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Sample records for abductive diagnostic procedure

  1. Abductive diagnostic procedure based on an and/or/not graph for expected behaviour: application to a gas turbine

    Fuster, P. [Dept. Mat. and Infor. UIB, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)] Ligeza, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automation and Electrics, Technical University of Cracow (Poland)] Martin, J.A. [LEA-SICA: LAAS-CNRS Toulouse, France and IIiA-UdG Girona (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation the diagnostic of technical systems is adressed by considering first of all their expected normal behaviour. The formalism that is used is called AND/OR/NOT causal graphs. This approach can be regarded as an extension of abductive models. A symptom can be True. False or Unknown, it can be represented by a propositional formula. The nodes are partitioned into: Manifestations, that characterize each type of misbehaviour, Elementary diagnosis, that correspond to single faulty states and Intermediate, these last are observable or not partial symptoms. An illustration about the on-line diagnosis of a gas turbine shows also some of the steps leading to a causal graph modelisation in which this diagnosis methodology has been applied. (orig.) 5 refs.

  2. 22 CFR 94.6 - Procedures for children abducted to the United States.

    2010-04-01

    ... of the child's habitual residence; (h) Upon request, seek from foreign Central Authorities a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted to the United States. 94.6 Section 94.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES...

  3. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    A book has been written on the procedures used in diagnostic radiology covering the subject areas of the urinary tract, gastrointestinal and biliary tracts, vascular radiology, cerebral angiography and arthrography. The explanation of each procedure follows a common layout which includes indications, equipment, technique and complications. The book is intended to be a reference book for radiology trainees learning to do practical procedures for the first time and also for practising radiologists not habitually performing certain diagnostic procedures. (UK)

  4. Metamodeling abduction

    Ángel Nepomuceno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A general trend is to consider abduction as a backward deduction with some additional conditions, but there can be more than one kind of deduction. By adopting Makinson’s method to define deductive consequence relations, abduction is settled as a reverse one corresponding to each one of such deductive relations

  5. Metamodeling abduction

    Ángel Nepomuceno; Fernando Soler Toscano

    2009-01-01

    A general trend is to consider abduction as a backward deduction with some additional conditions, but there can be more than one kind of deduction. By adopting Makinson’s method to define deductive consequence relations, abduction is settled as a reverse one corresponding to each one of such deductive relations

  6. Special diagnostic tests and procedures

    The purpose of this article is to provide the physical therapist with a clinically useful description of diagnostic tests commonly used for patients in cardiac rehabilitation. I reviewed five diagnostic tests: coronary angiography, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging, radionuclide ventriculography, echocardiography, and Holter monitoring. The procedural techniques, indications, diagnostic capabilities, limitations, and comparisons of these tests are discussed. I present the applicability of these tests relative to the therapist's roles as clinician, educator, and cardiac rehabilitation team member. 84 references

  7. Feline neurology. Diagnostic procedures

    The definitive diagnosis of neurologic conditions in cats, as well as other species, has been greatly facilitated by rapid development of new techniques. In some cases, these developments have involved refinements of existing methods, whereas in others, essentially new techniques have evolved. Diagnostic tests developed in earlier years also continue to be of value. The application of many of these techniques is illustrated throughout this text. In this chapter, attention is focused on certain particularly valuable tests

  8. Diagnostic Procedures of Itch.

    Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2016-01-01

    A complex and multifactorial pathogenesis of itch makes the proper diagnosis of underlying disease a difficult and challenging clinical problem. The examination of every patient with itch should be started by gathering an accurate history. During the anamnesis it is important to obtain data about the beginning of the appearance of symptoms, its location, diurnal variation, and the factors influencing itch perception. After careful anamnesis the patient should undergo a detailed physical examination, with particular attention to the skin in order to look for any signs of skin lesions. Special attention should be paid to distinguish the primary lesion from the changes resulting from scratching. In patients in whom the etiology of the itch cannot be identified on the basis of the medical examination, a panel of primary screen laboratory examination may be required, and if necessary, depending on the results of basic laboratory results and data from medical history, additional diagnostic tests should be considered. In patients in whom an organic cause of itching has not been established, itch is most likely of undetermined origin; however, psychogenic causes should also be suspected and ruled out. In conclusion, it could be stated that itch is a common symptom of many skin diseases, systemic of neurological diseases. Despite the complex etiology of the disease, an exact cause of itch should be searched for in each patient, as successful therapy is largely dependent on the determination of the cause of the itching. PMID:27578067

  9. Alien Abductions

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  10. Radiation risk of diagnostical procedures

    The environmental radiation burden of man in Germany is about 1 mGy (Milligray) per year. This is, of course, also valid for children. Due to diagnostical procedures this burden is increased to about 1.3 mGy. The question arises wether this can be neglected, or important consequences have to be drawn. To give a clear answer, the action of ionizing radiation in living cells and in organisms is explained in detail. Many of the radiation actions at the DNA can soon be repaired by the cell, if the radiation dose was small. Some damage, however will remain irreparable for the cell and consequently leads to cell death, to mutations or to cell transformation. The number of these lesion increases or decreases linearily with radiation dose. Therefore, it must be expected that the risk of tumour induction is increased to above the normal background even by the smallest doses. This small but not negligible risk has to be compared with other risks of civilization or with other medical risks. But also the benefit and the efficacy of diagnostic procedures have to be considered. (orig./HSCH)

  11. Exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

    According to our last national study on population exposures from natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation, 16% of overall annual collective effective dose represent the contribution of diagnostic medical exposures. Of this value, 92% is due to diagnostic X-ray examinations and only 8% arise from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. This small contribution to collective dose is mainly the result of their lower frequency compared to that of the X-ray examinations, doses delivered to patients being, on average, ten times higher. The purpose of this review was to reassess the population exposure from in vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures and to evaluate the temporal trends of diagnostic usage of radiopharmaceuticals in Romania. The current survey is the third one conducted in the last decade. As in the previous ones (1990 and 1995), the contribution of the Radiation Hygiene Laboratories Network of the Ministry of Health and Family in collecting data from nuclear medicine departments in hospitals was very important

  12. Abductive sensemaking through sketching

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes design sketching as a way to make abductive reasoning manifest and concrete. Through sketching, the abductive sensemaking leaves the domain of abstract logics and becomes part of the researchers or practitioner’s reflective practice. This practice is especially evident through...... incorporating sketching as more than a specific technique, but also as ways of applying design thinking through acting upon the world. The paper presents sketching as an integral part of the design epistemology. Furthermore, a categoriza- tion of different dimensions in which sketching can be represented...

  13. Radiation exposure through recently developed diagnostic procedures

    Six years after the Chernobyl reactor accident up-to-date information has been made available on the contamination of affected regions in the Ukraine, White Russia and Russia that was obtained in connection with various measuring programmes. Initial reports on the increased incidence of thyroid carcinomas in children from White Russia and the Ukraine were subjected to careful scrutiny. At the Radiation Protection Meeting held at Vienna participants were made familiar with cytogenetic assays, the micronucleus test, determinations of thymidine kinase and blood cell changes as well as immunological parameters. At the same meeting, experts provided surveys of the effective doses received by patients subjected to more recently developed diagnostic procedures, among them computerized tomography, digital luminescence radiography, mammography, bone density measurements, single photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography. (orig./DG)

  14. Diagnostic Reference Levels in Interventional Procedures

    International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and limitations on the use of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in interventional radiology are presented. The convenience of expanding their use as well as that of individual patient dose distributions to improve optimization are discussed. Some aspects subject to clarification are suggested, such as the disadvantage of using phantoms instead of patient dose values, the introduction of new imaging acquisition modalities, the standardization of the levels of complexity for some common procedures, the need to refine the methodology for establishing DRLs using different sample sizes, the balancing of two or more dose related quantities used to set DRLs, and the possibility of deriving trigger (alarm) levels. Studies have demonstrated that DRLs are useful for process optimization (in the setting of X ray systems, in protocols and in operational procedures). More advice is still needed to improve their utilization in optimization strategies related to stochastic effects but also to avoid tissue reactions (deterministic effects) when the full patient dose distribution is available in the data samples used. (author)

  15. Diagnostic procedures of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Kohara, Hiroyuki [National Sanyo Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The spread of computed tomography (CT) brought the frequent further examinations of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). To aim the evaluation of initial data on examinations of SPN for differential diagnosis, we studied retrospective cases. Thirty-one cases of SPN less than 20 mm in diameter were compared in clinical findings and CT image findings and were examined the diagnostic procedures in recent three years in National Sanyo Hospital. The 31 patients consisted of 14 males and 17 females ranging 44 to 79 years old, median 65 years old. The causes of SPN were lung cancer (11 patients), cryptococcosis (4 patients), tuberculoma (3 patients), non-tuberculous mycobacteria (2 patients), pneumoconiosis (2 patients), pneumonia scar (one patient), hamartoma (one patient), and unknown (7 patients). There were no significant differences in laboratory findings between lung cancer and the others. CT findings showed significant differences in four categories. All patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) examinations and 12 patients were determined the diagnosis initial FB. Five patients were established their diagnosis using videoassociated thoracoscopic surgeries. (author)

  16. Abductive reasoning: Logic, visual thinking, and coherence

    Thagard, P.; Shelley, C. P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses abductive reasoning---that is, reasoning in which explanatory hypotheses are formed and evaluated. First, it criticizes two recent formal logical models of abduction. An adequate formalization would have to take into account the following aspects of abduction: explanation is not deduction; hypotheses are layered; abduction is sometimes creative; hypotheses may be revolutionary; completeness is elusive; simplicity is complex; and abductive reasoning may be visual and non-s...

  17. The need for culture sensitive diagnostic procedures

    Zandi, Tekleh; Havenaar, Johan M.; Limburg-Okken, Annechien G.; van Es, Hans; Sidali, Salah; Kadri, Nadia; van den Brink, Wim; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We examine the procedural validity of a standardized instrument for the diagnosis of psychotic disorders in Morocco. Method Twenty-nine patients from Casablanca, Morocco, with a psychotic or mood disorder were examined using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) an ad

  18. Postmortem procedure and diagnostic avian pathology

    A. Bello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review paper will highlight the basic systematic procedures involve from submission of carcass for the investigation of disease to diagnosis and will serve as a guide to veterinarians (anatomist and pathologist on postmortem proceedures in clinical practice.

  19. Gonadal doses from x-ray diagnostic procedures

    Gonadal doses from X-ray diagnostic procedures have been derived from measurements on patients using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). The methods of calculation of the ovarian and testicular doses from these TLD measurements are detailed for direct radiography, fluoroscopy, tomography and cerebral angiography. The mean doses from these procedures for children under 2 years, children over 2 years and adults are given

  20. Peritoneal lavage and other diagnostic procedures in blunt abdominal trauma

    Diagnostic procedures such as peritoneal lavage, computed tomography, emergency angiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and contrast studies of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts can assist in the identification, quantification, and localization of injury after blunt abdominal trauma. Use of these procedures should be determined by careful clinically assessment as part of an aggressive approach to the diagnosis of the injured patient. 22 references

  1. On the Implementation of Global Abduction

    Christiansen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    needs to give up one plan, it may start a new one, or continue a suspended plan, while its beliefs learned about the world in the failed attempts persist. This paper describes an implementation of GA in the high-level language of Constraint Handling Rules (CHR). It appears to be a first attempt to a...... full implementation of GA, which also confirms CHR as a powerful meta-programming language for advanced reasoning. The construction gives rise to discussing important issues of the semantics and pragmatics of Global Abduction, leading to proposal for a specific procedural semantics and architecture...

  2. Cardiovascular procedures/diagnostic techniques and therapeutic procedures

    This book covers the technical and therapeutic aspects of cardiovascular procedures in immense detail. There are large and appropriate diagrams and tables. The topics of the chapters are tools for catheterization, venous access, arterial access, hemodynamic monitoring, cardiac catheterization and coronary arteriography, ergonovine provocation testing for coronary artery spasm, pulmonary angiography, endomyocredial biopsy, electrophysiologic studies, pericardiocentesis and drainage, intraaortic balloon pumping, direct current cardioversion and defibrilaltion, pacemaker implantation of the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, coronary angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, transluminal catheter extraction and resolution of intracardiac catheter knots, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, contrast media toxicity and allergic reactions, radiation hazards, and medicolegal concerns. An appendix and index follow these chapters. In general, each chapter covers historical aspects, indications, complications, techniques, and preoperative and postoperative care

  3. Geospatial abduction principles and practice

    Shakarian, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Provides the mathematics underlying geospatial abduction and the algorithms to solve them in practice Offers wide applicability in many different fields for practitioners and researchers Includes several lively, real-world examples that will explain the material very clearly to a reader Includes a web site dedicated to geospatial abduction, hosted at University of Maryland. In addition, the authors will record video lectures (30-60 minutes each) devoted to each chapter, as well as slides on each. These materials will supplement the book

  4. The relative benefits and risks of diagnostic procedures using radionuclides

    The risk of potential radiation damage from diagnostic procedures using radionuclides must be carefully balanced against the diagnostic and occasionally also therapeutic advantages offered by those methods. A global discussion of collective doses and collective risks appears rather useless for lack of differentiation. Instead, a variety of individual factors must be taken into account, which include the patient's age, the expected outcome of the disorder to be examined, the presence of pathological changes and possible therapeutic benefits from the diagnostic strategy adopted. The risk assessments in the study were made accordingly on the basis of statistical data and sample cases. They proved that in a large number of patients the benefits are by far greater than the associated risks. This statement must, however be modified by the fact that there are also cases where the diagnostic use of radiation should be approached with caution. (orig.)

  5. Does the experience level of the radiologist, assessment in consensus, or the addition of the abduction and external rotation view improve the diagnostic reproducibility and accuracy of MRA of the shoulder?

    Aim: To prospectively evaluate the influence of observer experience, consensus assessment, and abduction and external rotation (ABER) view on the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in patients with traumatic anterior-shoulder instability (TASI). Materials and methods: Fifty-eight MRA examinations (of which 51 had additional ABER views) were assessed by six radiologists (R1–R6) and three teams (T1–T3) with different experience levels, using a seven-lesion standardized scoring form. Forty-five out of 58 MRA examination findings were surgically confirmed. Kappa coefficients, sensitivity, specificity, and differences in percent agreement or correct diagnosis (p-value, McNemar's test) were calculated per lesion and overall per seven lesion types to assess diagnostic reproducibility and accuracy. Results: Overall kappa ranged from poor (k = 0.17) to moderate (k = 0.53), sensitivity from 30.6–63.5%, and specificity from 73.6–89.9%. Overall, the most experienced radiologists (R1–R2) and teams (T2–T3) agreed significantly more than the lesser experienced radiologists (R3–R4: p = 0.014, R5–R6; p = 0.018) and teams (T2–T3: p = 0.007). The most experienced radiologist (R1, R2, R3) and teams (T1, T2) were also consistently more accurate than the lesser experienced radiologists (R4, R5, R6) and team (T3). Significant differences were found between R1–R4 (p = 0.012), R3–R4 (p = 0.03), and T2–T3 (p = 0.014). The overall performance of consensus assessment was systematically higher than individual assessment. Significant differences were established between T1–T2 and radiologists R3–R4 (p<0.001, p = 0.001) and between T2 and R3 (p<0.001/p = 0.001) or R4 (p = 0.050). No overall significant differences were found between the radiologists' assessments with and without ABER. Conclusion: The addition of ABER does not significantly improve overall diagnostic performance. The radiologist

  6. Genetic risk from diagnostic X-ray procedures

    This essay introduces epidemiologic studies concerned with the question whether diagnostic X-ray procedures might be the cause of an increased genetic risk. All studies have selected Down's syndrome (mongolism) as genetic indicator. They indiscriminately present the opinion of the respective author. Approximately one half of the studies conclude that radiation exposure will not influence the spontaneous incidence of Down's syndrome in diagnostics, the other half finds a positive relationship between frequent radiation exposure and the incidence of the syndrome. For various reasons, explained in detail, the results of the studies under discussion are suitable for forming hypotheses, but should not be viewed as providing evidence. (orig.)

  7. The abduction of Sherlock Holmes

    Carson, David

    2009-01-01

    All criminal investigations, and resulting trials, rely upon inferential reasoning. Theories, hypotheses and conclusions are drawn from the evidence. The victim's blood was on the knife; we infer it was the murder weapon. The suspect's fingerprints are on the knife; we infer he killed the victim. Sherlock Holmes, although a fictional character, remains renowned as a great detective. However, his methodology, which was abduction rather than deduction, and which is innocently used by many real ...

  8. Application of Irwin diagnostic procedures for chronic cough

    Guo-fang FENG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the advantages and disadvantages of the diagnostic procedures suggested by the Irwin group,and summarize the experiences in diagnosis and treatment,and to beter understand the etiology,diagnosis,differential diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough.Methods Data of 118 patients,who were finally diagnosed as chronic cough according to the diagnostic procedures suggested by Irwin group in the First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA in 2009,were retrospectivety analyzed.Results With the Irwin diagnostic procedures of chronic cough,118 patients were diagnosed definitely.The final diagnostic rate reached 100%.The duration to reach the final diagnosis was 1 day to 30 days.Of the 118 patients with chronic cough,113 were cured(96%.32 cases(27.1% were caused by asthma and related diseases(allergic rhinitis,allergic pharyngitis,cough variant asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis;28 cases(23.7% were due to upper airway cough syndrome and related diseases(chronic rhinitis,sinusitis,pharyngeal bursitis,postnasal drip syndrome,chronic laryngitis,and vocal cord polyps;23 cases(19.5% due to gastroesophageal reflux disease;14 cases(11.9% due to lower respiratory tract infection and related diseases(endobronchial tuberculosis,pulmonary tuberculosis,endotracheal mucosal adenocarcinoma,lung cancer,bronchiectasis,and pulmonary fibrosis;10 cases(8.5% due to cardiac insafficiency;6 cases(5.1% due to administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI-like antihypertensive agents;3 cases(2.5% were psychogenic cough,and 2 cases(1.7% were induced by other causes.Conclusions The Irwin diagnosis of chronic cough is a comprehensive and thorough procedure,and it should be used with delibcration in clinic.The etiology of chronic cough is complicated,mainly including asthma and related diseases,sinusitis and upper airway cough syndrome,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  9. Evaluation of radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures

    This study conducted to evaluate the radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in four nuclear medicine departments in Sudan. The evaluated procedures followed in these departments were in accordance with the standards, International Recommendations and code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. The evolution included the optimum design for diagnostic nuclear medicine departments, dealing with radioactive sources, quality assurance and quality control, training and responsibilities for radiation worker taking into account economic factors in Sudan. Evaluation of radiation protection procedures in diagnostic investigations was carried out by taken direct measurements of dose rate and the contamination level in some areas where radiation sources, radiation workers and public are involved. Designated questionnaires covered thirteen areas of radiation protection based on inspection check list for nuclear medicine prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) were used in the evaluation. This questionnaire has been Filled by Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), nuclear medicine technologist, nuclear medicine specialist in the nuclear medicine departments. Four hospitals, two governmental hospital and two private hospitals, have been assisted, the assessment shows that although the diagnostic nuclear medicine department in Sudan are not applying a fully safety and radiation protection procedures, but the level of radiation dose and the contamination level were found within acceptable limits. The private hospital D scored the higher level of protection (85.25%) while the governmental hospital C scored the lower level of protection (59.02%). Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a proper radiation protection

  10. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  11. Patient exposures from diagnostic radiological procedures in India

    It is very well recognised that the ratio of diagnostic information/patient dose must be optimised in diagnostic radiology for each type of examination. Regulatory authorities in various countries are now engaged in developing dose constraint values for various X-ray examinations. In a co-ordinated research project, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, conducted a nationwide survey to assess the impact of diagnostic radiological practices on population dose in the country. Forms were designed to collect data on: (i) X-ray examinations, (ii) details of X-ray machines, (iii) type of work and workload in different hospitals, and (iv) X-ray examination techniques and associated technical parameters. Entrance skin doses were estimated by using specially designed and calibrated TLD postal packs. The entrance skin dose was estimated for a particular examination in a hospital on the basis of TL reading of disc under perspex filter, taking into account the focus-to-skin distance, back-scatter factor, the mass energy absorption coefficient and the mAs actually used for the examination. The analysis of entrance skin doses estimated for 12 common X-ray procedures in these 40 hospitals showed that for the most part these doses fall within the reference levels specified in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS). (author)

  12. Radiation doses from medical diagnostic procedures in Canada

    This document sets out to record and analyze the doses incurred in Canada from medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation in a typical year. Excluded are those doses incurred during therapeutic irradiation, since they differ in scale to such a large degree and because they are used almost exclusively in treating cancer. In this we are following a precedent set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) notes that dose limits should not be applied to medical exposures, it also observes that doses in different settings for the same procedure may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, and that there are considerable opportunities for dose reductions in diagnostic radiology. Because these data do not stand in isolation the report also encompasses a review of the relevant literature and some background comment on the evolving technology of the radiological sciences. Because there is a somewhat incomplete perception of the changes taking place in diagnostic methods we have also provided some introductory explanations of the relevant technologies. In addition, there is an analysis of at least some of the limitations on the completeness of the data which are reported here. (author)

  13. Submandibular diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy: new procedure for ductal disorders.

    Marchal, Francis; Dulguerov, Pavel; Becker, Minerva; Barki, Gerard; Disant, François; Lehmann, Willy

    2002-01-01

    We present our initial experience with submandibular sialendoscopy, a new therapeutic approach for disorders of Wharton's duct. We review the sialendoscopes used and discuss their respective merits. We evaluated and treated 129 consecutive patients with suspected ductal disorders. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was used for classifying ductal lesions as sialolithiasis, stenosis, sialodochitis, or polyps. Interventional sialendoscopy was used to treat these disorders. The type of endoscope used, the type of sialolith fragmentation and/or extraction device used, the total number of procedures, the type of anesthesia, and the number and size of the sialoliths removed were the dependent variables. The outcome variable was the endoscopic clearing of the ductal tree and resolution of symptoms. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was possible in 131 of 135 glands (97%), with an average (+/-SD) duration of 28 +/- 15 minutes. Interventional sialendoscopy was attempted in 110 cases, with an average duration of 71 +/- 41 minutes, with a success rate of 82%. Multiple sialendoscopies were necessary in 25% of cases. General anesthesia was used in 12% of cases. Submandibular gland resection was performed in 4%. The average size of the stones was 4.9 +/- 2.9 mm. Multiple sialoliths were found in 31 cases (29%). Sialolith fragmentation was required in 26%. Larger and multiple stones often required longer and multiple procedures and general anesthesia, and more often resulted in failures. Semirigid endoscopes had a higher success rate (85%) than flexible sialendoscopes (54%). Complications were mostly minor, but were encountered in 10% of cases. Diagnostic sialendoscopy is a new technique for evaluating salivary duct disorders that is associated with low morbidity. Interventional sialendoscopy allows the extraction of sialoliths in most patients, thus preventing open gland excision. PMID:11800367

  14. Invasive diagnostic procedures for insulinomas of the pancreas

    Insulinomas are the most common cause for hypoglycemia with endogenous hyperinsulinism. Insulinomas are the most frequent endocrine tumor of the pancreas and 10% occur as multiple tumors (e.g. multiple endocrine neoplasia type I) or in rare cases as islet cell hyperplasia. A further 10-15% of insulinomas are malignant. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography (US) and somatoreceptor scintigraphy (SRN) show a lower sensitivity for detection and localization of tumors, because in many cases insulinomas are smaller than 2 cm in size. Invasive pre-operative diagnostic procedures, such as transhepatic peripancreatic venous blood sampling (TPVB) and the intra-arterial calcium stimulation test (ASVS) are much more time-intensive compared to CT, MRI and US with an examination time of 2-3 h but achieve a more exact pre-operative detection and localization with sensitivities mostly greater than 95% and are therefore the diagnostic methods of choice. (orig.)

