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Sample records for abejas jalea real

  1. Abejas cleptoparásitas, con énfasis en las abejas hospederas coletoras de aceite CLEPTOPARASITE BEES, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE OILBEES HOSTS

    ISABEL ALVES DOS-SANTOS

    Full Text Available Las abejas Cleptoparásitas depositan sus huevos en nidos construídos por otras especies de abejas y las larvas se alimentan del polen que proveen las hospederas, en este caso, abejas solitarias. El cleptoparásito (adulo y larva muestra muchas adaptaciones morfológicas y comportamentales para este estilo de vida. En este manuscrito presento datos sobre abejas cleptoparásitas cuyos hospederos son abejas especializadas en recolectar aceite floral.Cleptoparasite bees lay their eggs inside nests constructed by other bee species and the larvae feed on pollen provided by the host, in this case, solitary bees. The cleptoparasite (adult and larvae show many morphological and behavior adaptations to this life style. In this paper I present some data on the cleptoparasite bees whose hosts are bees specialized to collect floral oil.

  2. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS

    AMAYA MARISOL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas

  3. Insuficiencia renal aguda asociada a picadura de abeja africanizada

    Verny Huertas-Franco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un adulto mayor diabético tipo 2, que sufrió un ataque masivo de abejas africanizadas, y llegó a la sala de emergencias tres horas después del inicio del ataque. El paciente presentó insuficiencia renal aguda por combinación de factores, y se recuperó con tratamiento de diálisis temprana. Se discuten los problemas que refieren estos pacientes, y cuál sería el manejo ideal de tales casos.

  4. Abejas silvestres (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) como bioindicadores en el neotrópico

    Enrique Reyes-Novelo; Virginia Meléndez Ramírez; Hugo Delfín González; Ricardo Ayala

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo es una revisión sobre el potencial de las abejas silvestres como grupo indicador en estudios de diversidad y fragmentación de hábitat. Se describen los criterios utilizados para seleccionar grupos de organismos como bioindicadores y se discute la información disponible para evaluar si las abejas pueden ser consideradas idóneas. La información disponible sugiere que las abejas silvestres cumplen con los criterios requeridos para considerarlas un grupo indicador y se recomienda su ...

  5. POTENCIAL DE LAS ABEJAS NATIVAS EN LA POLINIZACIÓN DE CULTIVOS

    QUEZADA-EUAN JOSE JAVIER

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    En esta nota se discute sobre la polinización de cultivos como una actividad potencial del cultivo de abejas nativas.

    Palabras clave: abejas nativas, polinación de cultivos

    ABSTRACT

    This note refers to the potential of native bees cultivation in crop polinization.

    Key words: native bees, crop polinization

  6. Abejas cleptoparasitas, con énfasis en las abejas hospederas colectoras de aceites (Hymenoptera: Apoidea ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON NATIVE BEES BY THE INVASIVE AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE

    DAVID W ROUBIK

    Full Text Available Pocos estudios han considerado la dinámica de poblaciones de abejas en bosques o hábitats no alterados por el hombre. La presencia de abejas silvestres Africanizadas de Apis mellifera (Apidae fue estudiado por 10-17 años en áreas previamente sin esta especie. Aquí presento e interpreto resultados de tres bosques neotropicales: Guyana Francesa, Panamá y Yucatán, México (5° a 19° N. latitud. La abeja Africanizada exótica no produjo efecto negativo en las abejas nativas, incluyendo especies altamente sociales y solitarias. Diferencias mayores a través del tiempo fueron encontradas en la abundancia de las abejas de miel en flores cerca de hábitat con mayor grado de disturbio, comparado con el bosque espeso. Al nivel poblacional, muestreado en bloques de nidos trampa, en flores o con trampas ultravioletas de insectos, no hubo disminución pronta de abejas, y sí hubo una población relativamente estable o sinusoidal. Sin embargo, las abejas nativas cambiaron su hora de buscar provisiones o su selección de especies florales. Una conclusión principal es que esta competencia por los recursos es ‘silenciosa';, en las áreas florísticamente ricas estudiadas, porque las mismas abejas compensan con su comportamiento. Otros factores rigen sus poblaciones.Very little effort has been made to investigate bee population dynamics among intact wilderness areas. The presence of newly-arrived feral Africanized honey bee (AHB, Apis mellifera (Apidae, populations was studied for 10-17 years in areas previously with few or no escaped European apiary honey bees. Here I describe and interpret the major results from studies in three neotropical forests: French Guiana, Panama and Yucatan, Mexico (5° to 19° N. latitude. The exotic Africanized honey bees did not produce a negative effect on native bees, including species that were solitary or highly eusocial. Major differences over time were found in honey bee abundance on flowers near habitat

  7. GENÉTICA DEL COMPORTAMIENTO: ABEJAS, un ejemplo.

    Nates Parra Guiomar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de que el comportamiento de los animales esta determinado genéticamente no es nuevo si se considera que ya Darwin en su famosa obra El origen del hombre, en 1871 mencionaba que… “los rasgos del temperamento de los animales son heredados”. Pero solo hasta hace casi 50 años fue que la genética del comportamiento surgió como una especialidad importante dentro de la Genética; desde esa época muchos son los avances que refuerzan la idea generalmente aceptada de que todos los patrones comportamentales están determinados por componentes tanto ambientales como genotípicos. El análisis del control genético de un determinado comportamiento es complicado por el hecho de que las acciones primarias de un gene pueden afectar: 1. Los órganos sensoriales, cambiando la información recibida. 2. Sistemas intermedios (nervioso, endocrino, alterando capacidades de coordinación y percepción y 3. Órganos efectores, alterando la respuesta. Las mutaciones inducidas, que bloquean o alteran los patrones normales de comportamiento, proporcionan una herramienta muy útil para entender como los genes influencian la conducta (Hall et al, 1982. Al respecto hay muchos ejemplos, cuyo conocimiento ha servido para controlar o seleccionar caracteres indeseables o deseables (respectivamente, importantes para el mejoramiento en algunas especies animales. Por ejemplo, con la llegada de la abeja africanizada a América del Sur (Brasil,1958 (Kerr, 1967 llegaron también varios inconvenientes generados por el fuerte comportamiento defensivo de la nueva subespecie introducida (Apis mellifera scutellata , lo cual hizo que se iniciaran programas de investigación tendientes a conocer la biología y el comportamiento de la nueva especie introducida, de manera que se pudieran establecer cepas de abejas menos defensivas, conjuntamente con otras características como productividad o comportamiento higiénico. El establecimiento de las bases

  8. Diversidad de las abejas nativas de la tribu Meliponini (Hymenoptera, Apidae) en Argentina

    Alvarez, Leopoldo J.

    2016-01-01

    Las abejas (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) constituyen un grupo de insectos diverso y ampliamente distribuido que comprende alrededor de 18000 especies descriptas y representa uno de los grupos de insectos más importantes por su papel en la polinización de numerosas plantas con flores. En nuestro país están representadas cinco familias de abejas: Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae y Apidae. En esta última las tribus Apini, Meliponini, Bombini y Euglossini conforman un grupo monofilétic...

  9. Abejas de Colombia II claves preliminares para las familias, subfamilias y tribus (Hymenoptera: apoidea

    Fernandez Fernando

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available Ilustrated keys for families, subfamilies and tribes of Colombian bees are presented. Achek list of genera is given.Se presentan claves ilustradas para las familias, subfamilias y tribus de abejas existentes en Colombia, así como comentarios generales acerca de cada familia. Igualmente se anexa un listado de los géneros registrados hasta el momento para Colombia.

  10. Loci de rasgos binarios que influyen en la expresión del comportamiento higiénico de las abejas melíferas

    Arechavaleta-Velasco, Miguel E.; Hunt, Greg J.; Marla Spivak; Carmen Camacho-Rea

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio se realizó para detectar loci de rasgos binarios (BTL) que influyen en la expresión del comportamiento higiénico de abejas obreras y para localizar marcadores genéticos asociados a estos BTL en un mapa de ligamiento. Se recolectaron abejas que realizaron el comportamiento higiénico y abejas que no realizaron el comportamiento higiénico de una colonia producto de una retrocruza. Se construyó un mapa genético utilizando marcadores AFLP generados a partir del ADN de las abejas que r...

  11. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (HYMENOPTERA:MELIPONINI UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona, y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  12. Veneno de abeja: Vigilancia tecnológica mediante el estudio de las citas de patentes

    Beatriz García Delgado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los productos apícolas, particularmente el veneno de abeja, se encuentran entre los productos que poseen importantes propiedades farmacológicas y que en la actualmente su uso se diversifica, de aquí, la necesidad de realizar de forma sistemática estudios de vigilancia tecnológica relacionadas con este tema. En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio a partir de las 28 patentes que reivindican el "veneno de abeja" (concedidas por la Oficina de Patentes y Marcas de Estados Unidos y las citas correspondientes a estas invenciones. Esta información fue procesada con un sistema automatizado desarrollado para el procesamiento de patentes y sus citaciones, el cual genera un fichero que contiene la información procesada y que posibilita su posterior visualización en forma de red, mediante la utilización del sistema NetDraw, lo que permite, de forma eficaz y con inmediatez, identificar aquellas agrupaciones de interés que están relacionadas directamente con el veneno de abeja. Se determinó que existe una tendencia positiva en el desarrollo tecnológico relacionado con equipos y métodos para la recolección del veneno de abeja, y se comprobó que se continúan patentando procesos y productos relacionados fundamentalmente con el aislamiento, purificación y preparación de proteínas, anticuerpos y juegos de reactivos de diagnóstico que se emplean en la identificación y tratamiento de enfermedades inmunológicas.

  13. Abejas sin aguijón (hymenoptera: apidae: meliponini) en cementerios de la cordillera oriental de colombia

    Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Rodríguez-C., Ángela; E. DANNY VÉLEZ

    2011-01-01

    Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia). El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% d...

  14. Nueva especie de abeja del género Osmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) de México

    Ricardo Ayala; Terry Griswold

    2005-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva de abeja Osmia aliciae endémica del eje volcánico transversal, en la parte central de México. La especie se caracteriza por su integumento azul obscuro y el metasoma con bandas apicales de pubescencia densa sobre los tergos 2–5, y la hembra por el clípeo y área frontal con pubescencia con las puntas crispadas. Esta nueva especie has sido registrada en los estados de Morelos, M éxico, Michoacán y Jalisco.

  15. Diversidad de abejas sin aguijón (hymenoptera:meliponini) utilizadas en meliponicultura en colombia

    Guiomar Nates Parra; Juan Manuel Rosso Londoño

    2013-01-01

    En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura), es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 d...

  16. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Mimosa pigra L. (MIMOSACEAE:COMPORTAMIENTO DE PECOREO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS

    AGUILAR SIERRA CLARA ISABEL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Se estudiaron las cargas polínicas de 13 taxones de abejas capturadas visitando a Mimosa pigra en la zona de influencia del Embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia. De los 21 tipos polínicos encontrados, M. pigra presenta el mayor porcentaje acumulado de colecta; Mimosa pudica, Piper aduncum, Solanum diversifolium, Warszewiczia coccinea y Psidium guajava, en su orden, se pueden considerar fuentes alternativas de polen, para varias de las especies de abejas cuyas cargas polínicas fueron analizadas. Dentro de las especies de abejas capturadas visitando a M. pigra se pueden diferenciar varios grupos según el tipo y abundancia relativa de los tipos polínicos encontrados en sus cargas. Uno de ellos, incluye a siete especies de abejas con más del 85% de granos de polen de M. pigra; otro, con cuatro especies de abejas que colectaron más del 94,5% del polen en M. pigra y M. pudica. Adicionalmente, se encontraron especies como Trigona dorsalis con cargas de M. pigra (59,4%, de S. diversifolium (37,8% y especies de abejas como Lasioglossum sp. 113, en cuyas cargas polínicas predominan los granos de polen de P. aduncum (61,8% y de W.coccinea (36,4%, en contraste con los de M. pigra (1,3%. En cuanto a la riqueza de tipos polínicos colectados por las abejas sobresalen Trigona muzoensis (12 tipos polínicos y T. dorsalis (10 tipos, lo cual refleja nichos tróficos más amplios para estas especies y deja duda sobre su constancia floral o hábitos de limpieza.

    Las abejas de Porce familia colletidae (hymenoptera: apoidea notas y claves para los géneros presentes en la zona de influencia del embalse Porce ii.

    Smith Pardo Allan H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan claves taxonómicas a nivel de género para la identificación de las abejas colletidas de la zona de Influencia del Embalse Porce II (Porce, Antioquía, Colombia S.A. Adicionalmente se presentan algunas notas para los géneros de colletidos capturados durante el inventario de las abejas silvestres de la zona.

  17. GENÉTICA DEL COMPORTAMIENTO:: ABEJAS COMO MODELO Behavior Genetics:: Bees as Model

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    Full Text Available La abeja de miel (género Apis, Familia Apidae es uno de los organismos utilizados en estudios de comportamiento, debido a su forma de vida social, la cual requiere de coordinación entre todos los individuos de la comunidad. La división de trabajo dentro de una colonia de abejas es consecuencia de cambios fisiológicos relacionados con la edad de las obreras y con la variación genética entre ellas que hace que realicen diferentes tareas. Con los progresos en biología molecular, genómica y secuenciación del genoma de Apis mellifera, han surgido nuevas herramientas que permiten desentrañar las bases moleculares del comportamiento, en particular el comportamiento social. Numerosos estudios han mostrado que muchas de las conductas realizadas por las obreras están determinadas genéticamente (comportamiento defensivo, comportamiento higiénico y además que hay variación genética entre poblaciones en el desempeño de tareas como recolección de agua, néctar y polen. Igualmente algunos aspectos del comportamiento social, como el control de la reproducción en las castas estériles, también están bajo influjo genético. En este trabajo se hace una revisión de las metodologías utilizadas para estudiar la genética del comportamiento, así como la base genética de algunas de las conductas más sobresalientes de abejas.The honeybee Apis mellifera (Apidae is a model widely used in behavior because of its elaborate social life requiring coordinate actions among the members of the society. Within a colony, division of labor, the performance of tasks by different individuals, follows genetically determined physiological changes that go along with aging. Modern advances in tools of molecular biology and genomics, as well as the sequentiation of A. mellifera genome, have enabled a better understanding of honeybee behaviour, in particular social behaviour. Numerous studies show that aspects of worker behaviour are genetically determined

  18. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de dos derivados del Nim en lombriz de tierra y abejas

    A Mancebo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de productos con bajo o nulo impacto en organismos circundantes y el ambiente, constituye parte del nuevo concepto de protección de cultivos. Los productos NeoNim 60 y OleoNim 80, obtenidos del árbol del Nim, están propuestos para su uso como insecticida, nematicida y acaricida. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica de estos productos, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra Eisenia andrei y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas Apis mellifera. Cada ensayo contó con un grupo control y dos tratados. El ensayo en lombrices se realizó durante 14 días utilizando suelo artificial, realizando observaciones clínicas, conteo de animales y estudio del comportamiento de la biomasa. La prueba en abejas se prolongó por 48 horas, realizándose observaciones clínicas y conteo de animales. Se obtuvo un 100% de supervivencia en las lombrices de los grupos tratados, obteniendo en el NeoNim 60 valores de disminución de la biomasa significativamente inferiores al grupo control, mientras que el grupo tratado con OleoNim 80 mostró aumento en la biomasa del inicio al final del ensayo. En el ensayo en abejas, la comparación estadística no mostró diferencias entre grupos en cuanto a la mortalidad. Teniendo en cuenta el conjunto de los resultados obtenidos, se pudo concluir que los derivados del Nim NeoNim 60 y OleoNim 80 no producen efecto tóxico sobre las lombrices de tierra y las abejas.

  19. Estudio biosistemático de las abejas de la tribu Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: apidae) de interés agronómico en Argentina

    Lucía, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Las abejas constituyen un grupo de insectos ampliamente distribuidos que comprende aproximadamente 20000 especies descriptas alrededor del mundo. Son considerados los polinizadores más importantes de las Angioespermas y comprenden el grupo más diverso de los visitantes florales, de allí su importancia en los ecosistemas, tanto naturales como agrícolas. De las siete familias de abejas reconocidas en el mundo, sólo cinco se encuentran representadas en nuestro país. La familia Apidae es la má...

  1. ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) EN CEMENTERIOS DE LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE COLOMBIA Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA; ÁNGELA RODRÍGUEZ-C; E. DANNY VÉLEZ

    2006-01-01

    Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia). El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% d...

  2. Evaluación ecotoxicológica del FitoMas-H en lombriz de tierra y abejas

    Axel Mancebo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque constituye una necesidad el aumento de las producciones agrícolas, y actualmente se estimula la disminución del uso de productos químicos, mediante su sustitución por fertilizantes orgánicos y biológicos, es preciso evaluar el impacto de éstos sobre las especies del ecosistema en el cual se liberan. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica en sistemas terrestres del FitoMas-H, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra (Eisenia foetida y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas (Apis mellifera. Se evaluó una concentración de 1000 mg de FitoMas-H /Kg de suelo artificial en el primer caso, mientras en el ensayo con abejas se utilizó una dosis de 100 g de FitoMas - H/animal. El ensayo en lombrices culminó con un 97,5 % de supervivencia en el grupo Tratado, sin diferencias significativas en la mortalidad y la variación de biomasa del grupo Control contra el Tratado. Por otra parte, el estudio por contacto en abejas terminó con una supervivencia del 95.45%, sin diferencias entre la mortalidad del grupo Control contra el Tratado. En ambos casos, se pudo concluir que la exposición al FitoMas-H no produce efectos tóxicos en los invertebrados terrestres utilizados.

