna and they are dependent on grazing management to be maintained. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate factors influencing nature conservation, animal performance and meat quality in beef production using semi-natural grasslands in summer. In a first study, effects of breed and season on foraging...

  20. Determination of Intramuscular Fat Content in Beef using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Lee, Sangdae; Lohumi, Santosh; Lim, Hyoun–Sub; Gotoh, Takafumi; Goto, Takafumi; Cho, Byoung–Kwan; Jung, Samooel

    2015-01-01

    The amount and distribution of intramuscular fat in beef and pork are some of the most important quality characteristics because they highly influence the nutritional value and eating quality of the meat. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable non–invasive alternative method that can provide both qualitative and quantitative information on beef meats with high spatial information. In this study, we used MRI technique in combination with image processing tools for the visualization and...

  1. Validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits.

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Li, J; Thallman, R M; Quaas, R L; Dikeman, M E; Gill, C A; Franke, D E; Thomas, M G

    2007-04-01

    Associations between 3 commercially available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR Quality Grade, GeneSTAR Tenderness, and Igenity Tender-GENE) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the US National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium. Validation was interpreted to be the independent confirmation of the associations between genetic tests and phenotypes, as claimed by the commercial genotyping companies. Validation of the quality grade test (GeneSTAR Quality Grade) was carried out on 400 Charolais x Angus crossbred cattle, and validation of the tenderness tests (GeneSTAR Tenderness and Igenity Tender-GENE) was carried out on over 1,000 Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. The GeneSTAR Quality Grade marker panel is composed of 2 markers (TG5, a SNP upstream from the start of the first exon of thyroglobulin, and QG2, an anonymous SNP) and is being marketed as a test associated with marbling and quality grade. In this validation study, the genotype results from this test were not associated with marbling score; however, the association of substituting favorable alleles of the marker panel with increased quality grade (percentage of cattle grading Choice or Prime) approached significance (P meat tenderness, as assessed by Warner-Bratzler shear force. These marker panels share 2 common mu-calpain SNP, but each has a different calpastatin SNP. In both panels, there were highly significant (P < 0.001) associations of the calpastatin marker and the mu-calpain haplotype with tenderness. The genotypic effects of the 2 tenderness panels were similar to each other, with a 1 kg difference in Warner-Bratzler shear force being observed between the most and least tender genotypes. Unbiased and independent validation studies are important to help build confidence in marker technology and also as a potential source of data required to enable the integration of marker data into genetic evaluations. As DNA tests associated with more beef production traits enter the marketplace, it will

  2. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products.

    Jeon, Ki Hong; Hwang, Yoon Seon; Kim, Young Boong; Kim, Eun Mi; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP ratios, the L and b values for color decreased, while the a value increased, from that in the control. The hardness of the noodles treated with BG increased with increasing mixture ratios, but hardness decreased in the BC and BP treatments with increasing mixture ratios (pnoodles with the largest beef composition in the mixtures of each treatment exhibited the highest turbidity scores, which was believed to be because the solid contents would be transferred to the soup during heating. In the sensory evaluation of cooked noodles, the BG 10%, BC 9%, and BP 1% treatments exhibited the best color. In an overall preference test, 20% of BG and 3% of BP could be added to the noodles. The best palatability was exhibited by the BG 10%, BC 13%, and BP 3% treatments. PMID:26761675

  3. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  4. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  5. Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA.

    Ruby, Matthew B; Alvarenga, Marle S; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Meat is both the most favored and most tabooed food in the world. In the developed world, there is a tension between its high nutritional density, preferred taste, and high status on the one hand, and concerns about weight, degenerative diseases, the ethics of killing animals, and the environmental cost of meat production on the other hand. The present study investigated attitudes toward beef, and toward vegetarians, among college students in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA. Across countries, men were more pro-beef, in free associations, liking, craving, and frequency of consumption. By country, Brazil and Argentina were generally the most positive, followed by France and then the United States. Ambivalence to beef was higher in women, and highest in Brazil. Only Brazilian and American women reported frequent negative associations to beef (e.g. "disgusting", "fatty"). Overall, most students had positive attitudes to beef, and the attitude to vegetarians was generally neutral. America and Brazilian women showed some admiration for vegetarians, while only French men and women had negative attitudes to vegetarians. In spite of frequent negative ethical, health, and weight concerns, in the majority of the sample, liking for and consumption of beef was maintained at a high level. PMID:26494521

  6. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef.

    Cheng, Jen-Hua; Ockerman, Herbert W

    2013-02-01

    Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. The results show that there was no significant difference between chemical compositions and cooking yields when comparing non-electrically stimulated and electrically stimulated roast beef. Moreover, electrical stimulation had no significant effect on oxidative stability and off-flavor problems of precooked roast beef as evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory test (warmed-over aroma and warmed-over flavor). However, there was an increased undesirable WOF and a decrease in tenderness for both ES and Non-ES treatments over refrigerated storage time. Electrical stimulation did cause reactions of amino acids or other compounds to decrease the desirable beef flavor in re-cooked meat. PMID:25049788

  7. Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Beef burger Steaks as Influenced by Cooking and Irradiation

    Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets

  8. Estimation of demand and supply relationships for beef cattle in Lampung

    Atien Priyanti

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase in per capita income is followed by an increased demand in number and quality of meat . The purpose of the study was to identify and qualifying factors that influence the demand and supply of beef, and to determine the magnitude of response related to the increase in per capita income. In this study, the time series data from 1970 through 1993 was used and collected from the Directorate General for Livestock Services and Central Bureau of Statistics for the province ofLampung. The parameters observed were production and consumption of beef, retail price, population, per capita income and input price of beef production . A 2SLS method was used to perform the analysis . The results of this study showed that estimated demand and supply relationships using the simultaneous model of2SLS method is appropriate for beef cattle . The results indicated that retail price of beef is determined simultaneously by demand and supply linkages (P<0.01 . In addition, people in Lampung were responsive enough to anticipate changes on per capita income and lead to the potential for developing Lampung as a strategic beef industry area in Indonesia.

  9. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle

    Boerner, Vinzent; David J Johnston; Tier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience AbstractBackgroundThe major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, B...

  10. Epidemiological study on gastrointestinal parasites of beef cattle in Uruguay

    An epidemiological study on gastrointestinal parasites of beef cattle was carried out over a period of two years. Thirty-nine chemical 'tracers' and eight permanent 'tracers' were necropsied. The most important parasites found were Cooperia spp., Ostertagia spp., Trichostrongylus axei, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Haemonchus placei. Clinical signs of parasitism were seen and some animals died. The burdens of parasitic genera fluctuated throughout the year and hypobiotic EL4 larvae were found from July to December, with a peak during springtime (August to November). The availability of L3 larvae on pastures was low during summer. Two year old animals developed a strong resistance to infection with Cooperia spp. and T. axei. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  11. A comparison of gamma-irradiation and microwave treatments on the lipids and microbiological pattern of beef liver

    The effects of gamma-irradiation treatments (0, 2.5, 5 and, 10 kGy) and microwaves generated from an oven at low and defrost settings for 0.5, 1 and 2 min on the chemical composition and microbiological aspects of beef liver samples were studied. The chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the non-treated and treated beef liver immediately after treatments and during frozen storage (-18 degree) for 3 months. The chemical analyses of beef liver lipids showed that acid, peroxide and TBA ( Thiobarbituric acid) values were slightly increased after irradiation treatments and also during frozen storage (-18 degree c). On the contrary, iodine value of the treated beef liver was decreased. Irradiation treatments remarkably reduced the total bacterial counts in beef liver. The percent reduction of bacterial load for beef liver exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at defrost mode for 2 min and after 3 months at (-18 degree c) was 62%. The bacterial load for beef liver exposed to gamma-irradiation at 10 kGy after 3 months at -18 degree c was decreased by 98%. Hence, gamma-irradiation treatment was far better than microwave treatment for inhibiting the multiplication of the associated microorganisms with beef liver. Salmonellae was not detected in non-irradiated and irradiated beef liver throughout the storage period

  12. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. PMID:26662353

  13. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  14. Determinant of Funding Accessibility and its Impacts to The Performance of Beef-Cow Breeding Enterprises in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Asnawi, Aslina

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction One of the cattle breeding undertakings or enterprises actively performed by rural communities and has its business development motivated by the government at present is the beef-cow breeding enterprise, because during the last few years, particularly before 2010, the total production of beef was relatively low compared to the demand and consumption of beef. This is also strengthened by the Program of Minister of Agriculture on Self Fulfillment in Buffalo Meat and Beef for ...