  15. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  16. Pediatric patients: criteria for radiopharmaceuticals activities in diagnostic procedures

    Recent studies recommend new criteria to determine radiopharmaceuticals activities per diagnostic procedures for children and teenagers. In USA, the criteria are: minimum and maximum activity and activity per body weight. The minimum activity is necessary for assuring the quality image due to the minimum requested statistical counting. The reduction of maximum activities minimizes the probability of detriment of radiation. In the European Union (EU), the Pediatric Dosage Card (PDC) proposes combined parameters: category of radiopharmaceutical, patient body weight and minimum activity per procedure. The PDC classifies the radiopharmaceuticals according to their biodistribution in the most sensitive organs. In Brazil, an investigation evaluated radiopharmaceuticals activities administered to 2,411 pediatric patients in sixteen institutions. The Brazilian mean activities per body weight, minimum and maximum activities used per institutions were compared with similar parameters surveyed in thirteen American hospitals. It was also used the PDC model to calculate the minimum activities per radiopharmaceuticals using recorded Brazilian patients corporal masses. The wider differences between Brazilian and USA installations were noticed for minimum activities by as much as a factor of 2 and 8. For 67Ga Citrate, the ranges of activities per patient corporal mass were by as much as a factor of 2 and 9 than activities used in USA. The range of maximum activities presented fewer differences, varying between 0.5 and 2 times for the radiopharmaceuticals studied. The present work needs the collaboration of the professional staff for discussion of the results, to promote regional surveys and to optimize pediatric patient protocols (author)

  17. New perspective for radiation protection in diagnostic procedure in Paraguay

    The Government in Paraguay approved by Decree Law 10754, dated October 6, 2000, its National Regulation on Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, based on the IAEA Safety Standards 115. The primary goal of Patient Protection is to ensure that both Regulatory Authorities and all Responsible parties in Medical Practices observe procedural process in conducting their responsibilities on regulatory and administrative affairs. On one side the Government, 'Department de Proteccion Radiologica', under the Health Ministry and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, and on the other side, the medical practitioner who prescribes or conducts diagnostic or therapeutic treatment, both ensure that the exposure of patients be the minimum. This document describes how the Regulatory Authorities intend to implement this recent act and on the other hand take the advantage of this Conference to understand better this subject, especially on the following subjects: essential requirement for licensing, inspection and enforcement programme in the country's capital and in the interior, where there are more difficulties; workers and medical training and lessons learned applying to developing countries. (author)

  18. Diagnostic imaging procedures during pregnancy: what are the fetal risks?

    Taylor, K. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An important facet of health care is the counsel of patients seeking a better understanding of their medical treatment. One of the most challenging scenarios is the management of female patients exposed to ionizing radiation while pregnant. It requires careful consideration of both maternal benefit and fetal risk. Given the increased frequency of diagnostic examinations involving ionizing radiation, this situation has become commonplace. This paper reviews current literature discussing the risk associated with prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The fetal dose received during common radiological procedures is reported in order to emphasize that these doses do not exceed threshold levels for deterministic effects. The definitive cancer risk associated with radiation exposure in utero has yet to be established. This paper will also show that physicians who deal with pregnant women are generally uninformed or misinformed of the doses and risks associated with the exams that they prescribe. This lack of information could be leading to inappropriate advice and actions with respect to patient care. (author)

  19. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    Chun-Hsien Tseng; Hsiang-Jung Tsai; Chung-Ming Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful ...

  20. Comparative cost analysis -- computed tomography vs. alternative diagnostic procedures, 1977-1980

    In comparing the total national cost of utilizing computed tomography (CT) for medically indicated diagnoses with that of conventional x-ray, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, and exploratory surgery, this investigation concludes that there was little, if any, added net cost from CT use in 1977 or will there be in 1980. Computed tomography, generally recognized as a reliable and useful diagnostic modality, has the potential to reduce net costs provided that an optimal number of units can be made available to physicians and patients to achieve projected reductions in alternative procedures. This study examines the actual cost impact of CT on both cranial and body diagnostic procedures. For abdominal and mediastinal disorders, CT scanning is just beginning to emerge as a diagnostic modality. As such, clinical experience is somewhat limited and the authors assume that no significant reduction in conventional procedures took place in 1977. It is estimated that the approximately 375,000 CT body procedures performed in 1977 represent only a 5 percent cost increase over use of other diagnostic modalities. It is projected that 2,400,000 CT body procedures will be performed in 1980 and, depending on assumptions used, total body diagnostic costs will increase only slightly or be reduced. Thirty-one tables appear throughout the text presenting cost data broken down by types of diagnostic procedures used and projections by years. Appendixes present technical cost components for diagnostic procedures, the comparative efficacy of CT as revealed in abstracts of published literature, selected medical diagnoses, and references

  1. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for...

  2. Context as Relevance-Driven Abduction and Charitable Satisficing

    Attardo, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that the full meaning of a linguistic expression can be grasped only within a situation, the context of the utterance. There is even agreement that certain factors within the situation are particularly significant, including gestures and facial expressions of the participants, their social roles, the setting of the exchange, the objects surrounding the participants, the linguistic, cultural and educational backgrounds of the participants, their beliefs, including those concerning the situation, the social procedures and conventions that regulate the situation. Finally, there is some agreement that context is dynamic, reflexive (the speakers are mutually aware of their beliefs), not limited to linguistics actions, and last but not least, a psychological construct. This definition of context is not (very) controversial, but it leaves out two major problems, which will be addressed in this paper: how is context arrived at? And, since a perfectly natural interpretation of the above definition could be that the context of each utterance is the entire universe, how is the relevant context delimited? Four related concepts will provide the answer to both questions: abductive reasoning, driven by relevance and cooperation, and bounded rationality and the principle of charity. Simply put, context is derived abductively by the speakers assuming that for the speakers to behave the way they behave and do so rationally, a given context must be available to them. The context is bounded by the simple requirement that speakers not try to optimize their interpretation/calculation, but rather satisfice, i.e., find the first acceptable solution and by the need to follow the principle of charity, which forces intersubjective agreement. Thus, abductive reasoning and bounded rationality will be shown to be sufficient to calculate the relevant context of utterances (or other rationality-driven interactions) and to effectively delimit the potentially infinite

  3. Estimated Radiation Doses to the Israeli Population from Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic Procedures

    Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures were analyzed with the purpose of estimating their contribution to the individual and collective radiation doses to the Israeli population. An annual average of thirty nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures per 1,000 population were performed in Israel around the year 1998. The estimated mean effective dose per procedure due to nuclear medicine was 10.9 mSv and the annual collective effective dose resulting from these procedures - 2,000 man-Sv or 0.3 mSv per capita. The level of radiation doses to the Israeli population resulting from nuclear medicine diagnostic is mainly due to the relatively high number of procedures per capita and to the frequent use of high activity, especially Tl-201, for cardiology imaging procedures

  4. Intraneuronal ganglia cysts: Value of diagnostic radiological procedures

    This report describes two cases of intraneuronal ganglia cysts with degeneration of the peroneal and suprascapular nerve. In addition to standard radiographs other diagnostic studies such as CT and MRI may be required to ascertain the extent of the lesion. Histopathologic information is derived from biopsy. (orig.)

  5. A retrospective study of relevant diagnostic procedures in vulvodynia

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify objective clinical signs of vulvodynia and determine specific diagnostic tests for vulvodynia in women referred to a vulvar outpatient clinic for vulval complaints. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed of the medical records of 201 consecutive Danish patients...

  6. 78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures

    2013-04-03

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of, and soliciting public comments for 60 days, on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures. This document is Federal Guidance Report No. 14. It replaces Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic X-rays,'' which was released in......

  7. Administered activity and estimated radiation doses from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures to the Israeli population

    The current levels of administered activity of radiopharmaceuticals in several common nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and their contribution to the radiation doses to the Israeli population in 1998-2000 were analyzed. Diagnostic reference levels and the concept of effective dose per capita are discussed as relevant parameters to optimize patient protection. (author)

  8. Submandibular diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy: new procedure for ductal disorders

    Marchal, Francis; Dulguerov, Pavel; Becker, Minerva; Barki, Gerard; Disant, François; Lehmann, Willy

    2002-01-01

    We present our initial experience with submandibular sialendoscopy, a new therapeutic approach for disorders of Wharton's duct. We review the sialendoscopes used and discuss their respective merits. We evaluated and treated 129 consecutive patients with suspected ductal disorders. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was used for classifying ductal lesions as sialolithiasis, stenosis, sialodochitis, or polyps. Interventional sialendoscopy was used to treat these disorders. The type of endoscope used, the...

  9. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(μg/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.)

  10. A retrospective study of relevant diagnostic procedures in vulvodynia

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Kristensen, Ellids; Lundvall, Lene; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify objective clinical signs of vulvodynia and determine specific diagnostic tests for vulvodynia in women referred to a vulvar outpatient clinic for vulval complaints. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed of the medical records of 201 consecutive Danish patients...... suspected of suffering from vulvodynia who were referred to a vulvar outpatient clinic (Department of Gynecology, Rigshospitalet University Hospital) between October 2003 and January 2006. RESULTS: Of 201 women, 117 were diagnosed with vulvodynia and 84 had other diagnoses. Of the women diagnosed with...

  11. Surgical aspects of therapeutic concepts and diagnostic procedures in hepato-biliary and pancreatic tumours

    The aim of modern diagnostic procedures in hepato-biliary and pancreatic tumours is the characterization of origin, type and resectability of a lesion and the staging of the tumour. Furthermore, preoperative diagnostic methods should reduce the operative risk by demonstration of anatomical variations i.e. hepatic blood supply. In addition alternative therapeutic concepts like chemoembolization should be kept in mind. (orig./MG)

  12. Diagnostic x-ray procedures and risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma

    Exposure to diagnostic x-rays and the risk of leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma were studied within two prepaid health plans. Adult patients with leukemia (n = 565), NHL (n = 318), and multiple myeloma (n = 208) were matched to controls (n = 1390), and over 25,000 x-ray procedures were abstracted from medical records. Dose response was evaluated by assigning each x-ray procedure a score based on estimated bone marrow dose. X-ray exposure was not associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignant conditions never linked to radiation (relative risk [RR], 0.66). For all other forms of leukemia combined (n = 358), there was a slight elevation in risk (RR, 1.17) but no evidence of a dose-response relationship when x-ray procedures near the time of diagnosis were excluded. Similarly, patients with NHL were exposed to diagnostic x-ray procedures more often than controls (RR, 1.32), but the RR fell to 0.99 when the exposure to diagnostic x-ray procedures within 2 years of diagnosis was ignored. For multiple myeloma, overall risk was not significantly high (RR, 1.14), but there was consistent evidence of increasing risk with increasing numbers of diagnostic x-ray procedures. These data suggest that persons with leukemia and NHL undergo x-ray procedures frequently just prior to diagnosis for conditions related to the development or natural history of their disease. There was little evidence that diagnostic x-ray procedures were causally associated with leukemia or NHL. The risk for multiple myeloma, however, was increased among those patients who were frequently exposed to x-rays

  13. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services... radiology services and other diagnostic procedures. (a) Basis and purpose. (1) This section implements section 1833(n) of the Act and establishes the method for determining Medicare payments for...

  14. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Long Version)

    Sidhu, P. S.; Brabrand, K.; Cantisani, V.;

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ...

  15. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  16. Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.

    Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

    2000-04-01

    The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat. PMID:10840926

  17. QUALITATIVE STUDIES IN ACCOUNTING: THE ABDUCTIVE. RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    Claudia URDARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to accounting researchers and proposes the use of abductive research strategy to improve the quality of accounting research outcomes. We argue that abductive reasoning has developed as a typical research method in all fields of interpretive studies but is still unrecognized by accounting researchers and practitioners. Therefore, this study aims to raise awareness on the benefits obtained through the implementation of abduction as a research strategy. Starting from Peirce (1903 and Blaikie (1993, we explore two types of abduction designs and discuss the advantages of building accounting research on grounded concepts. While this is a conceptual paper that only describes the bridge abduction reasoning can build between studying the reality and new theory emergence, we do not tackle any ethnographical case studies, social survey, or other exploratory field analyses.

  18. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...... normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...... associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. RESULTS: A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN MAXIMAL...

  19. Diagnostic x-ray equipment compliance and facility survey. Recommended procedures for equipment and facility testing

    The Radiation Protection Bureau has set out guidelines for the testing of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. This guide provides information for the x-ray inspector, test engineer, technologist, medical physicist and any other person responsible for verifying the regulatory compliance or safety of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. Diagnostic x-radiation is an essential part of present day medical practice. The largest contributor of irradiation to the general population comes from diagnostic x-radiation. Although individual irradiations are usually small, there is a concern of possible excess cancer risk when large populations are irradiated. Unnecessary irradiations to patients from radiological procedures can be significantly reduced with little or no decrease in the value of medical diagnostic information. This can be achieved by using well designed x-ray equipment which is installed, used and maintained by trained personnel, and by the adoption of standardized procedures. In general, when patient surface dose is reduced, there is a corresponding decrease in dose to x-ray equipment operators and other health care personnel. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  20. 42 CFR 414.506 - Procedures for public consultation for payment for a new clinical diagnostic laboratory test.

    2010-10-01

    ... a new clinical diagnostic laboratory test. 414.506 Section 414.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR... FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for New Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests § 414.506 Procedures for public consultation for payment for a new clinical diagnostic laboratory...

  1. Education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures ICRP 113 in brief

    The international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) is the primary body in protection against ionizing radiation. Among its latest publication is ICRP publication 113 education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures. This document introduces diagnostic and interventional medical procedures using ionizing radiations in deep details. The document is approved by the commission in October 2010 and translated into Arabic at December 2011. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translation include WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective, issued by world health organization 2009 and Radiation Protection in Medicine, ICRP Publication 105 2007 that translated into Arabic with support of Arab atomic energy authority at 2011.

  2. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  3. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments

  4. Prenatal radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has the right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data have shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% (ICRP84, 2000) up to 0.14% per 10 mSv (BEIR-V 1990). In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy (ICRP84, 2000), and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; 1. The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. 2. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period

  5. National standards of effective dose calculation for diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures

    Currently, national standards for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures using ionizing radiation are developed in the Czech Republic. The standards are divided into four main categories, three of them are clinical standards for procedures in diagnostic/interventional radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. The last one is a medical physics standard for dose assessment in diagnostic/interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The diagnostic and interventional radiology part of the medical physics standard is discussed here. The medical physics standard for diagnostic and interventional radiology involves a computation of risk related quantities, it means an effective dose and a mean glandular dose (MGD). The standard is divided into seven separate articles concerning general radiography, mammography, panoramic radiography, intraoral radiography, computed tomography, fluoroscopy and interventional radiology. Each part contains a list of exposure parameters of a given patient and a list of given X ray machine parameters, which are required for an examination reconstruction and dose calculation. Detailed instructions on how to compute the effective dose or MGD from the given data follows. For the calculation, PCXMC program is recommended for radiography and fluoroscopy examinations and ImPACT spreadsheet with NRPB SR250 data is used for computed tomography. For mammography, a dose formalism suggested by Dance is used for the calculation of MGD. Directly measurable quantities used as an input for the calculations are incident air kerma Ki for mammography, weighted computed tomography kerma index CTKIw for computed tomography, entrance surface air kerma Ke or product of kerma and area PKL for general radiography, fluoroscopy and interventional radiology. These directly measurable dose quantities are based on kerma instead of absorbed dose, as recommended by IAEA and ICRU. The medical physics standard should help to implement this new 'kerma formalism' into

  6. The study of wear behaviors on abducted hip joint prostheses by an alternate finite element approach.

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Wu, James Shih-Shyn; Chen, Jian-Horng

    2016-07-01

    An acetabular cup with larger abduction angles is able to affect the normal function of the cup seriously that may cause early failure of the total hip replacement (THR). Complexity of the finite element (FE) simulation in the wear analysis of the THR is usually concerned with the contact status, the computational effort, and the possible divergence of results, which become more difficult on THRs with larger cup abduction angles. In the study, we propose a FE approach with contact transformation that offers less computational effort. Related procedures, such as Lagrangian Multiplier, partitioned matrix inversion, detection of contact forces, continuity of contact surface, nodal area estimation, etc. are explained in this report. Through the transformed methodology, the computer round-off error is tremendously reduced and the embedded repetitive procedure can be processed precisely and quickly. Here, wear behaviors of THR with various abduction angles are investigated. The most commonly used combination, i.e., metal-on-polyethylene, is adopted in the current study where a cobalt-chromium femoral head is paired with an Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) cup. In all illustrations, wear coefficients are estimated by self-averaging strategy with available experimental datum reported elsewhere. The results reveal that the THR with larger abduction angles may produce deeper depth of wear but the volume of wear presents an opposite tendency; these results are comparable with clinical and experimental reports. The current approach can be widely applied easily to fields such as the study of the wear behaviors on ante-version, impingement, and time-dependent behaviors of prostheses etc. PMID:27265055

  7. Complexity Classifications for Propositional Abduction in Post's Framework

    Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the complexity of abduction, a fundamental and important form of non-monotonic reasoning. Given a knowledge base explaining the world's behavior it aims at finding an explanation for some observed manifestation. In this paper we consider propositional abduction, where the knowledge base and the manifestation are represented by propositional formulae. The problem of deciding whether there exists an explanation has been shown to be \\SigPtwo-complete in general. We focus on formulae in which the allowed connectives are taken from certain sets of Boolean functions. We consider different variants of the abduction problem in restricting both the manifestations and the hypotheses. For all these variants we obtain a complexity classification for all possible sets of Boolean functions. In this way, we identify easier cases, namely \\NP-complete, \\coNP-complete and polynomial cases. Thus, we get a detailed picture of the complexity of the propositional abduction problem, hence highlighting s...

  8. New Polynomial Classes for Logic-Based Abduction

    Zanuttini, B

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of propositional logic-based abduction, i.e., the problem of searching for a best explanation for a given propositional observation according to a given propositional knowledge base. We give a general algorithm, based on the notion of projection; then we study restrictions over the representations of the knowledge base and of the query, and find new polynomial classes of abduction problems.

  9. New polynomial classes for logic-based abduction

    Zanuttini, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    We address the problem of propositional logic-based abduction, i.e., the problem of searching for a best explanation for a given propositional observation according to a given propositional knowledge base. We give a general algorithm, based on the notion of projection; then we study restrictions over the representations of the knowledge base and of the query, and find new polynomial classes of abduction problems.

  10. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper; Madsen, Thomas Moller;

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  11. Patient radiation dose in diagnostic and interventional procedures for intracranial aneurysms: Experience at a single center

    Chun, Chang Woo; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Cheol Hyoun; Ihn, Yon Kwon; Shin, Yong Sam [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms in a large sample size from a single center. We studied a sample of 439 diagnostic and 149 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms in 480 patients (331 females, 149 males; median age, 57 years; range, 21-88 years), which were performed in 2012 with a biplane unit. Parameters including fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP), and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed. Mean fluoroscopic time, total mean DAP, and total image frames were 12.6 minutes, 136.6 +/- 44.8 Gy-cm{sup 2}, and 251 +/- 49 frames for diagnostic procedures, 52.9 minutes, 226.0 +/- 129.2 Gy-cm{sup 2}, and 241 frames for therapeutic procedures, and 52.2 minutes, 334.5 +/- 184.6 Gy-cm{sup 2}, and 408 frames for when both procedures were performed during the same session. The third quartiles for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were 14.0, 61.1, and 66.1 minutes for fluoroscopy time, 154.2, 272.8, and 393.8 Gy-cm{sup 2} for DAP, and 272, 276, and 535 for numbers of image frames in diagnostic, therapeutic, and both procedures in the same session, respectively. The proportions of fluoroscopy in DAP for the procedures were 11.4%, 50.5%, and 36.1%, respectively, for the three groups. The mean DAP for each 3-dimensional rotational angiographic acquisition was 19.2 +/- 3.2 Gy-cm{sup 2}. On average, rotational angiography was used 1.4 +/- 0.6 times/session (range, 1-4; n = 580). Radiation dose in our study as measured by DAP, fluoroscopy time and image frames did not differ significantly from other reported DRL studies for cerebral angiography, and DAP was lower with fewer angiographic image frames for embolization. A national registry of radiation-dose data is a necessary next step to refine the dose reference level.

  12. A Diagnostic Procedure for Transformative Change Based on Transitions, Resilience, and Institutional Thinking

    Briony C. Ferguson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water governance regimes around the world have traditionally planned large-scale, centralized infrastructure systems that aim to control variables and reduce uncertainties. There is growing sectoral awareness that a transition toward sustainable alternatives is necessary if systems are to meet society's future water needs in the context of drivers such as climate change and variability, demographic changes, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity. However, there is minimal understanding of how the urban water sector should operationalize its strategic planning for such change to facilitate the transition to a sustainable water future. We have integrated concepts from transitions, resilience, and institutional theory to develop a diagnostic procedure for revealing insights into which types of strategic action are most likely to influence the direction and pace of change in the overall system toward a desired trajectory. The procedure used the multipattern approach, from transition theory, to identify the system conditions and type of changes necessary for enabling system transformation. It incorporated the adaptive cycle, from resilience theory, to identify the current phase of change for different parts of the system. Finally, it drew on the concepts of institutional pillars and institutional work to identify mechanisms that are likely to be most effective in influencing the transformative dynamics of the system toward a desired trajectory. We have demonstrated application of the proposed diagnostic procedure on a case study of recent transformative change in the urban water system of Melbourne, Australia. We have proposed that an operational diagnostic procedure provides a useful platform from which planners, policy analysts, and decision makers could follow a process of deduction that identifies which types of strategic action best fit the current system conditions.