  3. NUEVOS REGISTROS GENÉRICOS DE ABEJAS (Hymenoptera: Apoidea PARA COLOMBIA New Records of Bee Genera (Hymenoptera: Apoidea from Caolombia

    VÍCTOR H GONZÁLEZ

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para Colombia los géneros de abejas solitarias Lophothygater Moure y Michener (Apidae, Eucerini y Tapinotaspoides Moure (Apidae, Tapinotaspidini. Estos géneros solo se conocían del centro de la Amazonía brasileña, Argentina y Paraguay, respectivamente.The solitary bee genera Lophothygater Moure y Michener (Apidae, Eucerini and Tapinotaspoides Moure (Apidae, Tapinotaspidini are reported from northern Colombia for the first time. These genera were previously known from the central Brazilian Amazonian and Argentina and Paraguay, respectively.

  4. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de dos derivados del Nim en lombriz de tierra y abejas

    A Mancebo Rodríguez; J Estrada Ortiz; C González Triana; Y González Torres; B González Navarro; AM Bada Barro

    2011-01-01

    La utilización de productos con bajo o nulo impacto en organismos circundantes y el ambiente, constituye parte del nuevo concepto de protección de cultivos. Los productos NeoNim 60 y OleoNim 80, obtenidos del árbol del Nim, están propuestos para su uso como insecticida, nematicida y acaricida. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica de estos productos, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra Eisenia andrei y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas...

  5. Biogeografía de las abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini en Colombia

    Parra-H. Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas de las orquídeas, propias de la región neotropical, parecen haber aparecido recientemente entre el piedemonte de la cordillera de los Andes y la Amazonía. Además éstas abejas de lengua larga y vuelos amplios
    llaman la atención por sus características biológicas, fisiológicas, ecológicas y comportamentales que comparadas con el resto de las tribus más cercanas a ellas (las abejas corbiculadas: Meliponini, Bombini y Apini
    presentan diferencias importantes. Debido a esto y a que son importantes polinizadores, es de especial interés
    establecer sus patrones de distribución, particularmente en Colombia, debido a las características geográficas
    del país. Con base en el material de euglosinos depositados en la colección del LABUN, referencias bibliográficas, características morfológicas y comporamentales de la tribu, así como la localización geográfica y altitudinal de las especies, se desarrolló un análisis de correspondencia para determinar cómo las diferentes variables podrían estar implicadas en la distribución de los euglosinos en Colombia. Los resultados del análisis multivariado muestran que no hay una estrecha relación de las especies de euglosinos a las regiones naturales que ocupan, sino que dentro de las variables consideradas, el tamaño corporal (implicado en capacidad de vuelo y la termorregulación, la estructura social (asociada a aprovechamiento y optimización de recursos en el hábitat y la longitud de la lengua (relacionada con la preferencia y toma de néctares, generan la mayor variabilidad de la muestra. De acuerdo a las características morfológicas y comportamentales analizadas se propone un patrón biogeográfico para la distribución de las abejas euglosinas en Colombia.

  6. Micoflora asociada a granos de polen recolectados por abejas domésticas (Apis mellifera L

    Carlos Manuel Bucio Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El polen cosechado de las explotaciones apícolas puede verse colonizado con hongos potencialmente toxigénicos durante su producción o almacenamiento, cuyas toxinas pueden tener consecuencias graves sobre la salud de las personas que lo consuman. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue cuantificar el grado de contaminación con hongos en 19 muestras de polen recolectado por las abejas, obtenidas en la ciudad de León, Gto. Método: 19 muestras de polen en diferentes presentaciones comerciales fueron obtenidas en tiendas naturistas de León, Gto., y fueron procesadas por triplicado colocando 100 gránulos sobre el medio de cultivo Papa Dextrosa Agar, e incubados por siete días a 25 °C. Al final del período de incubación se cuantificó el número de gránulos colonizados por los diferentes hongos. Resultados y Discusión: Los resultados mostraron que las tres muestras con mayor contaminación de hongos (98, 100 y 100 % fueron manejadas a granel, resultado similar al obtenido en un estudio previo realizado en 2007 con muestras recolectadas en la ciudad de Irapuato, Gto. Por otro lado, la contaminación de las muestras empacadas en envases de plástico duro (con y sin sellos en sus tapas tendieron a ser bajas, en contraste con lo encontrado en el estudio previo ya citado, donde hubo muestras envasadas de esa forma con más del 90 % de contaminación, lo que indica que el grado de contaminación no es consecuencia solamente de la forma de envasar el polen. La incidencia de los hongos encontrados fue en general baja: Aspergillus (3.6 %, Alternaria (3.6 %, Mucor (3.1 %, Fusarium (2.9 %, Penicillium (2.9 % y Rhizopus (0.7 %, habiéndose encontrado dentro del género Aspergillus la especie A. flavus, la cual puede incluir cepas capaces de producir aflatoxinas. Esta especie fue detectada en 4 de las 19 muestras analizadas, con incidencias de 27, 14, 10 y 1 %, las cuales fueron más altas que las encontradas en el estudio previo hecho en

  7. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS Memory And Learning In Bees' Floral Choices

    MARISOL AMAYA MÁRQUEZ

    Full Text Available Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas sociales puede ser m

  8. Estudio palinológico de las reservas alimentarias (miel y masas de polen) de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): un aporte al conocimiento de la interacción abeja-planta en el Chaco seco de Argentina

    Vossler, Favio Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo abordar la interacción entre las plantas proveedoras de recursos florales y tres especies de abejas nativas de la tribu Meliponini a través del estudio palinológico de la miel y masas polínicas almacenadas en los nidos. Las especies de abejas seleccionadas fueron Tetragonisca fiebrigi, Melipona orbignyi y Geotrigona argentina. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se tomaron muestras de reservas alimentarias (miel y masas de polen) de nidos provenientes d...

  9. Bromadiolona: un caso judicial relacionado con la muerte de abejas Bromadiolone: a judicial case related to bees death

    Guillermo Pablo Salinas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado de una investigación impulsada por la justicia, se analizaron muestras provenientes de un posible derrame intencional de plaguicidas sobre colmenas con abejas. En los análisis realizados se utilizó GC-MS previa extracción con solventes orgánicos. Debido a dificultades iniciales en la identificación de plaguicidas sobre tres de las muestras, se procedió al reprocesamiento de los cromatogramas utilizando selección de las relaciones de masas m/z 158, 173 y 143. Utilizando es herramienta analítica se obtuvieron los correspondientes cromatogramas, y los espectros de masas con coincidencia frente al divulgado para el producto de descomposición de bromadiolona (PDB, determinando que tanto las abejas como las colmenas habían tenido contacto con bromadiolona (3-[3-(4'-bromobifenil-4-il- 3-hidroxi-1-fenilpropil]-4- hidroxicumarina, un anticoagulante cumarínico de utilización agraria para combatir roedores, que parece ser prácticamente no tóxico para las abejas según informes internacionales. Se observó que en la literatura no se halla propuesta una estructura química definida para el PDB, lo cual podría constituir el fundamento para encarar trabajos futuros con el fin de elucidar el comportamiento de la droga madre en el contexto del caso.As a result of an investigation boosted by ordinary justice, samples from a probable deliberate spill of pesticide over bees and hives were analyzed. Solvent extractions and then GC-MS were used to perform the tests. Due to difficulties since the beginning in pesticide identification upon three samples, chromatograms were reprocessed using mass selection at m/z 158, 173 y 143 mass rates. The correspondent chromatograms were gathered by these analytical tool, and their mass spectrums were found coincident with the previously reported as bromadiolone decomposition product (BDP, showing that hives as well as bees had been in contact with bromadiolone (3-[3-(4'-bromobiphenyl-4-yl- 3-hydroxy

  10. La difusión de la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck en la revista La Abeja

    Camós Cabeceran, Agustí

    1997-01-01

    La obra de Lamarck fue difundida, entre los años 1862 y 1865, por la revista La Abeja dirigida por Antoni Bergnes de las Casas y publicada en Barcelona. En dicha revista aparece explicada la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck tanto en la traducción de su obra. Histoire naturelle des végétaux, como en una serie de artículos anónimos sobre la reproducción de los seres vivos. Estos datos pueden revelar que, en la introducción del evolucionismo en España, la teoría evolucionista de Lamarck tuvo mayo...

  11. Insuficiencia renal aguda asociada a picadura de abeja africanizada Acute renal failure secondary to africanized bee stings

    Verny Huertas-Franco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un adulto mayor diabético tipo 2, que sufrió un ataque masivo de abejas africanizadas, y llegó a la sala de emergencias tres horas después del inicio del ataque. El paciente presentó insuficiencia renal aguda por combinación de factores, y se recuperó con tratamiento de diálisis temprana. Se discuten los problemas que refieren estos pacientes, y cuál sería el manejo ideal de tales casos.This is the case of an elderly patient who suffered multiple Africanized bee stings. He developed acute renal failure as a complication. He however recovered completely after treatment with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

  12. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA EN ESTADOS SUCESIONALES DEL BOSQUE HÚMEDO TROPICAL Bee Diversity (Hymenoptera: Apoidea in a Tropical Rainforest Succession

    ALLAN SMITH PARDO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos principales de este trabajo fueron entender cómo la diversidad de abejas cambia durante la sucesión en un bosque húmedo neotropical, y comparar la eficiencia de los cuatro métodos de captura usados. La diversidad y riqueza de abejas fueron estudiadas al nororiente de Medellín (Antioquia, Colombia; 9001.100 m durante seis meses en cuatro estados sucesionales (pastizal, rastrojo bajo, rastrojo alto y bosque. Las abejas fueron intensiva y sistemáticamente capturadas usando los siguientes métodos: red entomológica, Malaise, metil salicilato para abejas euglosinas (Apidae, Euglossini y trampa Van Somer con pescado de agua dulce en descomposición. En total se capturaron 15.356 especímenes pertenecientes a cuatro familias y 287 especies de abejas. Esto corresponde al 62% del número total de especies de abejas conocidas para Colombia. Aproximadamente el 50% de todos los individuos fueron abejas sociales sin aguijón (Apidae, Meliponini. Trigona (Trigona fulviventris fue la especie más abundante (~10% en todo el muestreo. Augochlora y Megachile fueron los géneros con mayor número de especies. El pastizal y rastrojo alto presentaron los mayores índices de diversidad y riqueza de abejas y fueron significativamente más altos que los del bosque y rastrojo bajo. En todos los estados sucesionales, excepto por el bosque, el número de especies nuevas por muestra tendió a cero, y las curvas de acumulación de especies tendieron a normalizarse con el tiempo y aumento en el área de muestreo. La red entomológica fue el método más eficiente en todos los estados sucesionales, excepto en el bosque, donde el mayor número de especies e individuos fueron capturados con la trampa Van Somer. Sin embargo, en todos los estados sucesionales un mayor porcentaje (50% de especies raras fueron colectadas con Malaise. El número de especies nuevas colectadas en cada muestra y las curvas de acumulación de especies sugieren que el muestreo fue

  13. Variaciones hematológicas y de presión sanguínea en perros después de una picadura de abejas

    Jorge Muñoz G.; Verónica Arnes V.; Marcelo Mieres L.; Mirela Noro

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los cambios hematológicos y de presión arterial en perros después de una picadura cutánea de abejas. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron 10 perros adultos, a los cuales se les inoculó veneno de abeja mediante una picadura cutánea controlada. De cada animal se extrajo una muestra de sangre previa y los 15 y 300 minutos post inoculación. Se registró la presión arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD), media (PAM) y de pulso (PP) desde ...

  14. Impacto de la introducción de la abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera, Apidae en el Parque Nacional del Teide (Tenerife, Islas Canarias

    A. Valido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Parque Nacional del Teide (Tenerife, Islas Canarias se autoriza, cada primavera, la introducción de unas 3000 colmenas de abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera, Apidae. Esto implica que unos 100 millones de abejas melíferas compiten por néctar y polen con la fauna polinizadora nativa (insectos, aves y lagartos de este ecosistema peculiar de alta montaña. Si tenemos en cuenta que A. mellifera es considerada como un polinizador poco eficaz, la masiva presencia de abejas domésticas puede además incidir negativamente tanto en la producción de frutos y semillas como en la viabilidad de las semillas y el vigor de las plántulas. El objetivo de este artículo es señalar las consecuencias ecológicas de la introducción de A. mellifera en la red de interacciones mutualistas en esta área protegida (con un elevado porcentaje de especies endémicas, además de revisar el impacto de la abeja doméstica sobre la flora y fauna nativa en otros sistemas insulares. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la diversidad de polinizadores disminuye sustancialmente tras la introducción de A. mellifera. Además, se detecta una reducción significativa en la eficacia reproductiva de aquellas plantas (Echium wildpretii, Spartocytisus supranubius frecuentemente visitadas por A. mellifera. Por todo ello, y en base a los resultados obtenidos, se recomienda eliminar completamente la presencia de colmenas en el interior del Parque Nacional del Teide con el fin de proteger su flora y fauna endémica.

  15. Variaciones hematológicas y de presión sanguínea en perros después de una picadura de abejas

    Jorge Muñoz G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los cambios hematológicos y de presión arterial en perros después de una picadura cutánea de abejas. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron 10 perros adultos, a los cuales se les inoculó veneno de abeja mediante una picadura cutánea controlada. De cada animal se extrajo una muestra de sangre previa y los 15 y 300 minutos post inoculación. Se registró la presión arterial sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD, media (PAM y de pulso (PP desde 15 minutos previos hasta 45 minutos posteriores a la inoculación. Resultados. El recuento de eritrocitos, el hematocrito y la concentración de hemoglobina se redujeron a los 15 minutos post-inoculación (p0.05. Conclusiones. La picadura cutánea de abejas produce un descenso transitorio del recuento de eritrocitos, hematocrito y concentración de hemoglobina, junto con una disminución en el recuento de reticulocitos y del recuento relativo de eosinófilos, sin alterar mayormente la presión sanguínea.

  16. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Mimosa pigra L. (MIMOSACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE PECOREO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS Bees visiting Mimosa pigra L. (Mimosaceae: foraging behavior and pollen loads

    CLARA ISABEL AGUILAR SIERRA

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las cargas polínicas de 13 taxones de abejas capturadas visitando a Mimosa pigra en la zona de influencia del Embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia. De los 21 tipos polínicos encontrados, M. pigra presenta el mayor porcentaje acumulado de colecta; Mimosa pudica, Piper aduncum, Solanum diversifolium, Warszewiczia coccinea y Psidium guajava, en su orden, se pueden considerar fuentes alternativas de polen, para varias de las especies de abejas cuyas cargas polínicas fueron analizadas. Dentro de las especies de abejas capturadas visitando a M. pigra se pueden diferenciar varios grupos según el tipo y abundancia relativa de los tipos polínicos encontrados en sus cargas. Uno de ellos, incluye a siete especies de abejas con más del 85% de granos de polen de M. pigra; otro, con cuatro especies de abejas que colectaron más del 94,5% del polen en M. pigra y M. pudica. Adicionalmente, se encontraron especies como Trigona dorsalis con cargas de M. pigra (59,4%, de S. diversifolium (37,8% y especies de abejas como Lasioglossum sp. 113, en cuyas cargas polínicas predominan los granos de polen de P. aduncum (61,8% y de W.coccinea (36,4%, en contraste con los de M. pigra (1,3%. En cuanto a la riqueza de tipos polínicos colectados por las abejas sobresalen Trigona muzoensis (12 tipos polínicos y T. dorsalis (10 tipos, lo cual refleja nichos tróficos más amplios para estas especies y deja duda sobre su constancia floral o hábitos de limpieza.We studied the pollen loads of 13 taxa of wild bees visiting the flowers of Mimosa pigra on the influence zone of the Dam Project Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia. Out of 21 different pollen types, M. pigra represents the higuest percentage; Mimosa pudica, Piper aduncum, Solanum diversifolium, Warszewiczia coccinea and Psidium guajava, in that order, were also abundant, and are alternative sources of pollen for the different kinds of bees recorded. Among the species of bees collected, we differentiate

  17. Aspectos toxinológicos y biomédicos del veneno de las abejas Apis mellifera

    Rafael Valderrama Hernández

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom includes organic components of low and high molecular weight such as simple peptides like apamin, polypeptides like mellitin and enzymes like phospholipase A2 and hyaluronidase. It was recently demonstrated that some citrates are also important components of this venom. Mellitin and phospholipase A2 are the main and more abundant components, around 75%, in a ratio of 3:1; mellitin interacts with human red blood cells membranes producing hemolysis; and phospholipase A2, the main allergen of the venom, may act as blocking agent causing respiratory paralysis. Apamin represents about 2% of the total venom; it is less toxic than the aforementioned substances and acts as a motor neurotoxin; it is also responsible for triggering a cardiostimulant effect similar to that of adrenergic drugs; it has antiarrhythmic properties as well. Peptide MCD (Mast Cell Degranulation factor constitutes 2% of the venom, and it is one of the components responsible for histamine and serotonin release. Additionally, other components have been identified such as acid phosphatase, norepinephrine, dopamine and histamine. This review discusses aspects of the conformation and function of the bee stinging apparatus, of venom composition and action and ofs the behavior and habits of these insects. Finally, handling and treatment of bees bites are discussed. Applied aspects of the European and Africanized bees are compared. El veneno de abejas incluye compuestos orgánicos de bajo y alto peso molecular. Se encuentran en él péptidos simples como la apamina, polipéptidos como la melitina y enzimas como la fosfolipasa A2 y la hialuronidasa; recientemente se demostró que algunos citratos son también componentes mayores del veneno. La melitina y la fosfolipasa A2 son los componentes principales y más abundantes, cerca del 75%, en una relación 3:1. La melitina se adhiere a las membranas de los glóbulos rojos, produciendo hemólisis; la fosfolipasa A2, el mayor de los

  18. Caracterización físicoquímica de mieles de abejas sin aguijón (Meliponini) de Venezuela Physicochemical characterization of stingless bee (Meliponini) honey from Venezuela

    Patricia Vit

    2009-01-01

    Las mieles producidas por abejas sin aguijón (Meliponini) tienen una composición diferente a las mieles de Apis me - llifera; sin embargo, no se han incorporado sus estándares en las normas de calidad para este producto de la colmena. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron mieles producidas en Venezuela por seis especies de abejas sin aguijón: Frieseomelitta paupera (Provancher, 1888), Scaura aff. latitarsis (Friese, 1900), Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811), Plebeia sp., Scaptotrigona sp...