  15. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  16. The study of heavy metals and microbial content in beef bowel and red meat

    Indonesia's population has increased every year so the need for food increased, especially the availability of nutritious foods such as red meat. Red meat is one of the foods that contain sufficient elements of protein, but it was likely to contain heavy metals and bacterial contamination that has met the threshold standards. On the otherhand, beef bowels are very popular among Indonesian consumers, but many heavy metlas could accumulated into the bowels. The purpose of this research are to study the content of heavy metals and bacterial contamination on beef bowel from some places of slaughtering houses and some red meats from the market in Jakarta. The beef bowels are lung, tripe, intestine and liver while the red meats were veal and tender loin. Parameter of heavy metals measured are As, Cd and Hg, while for the initial bacterial contamination are total number of aerobic bacteria, total amount of coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp and Salmonella contamination. The heavy metals were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis, and for the total number of bacteria is using Total Plate Count. Result of research shows the As content in lung and tripe as well as the mercuric content in bowel has exceeded in the normal level such as 1.0 and 0.03 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, no heavy metals were detected in all red meats. The total microbes in beef bowel have exceeded allowable limit (1.0 x 106 cfu/g). No Salmonella was detected in all beef bowels and red meats observed. Nuclear technique are very helpful analysis of the heavy metas content in bowel dan red meats beef. The cleanliness slaughtering house of animals are remarkably ascertaining the quality of the beef bowel and red meats who will be sent. (author)

  17. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME

  18. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  19. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  20. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  1. Effect of ageing time on consumer-perceived quality of Italian Simmental beef

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to provide an objective indication on the optimal ageing time of meat from ItalianSimmental (IS young bulls, the most important commercial category of the breed. The research was carried out on 10young bulls slaughtered at the average weight of 688 kg (SE: 7.3 kg. The right side of each carcass was stored for 7days and the left one for further 7 days, at normal refrigeration temperatures. At the end of the ageing period, the sideswere sampled at the loin for meat pH, color, cooking loss and shear force measurement. A central location, affective testinvolving 74 consumers was carried out to measure the degree of liking for grilled beef aged 7 or 14 days.The pH and color parameters were not significantly affected by the duration of post-mortem storage, while cooking lossincreased (31.4 vs 32.6 %; Pincreased from 7 to 14 days. The degree of liking by the untrained respondents for the two types of cooked meat wasdifferent, considering that consumers gave the highest hedonistic scores to beef aged 14 days. Tenderness was the sensoryattribute that allowed the best discrimination between beef stored for periods of different length. In fact, while thedifference between 14-day-aged and 7-day-aged beef for flavour ratings (7.0 vs 6.9 did not reach the threshold of significance,the former meat was perceived as significantly finer than the latter regarding tenderness (6.5 vs 5.6; P= 0.01and marginally preferred in overall terms (6.9 vs 6.5; P= 0.07. The classification test, carried out at the end of the quantitativetest by asking consumers to select from a list the most appropriate attributes describing the stimuli associatedwith meat consumption, confirmed the effectiveness of texture attributes in ranking different-aged beef acceptability. Infact, the number of ticks reported for chewiness and juiciness descriptors were different for the two types of meat: the14-day-aged beef was perceived as easier to chew (57 vs 34 ticks

  2. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  3. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  4. Immersion in antimicrobial solutions reduces Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on beef cheek meat

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of immersing beef cheek meat in antimicrobial solutions on the reduction of O157:H7 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC), non-O157:H7 STEC, and Salmonella enterica. Beef cheek meat was inoculated with O157:H7 STEC, non-O157:H7 STEC, an...

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...

  6. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. PMID:21280649

  7. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  8. Discrimination of the geographical origin of beef by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.

    Jung, Youngae; Lee, Jueun; Kwon, Joseph; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Ryu, Do Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2010-10-13

    The geographical origin of beef is of increasing interest to consumers and producers due to "mad cow" disease and the implementation of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA). In this study, (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was used to differentiate the geographical origin of beef samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed significant separation between extracts of beef originating from four countries: Australia, Korea, New Zealand, and the United States. The major metabolites responsible for differentiation in OPLS-DA loading plots were succinate and various amino acids including isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine, and valine. A one-way ANOVA was performed to statistically certify the difference in metabolite levels. The data suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is an efficient method to distinguish fingerprinting difference between raw beef samples, and several metabolites including various amino acids and succinate can be possible biomarkers for discriminating the geographical origin of beef. PMID:20831251

  9. The Effect of Repeated Heating on Fatty Acid Profile of Beef and Spices of Rendang

    Rina Yenrina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rendang is a traditional Minangkabau cuisine with the main ingredient of beef or buffalo meat which is cooked using coconut milk and some spices. Rendang is cooked more than 2 hours, and after that do the repeated heating. This study aimed to determine the effect of repeated heating on fatty acid profiles of beef and spices of rendang. The analysis carried out at Chemistry Lab. and Biochemistry Lab. In  Fateta Unand and Integrated Lab in IPB Bogor. This  study   designed  used a completely  randomized  design  with 5 treatments and 3 replications.  The treatments that used in this study were A (raw beef, B (freshly cooked rendang, C (first heating, D (second heating, E (third heating where the heating was done every 2 days. Data were collected for  fatty acids profile of beef and spices of rendang. Analysis of the Type of  Fatty Acid by HPLC method (AOAC, 1984. The results shown that repeated heating of beef and spice of rendang had significantly different effect on the type of fatty acids and an increased trans fatty Acid of rendang.

  10. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in beef meat by HPLC-DAD detector in Albania

    ALMA EMIRI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 to estimate the proportion of tetracycline residue levels in beef at main slaughterhouses in Tirana, capital of Albania. A total of 37 beef muscle samples were randomly collected from slaughtered beef in the slaughterhouses. The samples were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, with Photo Diode Array detector (DAD. The detection limit of the method was calculated to be 25 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was found to be 50 μg/kg. The recoveries of oxytetracycline (OTC, tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC from spiked samples at three fortification levels were higher than 78% for all drugs. From 37 beef meat samples collected from different slaughterhouses of Tirana, only 4 samples showed detectable concentration of OTC residues but were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs according to Commission Regulation (EU No 37/2010. TC and CTC were absent in all samples. These levels were not able to induce risks to human health. However other studies are necessary to evaluate other drug residues in beef samples and to evaluate the hazards of these residues in relation with daily intakes and other related factors.

  11. Beef quality traits of heifer in comparison with steer, bull and cow at various feeding environments.

    Venkata Reddy, Bandugula; Sivakumar, Allur S; Jeong, Dawoon W; Woo, Yang-Byung; Park, Sang-June; Lee, So-Young; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The present review has been focused largely on the sex type differences in beef quality among heifers, cows, steers and bulls in various feeding environments. Genetic groups, feeding systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics and fatty acid profiles of cattle. Studies identified that heifer beef has super characteristics in eating quality and a better healthy composition in fatty acids than steer, cow and bull. Diet influences the variation of fatty acid profile; particularly the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) interacts with breed and sex. Animals finished in pasture systems were reported to show better ratios of PUFA/ saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3. Carcasses of roughage-fed beef are lighter and have less marbling and lower quality grades but have higher cutability than carcasses of grain-fed bulls. Heifers and cows are reported to deposit more fat than steers and bulls. Among males, lower production of testosterone by steers favors more fat thickness compared with bulls. Marbling greatly varies among cattle belonging to different sexes, and particularly, females have genetic makeup that efficiently controls deposition. The current review identified that heifers can be a premium beef brand, while steer beef currently take a large part of market share across the world. PMID:25236779

  12. Transfer of foodborne pathogenic bacteria to non-inoculated beef fillets through meat mincing machine.

    Papadopoulou, O S; Chorianopoulos, N G; Gkana, E N; Grounta, A V; Koutsoumanis, K P; Nychas, G-J E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of pathogens population to non-inoculated beef fillets through meat mincing machine. In this regard, cocktails of mixed strain cultures of each Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used for the inoculation of beef fillets. Three different initial inoculum sizes (3, 5, or 7 log CFU/g) were tested. The inoculated beef fillets passed through meat mincing machine and then, six non-inoculated beef fillets passed in sequence through the same mincing machine without sanitation. The population of each pathogen was measured. It was evident that, all non-inoculated beef fillets were contaminated through mincing with all pathogens, regardless the inoculum levels used. This observation can be used to cover knowledge gaps in risk assessments since indicates the potential of pathogen contamination and provides significant insights for the risk estimation related to cross-contamination, aiming thus to food safety enhancement. PMID:22119672

  13. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the microbial growth and quality of beef jerky during storage

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to improve the microbial safety of beef jerky during storage. Beef jerky samples were irradiated at doses of 1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy and stored at 20 oC for 60 d. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria significantly decreased with increasing irradiation dosage. In particular, the populations of total aerobic bacteria were significantly decreased by 1.76 log CFU/g at 10 kJ/m2, compared to the control. Color measurements showed reduced Hunter L and a values of beef jerky for all the treatments during storage, and the Hunter L, a, and b values of beef jerky were not significantly different among the treatments. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect sensory scores in overall during storage. Therefore, the results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful in improving the microbial safety without impairing the quality of beef jerky during storage.