  13. The use of 3D-CT-Angiography in the diagnostic procedure of intracranial aneurysms evaluated

    Aalders, Th.; Labisch, C.; Seifert, V.; Zanella, F.E.; Stolke, D. [Univ. Clinic Essen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    With improving quality of images obtained by 3D-CT-Angiography, this procedure may promise to become a powerful tool in intracranial aneurysm diagnostic. We have evaluated this method comparatively between angiographic and intra-operative findings. Forty-one patients were examined by cerebral angiography and 3D-Angio-CT. Radiological findings were evaluated by neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. Intra-operative findings were documented by video or photography. All angiographically proven aneurysms were also visualized by 3D-Angio-CT. In over sixty percent of cases 3D-Angio-CT showed the aneurysmal anatomy equally well to angiography or presented valuable additional information not obtainable by angiography. In complex aneurysms as well as in aneurysms of the posterior circulation, the additional information offered by 3D-Angio-CT was most valuable. Intra-operative anatomical findings showed a high correlation with 3D-images. In our experience 3D-Angio-CT proved to be a powerful tool in the diagnostic procedure of intracranial aneurysms, either in the acute or non-acute phase. In many cases 3D-images present valuable additional information not otherwise obtainable, especially in complex aneurysms and aneurysms of the posterior circulation. In selected cases neurosurgical therapy can be planned on 3D-images alone. Nontheless conventional cerebral angiography remains the gold standard in diagnostic management of intracranial aneurysms. (author)

  14. Intercultural caring-an abductive model.

    Wikberg, Anita; Eriksson, Katie

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of caring from a transcultural perspective and to develop the first outline of a theory. The theoretical perspective includes Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. Texts on caring by the transcultural theorists, including Campinha-Bacote, Kim-Godwin, Leininger and Ray, are analysed using content analysis. The overall theme that resulted from this analysis was that caring is a complex whole. Three main categories of caring emerged: inner caring, outer caring and the goal of caring. Inner caring consists of caring is a relationship, and caring and culture are seen in different dimensions. Outer caring refers to caring affected by educational, administrative and social and other structures. The goal of caring consists of caring leading to change towards health and well-being. The main categories include categories and subcategories that are compared with Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. A model for intercultural caring is generated abductively. Caring and culture appear in three dimensions: caring as ontology independent of context; caring as a phenomenon emphasised differently in different cultures; caring as nursing care activities is unique. Caring alleviates suffering and leads to health and well-being. This model describes caring from an intercultural perspective as a mutual but asymmetric relationship between the nurse and the patient, including the patient's family and community. The patient's cultural background and acculturation influence caring. The cultural background, cultural competence and organisation of the nurse also influence caring. Caring is seen as a complex whole. This study integrates Campinha-Bacote's, Kim-Godwin's, Leininger's and Ray's views of caring with Eriksson's caritative caring and presents caring from a transcultural perspective in a new way as a model for intercultural caring, which can benefit nursing care, education, research and administration. PMID:18840233

  15. Diagnostic procedure on brake pad assembly based on Young's modulus estimation

    Quality control of brake pads is an important issue, since the pad is a key component of the braking system. Typical damage of a brake pad assembly is the pad–backing plate detachment that affects and modifies the mechanical properties of the whole system. The most sensitive parameter to the damage is the effective Young's modulus, since the damage induces a decrease of the pad assembly stiffness and therefore of its effective Young's modulus: indeed its variation could be used for diagnostic purposes. The effective Young's modulus can be estimated from the first bending resonance frequency identified from the frequency response function measured on the pad assembly. Two kinds of excitation methods, i.e. conventional impulse excitation and magnetic actuation, will be presented and two different measurement sensors, e.g. laser Doppler vibrometer and microphone, analyzed. The robustness of the effective Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature will be demonstrated in comparison to the first bending resonance frequency, which is more sensitive to geometrical dimensions. Variability in the sample dimension, in fact, will induce a variation of the resonance frequency which could be mistaken for damage. The diagnostic approach has been applied to a set of undamaged and damaged pad assemblies showing good performance in terms of damage identification. The environmental temperature can be an important interfering input for the diagnostic procedure, since it influences the effective Young's modulus of the assembly. For that reason, a test at different temperatures in the range between 15 °C and 30 °C has been performed, evidencing that damage identification technique is efficient at any temperature. The robustness of the Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature with respect to damping is also presented. (paper)

  16. The radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and the problem of radiation protection

    In this paper equivalent dose from Auger electron emitters was reevaluated. The presented approach represents a practical step toward the estimation of equivalent dose for incorporated Auger electron emitters, an aspects that has not been given adequate consideration so far. Given the widespread use of this class of radionuclides in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research, the formalism and practical calculation presented here may be of value to assessing the risk associated with this radionuclides (in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures), as well as predicting their therapeutic efficiency. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 11 refs

  17. Are women in Kuwait aware of breast cancer and its diagnostic procedures?

    Saeed, Raed Saeed; Bakir, Yousif Yacoub; Ali, Layla Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and awareness of women in Kuwait with regard to risk factors, symptoms and diagnostic procedures of breast cancer. A total of 521 questionnaires were distributed among women in Kuwait. Results showed that 72% of respondents linked breast cancer factors to family history, while 69.7% scored abnormal breast enlargement as the most detectable symptom of the disease. Some 84% of participants had heard about self-examination, but knowledge about mammograms was limited to 48.6% and only 22.2% were familiar with diagnostic procedures. Some 22.9% of respondents identified the age over 40 years as the reasonable age to start mammogram screening. Risk factor awareness was independent on age groups (p>0.05), but both high education and family history increased the likelihood of postivie answers; the majority knew about a few factors such as aging, pregnancy after age 30, breast feeding for short time, menopause after age of 50, early puberty, and poor personal hygiene. In conclusion, 43.1% of participants had an overall good knowledge of breast cancer with regards to symptoms, risk factors and breast examination. Very highly significant associations (pbreast should be recommended to eliminate the confusion of wrong perceptions about malignant mammary disease. PMID:25124616

  18. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added

  19. Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: the social construction of memories.

    Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F

    1994-10-01

    People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs. PMID:7960296

  20. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  1. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  2. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India

    Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw ), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv ), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv , and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level. (author)

  3. Computed tomography analysis of acetabular anteversion and abduction

    Stem, Eric S. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jacksonville, FL (United States); South Carolina Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Center, North Charleston, SC (United States); O' Connor, Mary I. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Kransdorf, Mark J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Crook, Julia [Mayo Clinic, Biostatistic Unit, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to define the normal range of acetabular abduction and anteversion in relation to pelvic anatomy as depicted on conventional CT scan. We retrospectively reviewed 100 pelvic CT scans performed on patients presenting for evaluation of non-orthopaedic pathology. The study group consisted of 58 women and 42 men, aged between 18 and 88 years. Standard imaging protocol included an anteroposterior (AP) topogram with contiguous 5-mm thick axial images from the superior margin of the iliac crest to the lesser trochanter of the femur. The acetabular abduction was measured from the AP topogram by obtaining the angle between a line drawn from the acetabular teardrop to the lateral acetabular margin and a horizontal line between the ischial tuberosities. Acetabular anteversion was measured on axial images at the level of the mid-femoral head. We found the mean acetabular abduction to be 39 degrees (standard deviation 4 degrees, range 27 to 51 degrees) and the mean acetabular anteversion to be 23 degrees (standard deviation 5 degrees, range 12 to 39 degrees). Data suggests that acetabular anteversion may average 2.7 degrees lower in males than females and increase slightly with age, while abduction may tend to decrease with age. Ninety percent of patients had acetabular abduction between 31 and 46 degrees; the 90% central range for acetabular anteversion was estimated to be from 14 to 31 degrees. CT scanning is useful in accurately defining the normal range of acetabular abduction and antiversion. Knowledge of this normal anatomy will allow accurate assessment of acetabular component position as delineated on conventional CT scanning. (orig.)

  4. Radiation injury of the skin following diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures

    Many radiation injuries to the skin, resulting from diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures, have been reported in recent years. In some cases skin damage was severe and debilitating. We analyzed 72 reports of skin injuries for progression and location of injury, type and number of procedures, and contributing patient and operator factors. Most cases (46) were related to coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A smaller number was documented after cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation (12), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement (7), neuroradiological interventions (3) and other procedures (4). Important factors leading to skin injuries were long exposure times over the same skin area, use of high dose rates, irradiation through thick tissue masses, hypersensitivity to radiation, and positioning of arms or breasts into the radiation entrance beam. Physicians were frequently unaware of the high radiation doses involved and did not recognize the injuries as radiation induced. Based on these findings, recommendations to reduce dose and improve patient care are provided. (author)

  5. MR diagnostics after Ross procedure; MR-Diagnostik nach Ross-Operation

    Steffens, J.C. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Link, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Harringer, W. [Klinik fuer Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie, Kiel Univ. (Germany); Haverich, A. [Klinik fuer Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie, Kiel Univ. (Germany); Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the ability of MRI to diagnose morphological and functional changes in patients after Ross procedure. Material and methods: During one year, 5 patients after Ross procedure were studied by MRI. T{sub 1}-weighted spin-echo sequences in different orientations as well as cine sequences and a VENC-sequence were used. Results: In all patients the morphology including the postoperative changes could be visualised by MRI. The cine sequences provided functional information on valvular and ventricular function. VENC-MR yielded an exact quantification of the regurgitant fraction. Conclusion: MRI is capable of providing all important diagnostic information in patients after Ross procedure such as valvular and ventricular function and valvular and outflow tract morphology in a single examination. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Untersuchung der Moeglichkeit, mit Hilfe der MRT sowohl morphologische als auch funktionelle Veraenderungen bei Patienten nach einer Ross-Operation zuverlaessig zu erkennen. Material und Methoden: Im Zeitraum von einem Jahr wurden 5 Patienten nach Ross-Operation magnetresonanztomographisch untersucht. Dabei wurden T{sub 1}-gewichtete Spin-Echo-Sequenzen in mehreren Ebenen, Cine-Sequenzen und geschwindigkeitskodierte VENC-Sequenzen angewandt. Ergebnisse: Bei allen Patienten liess sich die postoperative Morphologie darstellen. In den Cine-Sequenzen konnten Klappen- sowie Ventrikelfunktion beurteilt werden. Die VENC-Sequenz ermoeglichte eine genaue Analyse der Regurgitationsfraktion. Schlussfolgerung: Die MRT ermoeglicht die Beantwortung saemtlicher postoperativ wichtigen Fragestellungen wie Ventrikelfunktion, Klappenfunktion, postoperative Klappenmorphologie und Morphologie des aortalen und pulmonalen Ausflusstraktes in einem Untersuchungsgang. (orig.)

  6. Initial Local Diagnostic Reference Levels for Conventional Radiological Procedures at the Institute of Radiology Sarajevo

    The data collected during the investigations could be important as a useful baseline for future patient dose measurements in the field of the medical diagnostic radiology. Evaluation of patients doses is an important part of quality assurance programme in diagnostic radiology. It seems that the most convenient way to measure patient doses is by using K.A.P.-meter. The procedure could be performed by educated radiographers, it is simple and it does not require a lot of additional measurements. It can be combined with average values of field-size and focus-skin distance, and that would make calculations even easier. If Q.C. data is used to calculate entrance surface dose (E.S.D.) than radiographers would have to write down all the parameters that have been used during the examinations. In most of the cases that is an every day practice, and therefore is very inconvenient. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (T.L.D.) method is good but requires more time and effort. Besides that, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have facilities to read patients T.L.D.s. The optimal solution for future assessment of national diagnostic reference levels (D.R.L.) is the combination of these three methods. Bigger radiological departments that employ a physicist should have Q.C. equipment (various dosemeters, K.A.P. meter ). In this case values from several methods could be obtained. Regional hospitals that do not employ physicists could have K.A.P. meters that would be operated by educated radiographers. Values in other smaller radiological departments can be derived from the patients records and exposure conditions. Radiation protection centres in the country should be equipped with appropriate T.L.D. readers. in that case some of data could be collected using this method. (N.C.)

  7. Medical radiation exposures from diagnostic x-ray procedures in India

    Medical exposures primarily refer to exposures to individuals as part of their own diagnosis or treatment. Diagnostic radiology continues to be the largest contributor to the effective dose to the population from all man-made sources of radiation. It is estimated that in India there are, on an average 105 x-ray examinations per 1000 persons per year, and that the annual per caput effective dose from medical exposures is 0.02 mSv. On the basis of consideration of benefit versus risk, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) does not specify dose limits for medical exposure. The International Atomic Energy Agency stipulates that guidance levels for doses for each radiological procedure must be established. From a review of the doses to patients in diagnostic radiology reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, it is observed that medical x-ray exposure is quite low in India. This could be attributed to the low frequency of x-ray examinations in the country and partly to good quality equipment, safe work practices and the type and frequency of a particular type of examination. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  8. A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases

    Jochen Hinkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS and resource units (RU, which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however, remains a challenge. Reasons for this are that case studies examine other types of RS than those for which the framework has been developed or consider RS for which different actors obtain different kinds of RU. We explore these difficulties and relate them to antecedent work on common-pool resources and public goods. We propose a diagnostic procedure which resolves some of these difficulties by establishing a sequence of questions that facilitate the step-wise and unambiguous application of the SES framework to a given case. The questions relate to the actors benefiting from the SES, the collective goods involved in the generation of those benefits, and the action situations in which the collective goods are provided and appropriated. We illustrate the diagnostic procedure for four case studies in the context of irrigated agriculture in New Mexico, common property meadows in the Swiss Alps, recreational fishery in Germany, and energy regions in Austria. We conclude that the current SES framework has limitations when applied to complex, multiuse SES, because it does not sufficiently capture the actor interdependencies introduced through RS and RU characteristics and dynamics.

  9. Student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures

    Full text: This study aims to evaluate medical student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures and to suggest how education could be improved. Fourth to sixth year medical students enrolled at a Western Australian university and interns from three teaching hospitals in Perth were recruited. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 26 questions on their background, knowledge of ionising radiation doses and learning preferences for future teaching on this subject. A total of 331 completed questionnaires were received (95.9%). Of the 17 questions assessing knowledge of ionising radiation, a mean score of 6.0 was obtained by respondents (95% CI 5.8-6.2). Up to 54.8% of respondents underestimated the radiation dose from commonly requested radiological procedures. Respondents (11.3 and 25.5%) incorrectly believed that ultrasound and MRI emit ionising radiation, respectively. Of the four subgroups of respondents, the intern doctor subgroup performed significantly better (mean score 6.9, P< 0.0001, 95% CI 6.5-7.3) than each of the three medical student subgroups. When asked for the preferred method of teaching for future radiation awareness, a combination of lectures, tutorials and workshops was preferred. This study has clearly shown that awareness of ionising radiation from diagnostic imaging is lacking among senior medical students and interns. The results highlight the need for improved education to minimise unnecessary exposure of patients and the community to radiation. Further studies are required to determine the most effective form of education.

  10. Case Studies In Business Market Research: An Abductive Approach

    DuBois, A.; Gadde, L

    1999-01-01

    Case studies are frequently used in industrial network research. In this paper we discuss the difficulties and opportunities characterizing the case study approach. In particular we deal with single case research aiming at theory generation. For this purpose we suggest an approach based on 'systematic combining' grounded in an 'abductive' logic.

  11. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-...

  12. Implementing Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programming with Constraint Handling Rules

    Christiansen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    probabilistic versions of abductive logic programming, the approach is characterized by higher generality and a flexible and adaptable architecture which incorporates integrity constraints and interaction with external constraint solvers. A PALP is transformed in a systematic way into a CHR program which serves...

  13. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Pedersen, Mette Broen; Kastrup, Kristrian; Lønbro, Simon; Jacobsen, J S; Thorborg, K; Nielsen, R O; Rasmussen, S

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish norma...

  14. The all-too-flexible abductive method : ATOM's normative status

    Romeijn, Jan-Willem

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the abductive theory of method (ATOM) by Brian Haig from a philosophical perspective, connecting his theory with a number of issues and trends in contemporary philosophy of science. It is argued that as it stands, the methodology presented by Haig is too permissive. Both the use

  15. Hip abduction strength training in the clinical setting: with or without external loading?

    Bandholm, T; Weeke, Karen; Weinold, Christian; Andersen, Bente; Serner, Andreas; Magnusson, Peter; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Petersen, Jesper; Weeke, K M Ø; Weinold, C; Andersen, B; Serner, A; Magnusson, S P; Hölmich, P

    The side-lying hip abduction exercise is one of the most commonly used exercises in rehabilitation to increase hip abduction strength, and is often performed without external loading. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of side-lying hip abduction training, with and without...

  16. Three Abductive Solutions to the Meno Paradox--with Instinct, Inference, and Distributed Cognition

    Paavola, Sami; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes three approaches to resolving the classical Meno paradox, or its variant, the learning paradox, emphasizing Charles S. Peirce's notion of abduction. Abduction provides a way of dissecting those processes where something new, or conceptually more complex than before, is discovered or learned. In its basic form, abduction is a…

  17. Radiation doses originating from diagnostic procedures during the treatment and follow-up of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma

    Children with malignant lymphoma undergo many diagnostic procedures that involve exposure to ionising radiation. In addition, many, but by no means all, undergo further exposure to ionising radiation during radiotherapy. While therapeutic radiation exposures are prescribed, the extent of radiation exposure arising from diagnostic procedures utilised in such children is largely unknown. We completed an audit of the radiation doses arising from diagnostic imaging procedures performed in a cohort of children with malignant lymphoma. The cumulative effective radiation dose associated with radiographic and radioisotopic procedures was derived for 81 children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma during their diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Thirty-eight of the 42 patients (90%) with Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination, with follow-up periods ranging from 1.9 to 11.7 years (median 5.3). Thirty-three of the 39 patients (85%) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination with follow-up periods ranging from 2.4 to 12.3 years (median 7.5). The median effective dose was 518 mSv for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 309 mSv for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The maximum effective dose was 1.7 Sv. The principal contributors to the effective dose were computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine imaging procedures using 67Ga. Protocols for the management of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma should be reviewed in order to reduce the radiation detriment without loss of essential diagnostic information.

  18. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  19. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  20. Invasive diagnostic procedures for insulinomas of the pancreas; Invasive Diagnostik bei Insulinomen des Pankreas

    Noeldge, G.; Weber, M.A.; Kauczor, H.U.; Grenacher, L. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Ritzel, R.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Werner, M.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Unfallchirurgie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Insulinomas are the most common cause for hypoglycemia with endogenous hyperinsulinism. Insulinomas are the most frequent endocrine tumor of the pancreas and 10% occur as multiple tumors (e.g. multiple endocrine neoplasia type I) or in rare cases as islet cell hyperplasia. A further 10-15% of insulinomas are malignant. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography (US) and somatoreceptor scintigraphy (SRN) show a lower sensitivity for detection and localization of tumors, because in many cases insulinomas are smaller than 2 cm in size. Invasive pre-operative diagnostic procedures, such as transhepatic peripancreatic venous blood sampling (TPVB) and the intra-arterial calcium stimulation test (ASVS) are much more time-intensive compared to CT, MRI and US with an examination time of 2-3 h but achieve a more exact pre-operative detection and localization with sensitivities mostly greater than 95% and are therefore the diagnostic methods of choice. (orig.) [German] Insulinome sind der haeufigste Grund fuer Hypoglykaemien mit endogenem Hyperinsulinismus. Zehn Prozent aller Insulinome - der haeufigste endokrine Pankreastumor - kommen im Pankreas als multiple Tumoren vor (z. B. multiple endokrine Neoplasien Typ I) oder erweisen sich selten als Inselzellhyperplasie. Weitere 10-15% sind bei Diagnosestellung maligne. Bildgebende, nichtinvasive Verfahren wie die Computertomographie (CT), die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), der Ultraschall (US) und v. a. die Oktreotidszintigraphie sind wegen der geringen Groesse der Insulinome vielfach unzureichend zu deren Lokalisation. Invasive praeoperative diagnostische funktionelle Verfahren wie die transhepatische peripankreatische venoese Blutentnahme (TPVB) und der intraarterielle Kalziumstimulationstest (ASVS) sind, verglichen mit CT, MRT und US, deutlich zeitaufwendigere Methoden, protokollbedingt mit bis zu 2-3 h Untersuchungsdauer, erzielen aber eine exaktere

  1. A Superposition Calculus for Abductive Reasoning

    Echenim, Mnacho; Peltier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We present a modification of the superposition calculus that is meant to generate consequences of sets of first-order axioms. This approach is proven to be sound and deductive-complete in the presence of redundancy elimination rules, provided the considered consequences are built on a given finite set of ground terms, represented by constant symbols. In contrast to other approaches, most existing results about the termination of the superposition calculus can be carried over to our procedure....