  19. ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini EN CEMENTERIOS DE LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE COLOMBIA Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the species with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.

  20. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

    Danny Vélez E.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  1. Estudio cinético de una fermentación alcohólica utilizando miel de abejas como sustrato

    José Ángel Gómez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe un estudio cinético de una fermentación alcohólica utilizando miel de abejas como sustrato; para este efecto se realizaron nueve fermentaciones en proceso discontinuo con un volumen, de 10 L, siguiendo el comportamiento de las concentraciones de sustrato, biomasa y producto en el tiempo. Se evaluó la conveniencia de factores como la agitación y la adición de nutrientes, además, se observa el efecto de las concentraciones iniciales de sustrato e inocula y el tipo de miel.

  2. Un escaneo explorativo del genoma de la abeja ibérica para detectar loci candidatos a selección

    Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Henriques, Dora; Muñoz, Irene; De La Rúa, Pilar; Azevedo, João; Patton, John C.; Johnston, J. Spencer; Pinto, M. Alice

    2012-01-01

    Estudios explorativos del genoma se ha convertido en un abordaje popular para detectar selección permitiendo un análisis de la adaptación local y especiación a nivel molecular en poblaciones. La abeja ibérica (Apis mellifera iberiensis) ha sido estudiada con una variedad de marcadores genéticos como alozimas, DNA mitocondrial y microsatélites, pero estos han revelado complejos patrones y procesos que aún deben ser analizados minuciosamente. En los últimos años, las nuevas tecnologias han faci...

  3. Evaluación de los cambios pre y postcosecha de la miel de especies de abejas sin aguijón

    Ascencio Tuso, Doris Jannet

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo permitió establecer que de las abejas sin aguijón, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811), por abundancia de nidos, volumen de miel, número de colmenas y adaptabilidad a diversos ambientes naturales en Colombia, es la especie con mayor potencial. Se caracterizaron cuatro tipos de potes según su estructura y las propiedades de la miel, evidenciando que este aspecto se debe tener en cuenta en el momento de la extracción. Se encontraron graves deficiencias en la calidad microbioló...

  4. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera, which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50, as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relationship between the maximum OA dose used in Uruguay (3.1 g OA per hive and the toxicological parameters of honeybees from SWZU. The current dose of 3.1 g OA per hive corresponds to 132.8 OA per honeybee since determined NOEL is 400 OA per honeybee; our results indicate that the current dose could be increased to 9.3 g OA per hive. The results also highlight some differences between the LD50 value in SWZU honeybees (548.95 OA per honeybee and some published LD50 values for other honeybee subspecies.Este trabajo estudió la toxicidad aguda por contacto del ácido oxálico (AO sobre una subespecie poli-híbrida de abejas (Apis mellifera, la cual es el biotipo dominante en la zona sudoeste de Uruguay (SWZU, la región más importante para la producción de miel en este país. Este estudio determinó la dosis letal 50 (DL50, así como el nivel de efecto no observado (NOEL, el nivel de efecto mínimo observado (LOEL, y el número total de individuos por colmena. El propósito fue evaluar la relación entre la dosis máxima de AO usada en Uruguay (3.1 g AO por colmena y los parámetros toxicológicos de las abejas de la SWZU. Los resultados mostraron que es posible elevar la dosis actual de AO por colmena a 9.3 g, ya que la dosis actual de 3.1 g de AO corresponde a 132.8 AO por abeja, y el NOEL determinado es 400 AO por abeja. Los resultados también destacaron algunas diferencias entre la DL50 de las abejas del SWZU (548.95 AO por abeja y algunos valores de DL50 publicados

  5. Las abejas silvestres de Colombia: Por qué y cómo conservarlas The Colombian wild bees: Why and how to preserve them

    González Víctor Hugo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas silvestres de Colombia, al igual que las del resto del mundo, están sufriendo los rigores de las actividades desarrolladas por el hombre y así se catalogan como organismos en peligro. El conocimiento actual de las abejas en nuestro país, como muchos otros insectos, todavía se encuentra en una fase muy incipiente; es fragmentado, local y carece de una síntesis. Tan sólo se conoce racionalmente 5% de las abejas del país, especialmente las especies corbiculadas de la familia Apidae. Muy poco trabajo taxonómico ha sido realizado por investigadores colombianos y prácticamente no existen trabajos por autores extranjeros enfocados en la fauna colombiana. La carencia de especialistas, las dificultades para el envío de material al exterior y la falta de recursos han dificultado la tarea. Sin embargo, la alta riqueza de especies que creemos se encuentra en el país representa una razón más para avanzaren el conocimiento y entendimiento de la biodiversidad de éste grupo. En esta revisión se analizan las principales causas que ponen en riesgo las poblaciones y especies de la apifauna nativa: deforestación, pastoreo, la abeja africanizada y la explotación irracional de las abejas, entre otras. Se proponen algunas acciones a ser emprendidas conjuntamente con centros académicos, agricultores, campesinos, indígenas y la sociedad en general que permitan proteger las especies, teniendo en cuenta que median-te la polinización, se tornan en eslabones esenciales dentro de los ecosistemas permitiendo la conservación de muchas especies vegetales y otras comunidades.The Colombian wild bees, as well as those in the rest of the whole world are undergoing the rigor of human activities and so are considered to be under threat of extinction. The current knowledge about Colombian bees, like other insects, is still in its beginnings, is fragmentated and a synthesis is desirable. Only 5% of the Colombian bees are well known, especially the

  6. Comportamiento de acicalamiento de abejas (Hymenoptera: Apidae sobre varroa (Mesostigmata: Varroidae Grooming behaviour of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on varroa (Mesostigmata: Varroidae

    XIMENA ARANEDA D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre los factores que pueden ayudar a disminuir y controlar la población de Varroa destructor en colonias de Apis mellifera está el comportamiento de acicalamiento. Este comportamiento consiste en la capacidad de la abeja de detectar, morder y eliminar los parásitos en etapa forética. En esta investigación se analizó la presencia del comportamiento de acicalamiento en colonias de abejas a través de la observación de ácaros dañados. Para ello se utilizaron seis colonias de abejas de la especie A. mellifera en colmenas tipo Langstroth, las cuales se evaluaron diariamente durante 30 días en abril y mayo del año 2008. Las muestras correspondieron a la caída diaria de ácaros a placas de metal con vaselina, ubicada en el piso de cada colmena por un periodo de 24 horas. Los resultados indicaron 95% de varroas caídas muertas y 5% vivas de un total de 2.005 varroas. Se encontró un 49% de ácaros con daños y 51% sin daños. Con base en lo observado existe la posibilidad de elegir colonias con comportamiento de acicalamiento de importancia como daño dorsal y daño completo sobre el acaro, lo cual puede ser muy útil para estudiar selección de abejas y diseñar estrategias de manejo integrado del ácaro V. destructor.Among the factors that can help to diminish and control populations of Varroa destructor in colonies of Apis mellifera is grooming behaviour. This behaviour consists of the capacity of the bee to detect, bite and eliminate parasites in the phoretic stage. In this investigation we evaluated the presence of grooming behavior in bee colonies through observations of damaged mites. For this we used six colonies of A. mellifera in Langstroth type beehives, which were evaluated daily for 30 days in April and May of 2008. The samples consisted of daily mite fall onto metal sheets coated with vaseline, placed in the floor of each beehive for a period of 24 hours. The results showed 95% of fallen mites dead and 5% alive out of a total

  7. DESARROLLO Y OPTIMIZACIÓN DE UNA METODOLOGÍA MULTIRESIDUO POR MÉTODO SIMPLEX PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE PLAGUICIDAS EN MIEL DE ABEJAS

    Danny Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de plaguicidas en cultivos cercanos a las zonas de producción apícola puede afectarla supervivencia de las abejas y la calidad de los productos derivados de la colmena, por lo cual es de gran importancia realizar estudios de residualidad de estos agroquímicos en mieles yen otros productos apícolas. Para esto es indispensable desarrollar metodologías que permitan el análisis de estos contaminantes en productos apícolas. Este trabajo muestra los resultados en el desarrollo y optimización de una metodología multiresiduo para el análisis de 30 plaguicidas, incluyendo plaguicidas organoclorados, organofosforados y piretroides en miel de abejas. El método consistió en una extracción líquido-líquido, seguida de un paso de limpieza en fase solida usando una columna cargada con silica gel/florisil. El análisis de los plaguicidas fue realizado por cromatografía de gases con detectores de nitrógeno fósforo (NPD y microcaptura electrónica (µ-ECD.La optimización de las variables experimentales presentes en los pasos de pre-tratamiento, extracción y limpieza se realizó mediante el empleo del método simplex modificado. Con este fin, se escogieron 14 variables las cuales se optimizaron en 21 experimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los porcentajes de recuperación obtenidos para la mayoría de los plaguicidas se encuentran entre el 78.8% y el 114.5%, con coeficientes de variación inferiores al 20%.

  8. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  9. Aplicación de bioprocesos en polen de abejas para la obtención de un suplemento nutricional proteico / Implementation of bioprocesses on honeybee pollen for obtaining a protein nutritional supplement

    Fuenmayor Bobadilla, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    La masificación de las tendencias vegetarianas y saludables de consumo y la creciente preocupación de los consumidores por el impacto ambiental de los productos, han estimulado la búsqueda de fuentes alternativas de proteínas, en particular de origen vegetal, que puedan reemplazar las fuentes tradicionales (proteína animal) sin desventajas desde el punto de vista de su valor biológico. El polen apícola es un producto originalmente recolectado por las abejas obreras y que es cosechado por a...

  10. Desarrollo y optimización de una metodología multiresiduo por método simplex para el análisis de plaguicidas en miel de abejas

    Danny Rodriguez; Amanda Díaz; Diego Ahumada; Jairo Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    La aplicación de plaguicidas en cultivos cercanos a las zonas de producción apícola puede afectarla supervivencia de las abejas y la calidad de los productos derivados de la colmena, por lo cual es de gran importancia realizar estudios de residualidad de estos agroquímicos en mieles yen otros productos apícolas. Para esto es indispensable desarrollar metodologías que permitan el análisis de estos contaminantes en productos apícolas. Este trabajo muestra los resultados en el desarrollo y optim...

  11. Evaluación de cinco métodos de muestreo para abejas en dos estados sucesionales del área de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia.

    Smith Pardo Allan Henry

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la eficacia de cinco métodos para la captura de abejas en algunos bosques y rastrojos bajos de la que será la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II ( Antioquia, Colombia S.A.; los métodos utilizados, consistieron en : jameo a través de dos transectos de 100 m de largo por 2m de ancho, la utilización de trampas Van Somer con pescado descompuesto como cebo, trampas Malaise de 2 m de ancho por 2 m de largo, platos amarillos sobre un pedestal de 1.5 m de altura y finalmente tarros portadores de esencias; todas las trampas estuvieron separadas 12 m entre si y fueron ubicadas al azar por sorteo. En cuanto a la abundancia, riqueza y a los índices de diversidad para las abejas capturadas se destacaron como métodos de evaluación las trampas Van Somer con pescado descompuesto como cebo y el jameo ( más comúnmente utilizado , adicionalmente, el análisis del índice de similitud de Jaccard y de las morfoespecies capturadas por cada método mostraron que cada uno de estos capturó cierta cantidad de morfoespecies exclusivamente.

  12. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  13. Producción del manzano (Malus sp. cv Anna en el oriente Antioqueño con la abeja melífera, Apis mellifera L. (hymenoptera: apidae.

    Botero Garcés Natalia

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de diversificar cultivos ha marcado el comienzo de otras alternativas agronómicas en nuestro país tales como la producción de manzano. Hace unos 6 años se inició en Colombia la plantación de cultivares comerciales mejorados de cuya biología y necesidades poco se sabe. Se planteó un estudio sobre la influencia de la polinización entomófila en la producción de manzana Anna. El trabajo se desarrolló en un cultivo de manzano en el Municipio del Carmen de Viboral (Oriente Antioqueño, correspondiente a la zona de vida bosque húmedo montano bajo (bh-MB, con temperatura promedio anual de 14-24°C, altura de 2200 msnm y precipitación promedio anual de 1800 mm. Se propuso estimar el efecto de los insectos polinizadores en la producción, comparando ésta en ramas enjauladas excluidas de todos los visitantes florales, con la de ramas expuestas a éstos durante la floración, en árboles escogidos al azar. Se encontró que las ramas que habían sido visitadas por insectos producían significativamente más manzanas (t = 2,95, para t0.05 con 18 g.l., con mayor pesos (t=2,21, para t0.05 con 18 g.l. y mayor número de semillas (t=3.75, para t0.05 con 18 g.l., que ramas sin acceso de visitantes florales. Una medición de índices de diversidad mostró que la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera L. constituyó el 76% de los visitantes florales y que la diversidad fue muy baja (λ=0.7439. Se concluyó que el manzano Anna requiere polinización entomófila, que la abeja melífera fue el polinizador más importante y que se incrementó significativamente la producción de frutos bajo la influencia de esta especie de abeja. Se recomienda la introducción al cultivo de Apis mellifera al momento de la floración, para garantizar una producción adecuada.

  14. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  15. Las abejas del género Agapostemon (Hymenoptera: Halictidae del estado de Nuevo León, México Bees of the genus Agapostemon (Hymenoptera: Halictidae of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico

    Liliana Ramírez-Freire

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio faunístico de las abejas del género Agapostemon (Halictidae en el estado de Nuevo León, México para conocer las especies presentes, su distribución, relación con la flora y tipos de vegetación del estado. La metodología se basó en la revisión de literatura y de bases de datos de colecciones entomológicas, y en muestreos en campo donde se utilizó red entomológica y platos trampa de colores amarillo, azul, rosa (tonos fluorescentes y blanco. Sólo en 20 de los 35 muestreos que se realizaron se obtuvieron ejemplares del género. Se recolectaron 11 especies, 2 de las cuales son registros nuevos para el estado (A. nasutus y A. splendens. El 12.31% de los ejemplares se obtuvo mediante el uso de red y el 87.84% con los platos trampa; el color amarillo fue el preferido por las abejas. Las especies con mayor distribución fueron A. tyleri y A. angelicus /A. texanus; se recolectaron en 9 especies de plantas pertenecientes a 6 familias. Helianthus annuus (Compositae presentó la mayor diversidad con 4 especies de Agapostemon. Los muestreos se realizaron en 10 diferentes tipos de vegetación y la mayor riqueza de especies se obtuvo en diversos matorrales y en la vegetación de disturbio.A study of the bee genus Agapostemon (Halictidae in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico was carried out to learn about species numbers, distribution, relationship to flora and vegetation types of the state. Methodology was based on a review of literature and databases from enthomological collections, for field sampling net and pan traps were used in yellow, blue, pink (fluorescent colors and white. A total of 35 sites along the state were visited, Agapostemon specimens were found only in 20 sites. We collected 11 species, 2 of them as new records for the state (A. nasutus and A. splendens. From the total specimens, 12.31% was obtained with the use of net and 87.84% using pan traps, being yellow the preferred color. The most widely distributed

  16. A revision of the bee genus Nomada in Argentina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Nomadinae Revisión de las abejas del género Nomada en la Argentina (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Nomadinae

    Arturo Roig Alsina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the bee genus Nomada Scopoli in Argentina is presented. Nine species are recognized in this region, five of which are described as new: N. mesopotamica, N. longula, N. chacoana, N. missionica, and N. turrigera. Lectotypes are designated for N. pampicola Holmberg, 1886, and N. costalis Brèthes, 1909. A new name, N. holmbergiana, is proposed for Hypochrotaenia parvula Holmberg, 1886, preoccupied in Nomada, and a neotype is designated for H. parvula Holmberg. A key to the species, descriptions, distributional data, and illustrations are provided.Se presenta una revisión de las abejas del género Nomada Scopoli en la Argentina. Se reconocen nueve especies en esta región, de las cuales cinco se describen como nuevas: N. mesopotamica, N. longula, N. chacoana, N. missionica y N. turrigera. Se designan lectotipos para N. pampicola Holmberg, 1886, y N. costalis Brèthes, 1909. Se propone un nuevo nombre, N. holmbergiana, para Hypochrotaenia parvula Holmberg, 1886, preocupado en Nomada, y se designa un neotipo para H. parvula Holmberg. Se presenta una clave para las especies, descripciones, datos de distribución e ilustraciones.