  14. Survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Stx bacteriophages in moisture enhanced beef.

    Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Rode, Tone Mari

    2014-07-01

    Moisture enhancement of meat through injection is a technology to improve the sensory properties and the weight of meat. However, the technology may increase the risk of food borne infections. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or bacteriophages carrying cytotoxin genes (Shiga toxin genes, stx), which is normally only present on the surface of intact beef, may be transferred to the inner parts of the muscle during the injection process. Pathogens and bacteriophages surviving the storage period may not be eliminated in the cooking process since many consumers prefer undercooked beef. Measures to increase the microbial food safety of moisture enhanced beef may include sterilization or washing of the outer surface of the meat before injection, avoiding recycling of marinade and addition of antimicrobial agents to the marinade. This paper reviews the literature regarding microbial safety of moisture enhanced beef with special emphasis on STEC and Stx bacteriophages. Also, results from a European Union research project, ProSafeBeef (Food-CT-16 2006-36241) are presented. PMID:24134920

  15. A comparison of Japanese and Australian consumers' sensory perceptions of beef.

    Polkinghorne, Rod J; Nishimura, Takanori; Neath, Kate E; Watson, Ray

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of Japanese and Australian consumer sensory responses to beef, based on Meat Standards Australia methodology. Japanese and Australian consumers evaluated paired beef samples according to four sensory traits, and the weighted results were combined to produce a Meat Quality score (MQ4). The consumers also categorized the beef samples to one of four grades (unsatisfactory, good everyday, better than everyday and premium). The proportion of samples assigned to each grade was similar for Japanese and Australian consumers for yakiniku and shabu shabu cooking methods; however, Japanese consumers assigned lower scores to the grill samples. In terms of the MQ4 boundary scores between grades, these were very similar for both Japanese and Australian consumers across all cooking methods. In terms of the weightings for the four sensory traits, juiciness was more important for Japanese consumers than Australian for grill and shabu shabu cooking methods. Flavor had the highest weighting for both consumer groups. This study showed that a beef description system based on the MQ4 score, with some adjustments to the weightings and cut-off values, could be useful in describing the eating quality of beef for the Japanese consumer. PMID:23773578

  16. Application of hyperspectral imaging for characterization of intramuscular fat distribution in beef

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a hyperspectral imaging system in the spectral region of 400-1000 nm was used for visualization and determination of intramuscular fat concentration in beef samples. Hyperspectral images were acquired for beef samples, and spectral information was then extracted from each single sample from the fat and non-fat regions. The intramuscular fat content was chemically extracted and quantified for the same samples. Chemometrics including analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spectral similarity measures involving spectral angle measure (SAM), and Euclidian distance measure (EDM) were then used to analyze the data. An ANOVA analysis indicates that the two selected spectral variables (e.g., 650.4-736.4 nm) are effective to generate ratio image for visualization of the intramuscular fat distribution in beef. The spectral similarity analysis methods, which is based on the quantifying the spectral similarities by using predetermined endmember spectrum vector, provided comparable results for characterization and detection of intramuscular fat in beef. In term of overall classification accuracy, spectral similarity measure methods outperformed the ratio image of selected bands based on the result of ANOVA analysis. The results demonstrate that proposed technique has a potential for fast and nondestructive determination of intramuscular fat in beef.

  17. Comparative study of mineral composition of beef steak and pork chops depending on the thermal preparation method.

    Goran, Gheorghe Valentin; Tudoreanu, Liliana; Rotaru, Elena; Crivineanu, Victor

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the effects of three different thermal preparation methods (roasting, boiling, and microwave cooking) on the mineral concentrations of beef and pork, as well as on the comparison of mineral levels between these two types of meat. In this study, raw and cooked beef and pork samples were selected and analyzed by ICP-OES in order to determine mineral concentrations. In general, thermal preparation clearly increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw meat. The highest mineral concentration was identified in the roasted samples. Trace element concentrations in beef were significantly higher compared to pork. In pork, Na concentration decreased in all samples, suggesting that Na is lost with water. Zn mean content in cooked beef samples registered significant differences compared to pork cooked samples. The percentage of water loss during the microwave thermal preparation for beef samples was higher than the other two treatments. PMID:27088876

  18. Comparison of the effects of gamma ray and e-beam irradiation on the quality of minced beef during storage

    This study was conducted to compare the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of minced beef irradiated with gamma ray of e-beam at the absorbed doses from 5 to 20 kGy. The total bacterial counts of minced beef were decreased depending upon the irradiation doses, but sterilizing effect of gamma irradiation was higher than that of e-beam irradiation. The contents of malondialdegyde of minced beef were increased depending upon irradiation doses as well as storage periods (p< 0.05). Volatile basic nitrogen in minced beef was constantly increased during storage, but the increasing rate were retarded by irradiation. The hunter's color values(L*, a* and b*) of gamma or e-beam irradiated minced beef were decreased as irradiation dose increasing. Meanwhile, the quality changes of gamma irradiated samples were faster than e-beam irradiated samples

  19. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J.; Mendizabal, Jose A.; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega‐3, with CLA, or with omega‐3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatme...

  20. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  1. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  2. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  3. Lipid and protein oxidation in charqui meat and jerked beef

    Marta A. A. Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in the lipid (Lox and protein oxidation (Pox were measured quantitatively by TBARS and carbonyl methods, respectively, throughout the salting and drying steps of charqui meat (CH and jerked beef (JB preparation and their storage up to 60 days. The experiment was carried out on CH samples treated with brine (20.0% and JB with same brine solution added with sodium nitrite (0.02%. After 60 days of storage, the carbonyl substances in CH were 2.77nmol mg-1 while in the JB samples, there was 61.0% oxidation inhibition. The TBARS determination revealed a Lox inhibition by approximately 5-fold in the latter samples. These results indicated that in the metmyoglobin molecule, the nitrite kept the Fe in the Fe2+ state in JB samples whereas in CH, the Fe was oxidized to Fe3+, which catalyzed the oxidation reactions more efficiently, leading to the higher development of Lox and Pox.

  4. Studies on post-partum anoestrus in Alentejano beef cows

    Post-partum ovarian activity in Alentejano beef cows maintained on natural pastures was monitored by measuring plasma progesterone levels using the radioimmunoassay method. Post-partum anoestrus was compared in cows calving in two different seasons (winter and summer). Differences between primiparous and multiparous cows, the effect of short term nursing interruption (72 hours by the 20th day post-partum) and the dam's body weight at calving (BWC) were also considered with respect to their influence on the onset of post-partum ovarian activity. Fertility after two breeding seasons of natural mating (April-May) and November-December) was also studied. Post-partum anoestrus was significantly longer in winter calving cows than in those calving in summer, in both multiparous and primiparous cows (73.9 versus 33.1 and 111.1 versus 35.6 days, respectively; P2=0.41; P<0.03). Because of a longer post-partum anoestrus, fertility was reduced in cows calving during the winter season compared with those calving in summer in all three years of the study (63.9 versus 76.9%, 57.8 versus 62.9% and 36.5 versus 60.6%, for 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively). The results presented show that the winter period in Portugal impairs the return to ovarian activity post-partum in this breed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Ptenderization effect of soy sauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. PMID:23561150

  6. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  7. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  8. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. PMID:27395825

  9. Prognostic Judgment at Post-Surgery by Biochemical Parameters in Beef Cattle with Left Displaced Abomasum

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; TAGUCHI, Kiyoshi; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery. PMID:24998331