  2. Patient and staff doses in fluoroscopically guided invasive diagnostic and interventional urology procedures

    Full text: The aim of this study is to evaluate patient and staff doses in fluoroscopically guided invasive diagnostic and interventional urology procedures. All the data were collected in the Emergency Hospital 'N. I. Pirogov'. While recording data for the patients, a real time dosimetry measurement of the medical staff was made. Air kerma-area product (KAP) was recorded for intravenous pyelogram (IVP), percutaneous nephrostomy (PN) and ureteral 'double-J' stenting. Patient data sex, age and weight were also taken. Staff doses were estimated with the system RaySafe i2. It contains four dosimeters, with a wireless connection to a real time display. The dosimeters were worn on the unprotected upper part of the body and measured the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). The mean KAP values for the procedures are: 3.21 Gy.cm2 for IVP, 10.37 Gy.cm2 for PN and 4.15 Gy.cm2 for 'double-J' respectively. The highest staff dose for PN and 'double-J' is received by the urologist (160 μSv and 47.3 μSv, respectively), while for the IVP the radiographer has the highest exposure (20 μSv). Each member of the medical staff was on a different position in respect to the X-ray tube and the patient, which is the main reason for the differences in the staff doses. The variations in the mean patient and staff doses are mostly due to the interventions themselves, their complexity and the individual treatment of every patient. RaySafe i2 is very useful as guideline for making a choice of a better position and in the decreasing of radiation exposure to the staff

  3. Statistics for nuclear medicine. Part 6: normal values, evaluating a new diagnostic procedure, sequential methods, and conclusion

    This paper discusses the significance of a laboratory measurement as it relates to a set of values from a healthy reference population. To do this, the distribution of the variable in the healthy population must be found. The evaluation of new diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine is used as an example

  4. Statistics for nuclear medicine. Part 6: normal values, evaluating a new diagnostic procedure, sequential methods, and conclusion

    O' Brien, P.C.; Shampo, M.A.; Robertson, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of a laboratory measurement as it relates to a set of values from a healthy reference population. To do this, the distribution of the variable in the healthy population must be found. The evaluation of new diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine is used as an example. (KRM)

  5. Hospital discharge diagnostic and procedure codes for upper gastro-intestinal cancer: how accurate are they?

    Stavrou Efty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-level health administrative datasets such as hospital discharge data are used increasingly to evaluate health services and outcomes of care. However information about the accuracy of Australian discharge data in identifying cancer, associated procedures and comorbidity is limited. The Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC is a census of inpatient hospital discharges in the state of New South Wales (NSW. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of the APDC in identifying upper gastro-intestinal (upper GI cancer cases, procedures for associated curative resection and comorbidities at the time of admission compared to data abstracted from medical records (the ‘gold standard’. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 240 patients with an incident upper GI cancer diagnosis derived from a clinical database in one NSW area health service from July 2006 to June 2007. Extracted case record data was matched to APDC discharge data to determine sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and agreement between the two data sources (κ-coefficient. Results The accuracy of the APDC diagnostic codes in identifying site-specific incident cancer ranged from 80-95% sensitivity. This was comparable to the accuracy of APDC procedure codes in identifying curative resection for upper GI cancer. PPV ranged from 42-80% for cancer diagnosis and 56-93% for curative surgery. Agreement between the data sources was >0.72 for most cancer diagnoses and curative resections. However, APDC discharge data was less accurate in reporting common comorbidities - for each condition, sensitivity ranged from 9-70%, whilst agreement ranged from κ = 0.64 for diabetes down to κ  Conclusions Identifying incident cases of upper GI cancer and curative resection from hospital administrative data is satisfactory but under-ascertained. Linkage of multiple population-health datasets is advisable to maximise case ascertainment and minimise false

  6. Complexity of Propositional Abduction for Restricted Sets of Boolean Functions

    Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abduction is a fundamental and important form of non-monotonic reasoning. Given a knowledge base explaining how the world behaves it aims at finding an explanation for some observed manifestation. In this paper we focus on propositional abduction, where the knowledge base and the manifestation are represented by propositional formulae. The problem of deciding whether there exists an explanation has been shown to be SigmaP2-complete in general. We consider variants obtained by restricting the allowed connectives in the formulae to certain sets of Boolean functions. We give a complete classification of the complexity for all considerable sets of Boolean functions. In this way, we identify easier cases, namely NP-complete and polynomial cases; and we highlight sources of intractability. Further, we address the problem of counting the explanations and draw a complete picture for the counting complexity.

  7. Integrating Probabilistic, Taxonomic and Causal Knowledge in Abductive Diagnosis

    Lin, Dekang; Goebel, Randy

    2013-01-01

    We propose an abductive diagnosis theory that integrates probabilistic, causal and taxonomic knowledge. Probabilistic knowledge allows us to select the most likely explanation; causal knowledge allows us to make reasonable independence assumptions; taxonomic knowledge allows causation to be modeled at different levels of detail, and allows observations be described in different levels of precision. Unlike most other approaches where a causal explanation is a hypothesis that one or more causat...

  8. Abduction in Well-Founded Semantics and Generalized Stable Models

    Alferes, José Júlio; Pereira, Lu\\'ıs Moniz; Swift, Terrance

    2003-01-01

    Abductive logic programming offers a formalism to declaratively express and solve problems in areas such as diagnosis, planning, belief revision and hypothetical reasoning. Tabled logic programming offers a computational mechanism that provides a level of declarativity superior to that of Prolog, and which has supported successful applications in fields such as parsing, program analysis, and model checking. In this paper we show how to use tabled logic programming to evaluate queries to abduc...

  9. Activities of radiopharmaceuticals administered for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine in Argentina: results of a national survey

    Nuclear medicine in Argentine is carried out at 292 centres, distributed all over the country, mainly concentrated in the capital cities of the provinces. With the purpose of knowing the activity levels of radiopharmaceuticals that were administered to patients for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine, a national survey was conducted, during 2001 and 2002. This survey was answered voluntarily by 107 centres. Sixty-four percent of the participants centres are equipped with SPECT system while the other centres have a gamma camera or scintiscanner. There were 37 nuclear medicine procedures, chosen among those most frequently performed, were included in the survey. In those diagnostic procedures were included tests for: bone, brain, thyroid, kidney, liver, lung and cardiovascular system; and also activities administered for some therapeutic procedures. The nuclear medicine physicians reported the different radiopharmaceutical activities administered to typical adult patients. In this paper are presented the average radiopharmaceutical activity administered for each of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures included in the survey and the range and distribution of values. In order to place these data in a frame of reference, these average values were compared to the guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine mentioned at the Safety Series no. 115. From this comparison it was noticed that the activities administered in the 40% of the diagnostic procedures included in the survey were between ±30% of the reference values. For those nuclear medicine procedures that could not be compared with the above mentioned guidance levels, the comparison was made with values published by UNSCEAR or standards recommended by international bodies. As a result of this study, it is important to point out the need to continue the gathering of data in a wider scale survey to increase the knowledge about national trends. It is also essential to widely

  10. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia: a national survey among obstetrical departments in Denmark

    Klemmensen, Åse Kathrine; Olsen, SF; Wengel, CM;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible......-eclampsia showed large differences across departments. The diagnoses given to three case stories showed little correlation to the criteria the departments reported using. CONCLUSION: Even in a small country like Denmark with 34 obstetrical departments, there was little consensus on the diagnostic criteria for pre...

  11. Pelviureteric obstruction in neonates and sucklings; The value of diagnostic procedures. Nierenbeckenabgangsstenose bei Neugeborenen und Saeuglingen; Die Wertigkeit der Diagnostik

    Kroepfl, D. (Urologische Klinik der Huyssens-Stiftung, Essen (Germany))

    1994-02-01

    Sonography is the initial diagnostic procedure and has to be repeated after birth. The consecutive voiding cysturethogram is of paramount importance and can rule out a simultaneous reflux or even a reflux-induced hydronephrosis. In an isolated stenosis of the ureteropelvic junction infusion excretory urography does not reveal additional information. Furosemideradionuclide renography is standardized and well-known diagnostic method however its evaluation and the conclusion derived from it in newborns with immature renal function is yet unclear. The use of Duplex-doppler sonography for evaluation of obstruction of the upper urinary tract is in clinical development but is technically difficult in the newborn. (orig./MG)

  12. An approach to evaluating heuristics in abduction: a case study using RedSoar--an abductive system for red blood cell antibody identification.

    Amra, N K; Smith, J W; Johnson, K A; Johnson, T R

    1992-01-01

    Abduction, or inference to a best explanation, is a ubiquitous type of inference that is frequently used by humans in a wide range of tasks. However, many realistic domains have properties that make abduction computationally intractable (i.e., where the time to reach a solution increases exponentially with the number of possible explanations). We present a domain task analysis and performance evaluation of RedSoar, a plausible cognitive computational model of abduction, that accomplishes the antibody identification task in immunohematology. The task analysis reveals how a computationally intractable abductive problem, where one is seeking optimal solutions, can be reformulated to be a computationally tractable abductive problem, by seeking satisfactory rather then optimal solutions. From the satisfactory perspective, our evaluation framework of RedSoar's performance explores the computational benefits and costs of having directly available abstract hypothesis formation knowledge, and how a strong causal constraint between hypotheses and data reduces the combinatorial explosion of constructing a best explanation. PMID:1482960

  13. A systematic review on the accuracy of diagnostic procedures for infravesical obstruction in boys.

    Pauline M L Hennus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infravesical obstruction leads to kidney and bladder dysfunction in a significant proportion of boys. The aim of this review is to determine the value of diagnostic tests for ascertainment of infravesical obstruction in boys. METHODOLOGY: We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases until January 1, 2013, to identify papers that described original diagnostic accuracy research for infravesical obstruction in boys. We extracted information on (1 patient characteristics and clinical presentation of PUV and (2 diagnostic pathway, (3 diagnostic accuracy measures and (4 assessed risk of bias. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved 15 studies describing various diagnostic pathways in 1,189 boys suspected for infravesical obstruction. The included studies reflect a broad clinical spectrum of patients, but all failed to present a standardised approach to confirm the presence and severity of obstruction. The risk of bias of included studies is rather high due to work-up bias and missing data. CONCLUSIONS: As a consequence of low quality of methods of the available studies we put little confidence in the reported estimates for the diagnostic accuracy of US, VCUG and new additional tests for ruling in or ruling out infravesical obstruction. To date, firm evidence to support common diagnostic pathways is lacking. Hence, we are unable to draw conclusions on diagnostic accuracy of tests for infravesical obstruction. In order to be able to standardise the diagnostic pathway for infravesical obstruction, adequate design and transparent reporting is mandatory.

  14. Children's exposure to ionizing radiations linked with diagnostic procedures in 2010 in France

    The objective of this study was to characterize the medical exposure of the French pediatric population to ionizing radiations (IR) in 2010. It only includes diagnostic procedures. Data are mainly provided by the French Health Insurance (CNAM-TS), through a representative sample of about 1% of the French population (the so-called 'EGB' sample). In 2010, more than 100,000 children from 0 to 15 years old were included in this sample. About 600 examinations per 1000 children were performed: 55% are radiological examinations and 42% dental. CT examinations are rather rare (about 2%). Nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent less than 1% of the examinations. Children from 10 to 15 years old and babies from new born to 1 year old are the most examined. Exposure of girls and boys are rather similar. From 10 to 15 years old, dental and limbs examinations are the most frequent. Chest and pelvic examinations are the most frequent examinations performed on babies. CT pediatric examinations concern mainly the head and the neck. In 2010, a third of the French children has been exposed to at least one examination using IR. The mean and median effective doses were respectively equal to 0.65 mSv and 0.025 mSv. These values were respectively 5.7 mSv and 1.7 mSv for the children exposed to at least one CT examination (about 1% of the studied population). This study brings reference data on pediatric exposure to IR, and makes them available for public health and epidemiological purposes. This analysis should be periodically carried out to assess the evolution of the pediatric exposure. (authors)

  15. Radiation doses originating from diagnostic procedures during the treatment and follow-up of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma

    Pierobon, Jessica; Webber, Colin E; Gulenchyn, Karen Y [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Nayiager, Trishana [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Moran, Gerald R, E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca [Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    Children with malignant lymphoma undergo many diagnostic procedures that involve exposure to ionising radiation. In addition, many, but by no means all, undergo further exposure to ionising radiation during radiotherapy. While therapeutic radiation exposures are prescribed, the extent of radiation exposure arising from diagnostic procedures utilised in such children is largely unknown. We completed an audit of the radiation doses arising from diagnostic imaging procedures performed in a cohort of children with malignant lymphoma. The cumulative effective radiation dose associated with radiographic and radioisotopic procedures was derived for 81 children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma during their diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Thirty-eight of the 42 patients (90%) with Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination, with follow-up periods ranging from 1.9 to 11.7 years (median 5.3). Thirty-three of the 39 patients (85%) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were alive at study termination with follow-up periods ranging from 2.4 to 12.3 years (median 7.5). The median effective dose was 518 mSv for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 309 mSv for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The maximum effective dose was 1.7 Sv. The principal contributors to the effective dose were computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine imaging procedures using {sup 67}Ga. Protocols for the management of children and adolescents with malignant lymphoma should be reviewed in order to reduce the radiation detriment without loss of essential diagnostic information.

  16. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures; Unabsichtliche Strahlenexposition in der Schwangerschaft durch nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik

    Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  17. Restoration of shoulder abduction by transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach: a clinical study

    GUAN Shi-bing; HOU Chun-lin; CHEN De-song; GU Yu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve has become a routine procedure for restoration of shoulder abduction. However, the operation via the traditional supraclavicular anterior approach often leads to partial denervation of the trapezius muscle. The purpose of the study was to introduce transfer of the spinal accessory nerve through dorsal approach, using distal branch of the spinal accessory nerve, to repair the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction, and to observe its therapeutic effect.Methods From January to October 2003, a total of 11 patients with a brachial plexus injury and an intact or nearly intact spinal accessory nerve were treated by transferring the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach. The patients were followed up for 18 to 26 months [mean (23.5 ±5.2) months] to evaluate their shoulder abduction and function of the trapezius muscle. The outcomes were compared with those of 26 patients treated with traditional anterior approach. And the data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 10.5.Results In the 11 patients, the spinal accessory nerves were transferred to the suprascapular nerve through the dorsal approach successfully. Intact function of the upper trapezius was achieved in all of them. In the patients,the location of the two nerves was relatively stable at the level of superior margin of the scapula, the mean distance between them was (4.2±1.4) cm, both the nerves could be easily dissected and end-to-end anastomosed without any tension. During the follow-up, the first electrophysiological sign of recovery of the infraspinatus appeared at (6.8±2.7) months and the first sign of restoration of the shoulder abduction at (7.6±2.9) months after the operation, which were earlier than that after the traditional operation [(8.7±2.4) months and (9.9±2.8)months, respectively; P<0.05]. The postoperative shoulder abduction was 62.8°± 12

  18. CT-guided percutaneous aspiration of Tarlov cyst as a useful diagnostic procedure prior to operative intervention.

    Lee, J-Y; Impekoven, P; Stenzel, W; Löhr, M; Ernestus, R-I; Klug, N

    2004-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are lesions of the nerve root most often found in the sacral region. Several authors recommend surgical treatment of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. However, successful surgical treatment is dependent on appropriate patient selection. In this article, we report three cases of a sacral perineural cyst, causing sciatic pain, and emphasize the usefulness of CT-guided percutaneous aspiration as an important diagnostic and prognostic procedure prior to definitive operative treatment. PMID:15197609

  19. An Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students and Interns Awareness of Radiation Exposure to Common Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    Dellie, Seife Teferi; Admassie, Daniel; Ewnetu, Yenework

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the level of knowledge about the radiation exposure to diagnostic imaging procedures among the final-year medical students and interns and to suggest how education could be improved. Material and Methods. All 355 final-year medical students and interns from Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa were included in the study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of their actual knowledge on ionizing radiation and on their preferred method...

  20. Methodological levels of abductive logic and its application in analyzing knowledge classification systems

    Mohammad Khandan; Gholamreza Fadaei; Mohammad Reza Vasfi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper distinguishes between “methodology” and “method” and discusses methodological levels of abductive logic as related to the knowledge classification systems. The purpose is to clarify the application of abductive logic for analyzing knowledge classification systems as an alternative for mainstream logics in the field, i.e. inductive and deductive logic. Methodology: Conceptual analysis. Findings: Abductive logic approaches reality as a social construction. It is obviou...

  1. Comparison of two types of adult phantoms in terms of organ doses from diagnostic CT procedures

    The rapidly increasing number of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) procedures in the recent decades has spurred heightened concern over the potential risk to patients. Although an accurate organ dose assessment tool has now become highly desirable, existing software packages depend on stylized computational phantoms that were originally developed more than 40 years ago, exhibiting very large discrepancies when compared with phantoms that are anatomically realistic. However, past comparative studies did not focus on CT protocols for adult patients. This study was designed to quantitatively compare two types of phantoms, the stylized phantoms and a pair of recently developed RPI-adult male and adult female (RPI-AM and RPI-AF) phantoms, for various CT scanning protocols involving the chest, abdomen-pelvis and chest-abdomen-pelvis. Organ doses were based on Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX code and a detailed CT scanner model for the GE LightSpeed 16. Results are presented as ratios of organ doses from the stylized phantoms to those from the RPI phantoms. It is found that, for most organs contained in the scan volume, the ratios were within the range of 0.75-1.16. However, the stomach doses are significantly different and the ratio is found to be up to 1.86 in male phantoms and 2.29 in the female phantoms due to the anatomical differences between the two types of phantoms. Organs that lie near a scan boundary also exhibit a significant relative difference in organ doses between the two types of phantoms. This study concludes that, due to relatively low x-ray energies, CT doses are very sensitive to organ shape, size and position, and thus anatomically realistic phantoms should be used to avoid the dose uncertainties caused by the lack of anatomical realism. The new phantoms, such as the RPI-AM and AF phantoms that are designed using advanced surface meshes, are deformable and will make it possible to match the anatomy of a specific patient leading to further

  2. From war to classroom: PTSD and depression in formerly abducted youth in Uganda

    Nina eWinkler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trained local screeners assessed the mental health status of male and female students in Northern Ugandan schools. The study aimed to disclose potential differences in mental health-related impairment in two groups, former child soldiers (n=354 and other war-affected youth (n=489, as well as to separate factors predicting mental suffering in learners. Methods: Participants were randomly selected. We used the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to assess symptoms of PTSD and for potential depression the respective section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL with a locally validated cut-off. Results: Almost all respondents had been displaced at least once in their life. Thirty percent of girls and 50% of the boys in the study reported past abduction history. Trauma exposure was notably higher in the group of abductees. In former child soldiers a PTSD rate of 32% was remarkably higher than that for non-abductees (12%. Especially in girls rates of potential depression were double those in the group of former abductees (17% than in the group of non-abductees (8%. In all groups trauma exposure increased the risk of developing PTSD. A path-analytic model for developing PTSD and potential depression revealed both previous trauma exposure as well as duration of abduction to have significant influences on trauma-related mental suffering. Findings also suggest that in Northern Ugandan schools trauma spectrum disorders are common among war-affected learners. Conclusions: Therefore, it is suggested the school context should be used to provide mental health support structures within the education system for war-affected youth at likely risk of developing war-related mental distress.

  3. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Angle of Abduction in Laptops Environment

    Imtiaz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laptops in 21st century are an integral part of every professional in vivid fields. Off late there has been emergence of several ergonomic injuries such as repetitive strain injuries (RSIs due to extensive usage of laptops, which can be closely linked with applied force and postures. This study investigated the effect of various angles of keyboard on the applied force and motor action plus response time while performing five distinct tasks. On the basis of literature two different laptops were selected for performing different tasks. For each case the three levels of platform angle were considered as 0°, 5°, and 10°. Male subjects were selected to perform five distinct tasks for each platform angle for both laptops. The force applied (in milli-volts and the motor action plus response time (milli-seconds were recorded using an oscilloscope. The data collected were analyzed through ANOVA using MINITAB software. The abduction angle with the least mean response time and applied force were considered as the best from ergonomics viewpoint. The ANOVA results showed that the angle of abduction for both laptops (small and large do have significant effect on applied force but not on motor action plus response time. The analysis of results indicate that 10° angle of abduction in case of small laptops should be applied to minimize musculoskeletal disorder and repetitive strain injuries. Research relevance: This work suggests that those responsible for the function and operation of laptops would have to redesign the system to reduce injuries, as far as musculoskeletal disorder, repetitive strain injuries and other related problems are concerned. The present work can be quite useful for the system designers of tomorrow.

  4. HYPROLOG: A New Logic Programming Language with Assumptions and Abduction

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    language shows a novel flexibility in the interaction between the different paradigms, including all additional built-in predicates and constraints solvers that may be available. Assumptions and abduction are especially useful for language processing, and we can show how HYPROLOG works seamlessly together...... with the grammar notation provided by the underlying Prolog system. An operational semantics is given which complies with standard declarative semantics for the ``pure'' sublanguages, while for the full HYPROLOG language, it must be taken as definition. The implementation is straightforward and seems...

  5. Evaluation of patient skin dose equivalent due to diagnostic procedures with X-rays in Lagos State Nigeria

    This paper reports the study of Patient Skin Dose Equivalents in Lagos State, Nigeria, as one of the strategies of patient protection and x-ray procedure quality assessment. 13 most frequent x-ray diagnostic procedures were studied, these were: chest, skull, cervical spine, lumbosacral spine, sinusis, pelvis, plain abdomen, shoulder, foot, hysterosalpingography, intravenous urography, barium meal and barium enema. 1977 procedures were monitored for a period of 12 months in both private and public hospitals carefully selected from all over the state. The results obtained compared favorably well with those from similar studies reported in the literature. The slight differences observed have been ascribed to variations in the patient anatomy, exposure conditions and choice of radiographic parameters. (author)

  6. Diagnostic procedures for Trend Monitoring System (TMS) communications. [coaxial cable bus system

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communications sytem was developed to support the trend monitoring system (TMS). Troubleshooting procedures are described at the system level. The procedures can be used by repair personnel to isolate a fault in the TMS and to restore the system to operation by swapping out failed components.

  7. Cognitively Plausible Heuristics to Tackle the Computational Complexity of Abductive Reasoning

    Fischer, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    The work described in my Ph.D. dissertation (Fischer 1991)1 merges computational and cognitive investigations of abductive reasoning. It is the outcome of seven years of research focusing on abductive explanation generation and involving the departments of computer and information science, industrial and systems engineering, pathology, and allied medical professions at The Ohio State University.

  8. Abductive inferences to psychological variables: Steiger's question and best explanations of psychopathy.

    Markus, Keith A; Hawes, Samuel W; Thasites, Rula J

    2008-09-01

    Abductive inference often involves inference to the best explanation. A focus on the bestness of explanations facilitates a comparative analysis of how abductive inference would differ if approached with four contrasting sets of assumptions about how scientific inference works: positivism, realism, and two kinds of pragmatism. As a thought experiment, one can imagine a situation in which competing models of psychopathy differ in parsimony and fit to the data, but produce a tie when considering both virtues in combination. The thought experiment demonstrates that Steiger's (1990) question about how best to combine competing virtues in scientific inference applies to abductive inference and that the answers depend upon other assumptions about how science works. The comparative analysis helps focus some of the issues that require clarification before abductive inference can enter the Pantheon of standard research methods in psychology. More constructively, the analysis also demonstrates that one need not accept scientific realism to accept and use abductive inference. PMID:18618735

  9. Improving procedure and results of diagnostic roentgenologic examination of pulmonary emphysema by methods based on lung function tests

    The article reports a comparative evaluation of examinations in 225 patients intended to show the achievements of a novel procedure based on lung function tests for optimisation of the roentgenologic diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema. The improvements are quantified by discrimination analyses. The approach introduces a novel, additional roentgenological criterion indicating emphysema, called 'Anlagemass', which supplements the usual qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the chest radiograph. A suitable computer code developed for data processing adds advantages in terms of processing time and improved objectiveness of diagnostic evaluation, as compared to existing techniques. The screening results obtained with the method reported ought to be verified by other methods such as bodyplethysmography or CT. (orig.)

  10. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests

    Guogen Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003. However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization.

  11. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C: Implications for Sedation and Anesthesia for Diagnostic Procedures

    Miao, Ning; Lu, Xiaowei; O’Grady, Naomi P.; Yanjanin, Nicole; Porter, Forbes D.; Quezado, Zenaide M N

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, can present with severe visceral and neurologic involvement and is associated with a significant decrease in life expectancy. As little is known about anesthetic considerations of this disease, we examined the perianesthetic course of patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C. Thirty-two patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C, median age 6.9 years (1.8–33 years), underwent 64 general anesthetics for diagnostic ...