  17. Desarrollo de una herramienta para evaluar los programas prerrequisitos del Sistema (HACCP, instaurado en la planta de beneficio de miel de abejas de la UEB Apícola de Sancti Spíritus.

    Yorexis Guilarte Navarro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los alimentos están expuestos a agentes físicos, químicos o biológicos, causando un efecto adverso para la salud. Un estudio poblacional arrojó que el mayor % de los casos diarreicos tuvo relación con la ingestión de alimentos, lo que evidencia, que estos tienen importantes cargas bacterianas desde su origen. En el caso de la miel de abeja, los principales peligros están dados por contaminación de envases, por presencia de antibióticos y por fermentación. Como solución, se desarrolló y validó un instrumento que se sustenta en la Gestión de la Higiene y la Calidad, aplicable al diagnóstico de los 7 planes previos de higiene y trazabilidad, necesario para implantar un sistema Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP en cualquier empresa del sector agroalimentario, capaz de, medir los programas prerrequisitos del sistema descrito. Sometido a validación de contenido por Delphy, la herramienta final obtuvo, la aprobación de los expertos, que otorgan alta confiabilidad a valores obtenidos por encima del 90% de cumplimiento. La herramienta permitió organizar y evaluar los prerrequisitos del Sistema HACCP, además de evaluar los resultados de su implantación, en el beneficio de la miel. La validación del Sistema HACCP, arroja resultados satisfactorios, reflejándose en la obtención de un producto inocuo.

  18. Real Language Meets Real Business

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  19. Real Talk on Real Estate

    2006-01-01

    What’s hot and what’s not in China’s property market The Beijing 2008 Olympics is a giant magnet for real estate investment, but how far-reaching is its pull? Is it a good time to buy real estate in second-tier cities? And could a bal- looning worldwide real estate bubble have ramifications for China? Inquiring minds want to know the answers to all these questions in real estate circles. Experts may not always answer harmoniously, but unless you have a villa empire, their advice could help you conquer this tricky market more successfully. No bubble in Beijing or beyond The Olympic effect will cause real

  20. Livestock grazing, habitat protection and diversity of bees and wasps in the Central Monte desert Ganadería, protección del hábitat y diversidad de abejas y avispas en el desierto del Monte Central

    Diego P. Vázquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reserves aim mainly at preventing or mitigating human impacts on natural ecosystems. It is important to assess how well reserves meet this goal. We evaluated whether habitat protection offered by Ñacuñán Biosphere Reserve (Central Monte desert, Argentina results in detectable changes in habitat structure and the species richness and composition of bees and wasps. We conducted pan trap sampling and flower visitor observations in six pairs of protected and unprotected sites. Our results suggest that thirty fi ve years of cattle exclusion in Ñacuñán have had detectable effects on habitat structure. However, these changes in habitat structure translated only into partial and conflicting effects on hymenopteran richness, and did not have detectable effects on hymenopteran composition. Our study should be repeated with a greater sampling effort and throughout multiple years before our results can be applied to guide management decisions.El principal objetivo de las reservas es prevenir o mitigar los impactos humanos sobre los ecosistemas naturales. Es importante evaluar cuán bien las reservas alcanzan este objetivo. Evaluamos si la protección del hábitat que brinda la Reserva de la Biósfera de Ñacuñán (Monte Central, Argentina resulta en cambios detectables en la estructura del hábitat, y en la riqueza y la composición de especies de abejas y avispas. Realizamos muestreos con trampas bandeja y observaciones de visitantes florales en seis pares de sitios dentro y fuera de la reserva. Nuestros resultados sugieren que los treinta y cinco años de exclusión del ganado vacuno en Ñacuñán han tenido efectos detectables sobre la estructura del hábitat. Sin embargo, estos cambios en el hábitat se tradujeron sólo en efectos parciales y conflictivos sobre la riqueza de himenópteros, y no tuvieron efectos detectables sobre la composición de himenópteros. Nuestro estudio debería repetirse en el futuro, con un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo y

  1. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  2. Real analysis

    Loeb, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is designed for a year-long course in real analysis taken by beginning graduate and advanced undergraduate students in mathematics and other areas such as statistics, engineering, and economics. Written by one of the leading scholars in the field, it elegantly explores the core concepts in real analysis and introduces new, accessible methods for both students and instructors. The first half of the book develops both Lebesgue measure and, with essentially no additional work for the student, general Borel measures for the real line. Notation indicates when a result holds only for Lebesgue measure. Differentiation and absolute continuity are presented using a local maximal function, resulting in an exposition that is both simpler and more general than the traditional approach. The second half deals with general measures and functional analysis, including Hilbert spaces, Fourier series, and the Riesz representation theorem for positive linear functionals on continuous functions with compact support....

  3. Two new species of the bee genus Peponapis, with a key to the North and Central American species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini Dos especies nuevas de abejas del género Peponapis, con una clave para las especies de América del Norte y Central (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini

    Ricardo Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of squash bees, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. and P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n., are described and illustrated. Peponapis pacifica is oligolectic on flowers of Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae endemic to Mexico, where it is found in the tropical dry forest along the Pacific Coast, between Sonora and Chiapas and in the Balsas River basin; and P. parkeri is known only from the Pacific slope of Costa Rica. A key for the North and Central American species of Peponapis is provided.Se describen e ilustran 2 especies nuevas de abejas, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. y P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n. De éstas, P. pacifica es oligoléctica sobre flores de Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae, endémica de México, con distribución asociada al bosque tropical caducifolio a lo largo de la vertiente del Pacífico entre Sonora y Chiapas y en la Cuenca del río Balsas; P. parkeri es conocida sólo para la vertiente del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Se incluye una clave para las especies de América del norte y central.

  4. Real-time systems

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  5. Real difference Galois theory

    Dreyfus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a difference Galois theory in the setting of real fields. After proving the existence and uniqueness of the real Picard-Vessiot extension, we define the real difference Galois group and prove a Galois correspondence.

  6. Efecto de la cantidad de cría de abeja Apis mellifera (Apidae sobre la eficacia del Oxavar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Varroidae Effect of Apis mellifera (Apidae honeybee brood amount on Oxavar® acaricide efficacy against the mite Varroa destructor (Varroidae

    Jorge Marcangeli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar® en el control del ácaro ectoparásito Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. El trabajo fue realizado en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se seleccionaron diez colmenas tipo Langstroth que fueron divididas en dos grupos: a cinco colmenas con tres cuadros cubiertos completamente de cría en desarrollo y b cinco colmenas con seis cuadros cubiertos por cría. Ambos grupos recibieron cinco ml of Oxavar® (Apilab, Argentina; 64,6 g/l de ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas adultas en tres dosis a intervalos de siete días. Semanalmente, se colectaron los ácaros muertos de los pisos especiales provistos a las colmenas de estudio con el objeto de evitar su remoción por parte de las abejas. Una vez concluido el tratamiento, en cada colmena se introdujeron dos tiras plásticas de Apistan® (Roteh, Argentina para eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder así calcular la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar®. Los resultados mostraron que la eficacia del Oxavar® en el primer grupo (85,6% ± 1,4 resultó significativamente superior a la registrada en el segundo grupo (75,7 ± 1,7. Estas diferencias fueron testeadas a partir del número total de ácaros eliminados por el Oxavar® y Apistan® en ambos grupos de colmenas (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of honeybee brood on acaricide efficacy of Oxavar® to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. Work was done at Centro de Extensión Apícola experimental apiary located at Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Ten Langstroth hives were selected and divided in two groups: a hives containing three honeybee combs full of brood and b hives containing six honeybee brood combs. Both groups received five ml of Oxavar® (Laboratorio Apilab, Argentina; 64.6 g/l oxalic acid in destilled water

  7. Real Algebraic Geometry

    Mahé, Louis; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1992-01-01

    Ten years after the first Rennes international meeting on real algebraic geometry, the second one looked at the developments in the subject during the intervening decade - see the 6 survey papers listed below. Further contributions from the participants on recent research covered real algebra and geometry, topology of real algebraic varieties and 16thHilbert problem, classical algebraic geometry, techniques in real algebraic geometry, algorithms in real algebraic geometry, semialgebraic geometry, real analytic geometry. CONTENTS: Survey papers: M. Knebusch: Semialgebraic topology in the last ten years.- R. Parimala: Algebraic and topological invariants of real algebraic varieties.- Polotovskii, G.M.: On the classification of decomposing plane algebraic curves.- Scheiderer, C.: Real algebra and its applications to geometry in the last ten years: some major developments and results.- Shustin, E.L.: Topology of real plane algebraic curves.- Silhol, R.: Moduli problems in real algebraic geometry. Further contribu...

  8. Real Stories of Depression

    Full Text Available ... Depression Publications About Men and Depression Getting Help Real Stories of Depression Bill Maruyama , Lawyer Jimmy Brown , ... in Men Signs & Symptoms Depression Treatment Getting Help Real Stories of Depression Publications About Men and Depression ...

  9. The Eudoxus Real Numbers

    Arthan, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    This note describes a representation of the real numbers due to Schanuel. The representation lets us construct the real numbers from first principles. Like the well-known construction of the real numbers using Dedekind cuts, the idea is inspired by the ancient Greek theory of proportion, due to Eudoxus. However, unlike the Dedekind construction, the construction proceeds directly from the integers to the real numbers bypassing the intermediate construction of the rational numbers. The constru...

  10. Electricity Real Options Valuation

    Broszkiewicz-Suwaj, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

  11. Real Estate Diversification Benefits

    Dirk P.M. De Wit

    1997-01-01

    Diversification benefits are shown to vary inversely with the correlation between asset returns. The present study estimates average correlation coefficients between real-estate returns from property-specific data of an internationally diversified real estate and in the Netherlands. It is found that diversification benefits within the United States are much larger than on the European Continent. The low correlation found between U.S. real estate returns implies that portfolios of small number...

  12. Real estate valuation

    Fleiberk, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this diploma thesis focuses on theoretical basis, which means definitions of basic terms related to real estates and valuation, cadastre of real estates, definitions of price and value, activity of valuers and real estate experts and two approaches to valuation, so called administrative and market valuation. The practical part begins with the apartment market analysis in the Czech republic in 2010 followed by the valuation of apartment. For the possibility of further compari...

  13. REAL ESTATE INFORMATION

    2006-01-01

    Project: Shihua International Center Developer: Beijing Urban Construction Real Estate Co. Ltd. Location: Inner side of Jingguangqiao Overpass along the East Third Ring Road, Beijing Project Introduction: On the afternoon of March 30, Beijing Urban Construction Real Estate Co. Ltd. and Beijing Huihe Real Estate Co. Ltd. held the first introductory conference on the project of Shihua International Center in the Conference Hall of Jingguanq Center. At the conference,

  14. Real estate investing

    Don T. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Purpose –Aims to explain the rationale for producing an issue on the topic of real estate investing and how these articles fit together. Design/methodology/approach - Essay format. Findings - Real estate is probably the largest category of assets for investors and the works in this issue will assist in the decision making processes of real estate investors. Research limitations/implications - Each of these papers covers only a limited topic and more research in the area is needed. Practical i...

  15. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  16. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Jean-François Degbomont; Julien Brusten; Bernard Boigelot

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the ...

  17. REAL- ESTATE INTERFACE

    Jawad, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to implement the most efficient user interface (UI) for Real-estate in Finland for client companies due to their desire of having this feature in their system. The prototype was supposed to show the clients how the feature works to get needed data for real-estate properties in Finland in their map system. National Land Survey MML of Finland was chosen for tracking the real-estate properties data in the system. The real-estate prototype was developed by Micros...

  18. Real Change for the Real Economy

    2010-01-01

    To tackle the problem of excess liquidity, it is extremely urgent to lead private speculative money into the investment sector. Developing strategic emerging industries will open a new investment channel for private capital and might help divert a certain amount from the virtual economy to real business operations.

  19. Real Time Systems

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  20. Real Estate Career Opportunities.

    Lyon, Robert; Gardner, Gene

    Designed to provide basic information on the major entry-level career fields in real estate, this document can be used as a reference manual for counselors and instructors. The manual contains general information about the following real estate careers: salesperson, sales manager, broker, land developer, property manager, appraiser, mortgage loan…

  1. A Real Estate Revival?

    Lan; Xinzhen

    2013-01-01

    Further regulation in the real estate market is a must,but tighter controls won’t be easy Several government departments released a joint circular to control borrowing by local governments, which is the first policy involving the real estate market in the new year.

  2. Tropical Real Hurwitz numbers

    Markwig, Hannah; Rau, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we define tropical analogues of real Hurwitz numbers, i.e. numbers of covers of surfaces with compatible involutions satisfying prescribed ramification properties. We prove a correspondence theorem stating the equality of the tropical numbers with their real counterparts. We apply this theorem to the case of double Hurwitz numbers (which generalizes our result from arXiv:1409.8095).

  3. Basic real analysis

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  4. Removal new alternative to chemical and mechanical removal for the study of pollen carried on the wild bee scopae Remoción química como nueva alternativa a la remoción mecánica para el estudio del polen transportado en las escopas de abejas silvestres

    Marta Caccavari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic recognition and quantification of the different pollen types collected by bees offer the most direct method to study the diet. To determine the importance of each plant taxon, it is necessary to separate the pollen deposited only in the collecting structures in order to minimize contamination of grains collected passively in other parts of the body. The technique currently applied is based on the mechanical removal of the pollen loads with dissecting needles and repeated washings with ethanol. Metathoracic scopae that underwent this procedure showed traces of pollen in varying amounts when observed under the microscope. As an alternative to this technique chemical removal using HOK is proposed. The leg is removed and treated separatedly to avoid contamination. The deflocculant properties of HOK successfully allowed to separate the pollen adhered to the scopae, which can be then returned to the individual, unaffected by the procedure. Suspend the pollen in a know quantity of mounting fluid permit take the subsamples and determine the total number of pollen grains of each taxon. In this paper, the new technique is presented and its effectiveness is compared to the technique currenty used.El reconocimiento taxonómico y la cuantificación de los distintos tipos polínicos colectados por las abejas ofrecen el método más directo para estudiar la dieta. Para determinar la importancia de cada taxón vegetal y minimizar la contaminación, es necesario separar el polen depositado en las estructuras de colecta, de los granos recolectados en forma pasiva en otras partes del cuerpo. La técnica que se aplica hasta el momento se basa en la remoción mecánica de las cargas polínicas con agujas de disección y sucesivos lavados con etanol. Escopas de patas metatoráxicas sometidas a este procedimiento al ser observadas bajo lupa presentaban aún granos de polen en cantidades variables. Como una alternativa a esta técnica proponemos la remoci

  5. Real-time shadows

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  6. Introduction to real analysis

    Schramm, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    This text forms a bridge between courses in calculus and real analysis. It focuses on the construction of mathematical proofs as well as their final content. Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students of real analysis, it also provides a vital reference book for advanced courses in mathematics.The four-part treatment begins with an introduction to basic logical structures and techniques of proof, including discussions of the cardinality concept and the algebraic and order structures of the real and rational number systems. Part Two presents in-depth examinations of the compl

  7. Real Wage Chronology

    Amy Peng; Louis N. Christofides

    2009-01-01

    We process information in a large number of Canadian wage contracts, signed over a period of several decades, to generate the long-run history of the real wage for each bargaining pair. We term these hitherto unexamined histories ‘chronologies’. We are able to generate 1574 continuous real wage chronologies and we examine the evolution of the real wage in each case. We explore the influence of productivity growth, the labour relations record of the pair, the influence of industry and region a...

  8. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  9. Real Stories of Depression

    ... Men and Depression Getting Help Real Stories of Depression Bill Maruyama , Lawyer Jimmy Brown , Firefighter Melvin Martin , ... Sierra , Trauma and Recovery Specialist Share Men and Depression Depression in Men Signs & Symptoms Depression Treatment Getting ...

  10. Real Stories of Depression

    Full Text Available ... Men and Depression Getting Help Real Stories of Depression Bill Maruyama , Lawyer Jimmy Brown , Firefighter Melvin Martin , ... Sierra , Trauma and Recovery Specialist Share Men and Depression Depression in Men Signs & Symptoms Depression Treatment Getting ...