  10. Effect of Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Beef Quality and Safety

    Rahman, Mohammad Hafizur; Hossain, Mohammad Mujaffar; Rahman, Syed Mohammad Ehsanur; Hashem, Mohammad Abul

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to know the effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles of beef on the sensory, physicochemical quality and microbiological assessment. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef forelimb were investigated comparing with unfrozen fresh beef for 75 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to know the best one. As the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased color and odor declined significantly before cook within the cycles and tenderness, overall acceptability also declined among the cycles after cook by thawing methods. The thawing loss increased and dripping loss decreased significantly (ptenderness/juiciness for eating quality. PMID:26761286

  11. Profile of biochemical traits influencing tenderness of muscles from the beef round.

    Anderson, M J; Lonergan, S M; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Binning, J M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define the biochemical differences that govern tenderness and palatability of economically important muscles from the beef round using cuts with known tenderness differences. At 24h postmortem, the longissimus dorsi (LD), gracillus (GR), adductor (AD), semimembranosus (SM), sartorius (SAR), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles were removed from ten market weight beef cattle. Sensory and biochemical characteristics were determined in each cut and compared with the LD. The GR, SAR and VI had sensory traits similar to the LD while the SM, AD and VL differed. The GR, SAR, AD, and SM all had multiple biochemical characteristics similar to the LD, while the VI and AD had numerous biochemical differences. While no one biochemical characteristic can be used to predict tenderness across all muscles, analysis of the biochemical characteristics revealed that in most beef round cuts postmortem proteolysis provided a good indication of the tenderization occurring during aging. PMID:22386323

  12. Gamma irradiation effects on thiamin and riboflavin in beef, lamb, pork, and turkey

    A study was made of the loss of thiamin and riboflavin due to gamma irradiation of beef, lamb and pork longissimus dorsi, turkey breast and leg muscles. Thiamin losses averaged 11%/kiloGray (kGy) and riboflavin losses 2.5%/kGy above three kGy. The rate of loss of thiamin in beef was higher than that in lamb, pork and turkey leg, but not turkey breast, with losses of 16%/kGy in beef and 8%/kGy in lamb. The rate of thiamin loss was not related to sulfhydryl, protein, moisture, fat or water content, pH or reducing capacity by redox titration. Loss of riboflavin was not different among species. Any detriment from such slight losses would seem to be more than compensated by the advantage of controlling bacteriological contamination by irradiation processing

  13. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the o...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the...... outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested that the...

  14. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. PMID:26952213

  15. Feature Selection Based on Minimum Overlap Probability (MOP in Identifying Beef and Pork

    Khoerul Anwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available eature selection is one of the most important techniques in image processing for classifying. In classifying beef and pork based on texture feature, feature overlaps are difficult issues. This paper proposed feature selection method by Minimum Overlap Probability (MOP to get the best feature. The method was tested on two datasets of features of digital images of beef and pork which had similar textures and overlapping features. The selected features were used for data training and testing by Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN. Data training process used single features and several selected feature combinations. The test result showed that BPNN managed to detect beef or pork images with 97.75% performance. From performance a conclusion was drawn that MOP method could be used to select the best features in feature selection for classifying/identifying two digital image objects with similar textures.

  16. Prevalence and first genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in beef calves in Vietnam.

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in beef cattle from Vietnam. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and genotypes/assemblages of G. duodenalis in native beef calves younger than 6 months in the region. A total of 412 calf fecal samples, randomly selected from 99 small-scale farms located in DacLac and KhanhHoa provinces, central Vietnam, were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts using the zinc-sulfate flotation method followed by iodine staining. The overall prevalence on the sample and herd levels were 13.8 % (57/412) and 42.4 % (42/99), respectively. Molecular analysis in the β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes demonstrated the presence of only G. duodenalis assemblage E in the animals. Since assemblage E has been rarely reported in humans, the zoonotic risk in beef calves in the region appears to be minimal. PMID:26922741

  17. The physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of pork jerky in comparison to beef jerky.

    Yang, Han-Sul; Hwang, Young-Hwa; Joo, Seon-Tea; Park, Gu-Boo

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of beef and pork jerky, prepared from whole muscle of beef semimembranosus (BSM), pork semimembranosus (PSM), pork longissimus dorsi (PLD), and pork psoas major (PPM). The BSM and PSM jerky had higher moisture content, and PPM jerky had lower water activity than other jerky samples during 30days of storage at 25°C (PPork jerky samples had higher lightness value than beef jerky, while PSM jerky had higher pH value than other jerky samples (Pjerky were higher than those of other jerky samples (Pjerky than others, while unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, %) was significantly higher in the PSM and PLD than BSM and PPM jerky samples (Pjerky showed a significant increase in UFA (%) during storage, and a significantly decrease in microbial count after storage of 30days (P<0.05). PMID:20416733

  18. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  19. Minerals Concentration and Textural Properties of Romanian Beef Row and Cooked Meat and Offal

    Liliana Tudoreanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumers preferences for solid food are, for the majority of foods groups, influenced by their textural properties. Romanian traditional cuisine is rich in meat foods and therefore this food group has an important contribution to the total mineral intake as well as the ingestion of potentially toxic metals such as Cd and Pb. Although beef liver is an important source of minerals for human consumption, its concentrations in Cd and Pb and heterogeneous textural properties may hinder its acceptability. Aims: The purpose of the work was to estimate raw and cooked beef meat and offal mineral quality including Cd and Pb concentrations and their contribution to a balanced human diet and health  as well as the influenced of thermal preparation on their mineral and textural properties. Materials and methods:  Beef liver, kidney and longissimus dorsi muscle were bought from local markets. Thermal preparation was conducted by microwave and boiling with no water contact. Texture profile analyses was conducted for quantifying textural properties such as  Hardness, Cohesiveness, Springiness, Springiness Index, Chewiness, Adhesiveness and Stiffness. The mineral concentrations of the raw and cooked samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Conclusion: The offal textural parameters variability was very large within the same organ and compared to the muscle textural parameters variability too. Muscle and offal thermal preparation strongly influenced their minerals’ concentrations as well as their textural properties. Thermal preparation significantly decreased beef liver and kidney samples’ total K and Na concentrations. It is suggested that for improving beef liver acceptability, the consumer has to be advised on the influence of the thermal preparation on beef liver parts’ textural properties as well as minerals concentrations.

  20. Stable isotope variation as a tool to trace the authenticity of beef.

    Boner, M; Förstel, H

    2004-01-01

    Organic beef coming principally from Germany was analysed for the hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotopic composition to test the possibility of tracing back the geographical origin. Since there is a well-known pattern of D/H and 18O/16O in meteoric water and in ground water, there is an existing link to tissue water in the beef. By including the stable isotope ratios of the other elements of life further information is available: soils show different isotope ratios of 15N/14N and 34S/32S depending on the geological composition, cultivation and atmospheric sulfur deposition. As organic farming is mainly obliged to use only their produced fodder, that ratio is reflected in the beef as well. Different organic beef samples from various German farms have been collected and analysed over nearly two years. To check the differentiation of foreign beef, samples from Argentina and Chile were also included in the study. The analyses of meat samples indicate that it is possible to trace back the region (e.g. Argentina and Germany) by using isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. A local geographical differentiation can be done by using the stable isotopes of nitrogen and sulfur, as was demonstrated for three farms in Colonia Bay. An optimal differentiation also depends on the quality of further information (e.g. the season, kind of cattle breeding or the declaration of the local geographical origin). Certainly authenticity of beef is not only linked with the geographical origin but can also reflect the differentiation of organic and conventional farming. The fodder of organic cattle farming consists mainly of C3 plants and the use of C4 plants is more usual in conventional cattle farming. A 13C/12C ratio above -20 per thousand appears as a limit for organic farming. Increased values have to be controlled based on their authenticity. PMID:14634708

  1. mBEEF-vdW: Robust fitting of error estimation density functionals

    Lundgaard, Keld T.; Wellendorff, Jess; Voss, Johannes; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Bligaard, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We propose a general-purpose semilocal/nonlocal exchange-correlation functional approximation, named mBEEF-vdW. The exchange is a meta generalized gradient approximation, and the correlation is a semilocal and nonlocal mixture, with the Rutgers-Chalmers approximation for van der Waals (vdW) forces. The functional is fitted within the Bayesian error estimation functional (BEEF) framework [J. Wellendorff et al., Phys. Rev. B 85, 235149 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.235149; J. Wellendorff et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 144107 (2014), 10.1063/1.4870397]. We improve the previously used fitting procedures by introducing a robust MM-estimator based loss function, reducing the sensitivity to outliers in the datasets. To more reliably determine the optimal model complexity, we furthermore introduce a generalization of the bootstrap 0.632 estimator with hierarchical bootstrap sampling and geometric mean estimator over the training datasets. Using this estimator, we show that the robust loss function leads to a 10 % improvement in the estimated prediction error over the previously used least-squares loss function. The mBEEF-vdW functional is benchmarked against popular density functional approximations over a wide range of datasets relevant for heterogeneous catalysis, including datasets that were not used for its training. Overall, we find that mBEEF-vdW has a higher general accuracy than competing popular functionals, and it is one of the best performing functionals on chemisorption systems, surface energies, lattice constants, and dispersion. We also show the potential-energy curve of graphene on the nickel(111) surface, where mBEEF-vdW matches the experimental binding length. mBEEF-vdW is currently available in gpaw and other density functional theory codes through Libxc, version 3.0.0.