  12. An examination of the distribution of patient doses from diagnostic x-ray procedures

    An examination was made of the distribution of patient doses from diagnostic radiology. The data were derived from an Australia wide survey carried out during the 1970's. There was a large range of doses to which patients were exposed. If establishments can reduce doses to below the most common value, the total dose to the population will be reduced to less than 60% of the present value

  13. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    Tonini Stefano; Lanfranco Andrea; Dellabianca Antonio; Lumelli Diego; Giorgi Ines; Mazzacane Fulvio; Fusi Camilla; Scafa Fabrizio; Candura Stefano M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bully...

  14. Iatrogenic dissection of the left main coronary artery during elective diagnostic procedures: A report on three cases

    Đenić Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Left main coronary artery dissection is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of coronary angiography and angioplasty which requests urgent revascularization. Case report. During the period between 2010 and November 2014 at single healthcare center we did totally 8,884 coronary procedures, out of which 2,333 were percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI. In this period we had a total of 3 (0,03% left main coronary artery dissections, and all of them were successfully treated by PCI. We presented three cases with iatrogenic dissection of the left main coronary artery, occurred during elective diagnostic procedures, successfully treated with PCI with different techniques. Conclusion. PCI could be fast and life-saving approach in iatrogenic dissections of the left main coronary artery.

  15. Plastazote abduction orthosis in the management of neonatal hip instability.

    Eberle, Charles F

    2003-01-01

    Since 1987, 113 consecutive newborns with either Ortolani-positive or provocative-positive hip examinations in the newborn nursery have been treated with a Plastazote hip abduction orthosis when diagnosed and followed to determine if the method was safe, effective, and easy to use. Ortolani-positive hips often had bilateral abnormalities in the hip examination, were frequently associated with breech position, and were anatomically more dysplastic than those hips that were unstable by provocative testing. No patient developed ischemic necrosis during follow-up. Only two had additional treatment of their unstable hips. The rest had excellent results. Parents and caregivers found the device easy to use. The orthosis is recommended as the primary method for managing newborns with clinical instability to either the provocative or Ortolani test as being safe, effective, and easy to use across all skill levels. PMID:12960623

  16. Simple cellular automata to mimic foraging ants submitted to abduction

    Tejera, F

    2015-01-01

    Many species of ants forage by building up two files: an outbound one moving from the nest to the foraging area, and a nestbound one, returning from it to the nest. Those files are eventually submitted to different threats. If the danger is concentrated at one point of the file, one might expect that ants returning to the nest will pass danger information to their nestmates moving in the opposite direction towards the danger area. In this paper, we construct simple cellular automata models for foraging ants submitted to localized abduction, were danger information is transmitted using different protocols, including the possibility of no transmission. The parameters we have used in the simulations have been estimated from actual experiments under natural conditions. So, it would be easy to test our information-transmission hypothese in real experiments. Preliminary experimental results published elsewhere suggest that the behavior of foraging ants of the species Atta insularis is best described using the hypot...

  17. Data-Driven Abductive Discovery in the Earth Sciences (Invited)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional pathways to discovery in the Earth sciences rely on inductive and deductive approaches, by which patterns and phenomena in nature are discovered first, and observations and modeling to test causal hypotheses follow. These powerful methods have proven successful in documenting and comprehending many aspects of the natural world, but they are inherently less efficient at discovering new complex patterns that require synthesis of diverse types of data. Consequently, such gradual global processes as plate tectonics and climate change required decades of integrated data synthesis preceding discovery of critical Earth phenomena. Vast but largely untapped Earth science data resources offer a potentially revolutionary alternative 'abductive' approach to investigate Earth's co-evolving geo- and biospheres--a systematic data-driven search for accelerated discovery of hidden patterns in the data resources of a dozen different disciplines. Today's Earth science enterprises generate terabytes per day of new data, yet these vast resources are woefully underutilized because they are not linked into a single platform. We advocate the implementation of data infrastructure and interrogation strategies that link existing and new data resources and methods in mineralogy, paleontology, proteomics, irreversible thermodynamics, geodynamics, and geochronology, coupled with newly adapted statistical analysis and visualization capabilities--a new kind of open-access 'scientific instrument' that could transform the Earth sciences. Recent 'brute force' studies of variations in minerals of beryllium, cobalt, mercury, and molybdenum through deep time demonstrate the potential of this concept as a means to search for critical resources; generate insights regarding the co-evolution of ocean chemistry and microbial metabolism; uncover evidence for the timing and rates of near-surface oxygenation; and document subtle ongoing feedbacks between terrestrial life, weathering, soils, and

  18. Comparison of the BD MAX® Enteric Bacterial Panel assay with conventional diagnostic procedures in diarrheal stool samples.

    Knabl, L; Grutsch, I; Orth-Höller, D

    2016-01-01

    Although infectious diarrhea is one of the most predominant diseases around the world, the identification of the causative microorganism is still challenging. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the BD MAX® Enteric Bacterial Panel assay in comparison to conventional diagnostic procedures concerning the detection of the enteric pathogens Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Shigella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. For this purpose, 971 prospectively collected stool samples were evaluated. Utilization of the BD MAX Enteric Bacterial Panel elevated the overall detection rate from 5.26 % to 8.06 %. The positive percent agreement of the BD MAX Enteric Bacterial Panel assay and stool culture or enzyme immunoassay was 0.97 for Campylobacter spp., 0.75 for Salmonella spp., 1.00 for Shigella spp., and 0.88 for Shiga toxins. Furthermore, a negative percent agreement of 0.98 for Campylobacter spp., 0.99 for Salmonella spp., 0.99 for Shigella spp., and 0.99 for Shiga toxins has been demonstrated. This study highlighted the superior detection rate of molecular assays compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. PMID:26563899

  19. School buildings and indoor air quality: diagnostic procedures and criteria for intervention

    Maria Teresa Lucarelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research - referred in this report - comes from a doctoral thesis entitled Indoor air quality control. Intervention criteria for environmental and technological restoration of school buildings; research that has shown the actual relationship between the degradation of school buildings, the levels of indoor air pollution and the effects on the health of the occupants. This study path is subsequently directed to the analysis of unavoidable dependencies that exist between the aspects of the healthiness of the indoor air and the energy performance of buildings in order to provide, through the use of a diagnostic protocol, useful information for the definition of redevelopment interventions.

  20. Radiation exposure to medical personnel during routine diagnostic or therapeutic X-ray procedures

    The paper presents a statistical analysis of 19 thousand individual measurements of monthly radiation exposures to medical personnel engaged in work with X-ray apparatuses used for routine diagnostic purposes as well as radiotherapy. These measurements used film dosimeters worn over the breast and changed monthly. Exposure distribution patterns were studied and respective typical distributions indentified. From these data, mean radiation doses to selected critical organs were estimated. The radiation burden sustained by personnel was assessed by comparing dose estimates obtained with currently accepted maximum permissible dose levels. (author)

  1. Molecular diagnostic procedures for production of pathogen-free propagation material.

    Manulis, Shulamit; Chalupowicz, Laura; Dror, Orit; Kleitman, Frida

    2002-11-01

    Production of disease-free propagation material is a major means of controlling most bacterial diseases of plants, particularly when neither resistant clones nor effective chemical treatments are available. For this purpose sensitive, specific and rapid detection methods are required. The advent of molecular biology and, in particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has opened new ways for the characterization and identification of plant pathogens and the development of disease-management strategies. PCR-based detection methods rely on the development of primers for the specific detection of the pathogen. The use of pathogenicity genes as targets for primer design is the preferred procedure for obtaining specific primers but other procedures may also be useful for this purpose. In the present review we describe four examples of procedures for detecting four important bacterial pathogens in Israel: Erwinia herbicola pv gypsophilae in gypsophila, Xanthomonas campestris pv pelargonii in geranium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens in asters and roses, and Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris in crucifers. Procedures for constructing specific PCR primers for each bacterium are illustrated and discussed as well as the combination of PCR with other methods. PMID:12449531

  2. Diagnostic value of performing endocervical curettage at the time of colposcopy procedure; a systematic review

    Shabnam Imannezhad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN as a precursor to invasive cervical cancer suggests a considerable need for accurate screening of the patients for the risk of these lesions. This systematic review aimed to study the diagnostic significance of endocervical curettage (ECC at the time of colposcopy in the detection of CIN 2, 3, and preinvasive lesions.Methods: PubMed was searched to obtain the relevant articles based on the following search term: (endocervical curettage OR ECC AND colposcopy. The most relevant articles were included after studying the title, abstract, and full text of the obtained articles at initial search. Only English language articles published after 1992 with at least 500 patients were included in this study.Result: Among 300 articles identified by the first search, only seven articles were in line with the purpose of this systematic review. Majority of the included studies were retrospective observational studies.Conclusion: Performing ECC has higher sensitivity in women older than 40 years and those with unsatisfactory colposcopy results. However exact diagnostic usefulness of ECC at the time of colposcopy needs to be investigated in further studies.

  3. Foetal Radiation Dose and Risk from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures: A Multinational Study

    In diagnostic radiology examinations there is a benefit that the patient derives from the resulting diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed each year, it is inevitable that there will be occasions when an examination(s) may be inadvertently performed on pregnant patients or occasionally it may become clinically necessary to perform an examination(s) on a pregnant patient. In all these circumstances it is necessary to request an estimation of the foetal dose and risk. We initiated a study to investigate fetal doses from different countries. Exposure techniques on 367 foetuses from 414 examinations were collected and investigated. The FetDoseV4 program was used for all dose and risk estimations. The radiation doses received by the 367 foetuses ranges: <0.001–21.9 mGy depending on examination and technique. The associated probability of induced hereditary effect ranges: <1 in 200000000 (5 × 10−9) to 1 in 10000 (1 × 10−4) and the risk of childhood cancer ranges <1 in 12500000 (8 × 10−8) to 1 in 500 (2 × 10−3). The data indicates that foetal doses from properly conducted diagnostic radiology examinations will not result in any deterministic effect and a negligible risk of causing radiation induced hereditary effect in the descendants of the unborn child

  4. Work-related stress and bullying: gender differences and forensic medicine issues in the diagnostic procedure

    Tonini Stefano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49 for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service, the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder. Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65% of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work.

  5. Radiation exposure of population due to medical diagnostic procedures in the USSR

    The evaluation of radiation doses to population in the ussr on the basis of the data on frequency of 12 main forms of X-ray examinations and the results of measuring absorbed doses on tissue-kquivalent main's phantom are given. The evaluation of radiation exposure due to radiopharmaceutical preparations is based on consumption of 26 types of compounds in 320 national laboratories and i is performed by the methods developed in the framework of the mird committee (usa). In thhe active bone marrow, lungs mammary, glands thyroid and other organs (stomach, liver, spleen, etc.) the equivalent doses are determined and on their base the effective equivalent doses (eed). The average eed from x ray diagnostic examinations is 1.4 mSv per year (140 mrem per year) of which 55.4% falls on X-ray examination, 26.9% on radiography, 17.7% on mass miniature radiography (fluorography). Radionuclide diagnostics contribution is 3.2x10-2 mSv per year (3.8 mrem per year). Medicinal radiation exposure approximately doubles the natural background, it is comparable with exposure in premises and essentially exceeds the radiation doses to population from other sources

  6. Therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in preinvasive disease of the cervix and cervical cancer in pregnant women

    154 pregnant women with displasis and cervical carcinoma of the uterus treated in the Institute in years 1953-1990 underwent investigation. Authors noticed that only 50 pathologies were diagnosed in 1st trimester of pregnancy and 85% constituted precancerous and early forms of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Authors presented the model of management and care of pregnancy, labour and puerperium in these patients. Due to this procedure we obtained 90% comparability of preliminary and final diagnosis. (author)

  7. Estimation of fetal dose to patients undergoing diagnostic x-ray procedures

    The estimation of fetal dose incurred by patients undergoing various radiologic procedures can be very perplexing. The problem is especially critical for women who do not know that they are pregnant at the time of x-ray exposure. A description is offered of efforts to quantitate the fetal dose by after-the-fact calculations. Such conservatively employed calculations may be essential for a clinical decision regarding therapeutic abortion

  8. The utility and validity of current diagnostic procedures for defining temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Clark, G T; Delcanho, R E; Goulet, J P

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the evolution of different concepts of classifying and defining Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) for both clinical and research settings. The literature is reviewed with respect to the utility and validity of the different questionnaire and examination procedures that have been used to assess TMD patients. The presented view is that many of these procedures have not been validated, that there is a lack of standardization in the use of the procedures themselves, and that an ideal method of classifying this broad group of patients into better-defined subgroups has not yet been developed. More standardized and better-defined research by trained and calibrated researchers is needed worldwide to elucidate these subgroups so that a better and widely agreed upon research classification system can be developed for widespread use. It also seems clear that as research requirements for defining TMD patient subgroups become more stringent over time, it may not be practical for the clinician to implement them on a day-to-day basis in his or her practice. As such, a practical utilitarian definition of the common subtype of TMD patients is also needed which parallels any research grouping, so that data from research are valuable and generalizable to the practicing clinician. PMID:8260017

  9. Cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of patients with ischemic heart diseases from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging procedures

    Objectives: To present a detailed analysis of the cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of patients with ischemic heart diseases (IHD) from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging. Methods: For 1219 IHD patients, personal and examination data were retrieved from the information systems of a university hospital. For each patient, cumulative organ doses and the corresponding effective dose (E¯) resulting from all imaging procedures performed within 3 months before and 12 months after the date of the diagnosis were calculated. The cumulative lifetime attributable risk (LAR¯) of the patients to be diseased by radiation-related cancer was estimated using sex-, age-, and organ-specific risk models. Results: Among the 3870 procedures performed in the IHD patients, the most frequent were radiographic examinations (52.4%) followed by coronary catheter angiographies and percutaneous cardiac interventions (41.3%), CT scans (3.9%), and perfusion SPECT (2.3%). 87% of patient exposure resulted from heart catheter procedures. E¯ and LAR¯ were significantly higher in males than females (average, 13.3 vs. 10.3 mSv and 0.09 vs. 0.07%, respectively). Contrary to the effective dose, the cancer risk decreased markedly for both sexes with increasing age. Conclusions: Although IHD patients were partially exposed to considerable amounts of radiation, estimated LAR¯s were small as compared to their baseline risk to develop cancer in the remaining life

  10. Calculation of entrance exposed area from recorded images in cardiac diagnostic and interventional procedures

    With increasing number of interventional radiological procedures performed on patients of all ages, it is important to determine the skin entrance dose of patients to limit the side effects of radiation. In most cases the skin dose is measured using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). However, these detectors need to be placed in the radiation field on the skin of the patient, which may interfere with the procedure. Also, not all radiological practices are equipped with TLD readers which are expensive or have staff with the appropriate knowledge and expertise to be able to make use of TLD. The alternative to TLD is to use the dose area product (DAP) measured with a diamentor fitted to the angiography x-ray equipment. The difficulties in using DAP to calculate skin dose is that the irradiated area of the skin is not known. The area could change in size and location during the procedure as the radiologist/medical specialist varies the collimation and region of interest. For angiography equipment the distance between the anode and image intensifier is variable, as is the height of the examination table. The only point of reference is the isocentre. With recorded images it is possible to determine the irradiated area of the patient at the isocentre plane using the stenosis algorithm. The recorded image is calibrated such that it corresponds to the physical size in the plane of the isocentre. For non-recorded images, it may be necessary to assume that collimation has not changed and that the irradiated area is the same as that shown on the recorded images. The Women's and Children's Hospital has a Toshiba DFP2000 Biplane Digital Imaging system used for all cardiac and general angiography and interventional procedures. With this system the exposure factors (kVp, mA, field sizes) are recorded with the images. The source to image distance (SID), magnification factor (calibration factor of the recorded images) and angle of rotation are displayed on the Display Panel of the

  11. Frequent change of procedure during coronary artery bypass surgery suggests insufficient preoperative diagnostic strategy

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Thayssen, Per; Vach, Werner; Haghfelt, Torben; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F.; Andersen, Lars Ib

    2007-01-01

    artery participated. The surgeon filled in a questionnaire pertaining to the planned localization and number of grafts. These estimates were compared to procedures actually performed and with the angiographic outcome six months after bypass surgery. Planned and actually inserted grafts disclosed a...... discrepancy in 22% of the patients, resulting in a lower or higher number of grafts than pre-operatively estimated. The difference in shift rates between the three sites, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery, was significant (P=0.014). Patency rates were highest when only...

  12. CT-discography; diagnostic accuracy in lumbar disc herniation and significance of induced pain during procedure

    Jin, En Hao [Yan Bian Medical College, Beijing (China); Chung, Tae Sub; Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Kim, Young Soo; Roh, Sung Woo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and the accuracy of CT-discography in lumbar disc disease by analyzing the findings of CT-discogram and types of evoked pain during the procedure. CT-discograms were retrospectively evaluated in 47 intervertebral discs of 20 patients with multilevel involvement of lumbar disc diseases. In 28 herniated discs confirmed at surgery, the findings of CT-discogram (28 disc levels/20 patients), MRI(23/16) and CT(21/15) were comparatively analysed. The type of pain after infusion of contrast media during CT-discography was compared with that prior to the procedure. The accuracy for determining types of the herniated lumbar disc when compared with post-operative results was 96.4%(27 discs/28 discs) in the CT-discogram, 82.6%(19 discs/23 discs) in MRI and 71.4%(15 discs/21 discs) in the CT scan. Pains encountered during discography were radiating pain in 12 discs and back pain in 24 discs. CT-discography was especially helpful in 10 patients with multilevel involvement of the lumbar disc diseases to evaluate the exact location of diseased disc(s) that provoked the pain. CT-discography is a highly accurate method in diagnosis of the herniated lumbar intervertebral discs and is very useful in determining the precise location related to the development of pain in such cases.

  13. Preliminary Studies into the Determination of Mean Glandular Dose During Diagnostic Mammography Procedure in Ghana

    Irene Nsiah-Akoto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD from Craniocaudal (CC and Mediolateral Oblique (MLO views to the breast during diagnostic mammography and the total dose per woman. The study was conducted at the Mammography Unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Peace and Love Hospital, Oduom. Data such as age, weight, height, bust size, compressed breast thickness, time of exposure, milli-ampere second (mAs, kilovoltage peak (KVp and half value layer (HVL were recorded from 440 films from 110 women. The MGD per film was 1.17± 0.02 mGy and 1.25±0.03 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC and mediolateral oblique (MLO views, respectively. The mean MGD per woman was 1.80±0.03mGy. The only factors that were found to affect MGD were mAs and the compressed breast thickness. No significant relationships were seen between MGD per woman with respect to ethnicity and educational background. The dose values obtained fall within the internationally acceptable dose range of 1-3 mGy. This suggests mammography x-ray generators at the two hospitals are capable of achieving acceptable dose levels for patient safety and this prompted us to rule out the fact that all other factors considered, they are not at risk of induced cancer from mammography.

  14. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures for subclinical mastitis in meat-producing sheep.

    Clements, Archie C A; Taylor, David J; Fitzpatrick, Julie L

    2003-05-01

    Samples of foremilk were collected from 261 clinically normal glands of 150 ewes, and tested using the California mastitis test (CMT). Further samples were collected from 195 of these glands for determination of automated somatic cell counts (SCC), and from 60 of these glands for bacteriological assessment. The sensitivity and specificity of CMT for detecting samples with SCC above different threshold levels and for CMT and SCC in determining bacteriological status were evaluated using two-graph receiver operating characteristics (TG-ROC). Milk samples were obtained subsequently from ten CMT positive, and five CMT negative first- and second-lactation ewes. Samples were cultured using a variety of media, incubation temperatures and atmospheric conditions, immediately after collection, and 1 week after storage at 4 degrees C and -21 degrees C. Results suggested that CMT is best used as a diagnostic test for ovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) with a cut-off of 3 (distinct gel formation), and that automated SCC thresholds of > 1200 x 10(3) cells/ml are appropriate, especially where low prevalences are expected (e.g. < 5%). Additionally, this study showed that routine bacteriological methods were appropriate for isolation of most species of pathogen responsible for ovine SCM, but storage of samples prior to culture, either at 4 degrees C or -21 degrees C, was detrimental to the isolation of several of these organisms. PMID:12800867

  15. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  16. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia: a national survey among obstetrical departments in Denmark

    Klemmensen, Åse Kathrine; Olsen, SF; Wengel, CM;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...... for the records submitted to the patient registry at the Danish National Board of Health. STUDY DESIGN: A structured questionnaire, including three case stories, was sent to the chief consultant of the department. RESULTS: Thirty-three out of the 34 Danish departments (97%) returned the questionnaire....... Reporters of pregnancy diagnoses to the National Patient Registry differed widely in training. For complicated pregnancies, departments ranged from having only specialists reporting all cases to secretaries reporting up to 50%. Cut off limits of blood pressure (BP) and protein loss used to diagnose pre...

  17. Efficacy of clinical diagnostic procedures utilized in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, 1 December 1981-30 November 1982

    The efficacy of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was measured. Three levels of efficacy were defined. However, two different methods of evaluating efficacy itself were first compared. Using two methods, logistic regression and entropy-minimax pattern detection, substantial agreement was found between them in several clinical observations. (1) There are no attributes that indicate that any grouping of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings is capable of suggesting that a patient does or does not have a pulmonary embolus. (2) The lung scan test is the only reliable method which indicates that a patient may have a pulmonary embolus or does not have a pulmonary embolus. (3) The validity of these conclusions and the ability to apply them widely to ongoing clinical practice is based on the prospective design of the Study which included an appropriate distribution of institutions by type, size, and geographic location. Also, the only judgement samples was that of the referring physician

  18. Protection of the unborn child in diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures

    The radiation exposure of an unborn child should be principally avoided, whenever it is medically reasonably possible; therefore, the identification of pregnant patients is the first and the most important step in radiation protection of the unborn child. However, in cases of emergency saving the life of the patient has a higher priority than the radiation protection of the unborn child. In this review article, we present a longitudinal section through the national and international literature and guidelines as a basis for radiological management of a (possibly) pregnant patient. We also list some radiological procedures recommended in the literature for a series of maternal indications considering the contraindications of each method during pregnancy and radiation protection of the unborn child. (orig.)