  11. REAL ESTATE INFORMATION

    2010-01-01

    Stronger Demand in Shanghai Jones Lang LaSalle released its thirdquarter review report on the Shanghai real estate market.In Shanghai’s Puxi area,expansion of foreign-invested companies’ and clients’ needs for upgraded

  12. Real Property Tax Rates

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  13. Real Interference Alignment

    Motahari, Abolfazl Seyed; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad-Ali; Khandani, Amir Keyvan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the total Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOF) of the $K$-user Gaussian Interference Channel (GIC) can be achieved by incorporating a new alignment technique known as \\emph{real interference alignment}. This technique compared to its ancestor \\emph{vector interference alignment} performs on a single real line and exploits the properties of real numbers to provide optimal signaling. The real interference alignment relies on a new coding scheme in which several data streams having fractional multiplexing gains are sent by transmitters and interfering streams are aligned at receivers. The coding scheme is backed up by a recent result in the field of Diophantine approximation, which states that the convergence part of the Khintchine-Groshev theorem holds for points on non-degenerate manifolds.

  14. REAL ESTATE INFORMATION

    2006-01-01

    Huaye International Center Location: Northwest Corner of Honglingjinqiao of Dongsihuanlu Investor: Huaye Real Estate Developer: Beijing Gaoshenghua Real Estate Development Co. Ltd. Hotline: 86-10-65858883 Introduction: Huaye International Center has a total floor space of about 80,000 square meters. It is a top-grade integrated business community, combining office buildings, five-star serviced apartments and recreational establishments. It is due to open in early 2007. Huaye is designed by prestigious Au...

  15. Real estate appraisal reports

    Jelena Cvetinović

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Real estate appraisal in Republic of Serbia is an area where are many unknowns. Fortunately, nowadays in Serbia we have two professional associations of appraisers. As we know there are two types of appraisal ??? mass and individual appraisal and both requires standardized reports. This paper presents forms of valuation reports for individual real estate appraisal with its advantages and disadvantages. Process of real estate appraisal is complex and consists of several steps described in detail in paper with emphasis on selection of the method for valuation. Real estate report presents the final step in the process of valuation. In order to ensure usage of uniform real estate appraisal reports, national and international associations have adopted standards. All standards prescribe the minimum of required contents of report (professional standards, as well as ethical standards in order to ensure that all appraisers act highly professional, responsible and with integrity, and general conditions. Despite all measures in standardization there are still many problems in implementation, especially in countries where English is not a native language due to the fact that all standards are written in English.

  16. Real-time radiography

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  17. The Real Beauty

    胡晓媛

    2015-01-01

    it is well-known that all men search for beauty.Although the definition of beauty changes as time goes by,people still spare no efforts to pursue beauty in their lives.Meanwhile,most people try every means to make their body images better.With more people increasingly being eager for beauty in various ways,it is high time that we should think deeply about the concept of real beauty.In this paper,an attempt has been made to shed light on the real beauty.It is not completely physical appearance or slim figure,but a healthy body and peaceful mind as well as admirable courage.Above all,whether people can realize the nature of real beauty is certainly worthwhile for us to ponder.

  18. Real quaternionic calculus handbook

    Morais, João Pedro; Sprößig, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Real quaternion analysis is a multi-faceted subject. Created to describe phenomena in special relativity, electrodynamics, spin etc., it has developed into a body of material that interacts with many branches of mathematics, such as complex analysis, harmonic analysis, differential geometry, and differential equations. It is also a ubiquitous factor in the description and elucidation of problems in mathematical physics. In the meantime real quaternion analysis has become a well established branch in mathematics and has been greatly successful in many different directions. This book is based on concrete examples and exercises rather than general theorems, thus making it suitable for an introductory one- or two-semester undergraduate course on some of the major aspects of real quaternion analysis in exercises. Alternatively, it may be used for beginning graduate level courses and as a reference work. With exercises at the end of each chapter and its straightforward writing style the book addresses readers who ...

  19. Real mathematical analysis

    Pugh, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Based on an honors course taught by the author at UC Berkeley, this introduction to undergraduate real analysis gives a different emphasis by stressing the importance of pictures and hard problems. Topics include: a natural construction of the real numbers, four-dimensional visualization, basic point-set topology, function spaces, multivariable calculus via differential forms (leading to a simple proof of the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem), and a pictorial treatment of Lebesgue theory. Over 150 detailed illustrations elucidate abstract concepts and salient points in proofs. The exposition is informal and relaxed, with many helpful asides, examples, some jokes, and occasional comments from mathematicians, such as Littlewood, Dieudonné, and Osserman. This book thus succeeds in being more comprehensive, more comprehensible, and more enjoyable, than standard introductions to analysis. New to the second edition of Real Mathematical Analysis is a presentation of Lebesgue integration done almost entirely using the un...

  20. Real analysis and probability

    Ash, Robert B; Lukacs, E

    1972-01-01

    Real Analysis and Probability provides the background in real analysis needed for the study of probability. Topics covered range from measure and integration theory to functional analysis and basic concepts of probability. The interplay between measure theory and topology is also discussed, along with conditional probability and expectation, the central limit theorem, and strong laws of large numbers with respect to martingale theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic concepts of the theory of measure and integration, followed by a presentation of var

  1. Real-Time Shading

    Olano, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This book covers real-time shading systems, their design and how they work. Procedural shading, long valued for off-line rendering and production animation is now possible on interactive graphics hardware. These developments are important for areas such as game development, product design, and scientific visualization, among others. The authors include examples of techniques for achieving common effects efficiently in a real-time shading language ranging from full procedural shading on advanced specialized hardware to limited, yet surprisingly flexible shading on unextended OpenGL, to modern P

  2. Real estate investment dynamics

    Gruber, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is motivated by the steadily increasing interest in the dynamic relationship between the macro-economy and the real estate sector. One of the main issues in this respect is to study the investment dynamics. Since the bursting of the U.S. housing bubble in 2006 is identified as the point of origin of the so called subprime crises, which led to the collapse of the U.S. financial system, the dynamics of real estate investments is of particular interest. In the first part of my the...

  3. Equity Real Estate Investment Trusts and Real Estate Returns

    S. Michael Giliberto

    1990-01-01

    Some investors view equity real estate investment trusts (EREITs) as partial substitutes for conventional real estate investments, although the correlation between EREIT and real estate returns is insignificant. However, this study finds that the residuals from regressions of both real estate series on financial asset returns are significantly correlated. This supports the notion that there is a common factor (or factors) associated with real estate that affects both sets of returns. In addit...

  4. Convergence Is Real

    Enyeart, Mike; Staman, E. Michael; Valdes, Jose J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of convergence has evolved significantly during recent years. Today, "convergence" refers to the integration of the communications and computing resources and services that seamlessly traverse multiple infrastructures and deliver content to multiple platforms or appliances. Convergence is real. Those in higher education, and especially…

  5. Is Optimism Real?

    Simmons, Joseph P.; Massey, Cade

    2012-01-01

    Is optimism real, or are optimistic forecasts just cheap talk? To help answer this question, we investigated whether optimistic predictions persist in the face of large incentives to be accurate. We asked National Football League football fans to predict the winner of a single game. Roughly half (the partisans) predicted a game involving their…

  6. Being Real for Children.

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…

  7. Un-real Estate

    Ulfstjerne, Michael Alexander

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Ordos China the dissertation ‘Un-real Estate’ traces a local economic boom into its subsequent bust. It gives an account of how state as well as non-state actors appropriate state development schemes and the unintended effects resulting from the colluding forces...

  8. Introductory real analysis

    Kolmogorov, A N; Silverman, Richard A

    1975-01-01

    Self-contained and comprehensive, this elementary introduction to real and functional analysis is readily accessible to those with background in advanced calculus. It covers basic concepts and introductory principles in set theory, metric spaces, topological and linear spaces, linear functionals and linear operators, and much more. 350 problems. 1970 edition.

  9. Real determinant line bundles

    Okonek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This article is an expanded version of the talk given by Ch. O. at the Second Latin Congress on "Symmetries in Geometry and Physics" in Curitiba, Brazil in December 2010. In this version we explain the topological and gauge-theoretical aspects of our paper "Abelian Yang-Mills theory on Real tori and Theta divisors of Klein surfaces".

  10. The LEDA class real number

    Burnikel, C.; Mehlhorn, K.; Schirra, S.

    1996-01-01

    We describe the implementation of the LEDA data type {\\bf real}. Every integer is a real and reals are closed under the operations addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and squareroot. The main features of the data type real are \\begin{itemize} \\item The user--interface is similar to that of the built--in data type double. \\item All comparison operators $\\{>, \\geq,

  11. Real Estate Inheritance in Austria

    Pirmin Fessler; Peter Mooslechner; Martin Schürz

    2010-01-01

    As real estate inheritances are an important component of Austrian households’ assets, they are relevant for monetary policymaking and for the maintenance of financial stability. 20% of Austrian households have inherited real estate wealth, with some 2% of all households accounting for around 40% of the overall volume of real estate inheritances in Austria. In aggregate, real estate inheritances constitute up to 23% of households’ total real estate wealth. Households which have inherited diff...

  12. Cohesion in real materials

    Theoretically calculated values of cohesion force density are compared with their values in real materials. Cohesion at the interface of twin inclusions in niobium at 4.2 K, slip bands in niobium at 77 K, slip bands in niobium oxidized and predeformed at 295 K after cooling down to 77 K, in slip bands of different hardened and tempered steels, at the boundaries of Al99.999 grains - in the process of torsional vibrations at 523 K, have been determined. To calculate cohesion force density and dry friction coefficient a two-member formula of dry friction is used. In all the cases cohesion force density of real materials was below its values calculated theoretically. Excess of yield limit and strengthening curve under compression over yield limit and strengthening curve under tension is explaind as a result of summation and subtraction of external stresses and cohesion forces

  13. Route around real time

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author)

  14. Real analysis on intervals

    Choudary, A D R

    2014-01-01

    The book targets undergraduate and postgraduate mathematics students and helps them develop a deep understanding of mathematical analysis. Designed as a first course in real analysis, it helps students learn how abstract mathematical analysis solves mathematical problems that relate to the real world. As well as providing a valuable source of inspiration for contemporary research in mathematics, the book helps students read, understand and construct mathematical proofs, develop their problem-solving abilities and comprehend the importance and frontiers of computer facilities and much more. It offers comprehensive material for both seminars and independent study for readers with a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. The first nine chapters followed by the appendix on the Stieltjes integral are recommended for graduate students studying probability and statistics, while the first eight chapters followed by the appendix on dynamical systems will be of use to students of biology and environmental scie...

  15. Real Time Processing

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  16. Real business cycle realizations

    Smith, Gregor W.; Stanley E. Zin

    1997-01-01

    Much recent business cycle research focuses on moments of macroeconomic aggregates. We construct examples of real business cycle sample paths for output, consumption, and employment for the U.S. economy. Annual sample paths are generated from an initial condition in 1925, measured technology and government spending shocks since then, and a standard, calibrated, one-sector model of the business cycle. Quarterly sample paths are generated similarly, from an initial condition in 1955. The law of...

  17. Real Islamic Logic

    Bergstra, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL is analyzed from several perspectives: (i) parallel distributed systems design, (ii) reception by a community structured audience, (iii) informal logic and applied non-classical logics, and (iv) (in...

  18. Real Islamic Logic

    Bergstra, Jan Aldert

    2011-01-01

    Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL is analyzed from several perspectives: (i) parallel distributed systems design, (ii) reception by a community structured audience, (iii) informal logic and applied non-classical logics, and (iv) (in)tractability and artificial intelligence.

  19. Real Time Strategy Language

    Hayes, Roy; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2014-01-01

    Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide complex domain to test the latest artificial intelligence (AI) research. In much of the literature, AI systems have been limited to playing one game. Although, this specialization has resulted in stronger AI gaming systems it does not address the key concerns of AI researcher. AI researchers seek the development of AI agents that can autonomously interpret learn, and apply new knowledge. To achieve human level performance, current AI systems rely on game...

  20. Resuscitating Real Business Cycles

    Robert G. King; Sergio T. Rebelo

    2000-01-01

    The Real Business Cycle (RBC) research program has grown spectacularly over the last decade, as its concepts and methods have diffused into mainstream macroeconomics. Yet, there is increasing skepticism that technology shocks are a major source of business fluctuations. This chapter exposits the basic RBC model and shows that it requires large technology shocks to produce realistic business cycles. While Solow residuals are sufficiently volatile, these imply frequent technological regress. Pr...

  1. Several real variables

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  2. Real-Time PCR

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  3. The real butterfly effect

    Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier–Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods. (invited article)

  4. Real Parabolic Vector Bundles over a Real Curve

    Sanjay Amrutiya

    2014-02-01

    We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let $(X, _X)$ be a real curve, and let $S\\subset X$ be a non-empty finite subset of such that $_X(S) = S$. Let ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an -fold cyclic cover : $Y→ X$ in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of , and with the property that for any element of the Galois group , and any $y\\in Y$, one has $_Y(gy) = g^{-1}_Y(y)$. We established an equivalence between the category of real parabolic vector bundles on $(X,_X)$ with real parabolic structure over , all of whose weights are integral multiples of 1/, and the category of real -equivariant vector bundles on $(Y, _Y)$.

  5. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  6. Real- Time Simulation Applications

    V. Srinivas

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with development of the real-time simulation systems. Two systems, one for supporting the research and development programmes of the aircraft industry and the other to provide pilot training of modem aircraft are described. The presentation brings out the effectiveness of such systems in their respective roles and the techniques developed in the design and realisation of hardware and software.This also gives a overview of various activities which have culminated in the establishment of research simulation facility and training simulators. Also plans of actions and techniques proposed to be employed in terms of future programmes are discussed.

  7. Sistemas en tiempo real

    Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Romero, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de esta línea de investigación es el estudio y desarrollo de aplicaciones que poseen restricciones temporales. Resulta de interés el estudio de diferentes metodologías para la especificación y desarrollo de aplicaciones en tiempo real, así como las plataformas donde dichas aplicaciones pueden ejecutarse. Se trabaja experimentalmente con distintos tipos de hardware y software entre los que pueden mencionarse placas A/D, mini-robots, máquinas multimicroprocesadores y diferentes s...

  8. Real interest parity decomposition

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  9. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Steudler et al. report on the performance of cadastral systems internationally in Benchmarking Cadastral Systems (1997). The authors met serious difficulties comparing data from different countries, suggesting that more progress had to be made in the definition of concepts and terminology. This...... for more elaborated concept sets - for a theoretical basis - was among the motives for proposing a concerted research project: Modelling Real Property Transactions. Researchers from 11 European countries co-operate in the project that gained status as a COST action as of March 1st 2001. The majority...

  10. Real analysis and foundations

    Krantz, Steven G

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition:""The book is recommended as a source for middle-level mathematical courses. It can be used not only in mathematical departments, but also by physicists, engineers, economists, and other experts in applied sciences who want to understand the main ideas of analysis in order to use them to study mathematical models of different type processes.""-Zentralblatt MATH ""The book contains many well-chosen examples and each of the fifteen chapters is followed by almost 500 exercises. … Illustrative pictures are instructive and the design of the book makes reading it a real

  11. Cinema into the Real.

    Eastwood, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Cinema into the Real is the practice of creating an affect based encounter between film and the lived world where their thresholds shift. It is an inquiry into the possibility for navigating what Gilles Deleuze calls the 'not-yet-thoughf brought into existence by an irrational form of cinema comprised of crystalline time-images. How does the schema of normative cinema fiction and documentary stand in for the lived world, and how might the statements, maps and spaces of this cinema be made flu...

  12. Construction of the real numbers

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, there are described two standard constructions of the real numbers, these are the construction of real numbers via Dedekind cuts and the construction with metric fill of the rational numbers. Rational numbers are already a linearly ordered commutative field, so we first list the axioms of a linearly ordered commutative field. Then we take a look to the Dedekind's axiom, which only applies to real numbers and distinguishes between real and rational numbers. In thesis, there are...

  13. Countability of the Real Numbers

    Vlahovic, Slavica; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2004-01-01

    The proofs that the real numbers are denumerable will be shown, i.e., that there exists one-to-one correspondence between the natural numbers $N$ and the real numbers $\\Re$. The general element of the sequence that contains all real numbers will be explicitly specified, and the first few elements of the sequence will be written. Remarks on the Cantor's nondenumerability proofs of 1873 and 1891 that the real numbers are noncountable will be given.

  14. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  15. REAL CONVERGENCE AND INTEGRATION

    Aurel Iancu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the critical observations that competitive market forces alone are not able to assure convergence with the developed countries. These observations are grounded on the results of the computation of the marginal rate of return to capital (which contradict the neoclassical model hypotheses, as well as on the real process of polarisation of the economic activities, taking place worldwide and in accordance with the law of competition. Unlike those who trust the perfect competitive market virtues, the EU’s economic policy is realistic as it is based on the harmonisation of the market forces with an economic policy based on the principle of cohesion, which supports, by means of economic levers, the less developed regions and member countries. This paper deals with the evolution of the EU cohesion funds, as well as with the results of convergence.

  16. Real convergence and integration

    Aurel IANCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the critical observations that competitive market forces alone are not able to assure convergence with the developed countries. These observations are grounded on the results of the computation of the marginal rate of return to capital (which contradict the neoclassical model hypotheses, as well as on the real process of polarisation of the economic activities, taking place worldwide and in accordance with the law of competition. Unlike those who trust the perfect competitive market virtues, the EU’s economic policy is realistic as it is based on the harmonisation of the market forces with an economic policy based on the principle of cohesion, which supports, by means of economic levers, the less developed regions and member countries. This paper deals with the evolution of the EU cohesion funds, as well as with the results of convergence.