  2. Stable isotope variation as a tool to trace the authenticity of beef

    Organic beef coming principally from Germany was analysed for the hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotopic composition to test the possibility of tracing back the geographical origin. Since there is a well-known pattern of D/H and 18O/16O in meteoric water and in ground water, there is an existing link to tissue water in the beef. By including the stable isotope ratios of the other elements of life further information is available: soils show different isotope ratios of 15N/14N and 34S/32S depending on the geological composition, cultivation and atmospheric sulfur deposition. As organic farming is mainly obliged to use only their produced fodder, that ratio is reflected in the beef as well. Different organic beef samples from various German farms have been collected and analysed over nearly two years. To check the differentiation of foreign beef, samples from Argentina and Chile were also included in the study. The analyses of meat samples indicate that it is possible to trace back the region (e.g. Argentina and Germany) by using isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. A local geographical differentiation can be done by using the stable isotopes of nitrogen and sulfur, as was demonstrated for three farms in Colonia Bay. An optimal differentiation also depends on the quality of further information (e.g. the season, kind of cattle breeding or the declaration of the local geographical origin). Certainly authenticity of beef is not only linked with the geographical origin but can also reflect the differentiation of organic and conventional farming. The fodder of organic cattle farming consists mainly of C3 plants and the use of C4 plants is more usual in conventional cattle farming. A 13C/12C ratio above -20 permille appears as a limit for organic farming. Increased values have to be controlled based on their authenticity. (orig.)

  3. Composition of free and peptide-bound amino acids in beef chuck, loin, and round cuts.

    Wu, G; Cross, H R; Gehring, K B; Savell, J W; Arnold, A N; McNeill, S H

    2016-06-01

    Meat is a food for humans. However, beef consumption in the United States has steadily declined by >14% over the past decade due to a variety of factors, including insufficient knowledge of animal protein. This study quantified all proteinogenic AA as well as nutritionally and physiologically significant nonproteinogenic AA and small peptides in beef cuts from 3 subprimals (chuck, round, and loin). Beef carcasses ( = 10) were selected at 3 commercial packing plants in the United States. Retail-cut samples were analyzed for the nitrogenous substances after acid, alkaline, or enzymatic hydrolysis and after deproteinization. In these chuck, round, and loin cuts, total amounts of glutamate (free plus peptide bound) were the highest (69-75 mg/g dry weight) followed by lysine, leucine, arginine, and glutamine in descending order. This is the first study to determine aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, and glutamine in meat proteins of any animal species. In all the beef samples evaluated, glutamine was the most abundant free AA (4.0-5.7 mg/g dry weight) followed by taurine, alanine, glutamate, and β-alanine. Additionally, samples from all beef cuts had high concentrations of anserine, carnosine, and glutathione, which were 2.8 to 3.7, 15.2 to 24.2, and 0.68 to 0.79 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Beef top loin steaks appear to provide higher protein nutrition values than top round steaks and under blade roasts, but all are excellent sources of proteinogenic AA as well as antioxidant AA and peptides to improve human growth, development, and health. Our findings may help guide future decisions regarding human and animal nutrition. PMID:27285936

  4. Interações entre monensina sódica, óleo de soja e fontes de nitrogênio no desempenho de novilhos Aberdeen Angus em confinamento

    Lana Rogério de Paula

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta novilhos Aberdeen Angus foram usados para avaliar o efeito da monensina, óleo de soja e fontes de nitrogênio (farelo de soja ou uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhos em dietas com 90% de concentrado. A monensina diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca em dietas contendo farelo de soja e o peso corporal aos 56 e 112 dias. O óleo diminuiu o ganho de peso nos períodos de 57-112 dias e 1-112 dias, enquanto a monensina diminuiu o ganho de peso nestes períodos nas dietas contendo farelo de soja como fonte de nitrogênio. O óleo de soja piorou a eficiência alimentar em todos os períodos e o farelo de soja, comparado com dietas com uréia, nos períodos de 57-112 dias e 1-112 dias. A monensina melhorou a eficiência alimentar em 7,4% para as dietas contendo farelo de soja, na ausência de óleo de soja, mas não alterou a eficiência alimentar para as dietas contendo uréia. Por outro lado, a monensina piorou a eficiência alimentar em 13% para as dietas contendo farelo de soja e óleo de soja.

  5. Diet and genotype effects on the quality index of beef produced in the Argentine Pampeana region.

    Latimori, N J; Kloster, A M; García, P T; Carduza, F J; Grigioni, G; Pensel, N A

    2008-07-01

    Steers of varying genotypes (Aberdeen Angus, Charolais x AA and Argentine Holstein) in four feeding systems were evaluated. Feeding systems were: S1=a diet based on pastures only; S2=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 0.7% of l.w./head/day; S3=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 1.0% of l.w./head/day; and S4=a regular feedlot diet. Tenderness and marbling were not affected by the feeding system. Feedlot meat showed an n-6/n-3 ratio significantly higher than meat produced with the diets based on pastures (S1=2.1; S2=3.1; S3=4.5; S4=14.2) (Pmeat with better nutritional characteristics than other productive alternatives, without significant effects of the biotypes. PMID:22062907

  6. Prediction of Fertility of Virginia Beef Heifers Using Expert Systems Technology

    Wilson II, Lawriston A

    1996-01-01

    An expert system to predict the fertility of beef heifers was developed using the A.I. Toolkit KAPPA-PC 2.33. The knowledge base was developed from scientific literature and from a beef cattle reproduction expert. The expert system computes an evaluation age, age both at the start and end of the breeding season, and weight per day of age to classify a heifer as having either a 3LOW2, 3GOOD2, or 3EXCELLENT2 likelihood of conception. The expert system summari...

  7. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef.

    Li, C B; Li, J; Zhou, G H; Lametsch, R; Ertbjerg, P; Brüggemann, D A; Huang, H G; Karlsson, A H; Hviid, M; Lundström, K

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine LM to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at an early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in decreased (P tenderization, resulting in lesser (P tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of the activation of μ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins, and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle. PMID:22147478

  8. Changes in the Spoilage-Related Microbiota of Beef during Refrigerated Storage under Different Packaging Conditions

    Ercolini, Danilo; RUSSO, Federica; Torrieri, Elena; Masi, Paolo; Villani, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of beef was monitored during storage at 5°C under three different conditions of modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP): (i) air (MAP1), (ii) 60% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP2), and (iii) 20% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP3). Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria were monitored by viable counts and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis during 14 days of storage. Moreover, headspace gas composition, weight loss, and beef color...

  9. Will consumers pay less for fat on beef cuts? The case in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Shongwe, M.A.; Jooste, Andre; A. Hugo; Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta; Pelser, A.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that most of the fear expressed by consumers in terms of the link between cholesterol in the diet and heart disease is, amongst others, related to the amount of fat in red meat and dairy produce. The result is that many consumers are cutting back on, if not avoiding, red meat products. A major challenge ahead of the beef industry is to supply a product that complies with the demands of more sophisticated and health conscious consumers. But, even if the beef indust...

  10. The impact of food scares on price adjustment in the UK beef market

    Lloyd, Tim; McCorriston, Steve; Morgan, C. W.; Rayner, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of 'food scares', predominately concerns relating to BSE, on UK beef prices at retail, wholesale and producer levels over the 1990s. Acknowledging the co-movement that exists between prices in the meat marketing chain, we use a co-integrating framework, the results of which show the importance of publicity regarding the safety of food in the transmission of beef prices in the UK. The 'food publicity' index that we use has a marked negative impact on the prices ...