  19. Changes in patient exposure doses from diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan, 1974-2007

    We have investigated changes in exposure dose in Japan in terms of the same items since 1974. An assessment was made of changes in exposure dose during a period of 33 years. Nationwide investigation was conducted six times from 1974 to 2007 with regard to 14 target areas (21 kinds of projections). The investigations we examined is as follows: tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA), exposure time (sec), focus surface distance, thickness of total filtration and type of generator system for diagnostic radiography for a typical patient. Entrance surface doses were evaluated in terms of the respective exposure conditions based on basic experiment. The results showed that the exposure doses decreased to less than 50% during a 15-year period till 1994, with the exposure doses in 1974 assumed to be 100%. The exposure doses in 2007 were equivalent to, or increased over the exposure doses in 1994 at some areas. A comparison with the international basic safety standard for protection against ionizing radiation set up by the IAEA, that is, the so-called guidance level, indicated that the exposure doses in 2007 were less than the standard in all areas. The comparison with past investigations also demonstrated that F/S system using film-intensifying screen has been increasingly replaced with computed radiography (CR) system using imaging plates (IP) and flat panel digital radiography (FPD) system. In the investigation in 2007, an attempt was made of a comparison between exposure dose by the digital radiography system and that by the F/S system as well. It was clarified that there was no large difference in the exposure dose between those systems. (author)

  20. Methodological levels of abductive logic and its application in analyzing knowledge classification systems

    Mohammad Khandan

    2015-05-01

    Originality/Value: Introduces methodological levels of abductive logic and provides LIS professionals with a new and alternative way for analyzing knowledge classification systems as interpretative and semantic social constructions.

  1. On the Abductive or Deductive Nature of Database Schema Validation and Update Processing Problems

    Teniente, Ernest; Urpi, Toni

    2003-01-01

    We show that database schema validation and update processing problems such as view updating, materialized view maintenance, integrity constraint checking, integrity constraint maintenance or condition monitoring can be classified as problems of either abductive or deductive nature, according to the reasoning paradigm that inherently suites them. This is done by performing abductive and deductive reasoning on the event rules [Oli91], a set of rules that define the difference between consecuti...

  2. Comparison of Shoulder Muscles Activation for Shoulder Abduction between Forward Shoulder Posture and Asymptomatic Persons

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the differences in shoulder muscles activities during shoulder abduction between a forward shoulder posture group and asymptomatic group. [Subjects] Seven males with forward shoulder posture (FHS) and seven asymptomatic males were recruited. [Methods] We measured the upper and middle trapezius (UT and MT), serratus anterior (SA), and clavicle portion of the pectoralis major (cPM) in the right side during shoulder abduction. [Results] The activities of the UT ...

  3. Sleep paralysis, sexual abuse, and space alien abduction.

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnopompic ('upon awakening') hallucinations is an often-frightening manifestation of discordance between the cognitive/perceptual and motor aspects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Awakening sleepers become aware of an inability to move, and sometimes experience intrusion of dream mentation into waking consciousness (e.g. seeing intruders in the bedroom). In this article, we summarize two studies. In the first study, we assessed 10 individuals who reported abduction by space aliens and whose claims were linked to apparent episodes of sleep paralysis during which hypnopompic hallucinations were interpreted as alien beings. In the second study, adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse more often reported sleep paralysis than did a control group. Among the 31 reporting sleep paralysis, only one person linked it to abuse memories. This person was among the six recovered memory participants who reported sleep paralysis (i.e. 17% rate of interpreting it as abuse-related). People rely on personally plausible cultural narratives to interpret these otherwise baffling sleep paralysis episodes. PMID:15881271

  4. Application of Routine Diagnostic Procedure, VITEK 2 Compact, MALDI-TOF MS, and PCR Assays in Identification Procedure of Bacterial Strain with Ambiguous Phenotype.

    Książczyk, Marta; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Korzekwa, Kamila; Tobiasz, Anna; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Paluch, Emil; Wieliczko, Alina; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2016-05-01

    In diagnostic microbiology as well as in microbiological research, the identification of a microorganism is a crucial and decisive stage. A broad choice of methods is available, based on both phenotypic and molecular properties of microbes. The aim of this study was to compare the application of phenotypic and molecular tools in bacterial identification on the example of Gram-negative intestine rod with an ambiguous phenotype. Different methods of identification procedure, which based on various properties of bacteria, were applied, e.g., microscopic observation of single-bacterial cells, macroscopic observation of bacterial colonies morphology, the automated system of microorganism identification (biochemical tests), the mass spectrometry method (analysis of bacterial proteome), and genetic analysis with PCR reactions. The obtained results revealed discrepancies in the identification of the tested bacterial strain with an atypical phenotype: mucous morphology of colonies, not characteristic for either E. coli and Citrobacter spp., mass spectrometry analysis of proteome initially assigned the tested strain to Citrobacter genus (C. freundii) and biochemical profiles pointed to Escherichia coli. A decisive method in the current study was genetic analysis with PCR reactions which identified conserved genetic sequences highly specific to E. coli species in the genome of the tested strain. PMID:26804795

  5. Can the diagnostic accuracy of radionuclide ventriculography during exercise be improved by means of a step-up loading procedure?

    34 patients (31 of whom were coronary heart disease sufferers as proven by angiography) and further 3 patients failing to show symptoms of this disorder were subjected to radionuclide ventriculography carried out with the aid of 99mTc-labelled erythrocytes in such a way that examinations at rest were directly followed by maximum loading tests. In a second series of examinations a step-up procedure was adopted where initial recordings at rest were followed by preliminary exercise tests using only 25% of the maximum load. The parameters chosen to evaluate the results were heart rate, ejection fraction, maximum velocity of changes in volume, endsystolic and enddiastolic volumes (ESV and EDV) as well as cardiac output. In 23 patients the preliminary exercise test revealed an insufficient increase or even decrease of the ejection fraction that was associated with delayed volume changes, increases in ESV and EDV as well as reductions in cardiac output and in 21 patients it became evident during those examinations that the onset of stenocardiac complaints was preceded by markedly pronounced function disorders in the left ventricle. It was concluded from these findings that the step-up procedure followed here may in some patients provide additional information on the level of myocardial performance. It can thus be assumed to contribute considerably to higher diagnostic accuracy, although it requires no more time than conventional exercise tests and is not associated with additional radiation exposure. (TRV)

  6. Quality control in diagnostic radiology in Bulgaria - Regulation, implementation, procedures, first results

    Full text: X ray equipment in Bulgaria comprises about 1200 conventional radiography units, 650 image intensifier based fluoroscopy systems, 15 modern angiography systems, 110 computed tomography (CT) scanners, 140 dedicated mammography units, 610 dental units and 9 DEXA systems. Quality assurance (QA), as a means for optimization of patient radiation protection was legally introduced in the country in October 2005 with a new Ordinance of the Ministry of Health for Protection of Individuals at Medical Exposure. It requires Quality control (QC) of imaging equipment and patient dose measurements to be implemented as an important physical and technical aspect of QA. QC programmes were elaborated and are presented here for each type of X ray diagnostic equipment - for conventional radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, CT and dental radiology. They include a list of parameters to be tested, level of expertise needed, as well as two action levels: remedial and suspension. On the basis of the international experience, measurement protocols were developed for all parameters tested. This work presents the first results of implementation of the QC programme for a number of X ray units of different types. The local protocols of three groups working independently were collected and this database was used to analyse the results by specially designed software. The survey comprises commissioning tests of 40 conventional radiography, 15 fluoroscopy and 10 mammography units of different ages and gives fist overview on the status of the X ray equipment in the country. The important parameters having suspension levels were analysed - tube potential accuracy and reproducibility, half value layer and corresponding tube total filtration, timer accuracy, absolute value and reproducibility of the tube output. Additionally for radiography equipment were tested the light and X ray field alignment, film processor performance and dark room conditions. For fluoroscopy were included also tests

  7. Influence of preceding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on the radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    Before and until 3 weeks after application of nonionic CA iodine and the 20-min-technetium-thyroid-uptake was measured in serum and urine in 23 euthyroid patients, which were given intravenously nonionic CA during heart catheterization. Concerning the possible influence of iodine contamination on a subsequent radioiodine therapy the following aspects result from the study: the time interval between application of CA and therapy has to be at least 4-6 weeks to avoid dilution of the radioiodine by iodine being released from the contrast agents. The thyroid-uptake of Technetium or Iodine after administration of CA is not constant over time but reaches its original value only in a gradual way (60% of the initial value 3 weeks after the CA were given); that means, the iodine-uptake during, radioiodine therapy can be higher than it was at the time the dose was calculated. Concerning the possible influence of preceding therapeutic procedures on the therapy with radioiodine the pretreatment with antithyroid drugs plays the most important role. Antithyroid drugs of the thiourylene group have been shown by many study groups to have a radioprotective effect. Other large studies however could not demonstrate any effect of antithyroid medication on the results of radioiodine therapy. All studies so far existing have in common that they are not strongly randomized with regard to the patient groups, because generally only in severe cases of hyperthyroidism additional antithyroid drug treatment has been employed, therefore it might be the case that the radioprotective effect of antithyroid drugs may be caused only by selection artifacts. The contradictory results of the different studies justify the practical way in so far as there are no reasonable objections against the pretreatment with antithyroid drugs to restore euthyroidism before starting the therapy with radioiodine. (orig./MG)

  8. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1,000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 98%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum

  9. Should excretory urography be used as a routine diagnostic procedure in patients with acute ureteric colic: A single center study

    Osama A Samara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find an accurate, easily available and safe imaging modality as an alternative to intravenous urography for the diagnosis of acute urinary obstruction. This retrospective study included 332 patients, who underwent both excretory urography (EU preceeded by plain radiograph as well as ultrasonography for evaluation of acute flank pain. There were 198 male and 134 female patients. The presence or absence of urinary stones, level of obstruction, excretion delay on EU and dilated excretory system on either or both techniques were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy for plain radiograph, ultrasonography, and for both modalities together were measured considering EU as a standard reference. The sensitivity and specificity of combined plain radiograph and ultrasound were 97% and 67%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values and accuracy rates of 92%, 99%, and 97%, respectively. Our study suggests that the combination of plain radiograph and ultrasonography yields a high sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy in depiction of urinary stones. Thus, EU need not be used as a routine diagnostic procedure in patients with acute obstructive uropathy.

  10. Role of Scaphoid in the Abduction and Adduction Movements of Wrist Joint

    Sadik I Shaikh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a carpal bone scaphoid has an important role in wrist movements. Wrist joint is a synovial modified ellipsoid joint where movements like flexion, extension and adduction, abduction take place around two axes (transverse and antero-posterior. These movements at the wrist joint are associated with considerable range of movements at the mid carpal joint, as same group of muscles act on both of these joints. Methodology: A study has been done amongst 120 persons at the tertiary care hospital during the period from 2006-07 to detect the important movements of scaphoid bone specially during the abduction and adduction of wrist joint (which occur in association with the intercarpal joints and also to detect whether such movements have any speciality in the population. Results: In fully abducted position, it was 45o among 53.3% subjects and the average among all the subjects was 60o. So, the degree of abduction was 30o. The extent of movement was more in adduction (ie, 1.90 cm - 1.03 cm = 0.87 cm than in abduction (ie, 1.03 cm - 0.72 cm = 0.31cm. Conclusion: It was found in this study that the scaphoid acts as a link bone between the two rows of carpal bones and prevents the buckling of midcarpal joint especially of the capitato- lunate joint interface. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 253-256

  11. The nuclear medical diagnostic procedures at the hospitals in Sofia over a period of ten years - from 1990 to 2000 - structure, number and doses

    The aim of this study is to analyze the structure and the number of nuclear diagnostic procedures at hospitals in Sofia over a period of ten years (from 1990 to 2000); to calculate the effective doses received by patients; to compare the results from different hospitals. We have developed a form in order to collect the necessary information from hospitals (nuclear laboratories). The information has been collected according to examined organ, applied radioactive pharmaceutical and injected activity (MBq), patient's age and sex. The effective doses have been calculated using transition coefficients for each of the applied radioactive pharmaceuticals and for each of the diagnostic procedures. We have received the information and calculated the doses. We have compared the data from different hospitals (nuclear laboratories). The results show that the doctors in different hospitals have used different radioactive pharmaceuticals and applied different activities for one and the same procedure. (orig.)

  12. Lasciar parlare il silenzio. La Partition del subcontinente indiano e le abducted women

    Piera Cavenaghi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The acts of violence committed during the Partition of India in 1947 are known and proved. Less well known is violence that struck tens of thousands of abducted and raped women. Both India and Pakistan admitted these crimes and agreed to recover and restore the abducted women. The Indian Government especially committed to accomplish the recovery plan even at the cost of sending the women forcedly back. The recovery of abducted women became a issue of national honour that apparently contrasted with the family and community concept of honour. Many of the recovered women were indeed rejected by their families, regarding them as impure. On its part the Indian Government made a great deal of effort to restore them. After that, silence enshrouded them and the memory of their pain faded. By contrast memories of women who had committed suicide “to save their honour”, were emphatically handed on.

  13. Transfracture abduction osteotomy: A solution for nonunion of femoral neck fractures

    Jairamchander Pingle

    2014-01-01

    femur with or without bone graft, valgus osteotomy or hip arthroplasty. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases of nonunion of femoral neck fracture treated by transfracture abduction osteotomy (TFAO. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, 30 patients with nonunion of femoral neck fractures were treated with TFAO over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, All patients were less than 50 years of age. Absence of clinical and radiological signs of union after four months was considered as nonunion. Patients more than 50 years of age were excluded from the study. Union was assessed at 6 months radiologically. Limb length was measured at six months. The mean duration of femoral neck fracture was 19 months (range 4 months 10 years. Results were analyzed in terms of radiological union at six months. Average followup was five years and six months. Results: Consistent union was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. One case was lost to followup after five and one-half months postoperatively. However, the fracture had united in this case at the last followup. Average shortening of the limb at six months was 1.9 cm. Average neck shaft angle was 127° (range 120-145°. Five cases went into AVN but were asymptomatic. Two cases required reoperation due to back out of Moore′s pins. These were reopened and cancellous screws were inserted in the same tracks. Conclusions: Consistent union of nonunion femoral neck fracture was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. The major drawback of the procedure is immobilization of the patient in the hip spica for eight weeks.

  14. [An abduction applicance for congenital dislocation of the hip (author's transl)].

    Lang, G; Kehr, P; Paternotte, H; Aebi, J; Pintu, J

    1980-06-21

    The appliance described consists of a shoulder belt from which an abduction bar is hanging. Two adjustable rings enclosing the thigh and the leg of the child are attached to the shoulder-belt and to the bar. The lower limb is not immobilized but kept flexes and abducted. The appliance is primarliy used for those children with minor dysplasis of the hip who do not require complete immobilization but cannot be left without any treatment. It is also useful after prolonged orthopaedic or surgical immobilization. PMID:7402893

  15. Analysis of the Talmudic Argumentum A Fortiori Inference Rule (Kal-Vachomer) using Matrix Abduction

    Abraham, Michael; Gabbay, Dov M.; Schild, U

    2009-01-01

    We motivate and introduce a new method of abduction, Matrix Abduction, and apply it to modelling the use of non-deductive inferences in the Talmud such as Ana- logy and the rule of Argumentum A Fortiori. Given a matrix A with entries in {0,1},we allow for one or more blank squares in the matrix, say ai,j=?. The method allows us to decide whether to declare ai,j=0 or ai,j=1 or ai,j=? undecided. This algorithmic method is then applied to modelling several legal and practical reasoning sit...

  16. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  17. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  18. Evaluation of movements of lower limbs in non-professional ballet dancers: hip abduction and flexion

    Valenti Erica E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old. We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers.

  19. Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength in elite soccer players and matched controls

    Thorborg, Kristian; Couppé, C; Petersen, J;

    2011-01-01

    Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of groin injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity strength deficits of less than 10% on the injured side, compared to the uninjured side, have been suggested as the clinical milestone before ...

  20. Efficacy of the Stranger Safety Abduction-Prevention Program and Parent-Conducted in Situ Training

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Beck, Kimberly V.; Koehler, Shannon; Shayne, Rachel; Noah, Jennifer; McFee, Krystal; Perdomo, Andrea; Chan, Paula; Simmons, Danica; Godish, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Using a control group design, we evaluated the effectiveness of the "Stranger Safety" DVD (The Safe Side, 2004) and parent training of abduction-prevention skills with 6- to 8-year-old children. Children in the training or control group who did not demonstrate the safety skills received in situ training from their parents. There was no…

  1. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth Science: An Undergraduate Case Study

    Oh, Phil Seok

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…

  2. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. Materials and methods: A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. Results: 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists’ training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. Conclusion: We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet

  3. Preliminary survey on the distribution of medical equipment and frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in Brazil: a contribution to the UNSCEAR report

    Information about Brazil published in the UNSCEAR 2000 report are still scarce when compared to others countries. In this study, a survey on the distribution of medical equipment (X-ray generators, ultrasound, CT and MRI scanners, nuclear medicine equipment and teletherapy and brachytherapy units) and frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures at the various Brazilian States was carried out. The overall information was obtained from a national database supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health through the Computer Science Department of the National Health System (SUS - Sistema Unico de Saude). The distribution of equipment and the annual frequency of each type of procedure were analyzed considering the five geographical regions that form the country and their respective population. Temporal and regional trends in the annual frequency of procedures for 2000-2007 were also summarized in this study. National annual frequencies for the total of all medical X-ray examinations (259.0 examinations per 1000 population) were evaluated. Some examples can be given from chest, mammography and CT examinations: 67.4, 30.2 and 7.2 per 1000 population, respectively. In addition, annual frequencies for other modalities of diagnostic imaging have also been estimated: 61.5, 1.6 and 1.4 per 1000 population for ultrasound, nuclear medicine and MRI procedures, respectively. A total of 38.7 therapeutic procedures per 1000 population (teletherapy and brachytherapy) are annually performed in the country. The health services localized in Brazil comprised a total number of 253.1 diagnostic imaging equipment per million population, without considering dental X-ray. Amongst them, X-ray equipment used in common radiological examinations (chest, skull, spine, etc.) stands for 39% (97.7 per million). As expected, a significant decrease in the offer of equipment is observed when technologically more sophisticated equipment is concerned: magnetic resonance (3.5 per million), gamma

  4. Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed M.; Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in educational technologies and the wide-spread use of computers in schools have fueled innovations in test construction and analysis. As the measurement accuracy of a test depends on the quality of the items it includes, item selection procedures play a central role in this process. Mathematical programming and the item response…

  5. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  6. Abduction of Children by Their Parents: A Psychopathological Approach to the Problem in Mixed-Ethnicity Marriages

    Douzenis, A; Kontoangelos, K.; Thomadaki, O.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Lykouras, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Child abduction by one parent and their transport to a foreign country is increasing worldwide but has not received adequate scientific interest. When inter-marital relationships reach the point of break-up and divorce, one of the parents abducts his/her child/children. Method: Records of forty seven (47) cases of inter family abduction that took place in 2007 in Greece were obtained. The majority of cases concerned relocation of children in a foreign country. A special inventory was dev...

  7. International parental child abduction - grounds for refusal of return: Human Rights & The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction

    Svanhildur Ýr Sigþórsdóttir 1985

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is to see whether the Courts, judging under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, take the Convention on the Rights of the Child into consideration, when deciding upon the return of the child to his or her habitual residence. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has the child’s best interests as a priority. States Parties to the Convention are to take measures, combating the illicit transfer and the non-return of children...

  8. Competence and lastingness in specialized clinical laboratories: technical report about requirements concerning quality of users competence and used processes in immunochemical diagnostic procedures using isotopic and non-isotopic tracer technologies

    From the citizens view this technical report about immunochemical diagnostic procedures using radioactive and nonradioactive tracer technologies describes the requirements in special laboratory diagnostics concerning competency and process control. Governmental or administrational obligations of inspecting both skill and sites to guarantee patients security are pointed out. (orig.)

  9. A BAYESIAN ABDUCTION MODEL FOR EXTRACTING THE MOST PROBABLE EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT SENSEMAKING

    Paul Munya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the development of a Bayesian Abduction Model of Sensemaking Support (BAMSS as a tool for information fusion to support prospective sensemaking. Currently, BAMSS can identify the Most Probable Explanation from a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN and extract the prevalent conditional probability values to help the sensemaking analysts to understand the cause-effect of the adversary information. Actual vignettes from databases of modern insurgencies and asymmetry warfare are used to validate the performance of BAMSS. BAMSS computes the posterior probability of the network edges and performs information fusion using a clustering algorithm. In the model, the friendly force commander uses the adversary information to prospectively make sense of the enemy’s intent. Sensitivity analyses were used to confirm the robustness of BAMSS in generating the Most Probable Explanations from a BBN through abductive inference. The simulation results demonstrate the utility of BAMSS as a computational tool to support sense making.

  10. Uninformed sacrifice: Evidence against long-range alarm transmission in foraging ants exposed to localized abduction

    Tejera, F.; Reyes, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that danger information can be transmitted by ants through relatively small distances, provoking either a state of alarm when they move away from potentially dangerous stimulus, or charge toward it aggressively. There is almost no knowledge if danger information can be transmitted along large distances. In this paper, we abduct leaf cutting ants of the species Atta insularis while they forage in their natural environment at a certain point of the foraging line, so ants make a "U" turn to escape from the danger zone and go back to the nest. Our results strongly suggest that those ants do not transmit "danger information" to other nestmates marching towards the abduction area. The individualistic behavior of the ants returning from the danger zone results in a depression of the foraging activity due to the systematic sacrifice of non-informed individuals.

  11. Mental Health among Former Child Soldiers and Never-Abducted Children in Northern Uganda

    Ughetta Moscardino; Sara Scrimin; Francesca Cadei; Gianmarco Altoè

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral pro...

  12. Modified trapezius transfer technique for restoration of shoulder abduction in brachial plexus injury

    Singh Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Shoulder stability and restoration are very important in providing greater range of motion to the arm and forearm. When brachial plexus repair does not have the desired outcome and in patients with long standing denervation, the trapezius muscle is frequently used for transfer to restore the shoulder abduction and external rotation. We propose a modified simple technique for trapezius muscle transfer. Materials and Methods: From February 2004 to February 2006, eight patients with posttraumatic brachial plexus injury with insufficient shoulder abduction were treated by trapezius muscle transfer. All patients with brachial plexus palsy were posttraumatic, often resulted from motor cycle accidents. Before operation a full evaluation of muscle function in the affected arm was carried out. All patients were treated with trapezius muscle transfer performed by the modified technique. S-shaped incision from the anterior border of the trapezius just above the clavicle to the Deltoid up to its insertion was made. The accessory nerve and its branches to the trapezius were secured. The trapezius was dissected and detached from its insertion along with the periosteum and sutured to the insertion of the Deltoid muscle. Results: All patients had improved functions and were satisfied with the outcome. The average increase in active abduction of shoulder was from 13.7 degrees (0 to 35 degrees preoperatively to 116 degrees (45 to 180 degrees postoperatively and of shoulder flexion from 24.3 degrees (15 to 30 degrees to 107 degrees (90 to 180 degrees. Conclusion: The modified technique proposed here for trapezius transfer is safe, convenient, simple and reliable for restoration of shoulder abduction and stability with clear subjective benefits.

  13. Using Abductive Machine Learning for Online Vibration Monitoring of Turbo Molecular Pumps

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.; Raashid, M.

    1999-01-01

    Turbo molecular vacuum pumps constitute a critical component in many accelerator installations, where failures can be costly in terms of both money and lost beam time. Catastrophic failures can be averted if prior warning is given through a continuous online monitoring scheme. This paper describes the use of modern machine learning techniques for online monitoring of the pump condition through the measurement and analysis of pump vibrations. Abductive machine learning is used for modeling the...

  14. Microradiography of Microcalcifications in Breast Specimen: A New Histological Correlation Procedure and the Effect of Improved Resolution on Diagnostic Validity

    H.-J. Langen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Does high-resolution visualization of microcalcifications improve diagnostic reliability? Method. X-rays were taken of mamma specimens with microcalcifications in 32 patients (10 malignant; 22 benign using conventional radiography (12 Lp/mm and high-resolution radiography (2000 Lp/mm. Histological sections were subsequently prepared and correlated to the microradiographic image and every calcification was assigned an exact malignant or benign histological diagnosis. Five radiologists classified single groups of calcifications in both methods according to the BIRADS classification system. Results. Using microradiography microcalcifications can be shown in high resolution at the cell level including histological correlation. In some cases, the diagnostic validity was improved by the high resolution in microradiography. In other cases, the high resolution resulted in more visible calcifications, thus giving benign calcifications a malignant appearance. In the BIRADS 2 and 3 group, the probability of malignancy was 28.6% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 37.8% in the microradiography evaluation. In the BIRADS 4 and 5 group, the probability of malignancy was 34.2% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 24.4% in the microradiography evaluation. The differences were not significant. Summary. Overall, the improved resolution in microradiography did not show an improvement in diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional radiography.

  15. Microradiography of Microcalcifications in Breast Specimen: A New Histological Correlation Procedure and the Effect of Improved Resolution on Diagnostic Validity

    Introduction. Does high-resolution visualization of microcalcifications improve diagnostic reliability? Method. X-rays were taken of mamma specimens with microcalcifications in 32 patients (10 malignant; 22 benign) using conventional radiography (12 Lp/mm) and high-resolution radiography (2000 Lp/mm). Histological sections were subsequently prepared and correlated to the micro radiographic image and every calcification was assigned an exact malignant or benign histological diagnosis. Five radiologists classified single groups of calcifications in both methods according to the Birds classification system. Results. Using microradiography microcalcifications can be shown in high resolution at the cell level including histological correlation. In some cases, the diagnostic validity was improved by the high resolution in microradiography. In other cases, the high resolution resulted in more visible calcifications, thus giving benign calcifications a malignant appearance. In the BIRADS 2 and 3 group, the probability of malignancy was 28.6% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 37.8% in the microradiography evaluation. In the BIRADS 4 and 5 group, the probability of malignancy was 34.2% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 24.4% in the microradiography evaluation. The differences were not significant. Summary. Overall, the improved resolution in microradiography did not show an improvement in diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional radiography

  16. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda

    Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; Atim, Stella; Oboya, Charles; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction...

  17. Mental health among former child soldiers and never-abducted children in northern Uganda.

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Cadei, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact. PMID:22654596

  18. Mental Health among Former Child Soldiers and Never-Abducted Children in Northern Uganda

    Ughetta Moscardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact.

  19. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

  20. Psychophysiological responding during script-driven imagery in people reporting abduction by space aliens.

    McNally, Richard J; Lasko, Natasha B; Clancy, Susan A; Macklin, Michael L; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2004-07-01

    Is recollection of highly improbable traumatic experiences accompanied by psychophysiological responses indicative of intense emotion? To investigate this issue, we measured heart rate, skin conductance, and left lateral frontalis electromyographic responses in individuals who reported having been abducted by space aliens. Recordings of these participants were made during script-driven imagery of their reported alien encounters and of other stressful, positive, and neutral experiences they reported. We also measured the psychophysiological responses of control participants while they heard the scripts of the abductees. We predicted that if "memories" of alien abduction function like highly stressful memories, then psychophysiological reactivity to the abduction and stressful scripts would be greater than reactivity to the positive and neutral scripts, and this effect would be more pronounced among abductees than among control participants. Contrast analyses confirmed this prediction for all three physiological measures (ps < .05). Therefore, belief that one has been traumatized may generate emotional responses similar to those provoked by recollection of trauma (e.g., combat). PMID:15200635

  1. Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients Before, During, and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Update 2016.

    Coté, Charles J; Wilson, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical/dental supervision, careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications, appropriate fasting for elective procedures and a balance between the depth of sedation and risk for those who are unable to fast because of the urgent nature of the procedure, a focused airway examination for large (kissing) tonsils or anatomic airway abnormalities that might increase the potential for airway obstruction, a clear understanding of the medication's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects and drug interactions, appropriate training and skills in airway management to allow rescue of the patient, age- and size-appropriate equipment for airway management and venous access, appropriate medications and reversal agents, sufficient numbers of staff to both carry out the procedure and monitor the patient, appropriate physiologic monitoring during and after the procedure, a properly equipped and staffed recovery area, recovery to the presedation level of consciousness before discharge from medical/dental supervision, and appropriate discharge instructions. This report was developed through a collaborative effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to offer pediatric providers updated information and guidance in delivering safe sedation to children. PMID:27354454

  2. Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients Before, During, and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Update 2016.

    Coté, Charles J; Wilson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical/dental supervision, careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications, appropriate fasting for elective procedures and a balance between the depth of sedation and risk for those who are unable to fast because of the urgent nature of the procedure, a focused airway examination for large (kissing) tonsils or anatomic airway abnormalities that might increase the potential for airway obstruction, a clear understanding of the medication's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects and drug interactions, appropriate training and skills in airway management to allow rescue of the patient, age- and size-appropriate equipment for airway management and venous access, appropriate medications and reversal agents, sufficient numbers of staff to both carry out the procedure and monitor the patient, appropriate physiologic monitoring during and after the procedure, a properly equipped and staffed recovery area, recovery to the presedation level of consciousness before discharge from medical/dental supervision, and appropriate discharge instructions. This report was developed through a collaborative effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to offer pediatric providers updated information and guidance in delivering safe sedation to children. PMID:27557912

  3. Diagnostic efficiency and complication rate of CT-guided lung biopsy: a single center experience of the procedures conducted over a 10-year period

    YUAN Dong-mei; SONG Yong; L(U) Yan-ling; YAO Yan-wen; LIU Hong-bing; WANG Qian; XIAO Xin-wu; CAO E-hong; SHI Yi; ZHOU Xiao-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung biopsy is a well-established technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency and complication rate of CT-guided lung biopsy in a Chinese population.Methods CT-guided cutting needle lung biopsies were performed in our institution on 1014 patients between January 2000 and October 2010.A chest radiograph was taken after the biopsy.Data about basic patient information,final diagnosis,and complications secondary to biopsy procedure (pneumothorax and bleeding) were extracted.Results The diagnostic efficiency of CT-guided lung biopsy was 94.8%; only 53 patients did not get a final diagnosis from lung biopsy.Final diagnoses found 639 malignant lesions (63.0%) and 322 benign lesions (31.8%).Pneumothoraxoccurred in 131 patients and 15 required insertion of an intercostal drain.Small hemoptysis occurred in 41 patients and mild parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 16 patients.The overall complication rate was 18.5%.Conclusions CT-guided cutting needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions is a relatively safe technique with a high diagnostic accuracy.It can be safely performed in clinical trials.

  4. Puumala Hantavirus-Induced Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Must Be Considered across the Borders of Nephrology to Avoid Unnecessary Diagnostic Procedures

    Kitterer, Daniel; Segerer, Stephan; Alscher, M. Dominik; Braun, Niko; Latus, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE), a milder form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, is caused by Puumala virus and is characterized by acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. Methods A cross-sectional prospective survey of 456 adult patients with serologically confirmed NE was performed. Results Of the 456 investigated patients, 335 had received inpatient treatment. At time of admission to hospital, 72% of the patients had still an AKI and thrombocytopenia was present in 64% of the patients. The 335 patients were treated in 29 different hospitals and 6 of which had nephrology departments. 10 out of 335 patients received treatment in university hospitals and 63% of patients admitted themselves to hospital. Initially, the patients were admitted to 12 different clinical departments (29% of the patients were referred to a nephrology department) and during the course of the disease, 8% of the patients were transferred to another department in the same hospital and 3% were transferred to a nephrology department at another hospital. Regarding diagnostic procedures, in 28% of the inpatients computed tomography to exclude pulmonary embolism or due to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, lumbar puncture to exclude meningitis, magnetic resonance tomography of the brain owing to suspected stroke because of visual disorders, gastroscopy, or colonoscopy due to gastrointestinal symptoms was performed at time of admission to hospital. Conclusions NE must be considered by physicians across the borders of nephrology to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures especially in areas where NE is endemic. PMID:26650941

  5. Sudeck's atrophy - MRI as a new diagnostic procedure. Morbus Sudeck - MRT als neues diagnostisches Verfahren

    Schimmerl, S.; Imhof, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). MR-Institut); Schurawitzki, H.; Canigiani, G.; Kramer, J. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institut fuer Radiologisch-Physikalische Tumordiagnostik, Vienna (Austria)); Fialka, V. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Klinik fuer Physikalische Medizin)

    1991-06-01

    20 patients with clinical diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) and positiv results in radiogram and three-phase radionuclide bone scanning were examined by MR, using T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted images before and after Gadolinium-DTPA i.v. Soft tissue and bone signal intensity changes can be classified in our diagnostic-therapeutic scheme and proven by histopathological changes. The differentiation between clinical stages is possible and allows an evalution of course and therapy. (orig./GDG).

  6. 儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序应用研究%Evaluation of the diagnostic procedure for chronic cough in children

    张晓波; 农光民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore and evaluate the diagnostic procedure for chronic cough in children.Methods One hundred and eleven patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University with chronic cough between December 2008 and January 2010 were included in the study. Etiologic diagnostic procedure suggested for children by Pediatric Branch of Chinese Medical Association was implemented to manage the patients,and the etiological data were analyzed. Results The causes of chronic cough were identified in 109 cases (98% of the total cases). A single cause of cough was diagnosed in 60 patients (54%), multiple potential causes of cough were recognized in 49 patients (44%), including two coexisting causes in 47 patients (42%) and three in 2 patients (2%).The causes of chronic cough in children were: 45 (40%) with cough variant asthma, 34 (30%) with upper airway cough syndrome, 19 (17%) with postinfection cough, 5 (5%) with allergic cough, 4 (4%) with Tourette's syndrome, 1 (1%) with psychogenic cough and others 3 (3%). Conclusions Etiologic diagnosis of chronic cough in children could be made by integrating the current diagnostic procedures with individual and dynamic evaluation and individual treatment. Improvement of clinical symptom was a main observation point; diagnosis should be revised timely if new diagnostic clues appear. It is important to pay attention to the possibility of coexistence of multiple causes. The diagnostic procedures coult identify and suggest most causes of chronic cough in children.%目的 探讨儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序的应用和评价.方法 选择2008年12月至2010年1月广西医科大学第一附属医院儿科就诊的慢性咳嗽患儿111例,参考中华医学会儿科学分会,儿童慢性咳嗽指南中的病因诊断程序,对病例进行评估并获得其病因.结果 明确及基本明确诊断109例(98%),原因不明2例(2%).单病因60例(54%),2个病因47例(42%),3个病因2例(2

  7. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 ± 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 ± 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 ± 0.42 Gy) were FR) were 269 Gy cm2, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1–102.7, p FR overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1–109.5, p FR overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1–7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis ≥ 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1–7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1–109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  8. Evaluation of the medical imaging procedures for the diagnosis of liver diseases: Part I. Experiments on the effectiveness of diagnostic image reading in 93 cases collected in Japan

    In 1989 the IAEA published the Atlas of Liver Imaging (IAEA-TECDOC-501). This report is a large compilation of the ''Evaluation of nuclear medicine imaging procedures for the diagnosis of liver diseases'' project conducted over the 5-year period from 1984 to 1988. The purpose of the project was to assess the actual state of nuclear medicine diagnostic technical know-how in the management of liver diseases in the countries of Asia. The work related to the project was conducted in three phases: first, on the investigation of the state of maintenance of the diagnostic equipment of nuclear medicine (gamma cameras or scintillation scanners) in each participating country, second, on the use of the phantoms for nuclear medicine specifically prepared and distributed by the IAEA, to assess objectively the detection capabilities of nuclear medicine equipment in routine diagnostic use, and third, collection of scintigrams of patients who have actually been diagnosed by nuclear medicine procedure from each country accompanied by clinical information, including the definite diagnosis, information on the imaging conditions etc. The physicians in each country participated in the interpretation and assessment of specific features. The atlas cited above, included the results of the 2nd and 3rd surveys, and, in addition, described images of typical cases used in the third experiment. At present, liver diseases still pose a threat to human health and welfare. The diagnostic technology has shown continuous expansion. Nuclear medicine (NM) is being used practically in all countries, including developed countries. In addition, ultrasound tomography (US) and X-ray CT are used in parallel. MRI is also being used in Japan, the United States and most of the developed and developing countries. In view of these situations, the IAEA extended its previous cooperative research one step further, deciding to survey the current status of the diagnosis of liver diseases by NM and US in the countries

  9. Follow-up study of persons who had iodine-131 and other diagnostic procedures during childhood and adolescence

    A prospective study of 3,503 children and adolescents who received diagnostic doses of iodine-131 was conducted to evaluate the risk of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasia. The exposed group was followed for a total of 93,442 person-years. Thyroid doses received by the exposed group ranged from less than 10 rads to slightly more than 2,000 rads. The majority received less than 100 rads. A group of 2,594 children and adolescents who were not exposed to radioactive iodine comprised the control group for the study. Members of the control group were followed for a total of 66,797 person-years. An elevated risk of malignant thyroid tumors was observed in the exposed group. An increased risk of benign thyroid conditions was also noted in the exposed group. The results described above failed to fulfill the requirements for statistical significance because of the small number of cases but are suggestive of a radiation effect

  10. Radiopharmaceutical activities administered for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine in the first six months of the gamma camera use in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica

    Nuclear medicine procedures have carried out in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica since 2006 by the dual-headed SPECT and Digital gamma camera NUCLINE Spirit DH-V. In the first six months of the gamma camera use (from September 2006 to March 2007) examinations of skeleton, kidneys, thyroid and lung were performed. For diagnostic skeletal imaging (102 patients) the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MDP is used, and administered activities were in the range from 555 to 740 MBq. For thyroid imaging (203 patients) 99mTc-pertechnetate is used, and administered activities were in the range (37-111) MBq. Lung imaging is performed for 3 patients, using 99mTc-MAA and administered activities in the range (111-185) MBq. Renal imaging is carried out for 72 patients: 42 dynamic studies of kidneys were performed with 99mTc-DTPA and administered activities from 207 to 282 MBq, and 30 static kidneys scintigraphies were performed using the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-DMSA. 6 patients in the last mentioned group were children with year of birth between 2000 and 2006, and administered activities were from 16.6 to 55.5 MBq. In the same group, activities 28.5 MBq, 74.4 MBq and 120 MBq were administered to three patients with age between 6 and 18 years, and in the other cases, administered activities to the patients (adults) were in the range (59.2 to 196) MBq. The administered activities presented here are basis for further estimations of cumulated activity and absorbed dose to the various organs, which is useful for comparison of the average dose to patient organs in various nuclear medicine procedures and calculation of effective dose equivalent and total effective dose, significant for an estimation of potential risk due to the radioactivity administered to a patient during nuclear medicine procedures. It is very important for procedures optimization and improvement of the radiation protection. (author)

  11. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems; Elaboracao de um procedimento para controle de qualidade em sistemas de radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Andrade, Paula Serra Sasaki

    2007-07-01

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  12. Optimization of the procedure of cholecystography per os in children as a method of raising its diagnostic informative value

    Methods of performance of unified cholecystograhy per os were developed on the basis of the results of X-ray and ultrasonic investigations of the gall bladder in 168 children. A method of contrast medium dosage to raise the informative value of cholecystography was proposed. A procedure of taking pictures with a patient lying in a prone position, an X-ray tube being turned in accordance with an angle of gall bladder inclination to the anterior abdominal wall, was worked out, making it possible to detect, with a high degree of reliability, the most common development defects of the gall bladder and to define its true sizes on the basis of X-ray findings

  13. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel

  14. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    D' Ercole, Loredana, E-mail: l.dercole@smatteo.pv.it [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Klersy, Catherine [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Research Department, (Italy); Bocchiola, Milena [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Lisciandro, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  15. Ictal brain SPET during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol: a new diagnostic procedure in drug-resistant epileptic patients

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro; Bruno, Isabella; Di Giuda, Daniela; De Rossi, Giuseppe; Troncone, Luigi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168 Roma (Italy); Parbonetti, Giovanni; Colicchio, Gabriella [Department of Neurosurgery, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma (Italy)

    2002-10-01

    Functional brain imaging plays an important role in seizure focus localisation. However, truly ictal single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies are not routinely performed owing to technical problems associated with the use of tracers and methodological and logistical difficulties. In this study we tried to resolve both of these issues by means of a new procedure: technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPET performed during seizures pharmacologically provoked with pentylenetetrazol, a well-known central and respiratory stimulant. We studied 33 drug-resistant epileptic patients. All patients underwent anamnestic evaluation, neuropsychological and psychodynamic assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, interictal and ictal video-EEG monitoring, and interictal and ictal SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. In order to obtain truly ictal SPET, 65 mg of pentylenetetrazol was injected every 2 minutes and, immediately the seizure began, 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD was injected. The scintigraphic findings were considered abnormal if a single area of hyperperfusion was present and corresponded to the site of a single area of hypoperfusion at interictal SPET: the ''hypo-hyperperfusion'' SPET pattern. In 27 of the 33 patients (82%), interictal-ictal SPET showed the hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern. Video-EEG showed a single epileptogenic zone in 21/33 patients (64%), and MRI showed anatomical lesions in 19/33 patients (57%). Twenty-two of the 27 patients with hypo-hyperperfusion SPET pattern underwent ablative or palliative surgery and were seizure-free at 3 years of follow-up. No adverse effects were noted during pharmacologically provoked seizure. It is concluded that ictal brain SPET performed during pharmacologically provoked seizure provides truly ictal images because {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is injected immediately upon seizure onset. Using this feasible procedure it is possible to localise the focus, to avoid the limitations due to the unpredictability

  16. Genetic and Non-Genetic Cystic Kidney: An Overview, Morphological Classification and Diagnostic Value of Imaging Procedures

    M. Mearadji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital renal cystic disease comprises a mixed group of developmental anomalies with different etiology, histology and clinical presentation. Progress in molecular genetics as well as use of prenatal and postnatal ultrasound contributed in early diagnosis and differentiation of congenital cystic diseases of the kidney. "nIn a retrospective study clinical and imaging findings of 131 infants and children with cystic diseases of kidney were collected with reviewing of clinical and imaging findings."nThis patient material is categorized in two groups: inherited renal cystic diseases and non-inherited cystic kidney diseases."nThe group of inherited renal diseases includes 28 patients with an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. Eleven infants and children suffered from an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD. The remaining 6 of the 45 inherited cystic kidney diseases were 4 children with nephronophtisis and 2 with syndromal related cysts in kidney."nWithin the large group of patients with a non-inherited cystic kidney disease 79 infants and chil-dren were with one-sided non-functioning multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCKD. An ectopic ureter was found in 11 patients in this group and in 2 cases the ureter of the affected kidney was atretic. Lung hypoplasia was found in 2 cases with double-sided multicystic dysplastic kid-ney."nCystic nephroma (2 cases, renal cysts in malforma-tion syndromes (2 cases and the medullary sponge kidney (one case are the diagnosis of the remaining patients with a non-inherited renal cystic disease. "nSpecial attention should be payed to hepatic in-volvement in cases with ADPKD (hepatic cysts and ARPKD (liver fibrosis."nWithin the scope of this meeting the importance of early diagnostic and the incredible value of ultra-sound in prenatal and postnatal life will be empha-sized. The mode of inheritance in different genetic renal cystic diseases, complications and other addi

  17. Aberration measurement in HRTEM: Implementation and diagnostic use of numerical procedures for the highly precise recognition of diffractogram patterns

    The precise characterisation of the instrumental imaging properties in the form of aberration parameters constitutes an almost universal necessity in quantitative HRTEM, and is underlying most hardware and software techniques established in this field. We focus in this paper on the numerical analysis of individual diffractograms as a first preparatory step for further publications on HRTEM aberration measurement. The extraction of the defocus and the 2-fold astigmatism from a diffractogram is a classical pattern recognition problem, which we believe to have solved in a near-optimum way concerning precision, speed, and robustness. The newly gained measurement precision allows us to resolve fluctuations of the defocus and the 2-fold astigmatism and to assess thereby the optical stability of electron microscopes. Quantitative stability criteria are elaborated, which may serve as helpful guidelines for daily work as well as for microscope acceptance tests. -- Research Highlights: → Algorithms for the highly precise diffractogram analysis in HRTEM are introduced. → AMADEUS procedure measures defocus and astigmatism with a few Angstrom precision. → Aberration measurement meets the precision requirements of 0.5 A microscopy. → Quantitative criteria for the optical stability of HRTEMs are introduced.

  18. [Diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for two popular but quite distinct adverse reactions to food - fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance].

    Reese, I

    2012-04-01

    Claiming to suffer from adverse food reactions is popular. In contrast to the classical food allergy, there are some pathomechanisms which are evidently dose-dependent. Thus the procedure in diagnosis and therapy must undoubtedly differ from the practice when food allergy is suspected or proven. Nevertheless many patients suffering from dose-dependent adverse reactions to food are given strict elimination diets, which is neither necessary nor helpful and decreases their quality of life broadly. This holds especially true for fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance. For the latter, the term adverse reaction to ingested histamine is preferred, because histamine intolerance implies that symptoms are caused entirely by an enzyme defect. Why this is not very likely to be the only reason is discussed in this article. Both adverse reactions require an individual approach especially with regard to nutrition therapy. Therefore the task of diagnosis should be to establish an individual profile of tolerated and not tolerated foods taking into account that tolerance can greatly vary by meal composition, frequency and individual triggering factors. In view of this, therapeutic recommendations should not be based on the absolute quantities of the eliciting substance to be eliminated but on a feasible transfer into daily life. Thereby food restriction can be minimized and a high quality of life will be maintained. PMID:22477662

  19. Disrupt, Support and Document: The Role of Social Media in International Parental Child Abduction Cases Involving Japan

    Geraldine Carney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine the use of social media by parents involved in cases of international parental abduction to and from Japan, with a focus on cases of abduction to Japan. I argue that the use of social media in these cases is a symptom of and a counter to a legal system which has been outpaced by changes in society, particularly the creation and dissolution of international families. This article discusses a number of case studies of social media usage and locates these in the context of the contemporary Japanese legal system. While not ignoring the nefarious potential of social media usage, I come to a positive assessment of its use in cases of international parental child abduction involving Japan. I also question how its utility will change over time, depending on the legal system’s ability to adapt to societal changes and expectations.