  17. Real-world outcomes

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to reflections on or even change in their social practices? The...... how the dissemination of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners (cf. e.g. Nørreklit et al. 1987; Puchta & Potter 2004). The presentation will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross......-border software company and the possible implications of these constructions for organizational collaboration. Special attention will be paid to the reflexive processes which took place as we, the researchers, discussed the findings of our analyses with a group of managers, the practitioners, during one specific...

  18. Einstein's Real "biggest Blunder"

    Ellis, Homer G.

    2012-10-01

    Albert Einstein's real "biggest blunder" was not the 1917 introduction into his gravitational field equations of a cosmological constant term Λ, rather was his failure in 1916 to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. Had he made the distinction, and followed David Hilbert's lead in deriving field equations from a variational principle, he might have discovered a true (not a cut and paste) Einstein-Rosen bridge and a cosmological model that would have allowed him to predict, long before such phenomena were imagined by others, inflation, a big bounce (not a big bang), an accelerating expansion of the universe, dark matter, and the existence of cosmic voids, walls, filaments and nodes.

  19. The Real truth

    Baratella, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We study a real valued propositional logic with unbounded positive and negative truth values that we call R-valued logic. Such logic slightly extends continuous propositional logic which, in turn, builds on Lukasiewicz many-valued logic. After presenting the deduction machinery and the semantics of R-valued logic, we prove a completeness theorem for finite theories. Then we define unital and Archimedean theories, in accordance with the theory of Riesz spaces. In the unital setting, we prove the equivalence of consistency and satisfiability and an approximated completeness theorem similar to the one that holds for continuous propositional logic. Eventually, among unital theories, we characterize Archimedean theories as those for which strong completeness holds. We also point out that R-valued logic provides alternative calculi for Lukasiewicz and for propositional continuous logic.

  20. Real-world outcomes

    Askehave, Inger; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    analyses during one specific meeting. An important element of the latter is to assess whether the discussion of our results gives rise to respondents’ reflection, resistance, acceptance, rejection, or indifference, and whether this leads to changes in respondents’ views on culture and organizational...... of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners. The discussion will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross-border company and the possible implications of this for organizational collaboration...... collaboration. This way, we hope to demonstrate that the practical applicability of our findings becomes one of shedding light on potential problems and providing advice (which may be considered an important aim of discourse-based research) instead of making specific recommendations on issues of practice beyond...

  1. Real time production optimization

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  2. UML for real design of embedded real-time systems

    Martin, Grant; Selic, Bran

    2003-01-01

    Models, Software Models and UML.- UML for Real-Time.- Structural Modeling with UML 2.0.- Message Sequence Charts.- UML and Platform-based Design.- UML for Hardware and Software Object Modeling.- Fine Grained Patterns for Real-Time Systems.- Architectural Patterns for Real-Time Systems.- Modeling Quality of Service with UML.- Modeling Metric Time.- Performance Analysis with UML.- Schedulability Analysis with UML.- Automotive UML.- Specifying Telecommunications Systems with UML.- Leveraging UML to Deliver Correct Telecom Applications.- Software Performance Engineering.

  3. Real estate market factors and foreign real estate investment

    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni; Tajul Ariffin Masron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of real estate market factors on foreign real estate investment (FREI). Design/methodology/approach – Applying panel data technique, this paper uses related observations from 31 countries (inclusive of developed countries and emerging market economies) between 2000 and 2008 to investigate the relationships between real estate market factors and FREI. Findings – Controlling for market size, infrastructure and political stability, th...

  4. Real Assets and Inflation: Which Real Assets Hedge Inflation

    Parajuli, Rajan; Chang, Sun Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Inflation is considered as a leading macroeconomic indicator, which might create substantial distortions in financial statements, future earnings, and overall performance of securities in the financial market. An inflation-hedging ability of an asset offers protection against inflation, which eliminates or at least reduces the uncertainty about the future real returns. Real assets like real estate, timberland, and farmland have been regarded as good inflation hedges, whereas financial assets ...

  5. Obtenci??n, caracterizaci??n y evaluaci??n de la actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de prop??leos de Campeche

    Tolosa, L; Ca??izares, E.

    2002-01-01

    Entre los productos que se pueden obtener de la colmena se encuentran la cera, la miel, la jalea real y el prop??leo. Este ??ltimo es una mezcla de composici??n qu??mica compleja que contiene b??lsamos, aceites et??reos, polen, vitaminas, algunos minerales y prote??nas, sustancias que le confieren una variedad de propiedades biol??gicas de gran inter??s para fines terap??uticos. Por esta raz??n en el presente estudio se obtuvieron y caracterizaron extractos etan??licos y acuosos d...

  6. Real Picard-Vessiot theory

    Crespo, Teresa; Hajto, Zbigniew; Sowa, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a Picard-Vessiot extension for a homogeneous linear differential equation has been established when the differential field over which the equation is defined has an algebraically closed field of constants. In this paper, we prove the existence of a real Picard-Vessiot extension for a homogeneous linear differential equation defined over a real differential field K with real closed field of constants. We give an adequate definition of the differential Galois group of a Picard-...

  7. BALTIC REAL ESTATE MARKET DYNAMICS

    L. Kvedaraviciene

    2010-01-01

    Real estate market is usually being analysed in terms of supply and demand factors definition and estimation in a certain geographical area at a certain period of time. Moreover, local real estate markets are often being compared with markets of other countries, usually similar in size. Market activity, price dynamics, market maturity are traditionally key factors for real estate market research. The importance and significance of the latter ñ market maturity - suggests to discuss the followi...

  8. Three essays in real options

    Baranouskaya, Vera; Barone Adesi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Real options refer to the investment, entry, exit and other strategic decisions of the firm that share three important characteristics: they are irreversible, they are made under uncertainty, and their timing is chosen by the firm. The term `real options' was introduced in 1977 by Stewart Myers in his paper `Determinants of corporate borrowing' that related risky debt holdings to the future investment policy of the firm. The literature on real options has since been active and growing with...

  9. An introduction to real analysis

    Ball, Derek G

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Real Analysis presents the concepts of real analysis and highlights the problems which necessitate the introduction of these concepts. Topics range from sets, relations, and functions to numbers, sequences, series, derivatives, and the Riemann integral. This volume begins with an introduction to some of the problems which are met in the use of numbers for measuring, and which provide motivation for the creation of real analysis. Attention then turns to real numbers that are built up from natural numbers, with emphasis on integers, rationals, and irrationals. The chapters tha

  10. Real analysis with economic applications

    Ok, Efe A

    2011-01-01

    There are many mathematics textbooks on real analysis, but they focus on topics not readily helpful for studying economic theory or they are inaccessible to most graduate students of economics. Real Analysis with Economic Applications aims to fill this gap by providing an ideal textbook and reference on real analysis tailored specifically to the concerns of such students. The emphasis throughout is on topics directly relevant to economic theory. In addition to addressing the usual topics of real analysis, this book discusses the elements of order theory, convex analysis, optimizatio

  11. The real new economy.

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments. PMID:14521102

  12. Real Effort, Real Leisure and Real-time Supervision: Incentives and Peer Pressure in Virtual Organizations.

    Brice Corgnet; Roberto Hernán-González; Stephen Rassenti

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to the analysis of organizations by developing a computerized platform that reproduces relevant features of existing organizations such as real-effort tasks and real-leisure alternative activities (Internet). In this environment, we find strong incentives effects as organizations using individual incentives significantly outperform those relying on team incentives. Combining real-time peer monitoring with team incentives, we report striking evidence of positive pee...

  13. Real-time volume graphics

    Engel, Klaus; Kniss, Joe; Rezk-Salama, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Based on course notes of SIGGRAPH course teaching techniques for real-time rendering of volumetric data and effects; covers both applications in scientific visualization and real-time rendering. Starts with the basics (texture-based ray casting) and then improves and expands the algorithms incrementally. Book includes source code, algorithms, diagrams, and rendered graphics.

  14. Doing Real Estate Business Overseas

    2007-01-01

    @@ When we saw the amount of foreign capital currently being invested in China's real estate market,we realized that much like its foreign counterparts,China has been very active overseas as well.With encouragement from the"walking out"strategy,more and more Vhinese investors have begun to focus on overseas real estate developments.

  15. Real Orientations, Real Gromov-Witten Theory, and Real Enumerative Geometry

    Georgieva, Penka

    2015-01-01

    The present note overviews our recent construction of real Gromov-Witten theory in arbitrary genera for many real symplectic manifolds, including the odd-dimensional projective spaces and the renowned quintic threefold, its properties, and its connections with real enumerative geometry. Our construction introduces the principle of orienting the determinant of a differential operator relative to a suitable base operator and a real setting analogue of the (relative) spin structure of open Gromov-Witten theory. Orienting the relative determinant, which in the now-standard cases is canonically equivalent to orienting the usual determinant, is naturally related to the topology of vector bundles in the relevant category. This principle and its applications allow us to endow the uncompactified moduli spaces of real maps from symmetric surfaces of all topological types with natural orientations and to verify that they extend across the codimension-one boundaries of these spaces, thus implementing a far-reaching propo...

  16. An Industry Profile of Corporate Real Estate

    Linda L. Johnson; Terry Keasler; Stellan Lundstrom

    1993-01-01

    Corporate real estate is increasingly becoming an area of emphasis for real estate professionals and academics, particularly in asset management. Using balance sheet data on real estate corporate holdings, total assets, and firm marketing values from 1984-1991, this article provides an analysis of real estate holdings both by industry sector and asset subtype. Industry rank order by gross value of total real estate holdings and asset subtype, real estate as a percent of assets, and real estat...

  17. Analysing UK real estate market forecast disagreement

    McAllister, Patrick (Hrsg.); Newell, G.; Matysiak, George

    2005-01-01

    Given the significance of forecasting in real estate investment decisions, this paper investigates forecast uncertainty and disagreement in real estate market forecasts. Using the Investment Property Forum (IPF) quarterly survey amongst UK independent real estate forecasters, these real estate forecasts are compared with actual real estate performance to assess a number of real estate forecasting issues in the UK over 1999-2004, including real estate forecast error, bias and consensus. The r...

  18. Real Estate Development, Highest and Best Use and Real Options

    Marina Bravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this work is to connect the Real Options Theory (ROT with the real estate investment framework. A great deal of theoretical work exist today; it begun with Merton (1973 and Black & Sholes (1973 and provided new insights into capital budgeting decision-making and new models, used today by corporate managers and practitioners too. Unfortunately, the ROT is not widely used by appraisers respect to the traditional DCF model, even though the developers behaviour gives evidence to the model. It is important to remember that the real estate investments are characterized by irreversible decision and by various sources of risk and uncertainty about future returns, especially when the development process is very long. The flexibility in the real estate investment is related to the alternative uses embedded in the land – traditionally interpreted through the Highest and Best Use approach – and to the characteristics of the building. In fact, the value of vacant land should reflect not only the value based on best immediate use, but also its option value, if the development is delayed and the land is converted into best alternative use in the future. This is also true for the redeveloped urban lands. In brief, this work shows the limits of the traditional analysis (Discounted Cash Flow Model to capture flexibility in the real estate investment and presents an application – an industrial urban area – implemented by the real option approach within a backward risk-neutral valuation process.

  19. Strange functions in real analysis

    Kharazishvili, AB

    2005-01-01

    Weierstrass and Blancmange nowhere differentiable functions, Lebesgue integrable functions with everywhere divergent Fourier series, and various nonintegrable Lebesgue measurable functions. While dubbed strange or "pathological," these functions are ubiquitous throughout mathematics and play an important role in analysis, not only as counterexamples of seemingly true and natural statements, but also to stimulate and inspire the further development of real analysis.Strange Functions in Real Analysis explores a number of important examples and constructions of pathological functions. After introducing the basic concepts, the author begins with Cantor and Peano-type functions, then moves to functions whose constructions require essentially noneffective methods. These include functions without the Baire property, functions associated with a Hamel basis of the real line, and Sierpinski-Zygmund functions that are discontinuous on each subset of the real line having the cardinality continuum. Finally, he considers e...

  20. From real to complex analysis

    Dyer, R H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide an integrated course in real and complex analysis for those who have already taken a preliminary course in real analysis. It particularly emphasises the interplay between analysis and topology. Beginning with the theory of the Riemann integral (and its improper extension) on the real line, the fundamentals of metric spaces are then developed, with special attention being paid to connectedness, simple connectedness and various forms of homotopy. The final chapter develops the theory of complex analysis, in which emphasis is placed on the argument, the winding number, and a general (homology) version of Cauchy's theorem which is proved using the approach due to Dixon. Special features are the inclusion of proofs of Montel's theorem, the Riemann mapping theorem and the Jordan curve theorem that arise naturally from the earlier development. Extensive exercises are included in each of the chapters, detailed solutions of the majority of which are given at the end. From Real to...

  1. Patent Valuation and Real Options

    Deger Alper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the knowledge economics grows rapidly, businesses increasingly invest intellectual property and the value of intellectual property; patent, trademark, copyright etc., more emphasized in business nowadays. Thus, the valuation of intellectual property, specifically patents, has been one of the most difficult investment problems both for practitioners and academics. Traditional valuation methods fail to account for the unique characteristics of patents; uncertainty and management flexibility. Patents are option-like assets that give the owner a bundle of options; to commercialize the products, to file foreign application, to license the innovation etc. Real options represent the application of options methodology to strategic business decisions, and real option method provides a richer framework to analyse the issues that confront the valuation of patent. This paper uses real option model as a framework to correctly evaluate patent and contains real option model application to patent valuation.

  2. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  3. Adjusted Period for Real Estate

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Chinese real estate market has seen sustained prosperity for the last 10 years, but the climbing price of housing has made everyone begin to question whether this industry is overheated or if there is a bubble ready to burst.

  4. SATDA Real Estate Division Launches

    Rob Emerick

    2008-01-01

    <正>Hello Readers, I am happy to announce the new real estate section for this magazine,called"America is For Sale".This section will focus on current and important issues regarding the real estate industry within the United States of America.There has been a great deal of interest in the American real estate market from Chinese investors lately.The weak US dollar and strong Chinese renminbi alone make the US market attractive to Chinese investors.Now,with the US in the bottom of a real estate cycle,property is amazingly inexpensive.Many foreign investors are buying as much as they can because the investors understand this is the best time to buy:at the bottom of a cycle.

  5. Real Estate 20:20

    Ratcliffe, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish a framework for studying real estate futures. In doing so, it explores the general climate of change within which property decisions will have to be made, and examines the specific real estate opportunities that might emerge as a result of that change. For the purpose of appraisal, the forces of change are grouped into six sectors - cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, governmental and technological. Property perspectives are then portrayed for each of...

  6. Periods and elementary real numbers

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    The periods, introduced by Kontsevich and Zagier, form a class of complex numbers which contains all algebraic numbers and several transcendental quantities. Little has been known about qualitative properties of periods. In this paper, we compare the periods with hierarchy of real numbers induced from computational complexities. In particular we prove that periods can be effectively approximated by elementary rational Cauchy sequences. As an application, we exhibit a computable real number wh...

  7. 15 CFR 806.8 - Real estate.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate. 806.8 Section 806.8... ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.8 Real estate. Residential real..., is considered real estate held for personal use. Ownership of residential real estate by...

  8. Real-time vision systems

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  9. Some properties of fuzzy real numbers

    Bayaz Daraby

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we try to prove  Bernoulli's inequality in fuzzy real numbers with some of its applications. Also, we prove two other theorems in fuzzy real numbers which are proved before, for real numbers.

  10. A real-world way to manage real options.

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions. PMID:15029793

  11. Corporate Real Estate and Stock Market Performance

    Kim Hiang Liow

    2004-01-01

    An interesting question in corporate real estate literature is whether real estate can improve the stock market performance of "property-intensive" non-real estate firms. Using a data set comprising 75 non-real estate corporations that own at least 20 percent properties, this paper empirically assesses and compares the pair-wise return, total risk, systematic risk and Jensen abnormal return performance of "composite" (with real estate) and hypothetical "business" (without real estate) firms. ...

  12. Making real options really work.

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets. PMID:15605572

  13. HEVC real-time decoding

    Bross, Benjamin; Alvarez-Mesa, Mauricio; George, Valeri; Chi, Chi Ching; Mayer, Tobias; Juurlink, Ben; Schierl, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The new High Efficiency Video Coding Standard (HEVC) was finalized in January 2013. Compared to its predecessor H.264 / MPEG4-AVC, this new international standard is able to reduce the bitrate by 50% for the same subjective video quality. This paper investigates decoder optimizations that are needed to achieve HEVC real-time software decoding on a mobile processor. It is shown that HEVC real-time decoding up to high definition video is feasible using instruction extensions of the processor while decoding 4K ultra high definition video in real-time requires additional parallel processing. For parallel processing, a picture-level parallel approach has been chosen because it is generic and does not require bitstreams with special indication.