  11. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later....

  12. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. PMID:27173550

  13. Validation comparing the effectiveness of a lactic acid dip with a lactic acid spray for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on beef trim and ground beef.

    Wolf, M J; Miller, M F; Parks, A R; Loneragan, G H; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two application methods (dip versus spray) of 4.4% lactic acid for reducing pathogens on inoculated beef trim and in ground beef. Beef trim inoculated with cocktail mixtures of E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC), or Salmonella (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g) at separate times was subjected to five treatments: lactic acid spray (LS), lactic acid dip (LD), water spray (WS), water dip (WD), and untreated control (CTL). Intervention effectiveness for pathogen reduction was measured at 1 and 20 h after treatment on beef trim. Trim was then ground and intervention effectiveness was measured 1 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after grinding. The LD treatment reduced all pathogens significantly (P 0.05) both E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC populations compared with the CTL. The LS treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by up to 0.5 log CFU/g on beef trim, but these reduced counts did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the CTL counts. Overall, the LD treatment was most effective for reducing all pathogens and is the best of these options for improving the safety of beef trim and subsequently produced ground beef. PMID:23127705

  14. Okara, a soymilk industry by-product, as a non-meat protein source in reduced fat beef burgers

    Simone Ing Tie Su

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okara is a by-product generated during the manufacture of soymilk and tofu. Wet okara was added to beef burgers at 0%, 20%, and 25%. The effects of okara on certain physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of reduced fat beef burgers were investigated. The beef burgers formulated with okara (104.0-106.0 kcal/100 g had 60% less calories than commercial beef burgers (268.8 kcal/100 g. The texture profile analysis showed that the addition of wet okara led to a significant increase in hardness (p < 0.05 and a concomitant reduction in the values of chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Lower sensory scores (p < 0.05 of flavour were observed in the beef burgers containing 25% wet okara. However, the sensory evaluation results showed that juiciness, appearance, tenderness, and overall acceptability of beef burgers formulated with okara did not differ statistically from that of the control (0% okara. Wet okara (20% can be used as a non-meat protein source in the production of reduced-fat beef burgers without changing their sensory quality.

  15. A data warehouse of muscle characteristics and beef quality in France and a demonstration of potential applications

    Sghaier Chriki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The BIF-Beef (Beef Integrated and Functional Biology database contains animal, carcass, muscle and meat data (331,745 entries collected from 43 experiments over the last 20 years and a great number of variables (621 characterising muscles (fat and collagen contents, cross-section and types of fibres, metabolic activity, making it a relevant tool to relate muscle characteristics to beef quality. Wide variation was observed in all described traits according to muscle type, sex and breed. The BIF-Beef database was mainly composed of data from young bulls of late-maturing beef breeds, which is why live weight and carcass weights of the animals were greater, and beef was leaner and lighter than results from other existing databases. Average cross-sectional area of fibres was greater in Semitendinosus than in Longissimus thoracis muscle and, for Longissimus, greater in steers than in young bulls. Intramuscular fat content was in descending order: Charolais > Limousin > Blond d’Aquitaine and females > steers > young bulls. Semitendinosus muscle was less oxidative and contained more collagen than Longissimus muscle. Collagen content in Longissimus was higher in Charolais than in Blond d’Aquitaine and Limousin young bulls. Within the Charolais breed, collagen content in Longissimus was higher in young bulls and steers than in females. Longissimus samples from young bulls were less tender than from females. Based on the above results, this database is a prerequisite for meta-analysis of relationships between muscle characteristics and beef quality in the European context.

  16. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  17. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and quality changes after irradiation of beef steaks and ground beef

    Beef steaks and ground beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were packaged in air or under vacuum and irradiated at low (0.60 to 0.80 kGy) or medium (1.5 to 2.0 kGy) doses, with each dose delivered at either a low (2.8 M/min conveyor speed) or high (6.9 M/min) dose rate. Medium-dose irradiation accompanied by 7 degrees C storage resulted in no Y. enterocolitica or E. coli O157:H7 survivors being detected. There was no effect on survival of the pathogens by dose rate or storage atmosphere. No difference (P0.05) was observed in meat pH or color, but TBA values increased after 7 days storage

  18. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  19. Genetic selection strategies to improve longevity in Chianina beef cattle

    Piter Bijma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity in beef cattle is an important economic trait. Including this trait in a breeding scheme increases profit and has a positive impact on the well-being and welfare of the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the conse- quences of alternative selection strategies to include longevity in different breeding schemes using deterministic simula- tion. Different schemes were compared and economic (EcW and empirical weights (EmW were used to evaluate the responses. The empirical weights of average daily gain (ADG and muscularity (MU were identical because both traits have an identical importance for the breeders. Economic weights have been derived from profit equations. Traits used in the Basescenarios were: average daily gain pre-performance test (ADG1, average daily gain during the performance test (ADG2 and muscularity (MU; longevity (L was included in the alternative schemes. When longevity was included both in the breeding index and in the breeding goal (scenario A-2, the total longevity response using EmW and EcW was +2.97 d/yr and +4.92 d/yr, respectively. The total economic response for scenario A-2 using EmW and EcW were 3.020 €/yr and 3.342 €/yr, respectively, and the total response in units of Bull Selection Index were +0.699 and +0.678, respectively. Longevity decreased when it was not included in either the breeding goal or in the breeding index (scenario Base, and economic response was the lowest found. The results of the current study indicate that the highest total response using either economic weights or empirical weights was found when information on longevity was included both in the breeding index and in the breeding goal (scenario A-2.

  20. Beta-adrenergic agonists as additive in beef cattle

    Marcelo Vedovatto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agonists receptor beta-adrenergic (β-AA are present in virtually all types of mammalian cells and are stimulated by catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the organism itself. The β-AA agonists are synthetic substances with similar structure to these amines. When provided in the diet they alter the body composition of animals, affecting the distribution of nutrients toward to protein deposition, and decreasing lipogenesis. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, these may cause morphological and physiological changes such as increased blood flow decrease in plasma insulin, decreased lipogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy mainly in type II fibers. We also observed changes in motility and secretions grastointestinal tract, beyond the direct influence on the rumen bacteria, altering the digestibility of the diet. The β-AA agonists released in some countries for use in beef cattle are ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride. According to literature data, the inclusion of these additives in the diet of feedlot cattle has been associated with an increase infeed efficiency with the increase in daily weight gain and with equal or lower feed intake. Carcass characteristics improvement was verified in carcass weight, and increased loin eye area, but with the possibility to decrease the subcutaneous fat thickness and marbling. Reviews in sensory panel of meat from animals consuming β-AA agonists showed decreased tenderness and juiciness. Thus β-AA improve performance and carcass characteristics, but more studies are needed to confirm whether they have negative influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  1. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  2. The Virginia Beef Cattle Simulation Model: A bio-economic simulation program modeling the interactions among reproduction, forage availability, nutrition, growth, and marketing in beef cattle

    Schick, James Henry

    1999-01-01

    The Virginia Beef Cattle Simulation Model (VBCSM) is a user-friendly, dynamic, stochastic computer program whose objective is to serve as a decision-aid for Virginia cattlemen dealing with complex management issues such as whether to retain weaned calves through the stocker growth stage. Its five source-code modules are reproduction, forage, nutrition, marketing, and a tool that randomly assigns values to variables from appropriate statistical distributions. The VBCSM contains production stat...

  3. Red meat and colorectal cancer: Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response contributes to the resistance of preneoplastic colon cells to fecal water of hemoglobin- and beef-fed rats.