  20. Fetal infection from rubeovirus or cytomegalovirus: correlation among maternal serological profiles, invasive diagnostic procedures, and long-term follow-up.

    Noia, G; Masini, L; De Santis, M; Scavo, M; Pomini, F; Grillo, R; Cattani, P; Ranno, O; Caruso, A; Mancuso, S

    1998-01-01

    Different variables influence the possibility that maternal viral infection may be transmitted to the fetus, although not all fetal infections result in fetal "illness" with consequent fetopathy. As concerns the fetus, prenatal diagnosis includes invasive techniques necessary for fetal tissue sampling. These techniques carry some risks. The fetal infectious risk, as determined by maternal clinico-serological profile and according to sonographic investigation, always should be weighed against the risks and benefits of invasive diagnostic procedures. The present study re-elaborates the criteria necessary for defining fetal risk as related to the maternal serological profile. In the 26 mothers with rubeola infection, the incidence of fetal mortality was 7.7%. Fetal prognosis worsens with the precocity of eruption. In these cases the esantema is the most reliable prognostic element as an indication to perform the invasive procedure. In the 15 patients with cytomegalovirus infection, no fetal or postnatal losses occurred. Morbidity occurred in 13.3% of cases, and the two ill fetuses were classified in the same risk group. In this group of patients, the maternal serological profile is a significant predictor of fetal morbidity. PMID:9502669

  1. Geometric pattern of the hominoid hallucal tarsometatarsal complex. Quantifying the degree of hallux abduction in early hominids

    Berillon, Gilles

    1999-05-01

    The degree of hallux abduction in extant and fossil hominoids is analysed in terms of geometric relationships between the first metatarsal and the medial cuneiform and quantified by angular data, in relation to grasping ability and locomotor pattern. The 'australopithecine' pattern corresponds to an abducted first podal ray with some grasping abilities and seems to be derived from a ' Proconsul-like' pattern rather than a 'living African great ape-like' pattern. The Olduvai Hominid 8 condition closely resembles that of the modern human which corresponds to a full bipedalism.

  2. Abduction, Deduction and Induction: Can These Concepts Be Used for an Understanding of Methodological Processes in Interpretative Case Studies?

    Åsvoll, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    Within the area of interpretative case studies, there appears to be a vast amount of literature about theoretical interpretations as the main analytical strategy. In light of this theoretically based strategy in case studies, this article presents an extended perspective based on Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of abduction, deduction and…

  3. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  4. The effects of core muscle activation on dynamic trunk position and knee abduction moments: implications for ACL injury.

    Jamison, Steve T; McNally, Michael P; Schmitt, Laura C; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2013-09-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common serious lower-extremity injuries experienced by athletes participating in field and court sports and often occurs during a sudden change in direction or pivot. Both lateral trunk positioning during cutting and peak external knee abduction moments have been associated with ACL injury risk, though it is not known how core muscle activation influences these variables. In this study, the association between core muscle pre-activation and trunk position as well as the association between core muscle pre-activation and peak knee abduction moment during an unanticipated run-to-cut maneuver were investigated in 46 uninjured individuals. Average co-contraction indices and percent differences between muscle pairs were calculated prior to initial contact for internal obliques, external obliques, and L5 extensors using surface electromyography. Outside tilt of the trunk was defined as positive when the trunk was angled away from the cutting direction. No significant associations were found between pre-activations of core muscles and outside tilt of the trunk. Greater average co-contraction index of the L5 extensors was associated with greater peak knee abduction moment (p=0.0107). Increased co-contraction of the L5 extensors before foot contact could influence peak knee abduction moment by stiffening the spine, limiting sagittal plane trunk flexion (a motion pattern previously linked to ACL injury risk) and upper body kinetic energy absorption by the core during weight acceptance. PMID:23891313

  5. Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing

    Rayner, M

    1994-01-01

    The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) $\\Gamma$ and an input formula $F$ are given, and the goal is to construct a fo...

  6. Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    ... neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis, brain tumor, acoustic neuroma (small tumors of the inner ear), and spinal ... auditory pathways in the brainstem, and detect acoustic neuromas. The patient sits in a soundproof room and ...

  7. Decision of the National People's Congress (NPC) Standing Committee on Strict Punishment for Criminals Who Abduct, Sell, and Kidnap Women and Children [4 September 1991].

    1991-09-01

    This document contains the text of a 1991 Chinese amended law which seeks to punish criminals who abduct and sell women and children. The law assigns a prison sentence of 3-10 years and a fine for the abduction and sale of women and children. When circumstances are deemed especially serious, the penalty is increased to death and confiscation of property. Such circumstances include being the ringleader of a group which abducts and sells women and children, abducting and selling three or more women or children, raping abducted women, inducing or forcing women to prostitution, causing serious injury or death to abducted women and children or their relatives, and selling women and children outside of the territory. A 10-year sentence is to be imposed for the use of force, threats, or narcotics to kidnap women and children to sell them. Those who buy abducted women or children are also to be punished unless they fail to obstruct the women from returning to their home, fail to abuse the children, or fail to obstruct the children from saving themselves. PMID:12292476

  8. CT-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal lung lesions as the method for reducing the number of invasive diagnostic procedures

    Background: CT-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) of focal lung lesions is one of the possibilities of obtaining histopathological diagnosis in pulmonary diseases. Its place in the algorithm is determined by the invasiveness. In case of no diagnosis after bronchoscopy or endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) guided biopsy, CT-guided FNB can become an alternative for more invasive procedures, such as open lung biopsy - thoracotomy. Material/Methods: Since January 2009 until February 2010, we performed 37 CT-guided FNB in 34 patients aged 31 to 76 (mean age 60.9). Among them, there were 16 women and 18 men. All patients underwent a standard chest CT with contrast medium injection. They were diagnosed with focal lesions and they were rejected from surgery as the primary method of treatment. During biopsy, the patient was positioned prone or supine, depending on the location of lesions. After performing a scout image and initial slices, we marked the level of biopsy, using a metal marker. Next, the biopsy needle was introduced under local anesthesia. When the obtained position of the needle in the lesion was correct, the specimen was taken. After needle removal, the patient was controlled for the presence of complications (i.e. pneumothorax). Biopsy time ranged from 10 to 50 minutes. Results: In 94.6% of biopsies, the specimens for histopathological and cytological examinations were obtained. In 22 (64.7%) patients, histopathological diagnoses (in 14 cases this was the non-small cell cancer and in 8, inflammatory lesions) were established which allowed us to resign from invasive thoracotomy and to introduce an appropriate treatment. In the remaining 12 patients, no diagnosis was established. Complications in the form of a minor pneumothorax occurred in 2 patients. Conclusions: Fine-needle biopsy of the focal lung lesions is an affective and a relatively safe method, which can replace the more invasive diagnostic thoracotomy in the majority of patients. (authors)

  9. Magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back during humeral abduction and external rotation

    To describe the magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back and determine the reliability of MR in the abducted and externally rotated (ABER) position for the prospective diagnosis of arthroscopically proven cases of posterosuperior labral peel back. After approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, databases of patients who underwent arthroscopy over a 2-year period for one of three clinical diagnoses [suspected type 2 superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, posterior instability, or multidirectional instability] were reviewed after anonymization by an honest broker. Sixty-three cases were selected by the following inclusion criteria: operative report documenting labral peel back in the ABER position, age <40 years, and preceding MR arthrogram evaluations with images in the ABER position (n = 34). Inclusion criteria for the control group differed from those for the case group insofar as the operative note documented the absence of posterosuperior labral peel back (n = 29). Cases and controls were randomized in one list and evaluated independently by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists unaware of the surgical results and using a three-point grading system (0 = posterosuperior labrum normally positioned lateral/craniad to glenoid articular plane in ABER; 1 = posterosuperior labral tissue flush with the glenoid articular plane in ABER; 2 = posterosuperior labral tissue identified medial/caudal to glenoid articular plane in ABER). Only one image in ABER showing abnormal posterosuperior labral position was required for a grade of 1 or 2 to be assigned. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were calculated as well as the level of agreement between readers (kappa). Both readers assigned a grade of 2 to 25 of 34 patients with surgically proven labral peel back. Of the patients with surgically proven SLAP tears with peel back in ABER

  10. Diagnostic imaging of shoulder impingement

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a method that has been advancing in the last few years to the modality of choice for diagnostic evaluation of the bone joints, as the method is capable of imaging not only the ossous but also the soft tissue components of the joint. MRI likewise has become an accepted method for diagnostic evaluation of syndromes of the shoulder, with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting rotator cuff lesions, or as an efficient MRI arthrography for evaluation of the instability or lesions of the labrocapsular complex. In the evaluation of early stages of shoulder impingement, the conventional MRI technique as a static technique yields indirect signs which in many cases do not provide the diagnostic certainty required in order to do justice to the functional nature of the syndrome. In these cases, functional MRI for imaging of the arm in abducted position and in rotational movement may offer a chance to early detect impingement and thus identify patients who will profit from treatment at an early stage

  11. Effects of experimental muscle pain on shoulder-abduction force steadiness and muscle activity in healthy subjects

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per;

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the steadiness of shoulder abduction is reduced in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), which might be related to shoulder pain associated with the SIS. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of experimental shoulder muscle...... pain on shoulder motor function in healthy subjects. The fluctuations in exerted force (force steadiness) and electromyographic (EMG) activity from eight shoulder muscles were determined during sub-maximal isometric and dynamic contractions with the shoulder abductors in nine healthy subjects (27.......7 +/- 4.2 years, mean +/- 1 SD) before, during and after experimental pain induction. Experimental pain was induced by bolus injections of 6% hypertonic saline into the supraspinatus muscle. Experimental muscle pain reduced shoulder-abduction force steadiness on average by 21% during isometric...

  12. The effects of sexual violence on psychosocial outcomes in formerly abducted girls in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Ovuga, Emilio; Jones, Peter Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sexual violence on the odds of different psychosocial outcomes (depression, psychotic symptoms, somatic complaints, conduct problems, daily functioning, community relations, and stigma) among formerly abducted girls in Uganda. Methods Data from an on-going War-Affected Youth Study (WAYS) in Uganda was used to compute the prevalence of psychosocial problems (scores ≥ 75th percentile) among three categories of formerly abdu...

  13. INTER-RATER AND INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF ACTIVE HIP ABDUCTION TEST FOR STANDING INDUCED LOW BACK PAIN

    Mansi Shah; Pravin Aaron; Subin Solomen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Active hip abduction test (AHAbd) has previously been shown to be a reliable tool for predicting low back pain development during a prolonged standing exposure in previously asymptomatic individuals, but the reliability of AHAbd on patients with standing induced occupational low back pain has not been established. As it is an observation based test, reliability among different raters and same rater must be established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater ...

  14. The interpretation and application of article 13(b) of the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction

    Robinson, Jacobus Abraham; Weideman, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how courts in the UK, the USA and South Africa apply and interpret article 13(b) of the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Courts in the UK have always adopted a very narrow interpretation and application of this defence. Even domestic violence victims who flee with their children to escape domestic violence have had difficulty invoking this defence successfully. This very narrow interpretation is due to the fact that English courts a...

  15. Definition of anatomical zero positions for assessing shoulder pose with 3D motion capture during bilateral abduction of the arms

    Rettig, Oliver; Krautwurst, Britta; Maier, Michael W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical interventions at the shoulder may alter function of the shoulder complex. Clinically, the outcome can be assessed by universal goniometry. Marker-based motion capture may not resemble these results due to differing angle definitions. Methods: The clinical inspection of bilateral arm abduction for assessing shoulder dysfunction is performed with a marker based 3D optical measurement method. An anatomical zero position of shoulder pose is proposed to determine absolute an...

  16. Using Abductive Machine Learning for Online Vibration Monitoring of Turbo Molecular Pumps

    R.E. Abdel-Aal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbo molecular vacuum pumps constitute a critical component in many accelerator installations, where failures can be costly in terms of both money and lost beam time. Catastrophic failures can be averted if prior warning is given through a continuous online monitoring scheme. This paper describes the use of modern machine learning techniques for online monitoring of the pump condition through the measurement and analysis of pump vibrations. Abductive machine learning is used for modeling the pump status as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ using both radial and axial vibration signals measured close to the pump bearing. Compared to other statistical methods and neural network techniques, this approach offers faster and highly automated model synthesis, requiring little or no user intervention. Normalized 50-channel spectra derived from the low frequency region (0–10 kHz of the pump vibration spectra provided data inputs for model development. Models derived by training on only 10 observations predict the correct value of the logical pump status output with 100% accuracy for an evaluation population as large as 500 cases. Radial vibration signals lead to simpler models and smaller errors in the computed value of the status output. Performance is comparable with literature data on a similar diagnosis scheme for compressor valves using neural networks.

  17. Determination of radioisotopes in gamma-ray spectroscopy using abductive machine learning

    An algorithmic approach has been adopted for many years for identifying and quantifying radioisotopes in high-resolution gamma-ray spectra. Complexity of the technique, particularly when used with lower resolution detectors, warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only during training, while actual sample analysis is greatly simplified. This should be advantageous in developing simple portable systems for fast online analysis of large numbers of samples, particularly in situations where accuracy can be traded off for speed and simplicity. Solutions based on neural networks have been reported in the literature. This paper describes the use of abductive networks which offer shorter training times and a simpler and more automated approach to model synthesis. The abductory induction mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for determining isotopes in both single- and multiple-isotope samples represented by spectra from an NaI(Tl) detector. Inspite of a 50-fold poorer resolution for the AIM spectral data, AIM results are adequate, with average errors ranging between 11.8% and 20.5% for a number of simulated multi-isotope cocktails. (orig.)

  18. Abduction and external rotation (ABER) MR arthrography of the shoulder. Benefits and limitations

    The purpose of this study was to show the benefits and limitations of using abduction and external rotation (ABER) positions of the arm during MR arthrography of the shoulder in the evaluation of the rotator-cuff tendon, the capsulolabral complex and the shoulder joint after surgery. Forty-seven patients complaining of either shoulder instability, chronic shoulder pain, pain of unknown cause or pain following shoulder surgery were studied using the direct MR arthrography technique in both the standard neutral position with the arm adducted as well as with the arm in the ABER position. A correlation was obtained between the MR arthrography findings and the surgical findings in 10 reports and clinical presentations of the examined patients. Three patients [6%] were unable to perform ABER positioning. ABER oblique axial images were better than standard oblique coronal images in revealing undersurface tears of the rotator cuff particularly of the grade I type. Four tears were missed in standard images. Oblique axial images were better than standard axial images in demonstrating non-displaced anterior labral tears. One tear was missed and two tears were suspected in the standard images. Oblique axial images were less sensitive than oblique coronal images in the diagnosis of superior labral tears. Two tears were missed in ABER images. The ABER oblique axial MR arthrogram is a useful adjunct to the standard axial and oblique coronal MR arthrograms for assessment of capsulolabral abnormalities and rotator-cuff tendon tears despite some limitations. (author)

  19. Textbook of diagnostic imaging

    Three volumes provide information organized by major topics covering the state-of-the-art for all imaging procedures. It includes coverage of the fundamentals of diagnostic imaging, and a system-by-system approach

  20. Diagnostics of bearings in presence of strong operating conditions non-stationarity—A procedure of load-dependent features processing with application to wind turbine bearings

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Barszcz, Tomasz; Urbanek, Jacek

    2014-05-01

    Condition monitoring of bearings used in Wind Turbines (WT) is an important issue. In general, bearings diagnostics is a well recognized field of research; however, it is not the case for machines operating under non-stationary load. In the case of varying load/speed, vibration signal generated by rolling element bearings is affected by operation factors, and makes the diagnosis relatively difficult. These difficulties come from the variation of vibration-based diagnostic features caused mostly by load/speed variation (operation factors), low energy of sought-after features, and low signal-to-noise levels. Analysis of the signal from the main bearing is even more difficult due to a very low rotational speed of the main shaft. In the paper, a novel diagnostic approach is proposed for bearings used in wind turbines. As an input data we use parameters obtained from commercial diagnostic system (peak-to-peak and root mean square (RMS) of vibration acceleration, and generator power that is related to the operating conditions). The received data cover the period of several months.

  1. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

    Arakaki Juliano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9. The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by

  2. Validity and reliability of isometric muscle strength measurements of hip abduction and abduction with external hip rotation in a bent-hip position using a handheld dynamometer with a belt.

    Aramaki, Hidefumi; Katoh, Munenori; Hiiragi, Yukinobu; Kawasaki, Tsubasa; Kurihara, Tomohisa; Ohmi, Yorikatsu

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relatedness, reliability, and validity of isometric muscle strength measurements of hip abduction and abduction with an external hip rotation in a bent-hip position using a handheld dynamometer with a belt. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults, with a mean age of 21.5 ± 0.6 years were included. Isometric hip muscle strength in the subjects' right legs was measured under two posture positions using two devices: a handheld dynamometer with a belt and an isokinetic dynamometer. Reliability was evaluated using an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC); relatedness and validity were evaluated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. Differences in measurements of devices were assessed by two-way ANOVA. [Results] ICC (1, 1) was ≥0.9; significant positive correlations in measurements were found between the two devices under both conditions. No main effect was found between the measurement values. [Conclusion] Our findings revealed that there was relatedness, reliability, and validity of this method for isometric muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer with a belt. PMID:27512280

  3. Thyroid diagnostics

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  4. Els Wouters, Maigret : “je ne déduis jamais”. La méthode abductive chez Simenon

    Andrianne, René

    2013-01-01

    À défaut d’originalité, cette étude a du moins l’avantage de bien cerner son sujet et de le développer méthodiquement. Elle pose d’abord quelques repères sémiotiques, tels les indices existentiels ou matériels, et tente de définir l’abduction. On étudie ensuite Maigret parmi ses collègues, Sherlock Holmes et Hercule Poirot, la méthode d’enquête et l’abduction proprement dite. Ce concept d’abduction, même s’il jouit de la caution d’Umberto Eco, reste malgré tout une notion quelque peu fumeuse....

  5. Caroli-Grumbach disease: comparative analysis of the value and efficiency of various diagnostic procedures to differentiate the sub-forms

    Fock, Ch.M.; Ranner, G.; Szolar, D.; Beaufort-Spontin, F.; Posch, E.; Kugler, Ch. [Clinical Hospital, Gratz (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Based on findings in the following case of Caroli-Grumbach disease, the value of various individual examinations for diagnostic purposes and their confirmation will be described. Thereby it will be shown that the diagnosis can be made through means of an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography and other examination methods, such as MRI and isotope examination. Thus, for further decision upon treatment important differentiation of the two sub-forms can ultimately be made through means of CT and ultrasound respectively color coded Doppler sonography. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs.

  6. Caroli-Grumbach disease: comparative analysis of the value and efficiency of various diagnostic procedures to differentiate the sub-forms

    Based on findings in the following case of Caroli-Grumbach disease, the value of various individual examinations for diagnostic purposes and their confirmation will be described. Thereby it will be shown that the diagnosis can be made through means of an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography and other examination methods, such as MRI and isotope examination. Thus, for further decision upon treatment important differentiation of the two sub-forms can ultimately be made through means of CT and ultrasound respectively color coded Doppler sonography. (author)

  7. An economic evaluation of the use of rare-earth screens to reduce the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures in Israel

    In contrasts, reducing the patient dose by using improved radiology equipment will often result in a constant reduction without further managerial effort for the lifetime of the equipment. Changing equipment is administratively far easier than altering long-established work practices. There are several methods available to achieve dose reduction in diagnostic radiology via this second category. For example, dose reductions of between 10% and 20% can be achieved independently by reducing attenuation between patient and image receptor to a minimum by means of carbon fiber components in couch tops, cassette fronts and anti-scatter grids [13-15]. Radiation dosage in film radiography can be reduced by approximately 50% by the use of rare- earth screens, which enable a faster film speed to be utilized (thus reducing exposure time) without significant loss in the diagnostic quality of the image. Rare-earth screens have been found in England to be the most cost-effective method of reducing dosage in film radiography, providing large dose reductions at considerably lower costs than carbon fiber components (authors)

  8. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  9. Diagnosis of remote metastasis of rectum cancer with the help of little invasive diagnostic procedure under the control of computed tomography

    In 124 patients who have rectum cancer the computer tomography was made of abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space and small pelvis with the purpose of definition of tumor prevalence. Remote metastasis are revealed in 26 patients, their most often localization - level (45.8 %). CT-attributes of organs remote metastasis are described: hypotensive spherical formation from 1.0 up to 4.0 cm in a diameter. Pathologically changed lymphonoduses were characterized by the increase in diameter more than 1.5 cm illegibility of contours, merge in a conglomerate. This changes have not specific character and also can be in case of hyperplasia of lymphonoduses. In 14 patients puncture biopsy of focal formations under the CT-control is made. Diagnostic efficiency of CT with puncture biopsy have made: accuracy - 0.92, sensitivity - 0.77, specificity - 0.96. A conclusion is made on high efficiency of the above method

  10. Diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    The recommendations of the Thyroid Section of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Endokrinologie have been established with a view to diagnostic practice; they help to define the most appropriate diagnostic procedure in consideration of its diagnostic value, necessity, expenditure in terms of time and cost, and the hazard involved. Methodological progress and recent scientific findings have been considered as well as economic aspects and the available technical facilities. The decision on what method to apply in thyroid diagnostics and therapy should be based on a specific anamnesis and a detailed physical examination. The measured data must be compatible with the patient's symptoms and with unambiguously established clinical signs. In a progressively structured diagnostic procedure, one should always start with the simple, non-invasive in vitro techniques. Functional diagnostics of thyroid diseases is supplemented by thyroid scintiscanning with short-lived radionuclides and by thyroid cytology. Experience and precise knowledge help to save funds and reduce the radiation doses applied. Of course, uncertain diagnoses and untypical findings necessitate a wider application of diagnostic means than clinically more or less validated diagnoses. (orig./MG)