  14. Percolation in real interdependent networks

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    The function of a real network depends not only on the reliability of its own components, but is affected also by the simultaneous operation of other real networks coupled with it. Robustness of systems composed of interdependent network layers has been extensively studied in recent years. However, the theoretical frameworks developed so far apply only to special models in the limit of infinite sizes. These methods are therefore of little help in practical contexts, given that real interconnected networks have finite size and their structures are generally not compatible with those of graph toy models. Here, we introduce a theoretical method that takes as inputs the adjacency matrices of the layers to draw the entire phase diagram for the interconnected network, without the need of actually simulating any percolation process. We demonstrate that percolation transitions in arbitrary interdependent networks can be understood by decomposing these system into uncoupled graphs: the intersection among the layers, a...

  15. Complex analogues of real problems

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune

    . Using geometrical interpretations we construct sets with properties similar to the sets considered in the real case. We then formulate a conjecture which can be interpreted as a complex version of Schmidt's original conjecture. Finally we construct a variant of Schmidt's game, to show a partial result......This thesis will be a mix of different problems in number theory. As such it is split into two natural parts. The rst part focuses on normal numbers and construction of numbers that are normal to a given complex base. It is written in the style of a thorough and introductory paper on that subject......, Pollington and Velani, and inspired by this An gave a different proof which provides a stronger result. The conjecture is concerned with intersections of certain sets in the plane and are as such a real problem. We will consider a slightly different setup where the real plane is replaced by the complex plane...

  16. Establishment Reality vs. Maintenance Reality: How Real Is Real Enough?

    Lindsay, E. D.; Murray, S.; Liu, D. K.; Lowe, D. B.; Bright, C. G.

    2009-01-01

    Remote and virtual laboratories are increasingly prevalent alternatives to the face-to-face laboratory experience; however, the question of their learning outcomes is yet to be fully investigated. There are many presumptions regarding the effectiveness of these approaches; foremost amongst these assumptions is that the experience must be "real" to…

  17. Real-World Solutions for Real-World Collaboration Problems

    Macklin, Alexius Smith; Fosmire, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Are you finding collaboration with faculty difficult to initiate? How about a new approach? Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instruction method that investigates and resolves messy, real-world dilemmas. This workshop demonstrates how librarians at Purdue University worked with faculty to incorporate information literacy skills into course content using PBL.

  18. Elementary real and complex analysis

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1996-01-01

    In this book the renowned Russian mathematician Georgi E. Shilov brings his unique perspective to real and complex analysis, an area of perennial interest in mathematics. Although there are many books available on the topic, the present work is specially designed for undergraduates in mathematics, science and engineering. A high level of mathematical sophistication is not required.The book begins with a systematic study of real numbers, understood to be a set of objects satisfying certain definite axioms. The concepts of a mathematical structure and an isomorphism are introduced in Chapter 2,

  19. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  20. Percolation in real interdependent networks

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2015-07-01

    The function of a real network depends not only on the reliability of its own components, but is affected also by the simultaneous operation of other real networks coupled with it. Whereas theoretical methods of direct applicability to real isolated networks exist, the frameworks developed so far in percolation theory for interdependent network layers are of little help in practical contexts, as they are suited only for special models in the limit of infinite size. Here, we introduce a set of heuristic equations that takes as inputs the adjacency matrices of the layers to draw the entire phase diagram for the interconnected network. We demonstrate that percolation transitions in interdependent networks can be understood by decomposing these systems into uncoupled graphs: the intersection among the layers, and the remainders of the layers. When the intersection dominates the remainders, an interconnected network undergoes a smooth percolation transition. Conversely, if the intersection is dominated by the contribution of the remainders, the transition becomes abrupt even in small networks. We provide examples of real systems that have developed interdependent networks sharing cores of `high quality’ edges to prevent catastrophic failures.

  1. Lagoa Real design - Mineral engineering

    This paper presents the works realized, in course and to realize of Lagoa Real Design, including the works for implantation of Mineral-Industrial complex with the production capacity of 1.000 ton of U sub(3) O sub(8) per year from 1988. (author)

  2. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects are...... applications of sound design such as advertisement or soundtracks for movies....

  3. MATRIX FORMULATION OF REAL QUATERNIONS

    Jafari, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Real quaternions have been expressed in terms of 4×4 matrices by means of Hamilton operators. These matrices are applied for rotations in Euclidean 4-space, and are determined also a Hamilton motions in E4. We study these matrices and show that the set of these matrices with the group operation of matrix multiplication is Lie group of 6-dimension.

  4. Lagoa Real complex - implementation program

    The description of the activities from the Lagoa Real Complex is presented, including the development of a complementation process with available drill core samples and drilling an evaluation Cachoeira Deposit. Studies already developed indicate that Cachoeira Deposit has about 70 ton of U3O8 per meter of depth. (author)

  5. Alice in the Real World

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  6. Shopping in the Real World

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim of ...

  7. Some properties of fuzzy real numbers

    Bayaz Daraby; Javad Jafari

    2016-01-01

    In the mathematical analysis, there are some theorems and definitions that established for both real and fuzzy numbers. In this study, we try to prove  Bernoulli's inequality in fuzzy real numbers with some of its applications. Also, we prove two other theorems in fuzzy real numbers which are proved before, for real numbers.

  8. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel® Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  9. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  10. Real convergence in the European Union

    Veiga, Francisco José

    2000-01-01

    This essay deals with real convergence in the European Union (EU). Real convergence is here defined as convergence of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standard. I examine whether there is empirical evidence of real convergence among EU countries or regions and if the current effort towards nominal convergence has slowed real convergence. The main findings are that there has been some real convergence at the country level, mainly before the mid- 1970s, but not much evidence of...

  11. Observability transition in real networks

    Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We consider the observability model in networks with arbitrary topologies. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear equations, valid under the locally tree-like ansatz, to describe the size of the largest observable cluster as a function of the fraction of directly observable nodes present in the network. We perform a systematic analysis on 95 real-world graphs and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical simulations of the observability model. Our method provides almost perfect predictions in the majority of the cases, even for networks with very large values of the clustering coefficient. Potential applications of our theory include the development of efficient and scalable algorithms for real-time surveillance of social networks, and monitoring of technological networks.

  12. Real time psychrometric data collection

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events

  13. The Real Causes of Inflation

    Ernest Hamsag

    2015-01-01

    Having defined what inflation is, this study proposes some hypothesizes to eliminate external and psychological factors; it also examines a closed economy. It shows that the deep cause of inflation is the out of balance relation between consumption expenditure and saving. If consumption expenditure increases more than saving, the result is an inflation of the real economy. If saving increase to the prejudice of consumption expenditure, the financial markets are undergoing inflation. The main ...

  14. Real Time Network Traffic Monitoring

    Tripp, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    This paper looks at the problems of real time network traffic monitoring. Some of the existing approaches are reviewed, looking at both simple filtering systems and also systems based on the use of finite state machines that can report specific events or capture data only when in particular states. Finally, some existing implementation techniques are examined and an outline proposal made for the design of a network monitoring system that uses finite state machines implemented using associativ...

  15. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  16. Sistemas de tiempo real y sistemas distribuidos de tiempo real

    Pesado, Patricia; Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Boracchia, Marcos; Pasini, Ariel C.; De Vito, María Cecilia; Osella Massa, Germán Leandro; Estrebou, César

    2006-01-01

    El proyecto de investigación y desarrollo en Sistemas de Software Distribuido, abarca aspectos que van desde los fundamentos del desarrollo (Técnicas de Ingeniería de Requerimientos, Metodologías de Gestión y Desarrollo de Proyectos, Técnicas de Planificación, Métricas, Normas de Calidad, Web-Systems) hasta la concepción de aplicaciones específicas orientadas a los procesos industriales (Sistemas de Planeamiento de Producción, Control Industrial en tiempo real), procesos de E-government (Voto...

  17. Real Estate Risk and Exposure of Banking Institutions to Real Estate

    S.E. Ong; M. Khairul; M.Faishal Ibrahim; L.Thi Thanh Thao

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the real estate risk sensitivity of GCC banking institutions, we found that both real estate loan and equity exposure of conventional and Islamic banks positively increases its real estate beta risk. The results persist across different subsamples. As expected, the effect is more persistent during time periods when bank's real estate exposure is elevated. Generally, due to the greater real estate exposure of Islamic banks, they possess greater real estate beta risk than conventional...

  18. Museo Palazzo Ricci - Più reale del reale

    Stefano Ciocchetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Può una realtà virtuale diventare un’esperienza più concreta di quella reale?Sembra di si osservando il lavoro di Tesi di Stefano Ciocchetti.In questo articolo si illustrano le fasi di lavorazione che hanno portato alla riproduzione digitale degli ambienti e delle opere esposte nel Museo Palazzo Ricci di Macerata, tra i più importanti per quel che riguarda l’arte italiana del ‘900. La riproduzione digitale è avvenuta attuando diverse tecniche di ripresa, che hanno reso possibile la navigazione virtuale all’interno del Museo e l’interazione con le opere d’arte presenti, simulando un’esperienza assimilabile a quella reale ed offre, inoltre, possibilità di fruizione che vanno oltre un’esperienza concreta.Questo grazie alle tecniche di ripresa utilizzate, come l’alta definizione che permette di osservare particolari di opere non visibili ad occhio nudo o la modellazione 3d che permette di osservare le sculture attraverso punti di vista differenti.

  19. Ultimatum salary bargaining with real effort

    García-Gallego, Aurora; Georgantzis, Nikos; Jaramillo-Gutiérrez, Ainhoa

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental results on ultimatum salary bargaining with a real task performed by employee subjects. Compared to the baseline treatment with a hypothetical task, the introduction of a real task raises offers, accepted wages and rejection rates.

  20. Is Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Real?

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160153.html Is Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Real? Study finds distinctly different biological changes ... 29, 2016 FRIDAY, July 29, 2016, (HealthDay News) -- Gluten sensitivity appears to be a real medical problem, ...

  1. Transseries and real differential algebra

    Hoeven, Joris

    2006-01-01

    Transseries are formal objects constructed from an infinitely large variable x and the reals using infinite summation, exponentiation and logarithm. They are suitable for modeling "strongly monotonic" or "tame" asymptotic solutions to differential equations and find their origin in at least three different areas of mathematics: analysis, model theory and computer algebra. They play a crucial role in Écalle's proof of Dulac's conjecture, which is closely related to Hilbert's 16th problem. The aim of the present book is to give a detailed and self-contained exposition of the theory of transseries, in the hope of making it more accessible to non-specialists.

  2. Definability in the Real Universe

    Cooper, S. Barry

    2011-01-01

    Logic has its origins in basic questions about the nature of the real world and how we describe it. This article seeks to bring out the physical and epistemological relevance of some of the more recent technical work in logic and computability theory. "If you are receptive and humble, mathematics will lead you by the hand. Again and again, when I have been at a loss how to proceed, I have just had to wait until I have felt the mathematics lead me by the hand. It has led me along an unexpected...

  3. Real time automatic scene classification

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den, Wouter; Putten, van, M.J.A.M.; Uyl, den, T.M.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized elements of a scene automatically with so-called ’stuff’ categories (e.g., grass, sky, sand, stone). Campbell et al. [1] use similar concepts to describe certain parts of an image, which they named...

  4. How Real Are Future Events?

    Perry, John

    2006-01-01

    My main aim in this talk is to discuss McTaggart’s argument for the unreality of time. I will ?nd a ?aw in his argument, but ?nding the ?aw will lead us to the conclusion that although time is real, future events are not. I will begin, however, not with McTaggart, but with a version of an ancient argument for fatalism. By fatalism I do not mean the doctrine that we are fated, like Oedipus, to do something terrible at some point in the future, no matter what choices we make now, and no matter ...

  5. Multidimensional real analysis I differentiation

    Duistermaat, J J; van Braam Houckgeest, J P

    2004-01-01

    Part one of the authors' comprehensive and innovative work on multidimensional real analysis. This book is based on extensive teaching experience at Utrecht University and gives a thorough account of differential analysis in multidimensional Euclidean space. It is an ideal preparation for students who wish to go on to more advanced study. The notation is carefully organized and all proofs are clean, complete and rigorous. The authors have taken care to pay proper attention to all aspects of the theory. In many respects this book presents an original treatment of the subject and it contains man

  6. CERN: Real and imaginary parts

    Full text: Elastic scattering (where particles bounce off each other) has implications which go far beyond the deceptive simplicity and inconsequence of this process. Several years ago, an elastic scattering result by the UA4 experiment at CERN's proton-antiproton collider (January 1988, page 32) set the high energy world talking. In quantum mechanics, the forward elastic scattering amplitude is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts can be related. The powerful 'optical theorem' relates the total reaction rate (cross-section) to the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude, while the ratio of the real and imaginary parts gives an indication of where the total reaction rate is going at higher energies, independent of what the actual mechanisms are. Thus, for example, elastic scattering measurements at CERN's Intersecting Storage Rings pointed the way to the behaviour eventually seen at the proton-antiproton collider. In the 1985 run, UA4 found the ratio (rho) between the real and the imaginary parts to be 0.24, about twice the theoretical prediction. At face value, this suggested that the total reaction rate would increase dramatically at higher collision energies. With such a prediction at stake, confirmation with a more precise measurement was necessary and the UA4/2 experiment (Genoa/ Palaiseau/Prague/Rome/Valencia collaboration) was launched. The real part of the scattering amplitude is obtained via measurements of elastic scattering in a four momentum transfer domain where strong and electromagnetic interactions are comparable. This corresponds to scattering angles of 100 microradians, with the detectors inside ''Roman pots'' close to the circulating beams, and using special beam optics. The new experiment took place in a five-week run late in 1991. With the Roman pots within 2mm of the beams, about a million elastic events were recorded. Several months later, a special dedicated run fixed the SPS

  7. Sistemas distribuidos de tiempo real

    Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Romero, Fernando; Pesado, Patricia Mabel; Bertone, Rodolfo Alfredo; Boracchia, Marcos; Thomas, Pablo Javier; Esponda, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de esta línea de investigación es el estudio y desarrollo de sistemas de software que poseen restricciones temporales. Resulta de interés el estudio de diferentes metodologías para la especificación y desarrollo de aplicaciones en tiempo real, así como las plataformas donde dichas aplicaciones pueden ejecutarse. Se trabaja experimentalmente con distintos tipos de hardware y software entre los que pueden mencionarse placas A/D, mini-robots, máquinas multimicroprocesadores y dife...

  8. Sistemas distribuidos de tiempo real

    Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Romero, Fernando; González, Alejandro Héctor; Novarini, Pablo; Estrebou, César Armando

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de esta línea de investigación es el estudio y desarrollo de sistemas de software que poseen restricciones temporales. Resulta de interés el estudio de diferentes metodologías para la especificación y desarrollo de aplicaciones en tiempo real, así como las plataformas donde dichas aplicaciones pueden ejecutarse. Se trabaja experimentalmente con distintos tipos de hardware y software entre los que pueden mencionarse placas A/D, mini-robots, plataformas de hardware (PC, PIC, etc....

  9. The real estate industry in the Netherlands

    Engelberts, Reinout; Suarez, Jose L.

    2004-01-01

    The real estate industry in the Netherlands is one of the most sophisticated in Europe. In fact, some Dutch real estate companies are among the most active in the international arena, and are major players in the ongoing integration in European markets. The paper describes the sectors of the real estate industry, i.e. residential and commercial (offices, retail and industrial), social housing policies, and the characteristics of the major companies. Individualized descriptions of listed real ...

  10. The Internationalization of Real Estate Research

    Kam C. Chan; William G. Hardin III; Kartono Liano; Zheng Yu

    2008-01-01

    The contributions of international researchers and institutions to real estate literature for the 1990 to 2006 period are assessed. Both the Asia-Pacific and European regions increase their influence on the top tier of real estate literature. The North American region, while still the dominant source of real estate research, sees its weighted share of publications in the top tier of academic real estate journals decline. Universities from Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia, the United Kingdom, S...

  11. Real Estate Brokers View the College Curriculum.

    Wells, Grant J.; Williams, Numan A.

    1993-01-01

    Real estate programs of 76 institutions accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) were reviewed. Findings of a survey of real estate brokers (n=178) indicated that business programs within the parameters of the AACSB business curriculum should adequately prepare students for a career in real estate. (JOW)

  12. Real Algebraic Tools in Stochastic Games

    Abraham Neyman

    2001-01-01

    The present chapter brings together parts of the theory of polynomial equalities and inequalities used in the theory of stochastic games. The theory can be considered as a theory of polynomial equalities and inequalities over the field of real numbers or the field of real algebraic numbers or more generally over an arbitrary real closed field.

  13. Real Option Applications to Information Security

    Pythagoras PETRATOS

    2008-01-01

    Real options present advantages over the standard discounting methods. In this paper we analyze them briefly and examine their potential applications on information security. The applications of real options on valuation of information assets, information security investment and capital budgeting provide considerable benefits. Finally portfolios of real options and other financial products can reduce information security risk.