    Surya, Reggie; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Martin, Océane C; Gauthier, Thierry; Guéraud, Françoise; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Jouanin, Isabelle; Chantelauze, Céline; Durand, Denys; Joly, Charlotte; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Pierre, Fabrice H; Huc, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated red meat intake with risk of colorectal cancer. Experimental studies explain this positive association by the oxidative properties of heme iron released in the colon. This latter is a potent catalyst for lipid peroxidation, resulting in the neoformation of deleterious aldehydes in the fecal water of heme-fed rats. The toxicity of fecal water of heme-fed rats was associated to such lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrated that fecal water of hemoglobin- and beef-fed rats preferentially induced apoptosis in mouse normal colon epithelial cells than in those carrying mutation on Apc (Adenomatous polyposis coli) gene, considered as preneoplastic. Highlighting the importance of lipid peroxidation and neoformation of secondary aldehydes like 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), we optimized the depletion of carbonyl compounds in the fecal water which turned out to abolish the differential apoptosis in both cell lines. To explain the resistance of preneoplastic cells towards fecal water toxicity, we focused on Nrf2, known to be activated by aldehydes, including HNE. Fecal water activated Nrf2 in both cell lines, associated with the induction of Nrf2-target genes related to aldehydes detoxification. However, the antioxidant defense appeared to be higher in preneoplastic cells, favoring their survival, as evidenced by Nrf2 inactivation. Taken together, our results suggest that Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response was involved in the resistance of preneoplastic cells upon exposure to fecal water of hemoglobin- and beef-fed rats. This difference could explain the promoting effect of red meat and heme-enriched diet on colorectal cancer, by initiating positive selection of preneoplastic cells. PMID:26992899

  4. The influence of beef quality characteristics on the internalization and thermal susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in blade-tenderized beef steaks.

    Corliss, B; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Echeverry, A; Parks, A R; Pokharel, S; Brashears, M M

    2015-12-01

    The risk of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) survival in blade-tenderized beef is a concern for beef processors. This study evaluated the internalization and post-cooking survival of individual STEC serogroups (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in blade-tenderized beef steaks with different quality traits. Strip loins representing four combinations of USDA Quality Grade (Choice or Select) and pH category (High pH or Normal pH) were inoculated (10(6)logCFU/cm(2) attachment) with individual STEC serogroups before storage (14 days), blade tenderization, and cooking (50, 60, 71, or 85°C). Serogroup populations on raw steak surfaces and internal cores were determined. Rapid-based methods were used to detect the internal presence of STEC in cooked steaks. Internalization and post-cooking survival varied among STECs. All serogroups, except O45 and O121, were detected in the internal cores of steaks cooked to 50°C, while O103, O111, and O145 STEC were detected in steaks cooked to 50, 60, and 71°C. PMID:26188361

  5. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli on Bavarian Dairy and Beef Cattle Farms

    Schmid, A.; Hörmansdorfer, S.; Messelhäusser, U.; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C.; Van Mansfeld, R.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fec...

  6. A comparison of γ-irradiation and microwave treatments on the lipids and microbiological pattern of beef liver

    Daw, Z. Y.; Mahmoud, Ebtesam A.; El-Wahab, Safaa A. E. ABD; Farag, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation (0, 2.5, 5 and, 10 kGy) and microwaves (generated from an oven at low and defrost settings for 0.5, 1 and 2 min) treatments on the chemical composition and microbiological aspects of beef liver samples were studied. The chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the non-treated and treated beef liver immediately after treatments and during frozen storage (-18ºC) for 3 months. The chemical analyses of beef liver lipids showed that acid, peroxide and T...

  7. Minimising protein oxidation in retail-packed minced beef using three-gas MA-packaging

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Baussa Cano, Laura; Baron, Caroline P.;

    Minced beef is usually packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with a gas mixture consisting of 70-80% oxygen (O2) and 20-30% carbon dioxide (CO2). Unfortunately, this results in rubbery and less juicy beef patties with a more rancid flavour compared with fresh or nonoxygen packed...... beef. To establish whether three-gas MAP (O2, CO2 and N2), instead of two-gas MAP (O2 and CO2), would affect sensory attributes, shelf life, protein and lipid oxidation, minced beef was packed in MAP with either 40%, 50% or 80% O2 and 20% or 40% CO2 with N2 as filler gas. When comparing traditional MA......-packaging (80% O2 + 20% CO2) with a low oxygen packaging atmosphere (40% O2 + 20% CO2 + 40% N2), the latter is seen to increase the meat oxidative stability during storage but decrease acceptability and shelf life. In contrast, high oxygen MAP (80% and 50% O2) results in more oxidation but a longer shelf life...

  8. Environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    The environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska were determined through a simulation of their production system. Relevant information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production ...

  9. Diet, tillage and soil moisture effects on odorous emissions following land application of beef manure

    Beef manure from animals fed diets containing different amounts of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) was applied to soil as a fertilizer to plot located across the slope. The applied manure and soil were either tilled or not tilled. The odor emissions were measured for 24 hours. Then a sing...

  10. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus species in chicken and beef raw meat in Egypt.

    Osman, Kamelia M; Amer, Aziza M; Badr, Jihan M; Saad, Aalaa S A

    2015-05-01

    Coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) staphylococci cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, CPS and CNS have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate CPS and CNS species distribution and their antibiotic resistance profile isolated from chicken and beef meat. Fifty fresh, uncooked chicken parts and 50 beef meat cuts (local n=27; imported n=23) were used. One hundred staphylococcal isolates belonging to 11 species were isolated and identified from chicken (n=50) and beef (n=50) raw meat samples. Staphylococcus hyicus (26/100), lugdunensis (18/100), aureus (15/100) and epidermidis (14/100) were dominant. S. aureus was 100% resistant to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus showed intermediate resistance (51%), which might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards. The percentage of resistance to β-lactams was variable, with the highest resistance being to penicillin (94%) and lowest to ampicillin-sulbactam (22%). Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against penicillin (94%), clindamycin (90%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (82%). The results indicate that chicken and beef raw meat are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CPS and CNS. PMID:25789407

  12. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    Arias, R.A.; Catrileo, A.; Larraín, R.; Vera, R.; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which uti

  13. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  14. RESEARCH OF MICROWAVE'S INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF DELICIOUS PRODUCTS FROM BEEF

    T. Kozlova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.

  15. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  16. 77 FR 52597 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    2012-08-30

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 12752) for public comment a proposed rule providing for the expansion... the eligibility requirement contained in its proposed rule dated March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8984) that such... with the BPOC for the implementation and conduct of Beef Checkoff programs if they have been active...

  17. Modelling in support of decision-making for South African extensive beef farmers

    D.H. Meyer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study it is shown that it is possible to build a decision support system for the use of South African extensive beef farmers. Initially models for the key variables which affect extensive beef farmers are developed. These key variables include rainfall, beef, veal and weaner prices and the condition of the veld. This last key variable is monitored using the voluntary lick intake of the cattle and is modelled in terms of rainfall and stocking intensity. Particular attention is paid to the interrelationships between the key variables and to the distribution of modelling errors. The next stage of the study concerns the use of these models as a decision-support tool for extensive beef farmers. It is shown that Monte Carlo simulations and dynamic programming analyses can use these models to suggest how gross margins can be increased. At the same time these methods can be used to monitor the effect of management decisions on mean lick intake and, hence, the effect of these decisions on the condition of the veld. In particular the decisions of "what stocking intensity", "what cattle system", "when to sell" and "when to make a change" are addressed.

  18. Consumer acceptance and steak cutting yields of beef top sirloin and knuckle subprimals

    This study evaluated the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) as a substitute for gluteus medius (GM) steaks in food service applications. Beef cap-off top sirloin butts (IMPS# 184E; n = 150) and full knuckles (IMPS# 167B; n = 150) were obtained from a large processing facility and aged fo...

  19. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation.

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Almeida, Oriana T

    2006-12-01

    Amazon beef and soybean industries, the primary drivers of Amazon deforestation, are increasingly responsive to economic signals emanating from around the world, such as those associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease") outbreaks and China's economic growth. The expanding role of these economic "teleconnections" (coupled phenomena that take place in distant places on the planet) led to a 3-year period (2002-2004) of historically high deforestation rates. But it also increases the potential for large-scale conservation in the region as markets and finance institutions demand better environmental and social performance of beef and soy producers. Cattle ranchers and soy farmers who have generally opposed ambitious government regulations that require forest reserves on private property are realizing that good land stewardship-including compliance with legislation-may increase their access to expanding domestic and international markets and to credit and lower the risk of "losing" their land to agrarian reform. The realization of this potential depends on the successful negotiation of social and environmental performance criteria and an associated system of certification that are acceptable to both the industries and civil society. The foot-and-mouth eradication system, in which geographic zones win permission to export beef, may provide an important model for the design of a low-cost, peer-enforced, socioenvironmental certification system that becomes the mechanism by which beef and soy industries gain access to markets outside the Amazon. PMID:17181794

  20. Comparison of fumerate-pyruvate media and beef extract media for aerobically culturing Campylobacter species

    Media supplemented with fumarate, pyruvate, and a vitamin-mineral solution or with beef extract were compared for the ability to support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Basal broth composed of tryptose, yeast extract, bicarbonate, and agar was supplemented with 30 mM fumarate, 100 mM pyruvate, and ...

  1. Substrate Specificity of Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase from Beef Heart and from Dictyostelircm discoideum

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Dijkgraaf, Peter A.M.; Konijn, Theo M.; Abbad, Emilio Garcia; Petridis, Georg; Jastorff, Bernd

    1983-01-01

    The substrate specificity of beef heart phosphodiesterase activity and of the phosphodiesterase activity at the cell surface of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum has been investigated by measuring the apparent Km and maximal velocity (V) of 24 derivatives of adenosine 3’,5’-monophosph

  2. Predictive Model for Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the Surface of Fresh Beef

    Chen Xiangbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was sought to establish a predictive model for Listeria monocytogenes growth on the surface of fresh beef. Fresh beef were totally disinfected with ozone water prior to inoculate with L. monocytogenes L. monocytogenes and box-packaged to store at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C to calculate the CFU to predict the growth trend. The results showed that the growth trend of L. monocytogenes on fresh beef surface could be well fitted with modified Gompertz models (R2>0.98. Temperature effect on maximum specific growth rate and lag phase was demonstrated by the square-root model as a good linear relationship with R2 values of 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusively, a predictive growth model for L. monocytogenes on surface of fresh beef stored at various temperature from 5 to 30°C was established effectively as follows: LgNt = lgN0+lg(Nmax/N0×Exp{-Exp[2.718×(-0.002137+0.002203t 2/lg(Nmax/N0×( (0.004544+0.015048t-2-t+1]}.

  3. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    2013-08-09

    ... Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups... Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 317 Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA....

  4. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context. PMID:26117397

  5. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  6. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  7. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the regulations in 9 CFR 327.2 and the... thereunder (9 CFR chapter III), including the requirements for removal of SRMs and the prohibition on the use... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  8. Eating quality of beef, from different production systems, assessed by German, Spanish and British consumers.

    Oliver, M A; Nute, G R; Font I Furnols, M; San Julián, R; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Cañeque, V; Guerrero, L; Alvarez, I; Díaz, M T; Branscheid, W; Wicke, M; Montossi, F

    2006-11-01

    The acceptability of beef from Uruguay (UY), based on eating quality, was compared with beef produced in different European countries (Germany, DE, Spain, ES and United Kingdom, UK). Consumer tests were conducted in DE, ES and UK (each comprising 200 consumers) using 'Hall Tests'. In each country four samples were evaluated, two from Hereford steers from UY (finished at 2 and 3 years) and two from local meat (the same meat sample aged 7 or 20d). Consumers evaluated tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability using 8-point category scales. Hierarchical cluster analysis, highlighted the existence of different clusters of consumers. Two main clusters were identified in DE and UK. The main cluster identified in DE, was labelled as Prefer foreign-imported beef (n=128). These consumers preferred (Pmarket segmentation being based on taste preferences. It would appear that Uruguayan beef would be very acceptable in Germany and to a lesser extent in Britain and Spain, although further studies are required that include labelling information. PMID:22063047

  9. Designing Sustainable Production and Distribution Scenarios for the Beef and Pork Supply Chains in Brazil

    Giulia Dondè

    2016-08-01

    The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.

  10. Effect Of GAMMA Irradiation And Edible Coating On Microbiological And Physicochemical Characteristics Of Beef Patties

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of low dose gamma irradiation and antimicrobial coating (gluten contain nisin). Nisin inhibits growth of many gram positive bacteria, food borne pathogenic bacteria and their spores, and is not active against gram negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The study was carried out to obtain synergistic inhibitory effect on shelf-life extension, physical, chemical characteristics and over all acceptability of beef patties during cold storage. Beef patties were divided into three groups; the first group contained uncoated samples (control), the second group contained samples coated with gluten protein without nisin and non-irradiated, and the third group contained samples coated with gluten protein contain nisin and irradiated at 3 or 5 kGy. The obtained results showed that gamma irradiation had no effect on chemical composition and some physical properties of beef patties coated with gluten protein. The ph values of all irradiated samples were slightly decreased with increasing irradiation doses. Edible coating contain nisin and irradiation at doses 3 or 5 kGy of beef patties reduced the counts of total bacterial count, psychrophilic bacteria and yeasts and molds counts as well as killing Salmonella spp. and prolonged shelf-life of the samples to 18, 30 and 39 days, respectively. Gamma irradiation at different doses 3 or 5 kGy were slightly increased total

  11. The emergent demand chain management: key features and illustration from the beef business

    Canever, M.D.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Beers, G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose - The paper seeks to delineate the emergence of demand chain management (DCM) from a theoretical perspective and to illustrate its occurrence in practice. Design/methodology/approach ¿ The DCM concept is examined empirically through a case study with retailers involved in the beef c

  12. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  13. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni YH001 from beef liver which contains a novel plasmid

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and is commonly found in poultry and meat products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni strain recently isolated from retail beef liver. The genome size was 1,712,361 bp, ...

  14. Runoff, erosion, and size distribution of sediment from beef cattle feedlots

    The size distribution of sediment affects erosion rates, settling velocity, and the transport of chemical constituents. Little information is currently available concerning the size distribution of materials transported in runoff from beef cattle feedlots. The objectives of this study were to: a) me...

  15. Alternatives for large-scale production of cultured beef:A review

    Matilda S M Moritz; Sanne E L Verbruggen; Mark J Post

    2015-01-01

    Cultured beef is a method where stem cel s from skeletal muscle of cows are cultured in vitro to gain edible muscle tissue. For large-scale production of cultured beef, the culture technique needs to become more efifcient than today’s 2-dimensional (2D) standard technique that was used to make the ifrst cultured hamburger. Options for efifcient large-scale production of stem cel s are to culture cel s on microcarriers, either in suspension or in a packed bed bioreactor, or to culture aggregated cel s in suspension. We discuss the pros and cons of these systems as wel as the possibilities to use the systems for tissue culture. Either of the production systems needs to be optimized to achieve an efifcient production of cultured beef. It is anticipated that the optimization of large-scale cel culture as performed for other stem cel s can be translated into successful protocols for bovine satel ite cel s resulting in resource and cost efifcient cultured beef.

  16. 77 FR 12752 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    2012-03-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would expand the... Act does not define ``national non-profit industry governed organization,'' however, the Order...

  17. Environmental footprints of beef production at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    The environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska were determined to quantify improvements achieved over the past 40 years. Relevant information for MARC operations was gathered and used to represent their production system with the...

  18. Quantification and Evaluation of Infectivity of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages in Beef and Salad ▿

    Imamovic, Lejla; Muniesa, Maite

    2011-01-01

    Stx bacteriophages in 68 samples of beef and salad were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Stx phages from the samples were propagated in Escherichia coli C600, E. coli O157:H7, and Shigella strains and further quantified. Fifty percent of the samples carried infectious Stx phages that were isolated from plaques generated by lysis.

  19. EFFECTS OF FORAGE SPECIES ON RIB COMPOSITION, COLOR, AND PALATABILITY IN FORAGE-FINISHED BEEF

    Forty-seven Angus-crossbred steers were used to evaluate the effects of forage species grazed in the last 41 d of the finishing period on rib composition, color, and palatability in forage-finished beef and compared to traditional high concentrate finished. Steers grazed naturalized pastures (bluegr...

  20. The effects of river flooding on dioxin and PCBs in beef.

    Lake, Iain R; Foxall, Christopher D; Fernandes, Alwyn; Lewis, Mervyn; White, Oliver; Mortimer, David; Dowding, Alan; Rose, Martin

    2014-09-01

    In 2008-2010, samples of meat from 40 beef cattle, along with grass, soil and commercial feed, taken from ten matched pairs of flood-prone and control farms, were analysed for PCDD/Fs and PCBs. Concentrations were higher in soil and grass from flood-prone farms. The beef samples from flood-prone farms had total TEQ levels about 20% higher than on control farms. A majority of flood-prone farms (7/10) had higher median levels in beef than on the corresponding control farm. This first controlled investigation into PCDD/F and PCB contamination in beef produced on flood-prone land, presents robust evidence that flooding is a contaminant transfer mechanism to cattle raised on river catchments with a history of urbanisation and industrialisation. PCDD/F and PCB sources in these river systems are likely to be a result of the legacy of contamination from previous industrialisation, as well as more recent combustion activity or pollution events. PMID:24530185