  14. A real time monitoring system

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author)

  15. Real Estate Taxes in Albania

    Luciana Koprencka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector is one of the mainsectors of the Albanian economy, which,during the last 20 years, has experiencedthe greatest economic growth. In 1991 thissector has contributed by 2.5% to the GDP,in 2006 by 4.9%, while in 2008, this sectorhas contributed by 14.9% to the national GDP. The relevant legislation has played animportant role in the development of this sector. The applied laws have tried to maintainat low levels the real estate prices and totransform such a problematic sector, withreference to fiscal evasion and informality,into an easily controllable sector. The taxesapplied in the construction sector are the sameas in other economic sectors, although thetaxation management in the construction sector, except forthose common principles thatregulate the tax management in general, isbased on some specificrules related to thecharacteristics of this sector. Increase the level of taxation on the transfer of ownership tothe extent of 10%, paralyzed the housing market by reducing the number of sales,especially of real estate old, previously this was 0.3-5%of sales value.JEL Classification: H21

  16. O direito real de Kant Kant's real right

    Aylton Barbieri Durão

    2010-01-01

    No direito real, Kant investiga a propriedade privada de uma substância (o solo e os objetos localizados nele). No estado de natureza, somente ocorre a posse física ou empírica de um objeto externo, a partir do postulado jurídico da razão prática como uma lei permissiva, pois, do contrário, as coisas utilizáveis seriam em-si ou res nullius, mas a posse jurídica ou inteligível depende da posse comum originária do solo (que não se confunde com o comunismo primitivo), para evitar que a proprieda...

  17. Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm

    Moezzi, Mithra; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, Osman; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-05-26

    Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management strives to minimize operating costs and optimize profit, and labor, capital and energy are potential substitutes in the firm's production function. How well do private firms and public sector institutions operating conditions, knowledge structures, decision-making practices, and external relationships comport with these assumptions and how might this impact price response? We discuss these issues on the basis of interviews with 29 large (over 2 MW) industrial, commercial, and institutional customers in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service territory that have faced day-ahead electricity market prices since 1998. We look at stories interviewees told about why and how they respond to RTP, why some customers report that they can't, and why even if they can, they don't. Some firms respond as theorized, and we describe their load curtailment strategies. About half of our interviewees reported that they were unable to either shift or forego electricity consumption even when prices are high ($0.50/kWh). Reasons customers gave for why they weren't price-responsive include implicit value placed on reliability, pricing structures, lack of flexibility in adjusting production inputs, just-in-time practices, perceived barriers to onsite generation, and insufficient time. We draw these observations into a framework that could help refine economic theory of dynamic pricing by providing real-world descriptions of how firms behave and why.

  18. Khovanskii-Rolle continuation for real solutions

    Bates, Dan

    2009-01-01

    We present a new continuation algorithm to find all nondegenerate real solutions to a system of polynomial equations. Unlike homotopy methods, it is not based on a deformation of the system; instead, it traces real curves connecting the solutions of one system of equations to those of another, eventually leading to the desired real solutions. It also differs from homotopy methods in that it follows only real paths and computes no complex solutions of the original equations. The number of curves traced is bounded by the fewnomial bound for real solutions, and the method takes advantage of any slack in that bound.

  19. Introduction to Real Analysis An Educational Approach

    Bauldry, William C

    2011-01-01

    An accessible introduction to real analysis and its connection to elementary calculus Bridging the gap between the development and history of real analysis, Introduction to Real Analysis: An Educational Approach presents a comprehensive introduction to real analysis while also offering a survey of the field. With its balance of historical background, key calculus methods, and hands-on applications, this book provides readers with a solid foundation and fundamental understanding of real analysis. The book begins with an outline of basic calculus, including a close examination of problems illust

  20. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  1. 75 FR 36271 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate...

    2010-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 3500 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate Brokers and Agents AGENCY: Office of General Counsel, HUD. ACTION... performed by real estate brokers and agents as additional settlement services in a real estate...

  2. Nonlocal Optical Real Image Formation Theory

    Gilson, Greyson

    2010-01-01

    A nonlocal theory of optical real image formation is developed from the basic physics associated with an optical real image formation apparatus. The theory shows how two separated illuminated object points are required for real image formation. When the distance between the points exceeds twice the wavelength of the light used two equi-amplitude plane waves propagate independently away from the object plane toward the imaging system. Quantum amplitude components with spatial frequencies that are within the passband of the imaging system pass through the imaging system. Each plane wave pair that propagates through the imaging system and ultimately arrives at the image plane contributes to real image formation. Object and image field depths are treated and found to be very different than they are ordinarily thought to be. Resolution limits related to real image formation are investigated. Reference distribution real image formation (RIF) is introduced. Real image formation with no fundamental resolution limit i...

  3. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  4. Definability in the Real Universe

    Cooper, S Barry

    2011-01-01

    Logic has its origins in basic questions about the nature of the real world and how we describe it. This article seeks to bring out the physical and epistemological relevance of some of the more recent technical work in logic and computability theory. "If you are receptive and humble, mathematics will lead you by the hand. Again and again, when I have been at a loss how to proceed, I have just had to wait until I have felt the mathematics lead me by the hand. It has led me along an unexpected path, a path where new vistas open up, a path leading to new territory, where one can set up a base of operations, from which one can survey the surroundings and plan future progress." - Paul Dirac, 27 November, 1975. In Paul A. M. Dirac Papers, Florida State University Libraries, Tallahassee, Florida, USA, No. 2/29/17.

  5. Is the physical Universe real?

    Adams, S. F.

    1987-01-01

    The value of any model is always enhanced by an awareness of its limitations and it is this aspect of teaching which is too often overlooked. The philosophy of simple mechanistic theories is fundamentally different from that implied by the newer concepts of quantum mechanics and, whilst it might not be desirable to teach this subject formally at A-level, it would be good to develop an awareness of the revolutionary ideas of complementarity and correspondence which throw so much light on one's very way of thinking. The author explores preconceptions about what can be 'real' and describes the strangeness of the Universe as modelled by quantum theory. It goes on to suggest that the experience of physicists during this century ought to open our eyes to new types of theory in many diverse fields.

  6. REAL TIME DATA PROCESSING FRAMEWORKS

    Yash Sakaria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On a business level, everyone wants to get hold of the business value and other organizational advantages that big data has to offer. Analytics has arisen as the primitive path to business value from big data. Hadoop is not just a storage platform for big data; it’s also a computational and processing platform for business analytics. Hadoop is, however, unsuccessful in fulfilling business requirements when it comes to live data streaming. The initial architecture of Apache Hadoop did not solve the problem of live stream data mining. In summary, the traditional approach of big data being co-relational to Hadoop is false; focus needs to be given on business value as well. Data Warehousing, Hadoop and stream processing complement each other very well. In this paper, we have tried reviewing a few frameworks and products which use real time data streaming by providing modifications to Hadoop.

  7. Developing Real Estate Education in Brazil: A Case Study of an MBA in Real Estate Development

    Haddad, E.

    2013-01-01

    The practice of Real Estate in Brazil has gone to several changes in recent past that have resulted in an enormous development of the industry. It has implied in increasing demand for manpower training and development a local knowledge of this emerging field. Because of a virtual lack of a “Real Estate school” in Brazil, Real Estate has been approached by different educational traditions, such as construction planning and management, Real Estate business, Real Estate finance. The purpose of t...

  8. The Changing Real Estate Market Transparency in the European Real Estate Markets

    Newell, G.

    2015-01-01

    A key ingredient for increased investor confidence in the European real estate markets has been the improved real estate market transparency in the European markets in recent years. Using the JLL global real estate transparency index, countries are classified as high transparency, transparent, semi-transparent, low transparency and opaque. This paper assesses changes in the real estate transparency for 33 European real estate markets over 2001-2014. This is also assessed in a regional and glo...

  9. The impact of real estate market transparency on the linkages between direct and indirect real estate

    Luo, Yun; 骆韵

    2013-01-01

    Global investors often invest in publicly traded indirect real estate (IRE) such as Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) and listed property companies rather than physical real estate asset in order to get exposure in foreign real estate markets for a number of reasons that mainly originated from the high transaction cost in the direct real estate (DRE) market. However, in reality IRE is not a perfect substitute of DRE and that the substitutability between IRE and DRE varies across markets. Ve...

  10. The combinatorics of real double Hurwitz numbers with real positive branch points

    Guay-Paquet, Mathieu; Markwig, Hannah; Rau, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combinatorics of real double Hurwitz numbers with real positive branch points using the symmetric group. Our main focus is twofold. First, we prove correspondence theorems relating these numbers to counts of tropical real covers and study the structure of real double Hurwitz numbers with the help of the tropical count. Second, we express the numbers as counts of paths in a subgraph of the Cayley graph of the symmetric group. By restricting to real double Hurwitz numbers wit...

  11. Real Gromov-Witten Theory in All Genera and Real Enumerative Geometry: Computation

    Georgieva, Penka

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this work constructs real positive-genus Gromov-Witten invariants of real-orientable symplectic manifolds of odd "complex" dimensions; the second part studies the orientations on the moduli spaces of real maps used in constructing these invariants. The present paper applies the results of the latter to obtain quantitative and qualitative conclusions about the invariants defined in the former. After describing large collections of real-orientable symplectic manifolds, we show that the real genus 1 Gromov-Witten invariants of sufficiently positive almost Kahler threefolds are signed counts of real genus 1 curves only and thus provide direct lower bounds for the counts of these curves in such targets. We specify real orientations on the real-orientable complete intersections in projective spaces; the real Gromov-Witten invariants they determine are in a sense canonically determined by the complete intersection itself, (at least) in most cases. We also obtain equivariant localization data that c...

  12. O direito real de Kant Kant's real right

    Aylton Barbieri Durão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No direito real, Kant investiga a propriedade privada de uma substância (o solo e os objetos localizados nele. No estado de natureza, somente ocorre a posse física ou empírica de um objeto externo, a partir do postulado jurídico da razão prática como uma lei permissiva, pois, do contrário, as coisas utilizáveis seriam em-si ou res nullius, mas a posse jurídica ou inteligível depende da posse comum originária do solo (que não se confunde com o comunismo primitivo, para evitar que a propriedade seja uma relação entre pessoas e coisas, como acontece na teoria do trabalho, porque todo direito exige um dever correspondente. Todavia, coisas não podem ter deveres com relação a pessoas, condição seguida da vontade unilateral do primeiro ocupante de querer o objeto e do advento de uma vontade unificada a priori do provo, que só se torna efetiva no estado civil, a única capaz de gerar uma obrigação recíproca entre todos; por isso, a posse inteligível somente é possível no estado civil, embora a posse empírica do estado de natureza tenha a presunção de tornar-se jurídica, quando ocorrer a entrada no estado jurídico e vale por comparação na espera e preparação daquele estado.In real right, Kant investigates the private property of a substance (the soil and the objects on it. In the state of nature the physical or empirical possession of an external object only occurs based on the juridical postulate of the practical reason as a permissive law; otherwise, usable things would be in themselves, or res nullius, but the juridical or intelligible possession depends on the common possession which originates from the soil (and cannot be confounded with primitive communism, to avoid the property to be a relation among people and things, such as what happens in the work theory, because all rights demand a correlated duty, but things cannot have duties towards people, followed by the first occupant's unilateral will to want the

  13. Modeling real property transactions with use cases

    Ferlan, Miran; Šumrada, Radoš

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses land security management principles and practice in Slovenia (Si) by presenting a real property transaction example that is formally described and modeled as a use case. First the legislation settings and the description of the dual real property registration system in Slovenia are shortly outlined. Then use case descriptions and UML diagramming examples of a simplified real property transaction process are developed. The use case described is th...

  14. Modeling real property transactions with use cases

    Miran Ferlan; Radoš Šumrada

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses land security management principles and practice in Slovenia (Si) by presenting a real property transaction example that is formally described and modeled as a use case. First the legislation settings and the description of the dual real property registration system in Slovenia are shortly outlined. Then use case descriptions and UML diagramming examples of a simplified real property transaction process are developed. The use case described is the sale of a whole urban bui...

  15. Listing Specialization and Residential Real Estate Licensee

    Leonard V. Zumpano; Ken Johnson; Randy I . Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Earlier research has found that specialization by real estate agents creates economies of scope for real estate firms. So far, however, no research has addressed this issue at the agent level. The question this research seeks to answer is whether specialization in one side of the real estate transaction increases agent income. The most important finding is that specialization has an asymmetric impact on earnings. Specializing in listings positively enhances agent income. In contrast, speciali...

  16. Product Liability Issues in Real Estate Brokerage

    Thomas Potter; Theron R. Nelson; Susan Logan Nelson

    1991-01-01

    The legal environment for real estate brokers is moving inexorably toward the doctrine of strict liability in a product liability context. The agency relationship model currently popular in real estate brokerage may not be able to withstand this threat. A recommendation is made that the industry move toward a market-making role which lies outside the chain of distribution of the real estate product. By moving out of the distribution channel, brokers may be able to revert to a "due care" stand...

  17. Taxation, Risk and Real Interest Rates

    Carolyn Jenkins; Charles Harvey

    1993-01-01

    It is an established orthodoxy that negative real interest rates constrain development, by causing financial repression.' The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) frequently make the raising of nominal interest rates above the rate of inflation a condition of their lending; and some countries without IMF or World Bank programmes have announced that positive real interest rates are a policy objective. This paper does not challenge the argument that negative real interest rates ...

  18. Real meromorphic functions and linear differential polynomials

    LANGLEY; J.; K.

    2010-01-01

    We determine all real meromorphic functions f in the plane such that f has finitely many zeros, the poles of f have bounded multiplicities, and f and F have finitely many non-real zeros, where F is a linear differential polynomial given by F = f (k) +Σk-1j=0ajf(j) , in which k≥2 and the coefficients aj are real numbers with a0≠0.

  19. The Official Real Estate Appraisal in Germany

    Christoph JOCHEIM-WIRTZ

    2013-01-01

    The Real Estate Appraisal in Germany is regulated by the articles 192-199 of the German Construction Law. Technical guidelines, including the appraisal methods, are defined in bylaws. For the purpose of official real estate appraisal, Expert Appraisal Committees were founded in counties and large cities. The Committees are comprised of real estate experts doing a honorary service, coming from such professions as land surveying engineers, architects, civil engineers, Tax Office employees, expe...

  20. An Equilibrium Analysis of Real Estate Leases

    Steven R. Grenadier

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a unified equilibrium approach to valuing commercial real estate leases. Using a game-theoretic variant of real options analysis, the underlying real estate asset market is modeled as a continuous-time Nash equilibrium, where developers make construction decisions under demand uncertainty. Then, using the economic notion that leasing represents the purchase of the use of the asset over a specified time, I use a contingent-claims approach to value many of the most common ...

  1. Ring homomorphisms on real Banach algebras

    Sin-Ei Takahasi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a strictly real commutative real Banach algebra with the carrier space ΦB. If A is a commutative real Banach algebra, then we give a representation of a ring homomorphism ρ:A→B, which needs not be linear nor continuous. If A is a commutative complex Banach algebra, then ρ(A is contained in the radical of B.

  2. Municipal Real Estate Decision Support System

    M. Arkesteijn; S. van den Schootbrugge; P.Paul Van Loon

    2011-01-01

    More and more municipalities have opted to establish a more centralized real estate management. This means that in these municipalities there is one real estate management organization. Since 1995 the number of municipalities that have centralized has increased from 18 (K et al 1995) to 34 percent in 2008 (A et al 2008). In 2009 69 percent of large municipalities (> 75,000 inhabitants) have a centrally organized real estate management (T & S 2010). This should lead to a more efficient and eff...

  3. DETERMINANTS OF REAL EXCHANGE RATE IN ETHIOPIA

    Dr. P.Nandeeswara Rao; Tassew Dufera Tolcha

    2016-01-01

    Real exchange rate has direct effects on trade particularly on international trade and has indirect effects on productions and employments, so it is crucial to understand the factors which determine its variations. This study analyses the main determinants of the real exchange rate and the dynamic adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks to those determinants using yearly Ethiopian time series data covering the period 1971 to 2010. It begins with a review of literatures on Exchan...

  4. Quantum Mechanics interpreted in Quantum Real Numbers

    Corbett, John V.; Durt, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The concept of number is fundamental to the formulation of any physical theory. We give a heuristic motivation for the reformulation of Quantum Mechanics in terms of non-standard real numbers called Quantum Real Numbers. The standard axioms of quantum mechanics are re-interpreted. Our aim is to show that, when formulated in the language of quantum real numbers, the laws of quantum mechanics appear more natural, less counterintuitive than when they are presented in terms of standard numbers.

  5. PBL - making natural resource education really real

    Ford, Bob

    1998-01-01

    A major concern in education today is making the student learning experience relevant to facilitate workforce readiness. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional format which actively engages students in the learning process by requiring them to solve real-life problems (Arambula-Greenfield 1996, Norman and Schmidt 1992). Often times, however, the real-life experiences used are hypothetical and, as a result, simplify the problem to the point that the realness of the problem no longer ...

  6. Real-time Transmission Over Internet

    Gao, Qi

    2004-01-01

    With the Internet expansion, real-time transmission over Internet is becoming a new promising application. Successful real-time communication over IP networks requires reasonably reliable, low delay, low loss date transport. Since Internet is a non-synchronous packet switching network, high load and lack of guarantees on data delivery make real-time communication such as Voice and Video over IP a challenging application to become realistic on the Internet. This thesis work is composed of two...

  7. Modular specification of real-time systems

    Inal, Recep

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...... is presented through a top-level specification of requirements for a simple air traffic monitoring system, and reasoning is illustrated by a refinement towards a design...

  8. Modular specification of real-time systems

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation is presented through a top-level specification of requirements for a simple air traffic monitoring system, and reasoning is illustrated by a refinement towards a design

  9. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  10. Mobile real time radiography system

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility