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Sample records for abdominis plane block

  1. Transversus abdominis plane block: a cadaveric and radiological evaluation.

    McDonnell, John G

    2011-04-11

    The abdominal wall is a significant source of pain after abdominal surgery. Anterior abdominal wall analgesia may assist in improving postoperative analgesia. We have recently described a novel approach to block the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit, which we have termed a transversus abdominis plane block. The clinical efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block has recently been demonstrated in a randomized controlled clinical trial of adults undergoing abdominal surgery.

  2. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy

    Røjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik; Kiel, Louise B;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. SETTING: Hvidovre...... ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period....

  3. The analgesic effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Ra, Yoon Suk; Kim, Chi Hyo; Lee, Guie Yong; Han, Jong In

    2010-01-01

    Background Several methods are performed to control the pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recently, the transverse abdominis plane block has been proposed to compensate for the problems developed by preexisting methods. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block (US-TAP block) and compare efficacy according to the concentration of local analgesics in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Fifty-four pati...

  4. Comparison of transversus abdominis plane block vs spinal morphine for pain relief after Caesarean section.

    McMorrow, R C N

    2011-05-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an alternative to spinal morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section but there are few data on its comparative efficacy. We compared the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block with and without spinal morphine after Caesarean section in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

  5. The transversus abdominis plane block provides effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

    Carney, John

    2008-12-01

    Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy suffer significant postoperative pain. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently described approach to providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  6. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  7. Distribution patterns, dermatomal anesthesia, and Ropivacaine serum concentrations after bilateral dualtransversus abdominis plane block

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2012-01-01

    The ability of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks to anesthetize the upper abdomen remains debatable. We aimed to describe the local anesthetic distribution following ultrasound-guided TAP blocks with repeated magnetic resonance imaging investigations and to relate this to the resulting der...... dermatomal anesthesia....

  8. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Complicating “Blind” Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of patients who reported quadriceps femoris weakness and hypoesthesia over the anterior thigh after an inguinal hernia repair under transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Transient femoral nerve palsy is the result of local anesthetic incorrectly injected between transversus abdominis muscle and transversalis fascia and pooling around the femoral nerve. Although it is a minor and self-limiting complication, it requires overnight hospital stay and observation of the patients. Performing the block under ultrasound guidance and injecting the least volume of local anesthetic required are ways of minimizing its incidence.

  9. Transversus abdominis plane block for analgesia in renal transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Freir, Noelle M

    2012-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has proven effective in reducing opioid requirements and pain scores for some procedures involving the lower abdominal wall. In this study we assessed its efficacy in patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation.

  10. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  11. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    McDonnell, John G

    2008-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

  12. The beneficial effect of transversus abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Stjernholm, Pia; Kristiansen, Viggo B;

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with postoperative pain of moderate intensity in the early postoperative period. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. We hypothesi...... hypothesized that a TAP block may reduce pain while coughing and at rest for the first 24 postoperative hours, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery....

  13. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a...... medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and...

  14. Ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block: a new four-point approach

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Maschmann, C; Belhage, B; Jensen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Background: We describe a new ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block. Our hypothesis was that we could anaesthetize both the upper (Th6–Th9) and the lower (Th10–Th12) abdominal wall bilaterally using a four-point single-shot technique to provide effective post-operativ......Background: We describe a new ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block. Our hypothesis was that we could anaesthetize both the upper (Th6–Th9) and the lower (Th10–Th12) abdominal wall bilaterally using a four-point single-shot technique to provide effective post...... analogue scale 0–10) from a mean of 8.2 to a mean of 2.2 10 min after block performance (P<0.001). They were discharged from the post-anaesthesia care unit after an average of 34 min. Twenty-one patients (84%) did not require any i.v. opioids in the following 6 h. Sixteen patients (64%) were mobilized......-anaesthesia care unit, few patients required opioids on the day of surgery and mobilization was improved....

  15. The transversus abdominis plane block: a valuable option for postoperative analgesia? A topical review

    Petersen, P.L.; Mathiesen, O.; Torup, H.;

    2010-01-01

    access termed the 'oblique subcostal' access. A systematic search of the literature identified a total of seven randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of TAP block on post-operative pain, including a total of 364 patients, of whom 180 received TAP blockade. The surgical procedures included......The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newly described peripheral block involving the nerves of the anterior abdominal wall. The block has been developed for post-operative pain control after gynaecologic and abdominal surgery. The initial technique described the lumbar triangle of Petit...... clinically significant reductions of post-operative opioid requirements and pain, as well as some effects on opioid-related side effects (sedation and post-operative nausea and vomiting). Further studies are warranted to support the findings of the primary published trials and to establish general...

  16. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Torup, H; Bøgeskov, M; Hansen, E G;

    2015-01-01

    on top of paracetamol and ibuprofen or diclofenac. For the first 24 post-operative hours, we monitored PCA morphine consumption and pain scores with visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and while coughing. Post-operative nausea and number of vomits (PONV) were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients......BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is widely used as a part of pain management after various abdominal surgeries. We evaluated the effect of TAP block as an add-on to the routine analgesic regimen in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. METHODS: In a...... and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment, had no effect on morphine consumption, VAS pain scores, or frequency of nausea and vomiting after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with paracetamol and NSAID alone....

  17. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    Venkatraman R; Abhinaya RJ; Sakthivel A; Sivarajan G

    2016-01-01

    Rajagopalan Venkatraman, Ranganathan Jothi Abhinaya, Ayyanar Sakthivel, Govindarajan Sivarajan Department of Anaesthesia, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Background and aim: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) is a novel procedure to provide postoperative analgesia following inguinal hernia surgery. The utilization of ultrasound has greatly augmented the success rate of this block and additionally avoiding complications. The aim of our s...

  18. Comparison of transversus abdominis plane block vs spinal morphine for pain relief after Caesarean section.

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an alternative to spinal morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section but there are few data on its comparative efficacy. We compared the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block with and without spinal morphine after Caesarean section in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Eighty patients were randomized to one of four groups to receive (in addition to spinal anaesthesia) either spinal morphine 100 microg (S(M)) or saline (S(S)) and a postoperative bilateral TAP block with either bupivacaine (T(LA)) 2 mg kg(-1) or saline (T(S)). RESULTS: Pain on movement and early morphine consumption were lowest in groups receiving spinal morphine and was not improved by TAP block. The rank order of median pain scores on movement at 6 h was: S(M)T(LA) (20 mm)block-improved analgesia after Caesarean section. The addition of TAP block with bupivacaine 2 mg kg(-1) to spinal morphine did not further improve analgesia.

  19. Efficacy of trans abdominis plane block for post cesarean delivery analgesia: A double-blind, randomized trial

    Uma Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transverse abdominis plane (TAP block, a regional block provides effective analgesia after lower abdominal surgeries if used as part of multimodal analgesia. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, we determined the efficacy of TAP block in patients undergoing cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Totally, 62 parturients undergoing cesarean section were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either bilateral TAP block at the end of surgery with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine or no TAP block, in addition to standard analgesic comprising 75 mg diclofenac 8 hourly and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA tramadol. Each patient was assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after surgery by an independent observer for pain at rest and on movement using numeric rating scale of 0-10, time of 1 st demand for tramadol, total consumption of PCA tramadol, satisfaction with pain management and side effects. Results: Use of tramadol was reduced in patients given TAP block by 50% compared to patients given no block during 48 h after surgery (P < 0.001. Pain scores were lower both on rest and activity at each time point for 24 h in study group (P < 0.001, time of first analgesia was significantly longer, satisfaction was higher, and side effects were less in study group compared to control group. Conclusion: Transverse abdominis plane block was effective in providing analgesia with a substantial reduction in tramadol use during 48 h after cesarean section when used as adjunctive to standard analgesia.

  20. Treatment of Acute Flares of Chronic Pancreatitis Pain with Ultrasound Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block: A Novel Application of a Pain Management Technique in the Acute Care Setting

    Smith, Daryl I.; Kim Hoang; Wendy Gelbard

    2014-01-01

    The use of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block to provide either analgesia or anesthesia to the anterior abdominal wall is well described. The technique yields high analgesic effectiveness and is opioid sparing and potentially of long duration with reported analgesia lasting up to 36 hours. When compared to neuraxial analgesia, TAP blocks are associated with a lower incidence of hypotension and motor blockade. TAP blocks are typically described as providing somatic analgesia only without...

  1. Comparative Study between Levobupivacine versus Levobupivacaine Plus Dexmedetomidine for Transversus Abdominis Plane Block “TAP” in Post-Operative Pain Management after Abdominoplasty

    Wail Abdelaal; Ayman Anis Metry; Mona Refaat; Milad Ragaei; George Nakhla

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the work Transversus abdominis plane “TAP’’ block has been reported to be effective for post-operative analgesia for patients undergoing surgery involving abdominal wall incision by blocking anterior branches of thoracolumbar nerves originating from T6 – L1 , which innervates anterior abdominal wall. Dexmedetomidine has a well – known benefit in the relief of postoperative pain. The objective of this study is to evaluate effect of adding dexmedetomidine to levobupivacaine for p...

  2. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    Amany S Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30 or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone "8 mg" (dexamethasone group, n=30. The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA, morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01, 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01 and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02. Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002, with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003 and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03. No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  3. Feasibility and analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block after single-port laparoscopy in patients having bariatric surgery

    Wassef M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael Wassef, David Y Lee, Jun L Levine, Ronald E Ross, Hamza Guend, Catherine Vandepitte, Admir Hadzic, Julio TeixeiraDepartment of Anesthesiology, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a technique increasingly used for analgesia after surgery on the anterior abdominal wall. We undertook this study to determine the feasibility and analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP blocks in morbidly obese patients. We describe the dermatomal spread of local anesthetic in TAP blocks administered, and test the hypothesis that TAP blocks decrease visual analog scale (VAS scores.Patients and methods: After ethics committee approval and informed consent, 35 patients with body mass index >35 undergoing single-port sleeve gastrectomy (SPSG were enrolled. All patients received balanced general anesthesia, followed by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA; hydromorphone postoperatively; all reported VAS >3 upon arrival to the recovery room. From the cohort of 35 patients having single-port laparoscopy (SPL, a sealed envelope method was used to randomly select ten patients to the TAP group and 25 patients to the control group. The ten patients in the TAP group received ultrasound-guided TAP blocks with 30 mL of 0.2% Ropivacaine injected bilaterally. The dermatomal distribution of the sensory block (by pinprick test was recorded. VAS scores for the first 24 hours after surgery and opioid use were compared between the IV-PCA+TAP block and IV-PCA only groups.Results: Sensory block ranged from T5–L1. Mean VAS pain scores decreased from 8 ± 2 to 4 ± 3 (P=0.04 within 30 minutes of TAP block administration. Compared with patients given IV-PCA only, significantly fewer patients who received TAP block had moderate or severe pain (VAS 4–10 after block administration at 6 hours and 12 hours post-surgery. However, cumulative consumption of hydromorphone at 24 hours after SPSG surgery

  4. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

    Beena K Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  5. Ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis plane block versus continuous wound infusion for post-caesarean analgesia: a randomized trial.

    Michel Chandon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP block versus Continuous Wound Infusion (CWI with levobupivacaine after caesarean delivery. METHODS: We recruited parturients undergoing elective caesareans for this multicenter study. Following written informed consent, they received a spinal anaesthetic without intrathecal morphine for their caesarean section. The postoperative analgesia was randomized to either a bilateral ultrasound guided TAP block (levobupivicaine = 150 mg or a CWI through an elastomeric pump for 48 hours (levobupivacaine = 150 mg the first day and 12.5 mg/h thereafter. Every woman received regular analgesics along with oral morphine if required. The primary outcome was comparison of the 48-hour area under the curve (AUC pain scores. Secondary outcomes included morphine consumption, adverse events, and persistent pain one month postoperatively. RESULTS: Recruitment of 120 women was planned but the study was prematurely terminated due to the occurrence of generalized seizures in one patient of the TAP group. By then, 36 patients with TAP and 29 with CWI had completed the study. AUC of pain at rest and during mobilization were not significantly different: 50 [22.5-80] in TAP versus 50 [27.5-130] in CWI (P = 0.4 and 190 [130-240] versus 160 [112.5-247.5] (P = 0.5, respectively. Morphine consumption (0 [0-20] mg in the TAP group and 10 [0-32.5] mg in the CWI group (P = 0.09 and persistent pain at one month were similar in both groups (respectively 29.6% and 26.6% (P = 0.73. CONCLUSION: In cases of morphine-free spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, no difference between TAP block and CWI for postoperative analgesia was suggested. TAP block may induce seizures in this specific context. Consequently, such a technique after a caesarean section cannot be recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01151943.

  6. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Dahl, Jørgen B;

    2013-01-01

    The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks.The aim of this d...... of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter....

  7. TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK : A COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUE FOR POST OPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER ABDOMINAL GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER SURGERIES

    Arathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Gynecological cancer surgeries differ from non - cancer surgeries as the former involves extensive dissection , and tissue handling , which contributes to increased nociception perioperatively. Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in gynecological oncological set up. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is one of the new promising regional anesthesia technique complementing multi modal analgesic regimen. This is a prospective randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the role of the TAP block in Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for periope rative analgesia and reducing the requirement of opioid consumption . METHODS : 100 patients of ASA grade 1 and 2 undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection with below umbilical incision were randomized as block group to undergo TAP blo ck with bupivacaine 0.25% 20ml on each side (n=50 , versus non - block group (n=50. All patients received general anesthethesia. Block was performed before surgical incision bilaterally by using blind double pop technique in patients who were randomized to the block group. Intra operative analgesic regimen was with inj fentanyl 1.5 mic/k.g , repeated with 0.5mic/k.g depending on the requirement as assessed by the anaesthe - siologist based on haemodynamic parameters and post operatively by pain scores on numeri c visual analogue scale with inj . paracetamol 1gm followed by tramadol 2mg/kg and fentany 0.5mic/kg . Each patient was assessed post operatively at 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 , 16 , 20 , 24 hours for pain , nausea , vomiting and sedation . The data recorded . Descriptive a nd inferential sta ti stical analysis has been carried out using student t test , chi square/ fisher exact test in the present study. RESULTS : We studied 100 patients , 50 patients in block group and 50 patients in non - block group. The block group had significantly less pain

  8. Three different approaches to Transversus abdominis plane

    Zoka Milan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim The transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a new techniquefor providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. There is ongoing debate regarding access point for TAP block. The aim of this cadaveric study was to compare the spread of 40 mL of dye using three different approaches to TAP: subcostal , via the mid-axillary and via the lumbar triangle of Petit (LTOP. Methods Injection of black dye into the TAP was performed for each hemi-abdominal wall of 13 embalmed human cadavers by using 3 different access points: subcostal (9 hemi-abdomens, mid-axillary (9 and LTOP (8. This was followed by dissection to determine the extent of dye spread and nerve involvement in the dye injection. The shapes of the dye were traced onto clear plastic, which was then photographed. These digital photographs were loaded into the mathematical software programme Matlab, and the outline of the dye spread was digitised using a piecewise cubic spline, enabling the shapes to be plotted on a graph and the areas to be calculated. Results The area of the dye spread for subcostal, mid-axillary and LTOP was 85.1 (T7-L1, 58.9 (T10-L1 and 77.9cm2 (T10-L1, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between area of dye spread between subcostal and mid-axillary approach (p<0.01. Conclusion This dye injection study in a cadaver model indicates that subcostal approach is associated with a larger area of spread of dye than the mid-axillary approach. Dye injected through subcostal, mid-axillary and LTOP approaches demonstrated different nerve involvement.

  9. TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE (TAP BLOCK REDUCES POSTOPERATIVE MORHPINE REQUIRMENT AND POSTOPERATIVE SEDATION SCORES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMI NAL OPERATIONS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Melchisedec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a region al anaesthetic technique which has recently gained popularity. It i s being used for postoperative analgesia for upper and lower abdominal surgeries. Local anaestheti c is deposited in the neuro-fascial plane between the internal oblique and the transversus ab dominis muscle. We carried on this study to assess the postoperative pain and sedation scores in pa tients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries in a randomized controlled, double blind study. METHODS: 40 patients scheduled to undergo inguinal hernia repair or appendicectomy were randomly selected. All the patients received a general anaesthetic for the proposed surg ery. Patients were divided into two groups, a Tab block group in which the patients were given a Tap block after the induction of general anaesthetic and a control group in which the patients did not receive the Tap block. Patients in both the groups received Inj acetaminophen 1gm every 8 hourly and Inj morphine 0.05mg/kg intermittently every time the patient complaint of pa in postoperatively. Patients in both the groups were assessed for postoperative morphine require ments and sedation scores at 2,6,12 and 24 hours. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the verbal a nalogue scores for pain as well as the visual analogue scores for sedat ion in both the groups. Postoperative morphine requirement (24hours was significantly red uced in the patients who did not receive the Tap block as compared to the patients who receive the block (17.5mg Vs 7mg. Postoperative sedation scores were also significantl y less in the Tap block group as compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Tap block provides a highly effective analgesia in pa tients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. It reduces the morphine requirement and sedation scores in the 24 hours postoperative period.

  10. Comparison of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with bupivacaine and ropivacaine as adjuncts for postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomies

    Sinha, Shradha; Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Prasad, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a popular technique for post-operative analgesia in abdominal surgeries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of bupivacaine versus ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia using ultrasound-guided TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods: Sixty adults undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to receive ultrasound-guided TAP block at the end of the surgical procedure with either 0.25% bupivacaine (Group I, n = 30) or 0.375% ropivacaine (Group II, n = 30). All patients were assessed for post-operative pain and rescue analgesic consumption at 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h time points. Means for normally distributed data were compared using Student's t-test, and proportions were compared using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test whichever was applicable. Results: Patients receiving ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine (Group II) had significantly lower pain scores when compared to patients who received the block with bupivacaine (Group I) at 10 min, 30 min and 1 h. However, both the drugs were equivalent for post-operative analgesia and 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement (median [interquartile range]) (75.00 [75.00–75.00] in Group I vs. 75.00 [75.00–93.75] in Group II, P = 0.366). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine provides effective analgesia in the immediate post-operative period up to 1 h as compared to bupivacaine. However, both the drugs are similar in terms of 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement.

  11. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks for perioperative analgesia in upper abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Khaled Abdelsalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regional anesthetic techniques can be used to alleviate postoperative pain in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral ultrasound (US-guided rectus sheath (RS and transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks for better perioperative analgesia. Patients and Methods: It is a prospective, observer-blinded, randomized clinical study. 40 eligible patients undergoing elective liver resection or Whipple procedure were included. All patients received a standardized anesthetic technique. Group 1 (n = 20 received preincisional US-guided bilateral RS and TAP blocks using 20 ml volume of bupivacaine 0.25% for each, and group 2 (n = 20 received local wound infiltration at end of surgery with 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%. A standardized postoperative analgesic regimen composed of intravenous paracetamol and a morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA. The use of intraoperative fentanyl and recovery room morphine boluses, PCA-administered morphine, pain scores as well as number of patients′ experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ward at 6 and 24 h were recorded. Results: Group 1 patients received a significantly lower cumulative intraoperative fentanyl, significantly lesser boluses of morphine in postanesthesia care unit, as well, significantly lower cumulative 24 h postoperative morphine dosage than the group 2 patients. Pain visual analog scale scores were significantly lower at both 6 and 24 h postoperatively in TAP group when compared with the no-TAP group. There were no complications related to the TAP block procedures. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were detected. Conclusion: The combination of bilateral US-guided RS and TAP blocks provides excellent perioperative analgesia for major upper abdominal surgery.

  12. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters: A randomized trial in healthy volunteers

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Jørgen B Dahl; Mathiesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks. The aim of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter. Methods In this...

  13. Comparative Study between Levobupivacine versus Levobupivacaine Plus Dexmedetomidine for Transversus Abdominis Plane Block “TAP” in Post-Operative Pain Management after Abdominoplasty

    Wail Abdelaal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work Transversus abdominis plane “TAP’’ block has been reported to be effective for post-operative analgesia for patients undergoing surgery involving abdominal wall incision by blocking anterior branches of thoracolumbar nerves originating from T6 – L1 , which innervates anterior abdominal wall. Dexmedetomidine has a well – known benefit in the relief of postoperative pain. The objective of this study is to evaluate effect of adding dexmedetomidine to levobupivacaine for preemptive TAP block in the post-operative pain management after abdominoplasty surgery. Methods Sixty nine ASA I and II patients undergoing cosmetic abdominoplasty surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned in a double – blinded study divided into 3 groups. One group received bilateral TAP block performed by landmark – based technique with 20 ml 0.375% levobupivacaine plus 1 ml normal saline on each side “L group ‘’ and second dexmedetomidine group “M group ‘’received same volume of levobupivacaine plus 100µg dexmedetomidinein 1 ml, third control group” C group “received 21 ml normal saline on each side all patients received the block after induction of anesthesia and before surgical incision. Postoperative pain scores were recorded based on a visual analogue scale “VAS” using a 10 cm ruler where 0= no pain and 10 =worst possible pain just after full recovery and before administration of analgesics. Patients received meperidine 1mg/kg for every 4 h either on demand or if pain score ≥ 3. Total dose of mepridine consumption was recorded. Level of sedation, and side effects were also recorded. Results 23 patients of each group complete the study. Patients in M, L groups had significant lower pain score as compared to C group. Total postoperative 24 hours meperidine consumption in M, L group were significantly less than C group p < 0.001. Total postoperative 24 hours meperidine consumption in M group was less than in L

  14. The efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    Salman AE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ebru Salman,1 Fahri Yetisir,2 Banu Yürekli,3 Mustafa Aksoy,1 Murat Yildirim,2 Mehmet Kiliç21Anesthesiology and Reanimation Department, 2General Surgery Department, Atatürk Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3Endocrinology Department, Bozyaka Research and Training Hospital, Izmir, TurkeyPurpose: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, our aim was to compare the analgesic efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with a placebo block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair.Methods: After receiving hospital ethical committee approval and informed patient consents, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I–III patients aged 18–80 were enrolled in the study. Standard anesthesia monitoring was applied to all patients. After premedication, spinal anesthesia was administered to all patients with 3.5 mL heavy bupivacaine at the L3-L4 subarachnoid space. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group I (n = 32 received a placebo block with 20 mL saline, Group II (n = 32 received semi-blind TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine in 20 mL with a blunt regional anesthesia needle into the neurofascial plane via the lumbar triangle of Petit near the midaxillary line before fascial closure. At the end of the operation, intravenous (IV dexketoprofen was given to all patients. The verbal analog scale (VAS was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Paracetamol IV was given to patients if their VAS score > 3. A rescue analgesic of 0.05 mg/kg morphine IV was applied if VAS > 3. Total analgesic consumption and morphine requirement in 24 hours were recorded.Results: TAP block reduced VAS scores at all postoperative time points (P < 0.001. Postoperative analgesic and morphine requirement in 24 hours was significantly lower in group II (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Semi-blind TAP block provided effective analgesia, reducing total 24-hour postoperative analgesic

  15. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  16. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries

    Gadsden J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Gadsden,1 Sabry Ayad,2 Jeffrey J Gonzales,3 Jaideep Mehta,4 Jan Boublik,5 Jacob Hutchins6,7 1Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, CO, 4Department of Anesthesiology, UT Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 5Department of Anesthesiology, NYU Langone Medical Center – Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY, 6Department of Anesthesiology, 7Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by

  17. 超声引导腹横肌平面阻滞用于小儿腹股沟斜疝麻醉的临床观察%A Clinical Trial of Ultrasound-guided Transverses Abdominis Plane Block for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Inguinal Hernia Repair

    王维明; 杜立华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intra-and postoperative analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane ( TAP ) block in pediatric patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair.Methods 36 pediatric patients scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were randomly divided into two groups:study group ( group A ,n = 18 ) or control group( group B ,n = 18 ).Intravenous line was inserted before entering the operating room.KLS mixture 0.15 mL/kg was injected to make the patient sleep.Ultrasound-guided transverses abdominis plane block was performed, and 0.33% ropivacaine hydrochloride 1.5 mg/kg was injected for group A patients.The equal volume of normal saline was used instead for group B patients.KLS mixture was supplemented as needed.The hemodynamic response when incision,the volume of KLS mixture used,CHEOPS scores and Ramesay scores after operation were compared between the two groups.Results Compared to group B, the variation of mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) and hear rate ( HR ) when incision was significantly smaller in group A( P < 0.05 ).The analgesic scores of group A patients at 2,4,8 h after operation were significantly lower than group B patients( P < 0.05 ).The number of PCIA used was reduced in group A( P < 0.05 ).No TAP related side effects were observed in both groups.Conclusion Ultrasoundguided TAP block can be effectively used for inguinal hernia repair in pediatric patients.%目的 观察超声引导下腹横肌平面(TAP)阻滞用于小儿腹股沟斜疝手术患儿术中及术后的镇痛效果.方法 选择择期行小儿腹股沟斜疝修补术患儿36例,随机分为观察组(A组)和对照组(B组)各18例,入室前开放静脉通路,静脉注射KLS合剂0.15 mL/kg,待患儿入睡后,在超声引导下行TAP阻滞,A组注入0.33%盐酸罗哌卡因1.5 mg/kg,B组注入等量生理盐水.根据术中情况追加KLS合剂.比较两组患儿术中切皮反应、KLS合剂用量及术后CHEOPS评分、Ramesay评分等.结果 A

  18. Analgesic efficacy of the ultrasound-guided blockade of the transversus abdominis plane - a systematic review

    Javier Ripollés

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transverse abdominal plan blockade is a block of abdominal wall that has diffused rapidly in the clinical practice as part of a multimodal analgesia for abdominal surgery. The performance of the ultrasound-guided technique has allowed the lowering of potential complications, as well as new approaches that were carried out according to the descriptions, and the prospective studies would make it possible to utilize the transverse abdominal plan blockade in different surgical interventions; however, the results obtained in randomized clinical trials are inconsistent.OBJECTIVES: To prepare a systematic review aiming to determine the efficacy of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominal plan blockade for different surgical interventions, as well as the indications according to the approaches and their influences.METHODS: Two research approaches, one manual, and the other in Pubmed returned 28 randomized clinical trials where intervention with ultrasound-guided transverse abdominal plan blockades was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy in contrast to another technique in adults, published between 2007 and October 2013, in English or Spanish, with Jadad score > 1, according to the inclusion criteria for this review. The authors analyzed independently all the randomized clinical trials.CONCLUSIONS: The transverse abdominal plan blockades have been shown to be an effective technique in colorectal surgery, cesarean section, cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, appendectomy, donor nephrectomy, retropubic prostatectomy, and bariatric surgery. However, the data found in randomized clinical trial are not conclusive, and as a result, it is necessary to develop new and well designed randomized clinical trial, with enough statistical power to compare different approaches, drugs, doses, and volumes for the same intervention, aiming to answer the current questions and their effects in the habitual clinical practice.

  19. The effect of transversus abdominis plane block or local anaesthetic infiltration in inguinal hernia repair

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Mathiesen, Ole; Stjernholm, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    primary outcome measure was pain scores while coughing between group TAP and group placebo calculated as area under the curve for the first 24 h (AUC24 h). Secondary outcomes were pain scores while coughing and at rest, opioid consumption and side effects in groups TAP, infiltration and placebo. RESULTS......: Visual analogue pain scores while coughing and at rest demonstrated no difference between groups. Pain scores in groups infiltration, TAP and placebo were 19 versus 22 versus 15 mm at rest (P = 1.00) and 37 versus 41 versus 37 mm while coughing (P = 1.00). Pain scores at 6 h (AUC6 h) were significantly...

  20. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  1. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  2. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  3. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block for postoperative pain management: a review [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Jan Jakobsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale.

  4. Endometrioma in rectus abdominis muscle: case report

    İbrahim Halil Erdoğdu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectus abdominis muscle is one of the rare localizations of endometriosis. In this report, our aim was to present a case in which endometrioma was localized in rectus abdominis muscle. A 33-year old patient who underwent cesarean section six years before, complained of a painful mass measuring 4 cm localized at superior of the right side of incision scar. The mass which was found to be inside of the rectus abdominis muscle was excised totally. There was no relationship between the mass and intra-abdominal viscera and subcutaneous tissue. The result of pathologic examination was endometriosis. Endometrioma should be considered at differential diagnosis of abdominal wall mass in women during reproductive age especially if there is a past history of surgical intervention and shows variations according to menstrual cycle.

  5. Digital camcorder image stabilizer based on gray-coded bit-plane block matching

    Yeh, YeouMin; Chiang, Huang-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Jyh

    2001-10-01

    We propose an efficient algorithm to eliminate the nonpleasing effect caused by involuntary hand movement of camera holders. In our approach, 1-bit gray-coded bit- plane block matching, instead of 8-bit gray-level block matching, is used to greatly simplify the computation of motion estimation. This computation saving makes possible a finer division of image frame and thus facilitates the employment of a much more robust procedure for motion decision. To deal with various interfering factors in motion estimation, the temporal information of each local motion vector is also used to efficiently distinguish random-like movement from temporally correlated movement. To compensate for camera rotation, an affine model is used in the motion compensation unit without adding too much computation load. Having considered both programming flexibility and hardware efficiency, the motion decision unit and the motion compensation unit are coded in a microprocessor that interconnects with the stabilization hardware, which consists of the motion estimation unit and the digital zooming unit. A slightly simplified version of the proposed stabilizer is implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) board.

  6. Analysis of the effect of blocking mass at corner interface of two plates at arbitrary angles on transmission of plane bending waves

    2007-01-01

    Vibration energy transmission at corner interface of two infinite plates rigidly jointed at arbitrary angles was studied by wave approach so as to investigate the effect of blocking mass used for reducing plane bending wave transmission. Two local coordinate systems were introduced and six new non-dimensional coefficients implying corresponding ratio governing characteristic impedances of plates or blocking mass were introduced to simplify formulations of transmission and reflection coefficients. Five samples were tested in experiment.Discussions were carried out based on the comparison between prediction and experiment in terms of insertion loss. It is concluded that blocking mass at corner interface acts like a "lowpass filter", effective for vibration attenuation above certain frequency. The value of TL and IL in "attenuation band" depends mainly on mass per unit length and band width of "attenuation band" on mass moment of inertia per unit length of the blocking mass.

  7. Anatomical and Functional Recovery of Neurotized Remnant Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Muscle-Sparing Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap

    Woonhyeok Jeong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  Pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps typically sacrificethe entire muscle. In our experience, the lateral strip of the rectus abdominis muscle can bespared in an attempt to maintain function and reduce morbidity. When the intercostal nervesare injured, muscle atrophy appearswith time. The severed intercostal nervewasreinserted intothe remnantlateralstrip ofthe rectus abdominismuscle to reducemuscle atrophy.Methods  The authors retrospectively reviewed 9 neurotized cases and 10 non-neurotizedcases. Abdominal computed tomography was performed to determine the area of the rectusmuscles. Electromyography (EMGwas performed to check contractile function ofthe remnantmuscle. A single investigator measured the mean areas ofrandomly selected locations(secondlumbarspine using ImageJsoftware in a series of 10 cross-sectionalslices. We compared theHounsfield unit(HU pre- and postoperatively to evaluate regeneration quality.Results  In the neurotization group, 7 of 9 cases maintained the mass of remnant muscle.However, in the non-neurotization group, 8 of 10 losttheir mass. The number oftotally atrophied muscles in each of the two groups was significantly different (P= 0.027. All of theremnantmusclesshowed contractile function on EMG. The 9 remaining remnantrectus abdominis muscles showed declined the HU value after surgery but also within a normal range ofmuscle.Conclusions  Neurotization was found to be effective in maintaining the mass of remnantmuscle. Neurotized remnant muscle had contractile function on EMG and no fatty degeneration byHUvalue.

  8. In depth fusion flame spreading with a deuterium-tritium plane fuel density profile for plasma block ignition

    B.Malekynia; S.S.Razavipour

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state fuel ignition was given by Chu and Bobin according to the hydrodynamic theory at x =0 qualitatively.A high threshold energy flux density,i.e.,E* =4.3 x 1012 J/m2,has been reached.Recently,fast ignition by employing clean petawatt-picosecond laser pulses was performed.The anomalous phenomena were observed to be based on suppression of prepulses.The accelerated plasma block was used to ignite deuterium-tritium fuel at solid-state density.The detailed analysis of the thermonuclear wave propagation was investigated.Also the fusion conditions at x ≠ 0 layers were clarified by exactly solving hydrodynamic equations for plasma block ignition.In this paper,the applied physical mechanisms are determined for nonlinear force laser driven plasma blocks,thermonuclear reaction,heat transfer,electron-ion equilibration,stopping power of alpha particles,bremsstrahlung,expansion,density dependence,and fluid dynamics.New ignition conditions may be obtained by using temperature equations,including thc dcnsity profile that is obtained by the continuity equation and expansion velocity.The density is only a function of x and independent of time.The ignition energy flux density,E*t,for the x ≠ 0 layers is 1.95 × 1012 J/m2.Thus threshold ignition energy in comparison with that at x =0 layers would be reduced to less than 50 percent.

  9. SELECTIVE ACTIVATION OF THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE DURING LOW-INTENSITY AND FATIGUING TASKS

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the potential selective activation of the rectus abdominis muscle, we conducted two experiments. In the first, subjects performed two controlled isometric exercises: the curl up (supine trunk raise and the leg raise (supine bent leg raise at low intensity (in which only a few motor units are recruited. In the second experiment, subjects performed the same exercises, but they were required to maintain a certain force level in order to induce fatigue. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG activities of the lower and upper portions of the rectus abdominis muscle during the exercises and used spatial-temporal and frequency analyses to describe muscle activation patterns. At low-intensity contractions, the ratio between the EMG intensities of the upper and lower portions during the curl up exercise was significantly larger than during the leg raise exercise (p = 0.02. A cross-correlation analysis indicated that the signals of the abdominal portions were related to each other and this relation did not differ between the tasks (p = 0.12. In the fatiguing condition, fatigue for the upper portion was higher than for the lower portion during the curl up exercise (p = 0.008. We conclude that different exercises evoked, to a certain degree, individualized activation of each part of the rectus abdominis muscle, but different portions of the rectus abdominis muscle contributed to the same task, acting like a functional unit. These results corroborate the relevance of varying exercise to modify activation patterns of the rectus abdominis muscle

  10. Fibromatosis in vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap imitating tumor recurrence after surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer: case report

    Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Hole, Knut Håkon; Tønne, Elin; Ryder, Truls; Grøholt, Krystyna Kotanska; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    Background Abdominoperineal excision is performed in patients with locally advanced, low rectal carcinoma. Reconstruction of the dorsal vagina and perineum using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap following extensive surgery results in favorable surgical outcome and quality of life. However, the rectus abdominis muscle, as part of the anterior abdominal wall, may develop fibrous lesions also as a transplant. Case presentation A 39-year-old female patient with low rectal cancer an...

  11. Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players.

    Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA in professional tennis players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02 and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01 sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001. In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75. The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.

  12. Soccer attenuates the asymmetry of rectus abdominis muscle observed in non-athletes.

    Fernando Idoate

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA in professional soccer players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05 and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01 sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42 and in controls (P = 0.75 (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups. Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05 and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05. The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury.

  13. Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasonography to Measure Transverse Abdominis and Multifidus Muscle Dimensions

    Lumbar paraspinal muscles play an important role in providing both mobility and stability during dynamic tasks. Among paraspinal muscles, transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus have been of particular interest as active stabilizers of the lumbar spine. These muscles may become dysfunctional in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Low back injury can result in muscle inhibition and control loss that cannot recover spontaneously, and specific exercises are required to stimulate their recovery. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of ultrasonography to measure muscle dimensions and to present a reliable method for measuring transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus as stabilizing muscles of the lumbar spine. Fifteen healthy participants (18-55 year olds) were evaluated by a radiologist using ultrasonography (ES500) with two probes (50mm linear 7.5 MHZ and 70 mm curvilinear 3.5 MHz). The muscle thickness of transverse abdominis and the anterior-posterior diameter and cross sectional area of the LMF were measured. To determine within and between days reliabilities, second and third measurements were repeated with half an hour and one week intervals, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for left and right showed good to high reliability for the cross sectional area of lumbar multifidi (0.74 and 0.88, respectively) as well as the anterior-posterior dimensions of lumbar multifidi (0.89 and 0.91, respectively) and transverse abdomini thickness (0.73 and 0.85, respectively). Rehabilitative ultrasonography is a reliable and non-invasive instrument to measure muscle thickness. The method used in this study is a reliable way to measure lumbar stabilizing muscles

  14. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscu...

  15. [Free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps for reconstruction of the head and neck defects].

    Koshima, I; Handa, T; Satoh, Y; Akisada, K; Orita, Y; Yamamoto, H

    1995-01-01

    During the past eight years, tissue defects of the head and neck region in a total of 45 patients were repaired with free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps. These flaps are subclassified into (1) reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (2) thin reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (3) paraumbilical perforator-based flaps, and (4) thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps. The advantages of these flaps are as follows. Since the flaps involve no or only a small portion of the rectus abdominis muscle, (1) the muscle can be left intact on the abdominal wall, and (2) a thin flap can be easily created by simple defatting of the flap. These flaps overcome the major disadvantages of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, i.e., bulkiness of the flap and frequent postoperative abdominal herniation. The territory of the thin flaps is within 10 cm around the perforator. These flaps are suitable for defects in the head and neck region, because simultaneous flap elevation is possible at the time of tumor resection. Paraumbilical perforator-based flaps are suitable for young females and elderly patients. PMID:7897566

  16. Intrathecal opioid versus ultrasound guided fascia iliaca plane block for analgesia after primary hip arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomised, blinded, noninferiority controlled trial

    Kinsella John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip replacement surgery is increasingly common due to an ageing population, and rising levels of obesity. The provision of excellent pain relief with minimal side effects is important in order to facilitate patient mobilisation and rehabilitation. Spinal opioids provide excellent analgesia but are associated with adverse effects. The fascia-iliaca block is an alternative technique which provides analgesia to the nerves innervating the hip. The success of fascia iliaca blocks has been demonstrated to be superior when using ultrasound compared to landmark techniques. However, the clinical benefit of this improvement has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for hip replacement surgery. Methods/Design This study is a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial. Patients scheduled to undergo unilateral primary hip arthroplasty will receive a study information sheet and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either; (i Ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block using levobupivacaine, plus spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine containing no morphine, or (ii sham ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block performed with sterile saline, and spinal anaesthesia containing hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.1 mg of spinal morphine. A total of 108 patients will be recruited. Primary outcome is post-operative morphine consumption in a 24 hour period. Secondary outcomes include; pain scores at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, episodes of respiratory depression, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, time to first mobilisation and patient satisfaction. Conclusions There are no studies to date comparing ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for pain control after hip arthroplasty. If the ultrasound guided fascia iliaca

  17. Imaging-based assessment of rectus abdominis muscle thickness in an adult population: evaluating possible anthropometric relationships

    Ogugua Augustine Egwu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Very little attention has been paid to muscle architecture in the Sub-Saharan African environment, and the rectus abdominis muscle, being a stabilising agent in the trunk, should not be left out. Considering the incidence of trunk musculoskeletal discomfort, it is necessary to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Aim of the research: To assess the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle in an apparently healthy adult population using ultrasound and to evaluate its possible relationship with important anthropometric variables. Material and methods : A total of 120 healthy subjects made up of 60 males and 60 females, who gave their written consent, were recruited for this study. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Anthropometric variables were also assessed. Results: The results show that the rectus abdominis thickness (RAT was 14.68 ±2.92 mm and 14.37 ±2.74 mm for the right (RRAT and left (LRAT sides, respectively. The males had significantly thicker muscles than the females (p = 0.004 and the RAT correlated positively with age, weight, height, body mass index, body surface area, waist circumference, and conicity index. Conclusions: These results show robust myoanthropometric relationships that will assist surgeons in reconstructive procedures involving the muscle. They will also serve as a guidepost in the biomechanical assessment of the muscle in lifting sports for an African population, in the study of muscle flaps, and in the general evaluation of trunk mass.

  18. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  19. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Balius R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Balius1, Carles Pedret2, Laura Pacheco1, Josep Antoni Gutierrez3, Joan Vives4, Jaume Escoda11Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona; 2Centro Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Barcelona; 3Spanish National Handball Team, Spain; 4Granollers Handball Club, Granollers, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.Keywords: rectus abdominis, muscle injury, sonography, MRI, handball 

  20. Fabrication of ultra-dense sub-10 nm in-plane Si nanowire arrays by using a novel block copolymer method: optical properties.

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Ntaras, Christos; O'Connell, John; Shaw, Matthew T; Holmes, Justin D; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Morris, Michael A

    2016-01-28

    The use of a low-χ, symmetric block copolymer as an alternative to the high-χ systems currently being translated towards industrial silicon chip manufacture has been demonstrated. Here, the methodology for generating on-chip, etch resistant masks and subsequent pattern transfer to the substrate using ultra-small dimension, lamellar, microphase separated polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) is described. Well-controlled films of a perpendicularly oriented lamellar pattern with a domain size of ∼8 nm were achieved through amplification of an effective interaction parameter (χeff) of the BCP system. The self-assembled films were used as 'templates' for the generation of inorganic oxides nanowire arrays through selective metal ion inclusion and subsequent processing. Inclusion is a significant challenge because the lamellar systems have less chemical and mechanical robustness than the cylinder forming materials. The oxide nanowires of uniform diameter (∼8 nm) were isolated and their structure mimics the original BCP nanopatterns. We demonstrate that these lamellar phase iron oxide nanowire arrays could be used as a resist mask to fabricate densely packed, identical ordered, good fidelity silicon nanowire arrays on the substrate. Possible applications of the materials prepared are discussed, in particular, in the area of photonics and photoluminescence where the properties are found to be similar to those of surface-oxidized silicon nanocrystals and porous silicon. PMID:26731306

  1. Delayed Soft Tissue Reconstruction with a Horizontal Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap following Hip Exarticulation

    Jes Christian Rødgaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage of large soft tissue defects at the hip region constitutes a challenge for plastic surgeons. We report the case of a 43-year-old female with necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh, necessitating hip exarticulation and substantial debridement of necrotic tissue. An ipsilateral horizontal rectus abdominis myocutaneous (HRAM flap was used to cover the defect. The reconstruction was carried out after the attempt of local tissue rearrangement. In light of the successful outcome, we propose that this flap be considered in the future planning of soft tissue reconstruction at the hip region.

  2. A comparative study of aging of the elastic fiber system of the diaphragm and the rectus abdominis muscles in rats

    C.J. Rodrigues

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the age-related changes of the striated muscle elastic fiber system were investigated in the diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles of 1-, 4-, 8- and 18-month-old rats. The activation patterns of these muscles differ in that the diaphragm is regularly mobilized tens of times every minute during the entire life of the animal whereas the rectus abdominis, although mobilized in respiration, is much less and more irregularly activated. The elastic fibers were stained by the Verhoeff technique for mature elastic fibers. Weigert stain was used to stain mature and elaunin elastic fibers, and Weigert-oxone to stain mature, elaunin and oxytalan elastic fibers. The density of mature and elaunin elastic fibers showed a progressive increase with age, whereas the amount of oxytalan elastic fibers decreased in both diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles and their muscular fascias. These age-related quantitative and structural changes of the elastic fiber system may reduce the viscoelastic properties of the diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles, which may compromise the transmission of tensile muscle strength to the tendons and may affect maximum total strength.

  3. A panel data set on harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis.

    Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Wen Yue; Hu, Zhi Qian; Turner, Neill J; Zhang, Li; Wang, Qiang; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-06-01

    In this dataset, we particularly depicted the harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis (RA), accompanied with displaying of the retained vascular trees within the perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle matrix (pM-ECM) using vascular corrosion casting. In addition, several important tips for successful pM-ECM preparation were emphasized, which including using anatomically isolated skeletal muscle as tissue source with all main feeding and draining vessels perfused, preserving the internal microcirculation availability, aseptic technique and pyrogen free in all steps, sequential perfusion via artery or vein, and longtime washing after decellularization. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of pM-ECM as a clinically relevant scale, three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template for tissue-specific regeneration, "Perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle as a three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template" Zhang et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27158653

  4. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  5. Reconstruction of large composite oromandibulomaxillary defects with free vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps.

    Butler, Charles E; Lewin, Jan S

    2004-02-01

    Large composite oromandibulomaxillary defects resulting from oncologic resection can be challenging to reconstruct with a single flap, and functional outcomes remain anecdotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the authors' surgical experience and scientifically analyze and describe the functional outcomes associated with the use of the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of these defects. The records of seven patients (mean age, 62 years) who underwent composite resection including hemimandibulectomy, partial maxillectomy, partial pharyngectomy, and floor-of-mouth resection followed by immediate free vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (1998 to 2002) were retrospectively reviewed. The tumor type was squamous cell carcinoma in all seven cases; four patients had T4 primary lesions and three had local recurrences. Radiotherapy was used preoperatively in each of the three recurrent cases (mean dose, 70.6 Gy) and postoperatively in three of the four patients with primary tumors (mean dose, 63.0 Gy). The mean length of hospitalization was 8.7 days. There were no major flap complications, fistulas, or donor-site complications. Partial flap necrosis (4 percent of flap area) occurred in one patient and dehiscence of the neck incision occurred in another. Both cases were managed with surgical débridement and closure. A third patient developed a 0.75-cm superficial suture line abscess that healed with dressing changes. The mean postoperative follow-up was 15 months. Six of the seven patients remained tube dependent for their nutrition despite some swallowing improvement; one patient returned to full oral intake. The most common swallowing deficit was impaired laryngeal excursion, which occurred in all six patients evaluated with videofluoroscopic examination and resulted in risk for aspiration in patients and frank aspiration in 83 percent. Speech was

  6. Reconstruction of an emergency thoracotomy wound with free rectus abdominis flap: Anatomic and radiologic basis for the surgical technique

    Barnett Carlton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An alcoholic 50-year-old male patient with a history of schizophrenia sustained stab wounds into both ventricles and left lung, and survived following an emergency department thoracotomy. The EDT wound, however became infected requiring serial debridements of soft tissue, rib cartilage and sternum. Regional flap options such as pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps could not be employed due to inadequate reach of these flaps. Additionally, bilateral transection of the internal mammary arteries during emergency thoracotomy eliminated the use of rectus abdominis muscles as pedicled flaps based on the superior epigastric vasculature. Therefore, the EDT wound was reconstructed by using the right rectus abdominis muscle as a free flap. The deep inferior epigastric vessels of the flap were anastomosed to the right internal mammary vessels proximal to their transection level in the third-forth intercostal space. The flap healed with no further wound complications.

  7. Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo

    TRAN, Doris; Mitton, David; Voirin, David; TURQUIER, Frédéric; Beillas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, a new experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the mechanical response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of 1: skin and subcutaneous fat, 2: anterior rectus sheath, 3: rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to...

  8. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Sung Kyu Bae; Seok Joo Kang; Jin Woo Kim; Young Hwan Kim; Hook Sun

    2013-01-01

    Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underw...

  9. Modified Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap for Limb Salvage Procedures in Proximal Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Sarcomas

    Tarek Mahboub

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim. Management of complicated wounds after tumor extipiration of pelvic and proximal lower limb musculoskeletal sarcoma represents an essential component in the outcome of these patients. The authors present modified vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM flap techniques to reconstruct extensive defects after debridment of these complicated wounds. Material and Methods. Over a period of 4 years (2002–2005, 5 men and 2 women were managed. Median age was 21 years (range 15–49. The patients were managed for complicated lower trunk, groin, and upper thigh wounds after resection of three pelvic chondrosarcomas as well as two pelvic and two proximal femur osteosarcomas. The modifications included a VRAM flap with lateral and tongue-like extension design of the skin paddle (5 cases or a delayed extended VRAM flap (2 cases. Results. All flaps showed complete survival and healing with no ischemic events providing stable coverage. All patients were ambulant with good limb functions in terms of walking and gait after adequate rehabilitation, 2 needed support with crutches. Conclusion. The modified VRAM flaps offer reliable reconstructive tools for coverage of complex groin and thigh defects by providing larger well-vascularized soft tissue with acceptable donor site.

  10. Closure and augmentation of bladder exstrophy using rectus abdominis musculo-peritoneal flap

    P Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the rectus abdominis myo-peritoneal flap (RAMP technique for the closure and augmentation of small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder exstrophies. Materials and Methods: The RAMP technique was used in three boys with bladder exstrophy who presented late with small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder. The clinical outcome, imaging, cystoscopy, biochemical and microbiological studies were assessed during a follow-up of 36 months. Results: Bladder closure and augmentation was achieved in all patients without any complications. There were no urinary tract infections, metabolic problems or electrolyte disturbances and the kidney function remained normal in all patients. Radiography confirmed intact function and anatomy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy showed complete coverage of the inner peritoneal layer of RAMP with uroepithelium. No stone formation or mucous production was detected. Conclusions: The RAMP technique is a good alternative for closing bladder exstrophies and achieves an increase in bladder capacity and compliance. The technique is indicated in the closure of large bladder defects, bladder exstrophies with small, inelastic, non-compliant bladder remnants and failed primary closures.

  11. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation. PMID:26756600

  12. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (pexpiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. PMID:27077819

  13. Quaternion hermitian planes

    Stroppel, Markus

    1993-01-01

    The quaternion hermitian planes are defined, and are characterized by certain groups of automorphisms. For this purpose, characterizations of locally compact connected translation planes (in the context of stable planes) and compact connected projective desarguesian planes are given.

  14. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  15. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  16. Heart Block

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  17. Population Blocks.

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  18. Euclid Squares on Infinite Planes

    W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy; Ilanthenral, K.; Florentin Smarandache

    2015-01-01

    In this book for the first time the authors study the new type of Euclid squares in various planes like real plane, complex plane, dual number plane, special dual like number plane and special quasi dual number plane.

  19. Corticospinal Facilitation of Erector Spinae and Rectus Abdominis Muscles During Graded Voluntary Contractions is Task Specific: A Pilot Study on Healthy Individuals

    Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Zoghi, Maryam; Morgan, Prue; Storr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study we compared transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a postural (bilateral low back extension: BLBE) and a respiratory (forced expiration during breath holding: FEBH) task. Methods Using TMS of the left motor cortex, simultaneous patterns of corticospinal facilitation of the contralateral erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles during graded voluntary activation were compared in seven healthy subjects. Result T...

  20. Lighter and stronger planes

    Attard, Bonnie; Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The price of fuel is a large cost burden on the aerospace industry. A lighter plane means cheaper flights, increased aircraft range, and less environmental pollution. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/lighter-and-stronger-planes/

  1. Interrelationships between meat quality traits, texture measurements and physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    Oury, M P; Picard, B; Briand, M; Blanquet, J P; Dumont, R

    2009-10-01

    Ninety-nine Charolais heifers were used to study the variability of meat quality traits in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis. The heifers of the same trade class were slaughtered at 33months of age (±4months) and 381kg carcass weight (±31kg). Muscle and bone development scores were evaluated before slaughter. Carcass weight, slaughter age and life average daily gain were recorded. Shear force measurements and meat quality traits were evaluated after 14days of aging. Some physicochemical characteristics were measured 24h post-slaughter. Tenderness was correlated with slaughter age (r=-0.31), bone development (r=-0.22) and life average daily gain (r=+0.37). Tenderness was significantly related to total collagen content (r=-0.24), lipid content (r=+0.27) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.24). Juiciness was positively correlated with lipid content (r=+0.31) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.20). Flavor intensity was correlated with lipid content (r=+0.26) and mean fiber area (r=+0.24). Shear force was correlated with total collagen, lipid and 27K proteasome sub-unit contents. Taking animal characteristics and muscle properties together in a multiple regression analysis increased the explained tenderness variability to 33%. The independent variables listed in order of importance were life average daily gain, total collagen content, bone development, lipid content, I myosin heavy chain isoform proportion, shear force of broiled meat and slaughter age. PMID:20416732

  2. Cutaneous reinnervation of the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after chest wall reconstruction: development of herpes zoster in the transplanted musculocutaneous flap.

    Tomita, K; Inoue, K

    1998-08-01

    We report a patient in whom herpes zoster developed in the transplanted rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap 14 months after a chest wall reconstruction for recurrent breast cancer. Based on the distribution of the varicella zoster virus spreading along the sensory nerve fibers, we concluded that the virus spread along the reinnervated sensory nerves from the dorsal ganglia, through the intercostal nerves, and into the flap skin. It is suggested that this finding demonstrates the pathway of reinnervation into the transferred musculocutaneous flap on the chest wall. PMID:9718154

  3. Er det noen forskjell i muskelaktiveringen ved bilaterale kontra unilaterale amerikanske kettlebell svinger i rectus abdominis, external oblique, erector spinae og multifidus?

    Slåttland, Roy-André Vang; Vraalsen, Øyvind Fougli

    2013-01-01

    Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke muskelaktiveringen i kettlebell-sving ved unilateral og bilateral trening, i og med at dette ikke er gjort tidligere. Etter 2-5 tilvenningsøkter (til teknikken ble godkjent av sertifisert kettlebell-instruktør) ble 15 friske og styrketrente menn (alder 24,9 år ± 6,1, høyde 179,5 cm ± 6,8, og vekt 79,5 kg ± 7,95) testet i 10 repetisjoner unilateralt og bilateralt i randomisert rekkefølge. EMG- aktiviteten fra rectus abdominis, external oblique og erec...

  4. Ghost Block

    Webb, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Filmed on the English south coast 'Ghost Block' depicts the uncanny and eerie atmosphere at the site of a WW2 coastal defence line. The concrete cubes were used as an anti-invasion blockade against potential landing forces. This protection line now slowly decaying and becoming enmeshed into the environment still acts as a defence to repel unwanted visitors. The area is a natural reserve to nesting birds that often lay eggs directly onto the beach surface. The blocks act as a final barrier ...

  5. Efectos de la vibración sobre la actividad del rectus abdominis y sobre la transmisión de aceleraciones durante la realización de un puente frontal. (Effects of whole body vibration on rectus abdominis activity and transmission of accelerations during a front bridge exercise.

    Francisco José Vera-García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Durante las dos últimas décadas se ha incrementado notablemente la utilización de la vibración como medio complementario de ejercicio físico. La literatura científica muestra distintos efectos positivos, aunque la mayor parte de ensayos se han centrado en el análisis del ejercicio de squat. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la actividad muscular del rectus abdominis y la transmisión de la vibración en el cuerpo humano durante la realización de un puente frontal sobre una plataforma vibratoria oscilante vibrando a diferentes frecuencias (5, 16, 20 Hz y a una amplitud constante (3 mm. Las aceleraciones máximas en la cabeza (ejes X, Y, Z y la actividad electromiográfica media del rectus abdominis fueron determinadas en 31 sujetos sanos por medio de un acelerómetro triaxial y electromiografía de superficie. Para cada eje se calculó un coeficiente de amortiguación restando la aceleración máxima registrada en la cabeza a la aceleración máxima registrada sobre la plataforma. La actividad electromiográfica del rectus abdominis y los coeficientes de amortiguación en los ejes X y Z aumentaron significativamente con cada incremento en la frecuencia de vibración de la plataforma (p AbstractWhole-body vibration exercise have been widely used during the last two decades, with most scientific publications reporting various positive effects. Most commonly, squat exercises have been studied. Instead, this study explored the rectus abdominis activity and the transmission of sinusoidal vibration to the human body during the performance of front bridges on a oscillating vibration platform at different frequencies (5, 16, 20 Hz with constant amplitude (3 mm. Maximal vibration-induced accelerations at the head (axis X, Y, Z and mean electromyographic activity were assessed in thirty-one healthy subjects using a skin-mounted triaxial accelerometer and surface electromyography. A damping coefficient was calculated for each

  6. Epidural block

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth. An epidural block may also be used to ...

  7. Combinatorics associated with inflections and bitangents of plane quartics

    After a preliminary survey and a description of some small Steiner systems from the standpoint of the theory of invariants of binary forms, we construct a binary Golay code (of length 24) using ideas from J. Grassmann's thesis of 1875. One of our tools is a pair of disjoint Fano planes. Another application of such pairs and properties of plane quartics is a construction of a new block design on 28 objects. This block design is a part of a dissection of the set of 288 Aronhold sevens. The dissection distributes the Aronhold sevens into 8 disjoint block designs of this type

  8. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  9. On rank 4 projective planes

    Bachmann, O.

    1981-01-01

    Let a finite projective plane be called rank m plane if it admits a collineation group G of rank m, let it be called strong rank m plane if moreover GP=G1 for some point-line pair (P,1). It is well known that every rank 2 plane is desarguesian (Theorem of Ostrom and Wagner). It is conjectured that the only rank 3 plane is the plane of order 2. By [1] and [7] the only strong rank 3 plane is the plane of order 2. In this paper it is proved that no strong rank 4 plane exists.

  10. Blocked strainers

    Thermal insulation was the cause of the blockages that shut down five BWRs in Sweden. The main culprit was mineral wool installed when the plants started up. Physical degradation of the wool over the lifetime of the plant meant it could easily be washed out of place during a loss of coolant accident and could quickly block strainers in the emergency core cooling systems. The five BWRs are almost all back on line, equipped with larger strainers and faster backwashing capability. But the incident prompted more detailed investigation into how materials in the containment would behave during an accident. One material that caused particular concern is Caposil, a material often used to insulate the reactor vessel. Composed of natural calcium, aluminium silicates and cellulose fibres, in the event of a LOCA Caposil becomes particularly hazardous. Under high pressure, or when brought into contact with high pressure water and steam, Caposil fragments into 1 cm clumps, free fibres, and ''fines''. It is these fines which cause major problems and can block a strainer extremely quickly. The successful testing of a high performance water filter which can handle Caposil is described. (4 figures) (Author)

  11. Rectus abdominis diastasis

    Akram, Javed; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    cosmetic reasons. The condition does not necessarily require repair, and conservative management may be an alternative. If done, the protrusion of the abdomen, rather than the diastasis itself should influence the decision of repair. It is recommended that future studies use the established classifications...... (e.g. Beer, Rath, or Nahas) when reporting RD and long-term outcome of treatment. Comparison of surgical techniques and studies that address and compare conservative management with surgery are needed....

  12. Study on the cutting plane friction law of sandstone

    ZHAI Ying-da (翟英达); KANG Li-xun(康立勋)

    2003-01-01

    The friction characteristics of rock damage plane have important impact on the stability of block structure formed after the stratum is broken. The mechanics properties of rock damage plane are described by parameters such as roughness coefficient, wall compress strength and basic friction angle. These three coefficients for fine grain sandstone and medium-granular sandstone and grit sandstone are test. The friction stress is researched at the condition of different normal compressive stress acting on the tension damage plane. The friction law of tension damage plane of sandstone abided by is summed up. This law will provide scientific basis for block structure stability judging in basic roof stratum and roof pressure intensity calculating.

  13. Simplified ground plane invisibility cloak by multilayer dielectrics.

    Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun; Yu, Zhenzhong; Jiang, Tian; Zhao, Junming

    2010-11-22

    Most implementations of the ground plane invisibility cloak are based on the isotropic design through the quasi-conformal transformation. However recent theoretical analysis predicts the unavoidable lateral shift of the scattering fields associated with these cloaks making them detectable. In this paper, we propose an alternative method to design the ground plane invisibility clock with electromagnetic beam modulation blocks through simple coordinate transformation discussed in our previous work. The ground plane cloak obtained with the rigorous transformation optics possesses moderate anisotropic distributions of material parameters, but results in no lateral shift of the scattering fields. To realize the design, a possible scheme is suggested by discretizing the ground plane cloak to several homogeneous sub-blocks. These sub-blocks can be realized with multilayer isotropic dielectrics with alignment angles that are determined by the effective medium theory. Thus the non-magnetic ground plane invisibility cloak can be constructed by several multilayered normal dielectrics aligned in different angles. The performance of the proposed cloak and its practical implementation is validated by full-wave electromagnetic simulations with both near field distributions and far field scattering patterns under different EM wave incident angles. The proposed cloak is composed of normal dielectric multilayers, thus can leads to easy experimental demonstration of non-magnetic ground plane cloak in the frequency range from microwave to optical. PMID:21164794

  14. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  15. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  16. BKP plane partitions

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  17. Homogeneous Plane Waves

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant $A_{ij}$) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, $A_{ij}(t)$, and the Ozsvath-Sch\\"ucking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of ...

  18. Boundaries in digital planes

    Efim Khalimsky

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of topological connectedness properties in processing digital pictures is well known. A natural way to begin a theory for this is to give a definition of connectedness for subsets of a digital plane which allows one to prove a Jordan curve theorem. The generally accepted approach to this has been a non-topological Jordan curve theorem which requires two different definitions, 4-connectedness, and 8-connectedness, one for the curve and the other for its complement.

  19. Plane and geodetic surveying

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2004-01-01

    Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends theory and practice, conventional techniques and GPS, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying.Detailed guidance is given on how and when the principle surveying instruments (theodolites, Total Stations, levels and GPS) should be used. Concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful results are explained. Rigorous explanations of the theoretical aspects of surveying are given, while at the same time a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice is provided. An accompanying least squares adjustment program

  20. Homogeneous plane waves

    Blau, Matthias E-mail: mblau@ictp.trieste.it; O' Loughlin, Martin E-mail: loughlin@sissa.it

    2003-03-24

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant A{sub ij}) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, A{sub ij}(x{sup +}), and the Ozsvath-Schuecking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with A{sub ij}{approx}1/(x{sup +}){sup 2} to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for lightcone quantisation, and illustrate the procedure in some examples.

  1. The MOND Fundamental Plane

    Cardone, V F; Diaferio, A; Tortora, C; Molinaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has been shown to be able to fit spiral galaxy rotation curves as well as giving a theoretical foundation for empirically determined scaling relations, such as the Tully - Fisher law, without the need for a dark matter halo. As a complementary analysis, one should investigate whether MOND can also reproduce the dynamics of early - type galaxies (ETGs) without dark matter. As a first step, we here show that MOND can indeed fit the observed central velocity dispersion $\\sigma_0$ of a large sample of ETGs assuming a simple MOND interpolating functions and constant anisotropy. We also show that, under some assumptions on the luminosity dependence of the Sersic n parameter and the stellar M/L ratio, MOND predicts a fundamental plane for ETGs : a log - linear relation among the effective radius $R_{eff}$, $\\sigma_0$ and the mean effective intensity $\\langle I_e \\rangle$. However, we predict a tilt between the observed and the MOND fundamental planes.

  2. Homogeneous plane waves

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant Aij) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, Aij(x+), and the Ozsvath-Schuecking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with Aij∼1/(x+)2 to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for lightcone quantisation, and illustrate the procedure in some examples

  3. Homogeneous Plane Waves

    Blau, Matthias; Blau, Matthias; Loughlin, Martin O'

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics with null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant $A_{ij}$) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, $A_{ij}(t)$, and the Ozsvath-Sch\\"ucking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with $A_{ij}\\sim 1/t^2$ to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for ...

  4. Parallel eigensolvers in plane-wave Density Functional Theory

    Levitt, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of parallelizing electronic structure computations in plane-wave Density Functional Theory. Because of the limited scalability of Fourier transforms, parallelism has to be found at the eigensolver level. We show how a recently proposed algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials can scale into the tens of thousands of processors, outperforming block conjugate gradient algorithms for large computations.

  5. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior

  6. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    STEPHEN C. BLAIR AND STEPHANIE A. WOOD

    1998-04-10

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior.

  7. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  8. Duality and noncommutative planes

    Jøndrup, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We study extensions of simple modules over an associative ring A   and we prove that for twosided ideals mm and nn with artinian factors the condition ExtA1(A/m,A/n)≠0 holds for the left A  -modules A/mA/m and A/nA/n if and only if it holds for the right modules A/nA/n and A/mA/m. The methods pro...... proving this are applied to show that noncommutative models of the plane, i.e. algebras of the form k〈x,y〉/(f)k〈x,y〉/(f), where f∈([x,y])f∈([x,y]) are noetherian only in case (f)=([x,y])...

  9. New technical approach for the repair of an abdominal wall defect after a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap: a case report

    Kaemmer Daniel A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast reconstruction with autologous tissue transfer is now a standard operation, but abnormalities of the abdominal wall contour represent a complication which has led surgeons to invent techniques to minimize the morbidity of the donor site. Case presentation We report the case of a woman who had bilateral transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM-flap breast reconstruction. The surgery led to the patient developing an enormous abdominal bulge that caused her disability in terms of abdominal wall and bowel function, pain and contour. In the absence of rectus muscle, the large defect was repaired using a combination of the abdominal wall component separation technique of Ramirez et al and additional mesh augmentation with a lightweight, large-pore polypropylene mesh (Ultrapro®. Conclusion The procedure of Ramirez et al is helpful in achieving a tension-free closure of large defects in the anterior abdominal wall. The additional mesh augmentation allows reinforcement of the thinned lateral abdominal wall.

  10. Block clustering with collapsed latent block models

    Wyse, Jason; Friel, Nial

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian extension of the latent block model for model-based block clustering of data matrices. Our approach considers a block model where block parameters may be integrated out. The result is a posterior defined over the number of clusters in rows and columns and cluster memberships. The number of row and column clusters need not be known in advance as these are sampled along with cluster memberhips using Markov chain Monte Carlo. This differs from existing work on latent bloc...

  11. Plane Mercury librations

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    theory of Mercury librations in longitude by using three characteristics of Mercury rotation determined in the paper [3]. Two from these parameters are values of angle of librations in longitude and angular velocity in moment of passage of perihelion of Mercury orbit on 17 April 2002: (^g)0 = 0007 ± 0001, (^?•? )0 = (2.10± 0.06)•? ars/d. Third parameter determined in [3] is a dynamical coefficient: K = (B -A)•(4Cm ) = (5.08± 0.30) × 10-5. B > A are principal moment of inertia, corresponding to equatorial axes of inertia; Cm is a polar moment of inertia of the mantle of Mercury. 1 Analytical theory of plane Mercury librations. This theory describes forced and free librations of Mercury in longitude in the frame of plane problem about resonant librations of Mercury considered or as non-spherical rigid body, or as system of rigid non-spherical mantle and liquid ellipsoidal core. Saving the main terms for the perturbations of angle of librations ^g and angular velocity ^? in both mentioned cases we will have formulae [6]: ^g = K(E sin M + E sin2M + E sin 3M + E sin4M + E sin5M ) 1 2 3 4 5+K0 sin(E šKM- - φ) (A)

  12. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  13. A conformal block Farey tail

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  14. Conceptual Design of Wave Plane

    Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter;

    The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...

  15. Incomplete block designs

    Dey, Aloke

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t

  16. Postmastectomy reconstruction: comparative analysis of the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap versus breast implant reconstruction.

    Cederna, P S; Yates, W R; Chang, P; Cram, A E; Ricciardelli, E J

    1995-11-01

    Over 40,000 postmastectomy breast reconstructions are performed annually. In this study, we investigated the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap versus breast implant reconstruction. Thirty-three women who had undergone postmastectomy breast reconstruction were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Twenty-two women completed the self-assessment questionnaires regarding their quality of life, psychological symptoms, functional status, body image, and global satisfaction. The TRAM and implant groups contained 8 and 14 patients, respectively. The groups were well matched for age, employment status, marital status, race, religion, and severity of medical and surgical illnesses. The average follow-up was 36 months. Statistical analysis of the responses revealed that women who had undergone TRAM flap reconstruction were more satisfied with how their reconstructed breast felt to the touch (p = .01), and there was a trend toward greater satisfaction with the appearance of their reconstructed breast (p = .08). However, these same patients identified more difficulties as far as functioning at work or school, performing vigorous physical activities, participating in community or religious activities, visiting with relatives, and interacting with male friends (p < .04). There were no statistically significant differences in body image or overall satisfaction. In this small cohort study, both the TRAM flap group and the implant group were satisfied with the results of their breast reconstruction, but the TRAM flap group was more satisfied with how their breast felt and tended to be more satisfied with the cosmetic result. The TRAM flap group reported greater psychological, social, and physical impairments as a result of their reconstruction. PMID:8579262

  17. Les "Transversus Abdominis" et la contraction asymétrique: quels patterns d'activation lors de déstabilisation spinale induite par les membres supérieurs?

    Lacheteau, Grégoire; Lerch, Maude; Schnyder, David; Degache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : Actuellement le traitement de la lombalgie est entre autre basé sur la rééducation de l'altération d'activation des Transversus Abdominis (TrAs). Elle repose sur l'entraînement d'une cocontraction anticipée des TrAs. Cependant de nouveaux résultats mettent en avant un pattern d'activation asymétrique de ceux-ci. Objectif : Afin de permettre d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients lombalgiques, il est important de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement des TrAs. C’est pourquoi, ...

  18. Postural heart block.

    Seda, P E; McAnulty, J H; Anderson, C J

    1980-01-01

    A patient presented with orthostatic dizziness and syncope caused by postural heart block. When the patient was supine, atrioventricular conduction was normal and he was asymptomatic; when he was standing he developed second degree type II block and symptoms. The left bundle-branch block on his electrocardiogram and intracardiac electrophysiological study findings suggest that this heart block occurred distal to the His bundle. Orthostatic symptoms are usually presumed to be secondary to an i...

  19. COMPARISION OF POTENCY OF DIFFERENT TYPES NEURO-MUSCULAR JUNCTION (NMJ BLOCKERS ON ISOLATED RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE OF RANA TIGRINA

    Sanghishetty Vijay Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important use of neuromuscular blockers is as adjuvant to general anaesthesia whereadequate muscle relaxation can be achieved at lighter plane. They also reduce reflex muscle contraction in the regionundergoing surgery and assist maintenance of controlled ventilation during anaesthesia. They are particularly helpfulin abdominal and thoracic surgery, intubations and endoscopies, orthopedic manipulation, etc. Thus, the risk ofrespiratory and cardiovascular depression is minimized, and post anesthetic recovery is shortened. The potency ratioof two commonly used neuromuscular agents depolarizing succinylcholine and non depolarizing pancuronium.Double pith a frog and fasten it to a frog board with ventral side up. The sternum was cut through just above thexiphisternum at its base and a pair of muscle attached to it were dissected out and transferred to a dish containingfrog Ringer solution at room temperature. All the drug containing solutions were freshly prepared before theexperiments Succinyl choline, Pancuronium (1,10,100μg/ml and 1mg/dl respectively Acetyl choline (10,100μg/mland 1mg/dl. Acetylcholine solution in various strength were prepared starting from 0.1% to 0.0001%.NMJblockerPancuroniumwas added to the biophase in addition to selected dose (128μgor 256μgand the contraction ofmuscle till the 70-80% of inhibition is produced and the difference from sub maximal contractions. The medianED50was interpolated from the figure taking 50%of inhibition from Height of contractionin mm. The ‘t’ test wasperformed to compare the ED50value were interpolated from the regression line to find out the ED50of the drug. Themedian doses (ED50 of both of them were calculated graphically and compared. The mean ED50 value ofsuccinylcholine was found to be 1.59 ± 0.08μg (95% confidential limit was from 1.53 to 1.66μg. The ED50ofpancuronium was found to be 0.52 ± 0.10μg with 95% confidence limit being from 0.44 to 0.60μg. The ED50valueof the

  20. Generalized Block Failure

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  1. Geography of irreducible plane sextics

    Akyol, Ayşegül; Degtyarev, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We complete the equisingular deformation classification of irreducible singular plane sextic curves. As a by-product, we also compute the fundamental groups of the complement of all but a few maximizing sextics.

  2. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  3. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  4. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  5. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  6. Block Advertisement Protocol

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  7. Explosive plane-wave lens

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  8. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  9. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  10. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  11. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Abdalla, M.C.B., E-mail: mabdalla@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Holender, L., E-mail: holender@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil); Santos, M.A., E-mail: masantos@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Avenida Fernando Ferarri S/N, Goiabeiras, 29060-900 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vancea, I.V., E-mail: ionvancea@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  12. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  13. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...

  14. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    Sales, J. H. O.; Suzuki, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  15. Linear Instability of the Plane Couette and Plane Poiseuille Flows

    Chefranov, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    We show possibility of the Plane Couette (PC) flow instability for Reynolds number Re>Reth=140. This new result of the linear hydrodynamic stability theory is obtained on the base of refusal from the traditionally used assumption on longitudinal periodicity of the disturbances along the direction of the fluid flow. We found that earlier existing understanding on the linear stability of this flow for any arbitrary large Reynolds number is directly related with an assumption on the separation of the variables of the spatial variability for the disturbance field and their periodicity in linear theory of stability. By the refusal from the pointed assumptions also for the Plane Poiseuille (PP) flow, we get a new threshold Reynolds value Reth=1040 that with 4% accuracy agrees with the experiment contrary to more than 500% discrepancy for the earlier known estimate Reth=5772 obtained in the frame of the linear theory but when using the "normal" disturbance form (S. A. Orszag, 1971).

  16. Gravitational Couplings for y-Gop-Planes

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for y deformed and generalized orientifold planes (yGOp-planes) is presented and one power expantion is realized from which processes that involves yGOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard yGOp-planes are showed.

  17. Gravitational Couplings for Generalized Orientifold Planes

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) is presented and a series power expantion is realized from which processes that involves GOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes are showed.

  18. Optimization of starshades: focal plane versus pupil plane

    Flamary, R.; Aime, C.

    2014-09-01

    We search for the best possible transmission for an external occulter coronagraph that is dedicated to the direct observation of terrestrial exoplanets. We show that better observation conditions are obtained when the flux in the focal plane is minimized in the zone in which the exoplanet is observed, instead of for the total flux received by the telescope. We describe the transmission of the occulter as a sum of basis functions. For each element of the basis, we numerically computed the Fresnel diffraction at the aperture of the telescope and the complex amplitude at its focus. The basis functions are circular disks that are linearly apodized over a few centimeters (truncated cones). We complemented the numerical calculation of the Fresnel diffraction for these functions by a comparison with pure circular disks (cylinder) for which an analytical expression, based on a decomposition in Lommel series, is available. The technique of deriving the optimal transmission for a given spectral bandwidth is a classical regularized quadratic minimization of intensities, but linear optimizations can be used as well. Minimizing the integrated intensity on the aperture of the telescope or for selected regions of the focal plane leads to slightly different transmissions for the occulter. For the focal plane optimization, the resulting residual intensity is concentrated behind the geometrical image of the occulter, in a blind region for the observation of an exoplanet, and the level of background residual starlight becomes very low outside this image. Finally, we provide a tolerance analysis for the alignment of the occulter to the telescope, which also favors the focal plane optimization. This means that telescope offsets of a few decimeters do not strongly reduce the efficiency of the occulter.

  19. Predictability of blocking

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  20. Mathematical simulation of block SID-3-148 non-stayiomary thermal conditions

    Ranchenko G. S.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The description of mathematical simulation technique and results of block SID-3-148 radioelectronic elements thermal operation conditions is given. Block is established on plane An-148 under engine D-436-148 hood. The thermometering data received during certified tests of the plane were used for simulation. The analysis tool – method of final balances (updating of a grids method. The task is reduced to ordinary differential nonlinear non-uniform equations system solved in the matrix form.

  1. Block Cipher Analysis

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard......(AES).Wedescribe the mostgeneraltypes ofblock cipher cryptanalysis but concentrate on the algebraic attacks. While the algebraic techniques have been successful oncertainstreamcipherstheirapplicationtoblock ciphershasnot shown any significant results so far. This thesis contributes to the field of algebraic attacks on...... algebraic results on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  2. The Grushin plane and quasiconformal Jacobians

    Meyerson, William

    2011-01-01

    We construct a quasiconformal map from the Grushin plane to the Euclidean plane. Then, we generalize the Grushin plane slightly and explain how the Grushin plane can serve as an intermediary in dealing with quasiconformal maps on Euclidean spaces. In particular, we construct a family of quasiconformal embeddings of the Euclidean plane into larger Euclidean spaces whose Jacobians fail to be locally integrable on a line.

  3. Simple Common Plane contact algorithm for explicit FE/FD methods

    Vorobiev, O

    2006-12-18

    Common-plane (CP) algorithm is widely used in Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model contact forces between interacting particles or blocks. A new simple contact algorithm is proposed to model contacts in FE/FD methods which is similar to the CP algorithm. The CP is defined as a plane separating interacting faces of FE/FD mesh instead of blocks or particles used in the original CP method. The new method does not require iterations even for very stiff contacts. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D parallel codes.

  4. Simple Common Plane contact detection algorithm for FE/FD methods

    Vorobiev, O

    2006-07-19

    Common-plane (CP) algorithm is widely used in Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model contact forces between interacting particles or blocks. A new simple contact detection algorithm is proposed to model contacts in FE/FD methods which is similar to the CP algorithm. The CP is defined as a plane separating interacting faces of FE/FD mesh instead of blocks or particles in the original CP method. The method does not require iterations. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D case.

  5. The general relativistic infinite plane

    Jones, Preston; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Uniform fields are one of the simplest and most pedagogically useful examples in introductory courses on electrostatics or Newtonian gravity. In general relativity there have been several proposals as to what constitutes a uniform field. In this article we examine two metrics that can be considered the general relativistic version of the infinite plane with finite mass per unit area. The first metric is the 4D version of the 5D "brane" world models which are the starting point for many current research papers. The second case is the cosmological domain wall metric. We examine to what extent these different metrics match or deviate from our Newtonian intuition about the gravitational field of an infinite plane. These solutions provide the beginning student in general relativity both computational practice and conceptual insight into Einstein's field equations. In addition they do this by introducing the student to material that is at the forefront of current research.

  6. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Forgács, Péter; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems plane waves can act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode having a larger wave number, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. Such a tractor beam or negative radiation pressure effect arises naturally in systems where the coupling between the scattering channels is due to Aharonov-Bohm (AB) gauge potentials. It is demonstrated that this effect is also present if the AB potential is an induced, ("artificial") gauge potential such as the one found in J. March-Russell, J. Preskill, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 2567 (1992).

  7. Twisted sectors from plane partitions

    Datta, Shouvik; Li, Wei; Peng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Twisted sectors arise naturally in the bosonic higher spin CFTs at their free points, as well as in the associated symmetric orbifolds. We identify the coset representations of the twisted sector states using the description of W_\\infty representations in terms of plane partitions. We confirm these proposals by a microscopic null-vector analysis, and by matching the excitation spectrum of these representations with the orbifold prediction.

  8. Plane SPDC-Quantum Mirror

    Ion, M. L. D.; Ion, D. B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the kinematical correlations from the phase conjugated optics (equivalently with crossing symmetric spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) phenomena) in the nonlinear crystals are used for the description of a new kind of optical device called SPDC-quantum mirrors. Then, some important laws of the plane SPDC-quantum mirrors combined with usual mirrors or lens are proved only by using geometric optics concepts. In particular, these results allow us to obtain a new interpre...

  9. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    Rathkjen, Arne

    1994-01-01

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second place, the map comprises a complete graphic representation of the stress at any point.

  10. Block copolymer battery separator

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  11. Air ionization wire plane chamber

    Radiation Measurement for protection level instrumentation requires large number of detectors. Since the number is large, the detector should be cost effective and yet should have good sensitivity. Gas detectors with presently available microelectronics and signal processing capabilities opened a new era in radiation monitoring. Present paper describes the use of air filled multi anode grid planes as detector for alpha detection. Due to multiple anode wire planes, the charge collection efficiency of the air ionization chamber is higher as compared to conventional ionization chamber. The signal from this Wire Plane Chamber (WPC) has a faster and narrower pulse shape as compared to conventional two-electrode chamber of similar dimensions. The reduction in capacitance also improves the signal to noise ratio so that air can be used as the ionization medium without any special cleaning procedure etc and it may be possible to use even engineering plastic as the structural material for the chamber. The paper gives the results obtained so far with this air ionization chamber. (author)

  12. Blocking in Category Learning

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  13. Concord Housing Blocks

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Concord type Housing Blocks. A high rise public housing project using prefabriction and advanced formwork systems. Both Harmony and Concord Blocks are designed on the basis of standard modular flats which permit the use of factory produced components and a construction sequence which makes extensive use of advanced formwork systems.

  14. Efficient Block Truncation Coding

    K.Somasundaram,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Block Truncation Coding (BTC is one of the lossy image compression techniques. The computational complexity involved in this method is very simple. In the proposed method, the feature of inter-pixel correlation is exploited to further reduce the requirement of bits to store a block. The proposed method gives very good performance in terms of bit-rate and PSNR values when compared to the conventional BTC.

  15. Generalized plane gravitational waves of non-symmetric unified field theories in plane symmetry

    Bhoyar, Sanjiv R.; Ajit Deshmukh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the plane wave solutions of both the weak and strong non-symmetric unified field equations of Einstein and Bonner in a generalized plane symmetric space-time in the sense of Taub [Ann. Math. 53, 472 (1951)] for plane gravitational waves. We show that the plane wave solutions of Einstein and Bonner field equations exist in plane symmetry.

  16. Plane wave diffraction by a perfectly transparent half-plane.

    Anokhov, Sergey P

    2007-09-01

    The exact solution is found for plane wave diffraction by an arbitrary phase step. The analysis is performed by using the Huygens-Fresnel principle and the superposition integral, where every secondary wave was identified with the surface element field of the actual electromagnetic wave. The dependence of the total field structure on the height of the phase step is analyzed. The formation algorithm is demonstrated for the primary wave component of the edge diffraction, which has a singular nature and determines nearly all physical properties of this phenomenon. PMID:17767219

  17. Impression block with orientator

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  18. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  19. Plane SPDC-Quantum Mirror

    Ion, M L D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the kinematical correlations from the phase conjugated optics (equivalently with crossing symmetric spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) phenomena) in the nonlinear crystals are used for the description of a new kind of optical device called SPDC-quantum mirrors. Then, some important laws of the plane SPDC-quantum mirrors combined with usual mirrors or lens are proved only by using geometric optics concepts. In particular, these results allow us to obtain a new interpretation of the recent experiments on the two-photon geometric optics.

  20. Distributed Storage in the Plane

    Altman, Eitan; Avrachenkov, Konstantin; Goseling, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    We consider storage devices located in the plane according to a general point process and specialize the results for the homogeneous Poisson process. A large data file is stored at the storage devices, which have limited storage capabilities. Hence, they can only store parts of the data. Clients can contact the storage devices to retrieve the data.We compare the expected cost of obtaining the complete data under uncoded as well as coded data allocation strategies. It is shown that for the gen...

  1. Semantic versus syntactic cutting planes

    Filmus, Y.; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, M.

    Dagstuhl: Schloss Dagstuhl, Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2016 - (Ollinger, N.; Vollmer, H.), s. 1-13. (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics. 47). ISBN 978-3-95977-001-9. ISSN 1868-8969. [33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Orléans (FR), 17.02.2016-20.02.2016] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Keywords : proof complexity * cutting planes * lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/frontdoor.php?source_opus=5736

  2. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Holender, M C B AbdallaL; Vancea, I V

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space from the perturbative point of view. To this end, the relevant quantities are treated as series in powers of the noncommutative parameter. At the Planck scale, the relevant terms are of first order and the dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monocromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and linear for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of these solutions is calculated.

  3. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  4. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  5. Constructing a uniform plane-filling path in the ternary heptagrid of the hyperbolic plane

    Maurice Margenstern

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we distinguish two levels for the plane-filling property. We consider a simple and a strong one. In this paper, we give the construction which proves that the simple plane-filling property also holds for the hyperbolic plane. The plane-filling property was established for the Euclidean plane by J. Kari, see [2], in the strong version. We also give an application of the construction to devise a Peano curve in the hyperbolic plane.

  6. Block diagonal and schur complement preconditioners for block-toeplitz systems with small size blocks

    Ching, WK; Ng, MK; Wen, YW

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the solution of Hermitian positive definite block-Toeplitz systems with small size blocks. We propose and study block diagonal and Schur complement preconditioners for such block-Toeplitz matrices. We show that for some block-Toeplitz matrices, the spectra of the preconditioned matrices are uniformly bounded except for a fixed number of outliers where this fixed number depends only on the size of the block. Hence, conjugate gradient type methods, when applied to solv...

  7. Contact Cohomology of the Projective Plane

    Ernstr{ö}m, Lars; Kennedy, Gary

    1997-01-01

    We construct an associative ring which is a deformation of the quantum cohomology ring of the projective plane. Just as the quantum cohomology encodes the incidence characteristic numbers of rational plane curves, the contact cohomology encodes the tangency characteristic numbers.

  8. On free fermions and plane partitions

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.; Zuparic, M.

    2008-01-01

    We use free fermion methods to re-derive a result of Okounkov and Reshetikhin relating charged fermions to random plane partitions, and to extend it to relate neutral fermions to strict plane partitions.

  9. On maps taking lines to plane curves

    Petrushchenko, Vsevolod; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-01-01

    We study cubic rational maps that take lines to plane curves. A complete description of such cubic rational maps concludes the classification of all planarizations, i.e., maps taking lines to plane curves.

  10. Nymble Blocking System

    Anand Joshi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to allow users to access Internet services privately, anonymizing networks like Tor uses a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. These networks, however, have been marred by users employing this anonymity for abusive purposes such as defacing popular web sites. Usually, web site administrators rely on IP-address blocking in order to disable access to misbehaving users, but it is impractical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing network. In order to avoid this, administrators bar all known exit nodes of the anonymizing network, thereby denying anonymous access to all the users(whether misbehaving or not. To solve this issue, we introduce Nymble, a system where servers blacklist misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without affecting their anonymity. Nymble is thus agnostic to varied definitions of misbehavior. Servers can block users for any reason, and the privacy of blacklisted users is not affected in any case.

  11. The half plane UIPT is recurrent

    Angel, Omer; Ray, Gourab

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the half plane version of the uniform infinite planar triangulation (UIPT) is recurrent. The key ingredients of the proof are a construction of a new full plane extension of the half plane UIPT, based on a natural decomposition of the half plane UIPT into independent layers, and an extension of previous methods for proving recurrence of weak local limits (still using circle packings).

  12. Aspects of Plane Wave (Matrix) String Dynamics

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin; Seri, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    We analyse two issues that arise in the context of (matrix) string theories in plane wave backgrounds, namely (1) the use of Brinkmann- versus Rosen-variables in the quantum theory for general plane waves (which we settle conclusively in favour of Brinkmann variables), and (2) the regularisation of the quantum dynamics for a certain class of singular plane waves (discussing the benefits and limitations of regularisations of the plane-wave metric itself).

  13. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  14. The INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning

    Fiocchi, Mariateresa

    2013-01-01

    After the first nine years of INTEGRAL operational life, the discovery of new sources and source types, a large fraction of which are highly transient or highly absorbed, is certainly one of the most compelling results and legacies of INTEGRAL. Frequent monitoring of the Galactic Plane in AO8 and AO9 campaigns allowed us to detect transient sources, both known and new, confirming that the gamma-ray sky is dominated by the extreme variability of different classes of objects. Regular scans of the Galactic Plane by INTEGRAL provide the most sensitive hard X-ray wide survey to date of our Galaxy, with flux limits of the order of 0.3 mCrab for an exposure time of ~2Ms. Many transient sources have been detected on a wide range of time scales (~hours to months) and identified by triggered followup observations, mainly by Swift/XRT and optical/infrared telescopes. These discoveries are very important to characterize the X-ray binary population in our Galaxy, that is necessary input for evolution studies. The transien...

  15. The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey

    Lucas, P W; Longmore, A; Schröder, A C; Davis, C J; Adamson, A; Bandyopadhyay, R M; De Grijs, R; Smith, M; Gosling, A; Mitchison, S; Gaspar, A; Coe, M; Tamura, M; Parker, Q; Irwin, M; Hambly, N; Byant, J; Collins, R S; Cross, N; Evans, D W; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Hodgkin, S; Lewis, J; Read, M; Riello, M; Sutorius, E T W; Lawrence, A; Drew, J E; Dye, S

    2007-01-01

    The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) is one of the five near infrared Public Legacy Surveys that are being undertaken by the UKIDSS consortium, using the Wide Field Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. It is surveying 1868 sq.deg. of the northern and equatorial Galactic plane at Galactic latitudes -5

  16. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  17. Optimization of starshades: focal plane versus pupil plane

    Flamary, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    We search for the best possible transmission for an external occulter coronagraph that is dedicated to the direct observation of terrestrial exoplanets. We show that better observation conditions are obtained when the flux in the focal plane is minimized in the zone in which the exoplanet is observed, instead of the total flux received by the telescope. We describe the transmission of the occulter as a sum of basis functions. For each element of the basis, we numerically computed the Fresnel diffraction at the aperture of the telescope and the complex amplitude at its focus. The basis functions are circular disks that are linearly apodized over a few centimeters (truncated cones). We complemented the numerical calculation of the Fresnel diffraction for these functions by a comparison with pure circular discs (cylinder) for which an analytical expression, based on a decomposition in Lommel series, is available. The technique of deriving the optimal transmission for a given spectral bandwidth is a classical reg...

  18. Counting plane curves of any genus

    Caporaso, Lucia; Harris, Joe

    1996-01-01

    We obtain a recursive formula answering the following question: How many irreducible, plane curves of degree d and (geometric) genus g pass through 3d-1+g general points in the plane? The formula is proved by studying suitable degenerations of plane curves.

  19. The characteristic numbers of quartic plane curves

    Vakil, Ravi

    1998-01-01

    The characteristic numbers of smooth plane quartics are computed using intersection theory on a component of the moduli space of stable maps. This completes the verification of Zeuthen's prediction of characteristic numbers of smooth plane curves. A short sketch of a computation of the characteristic numbers of plane cubics is also given as an illustration.

  20. Monopole Antenna with Modify Ground Plane

    kamal raj singh rajoriya; Singhal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents on modified the ground plane of monopole antenna with varying the shape and length. Basically the length of ground plane of monopole antenna is equal and greater than λ/4. Here analyzed a different ground plane of monopole antenna that is provided an efficient bandwidth with sufficient return loss.

  1. Monopole Antenna with Modify Ground Plane

    kamal raj singh rajoriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents on modified the ground plane of monopole antenna with varying the shape and length. Basically the length of ground plane of monopole antenna is equal and greater than λ/4. Here analyzed a different ground plane of monopole antenna that is provided an efficient bandwidth with sufficient return loss.

  2. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  3. Methods for precisely trimming block faces for ultramicrotomy.

    Gorycki, M A

    1978-03-01

    Two devices are described to aid in trimming block faces of embedded tissue for ultramicrotomy. The first, a reticle to fit the ocular of a stereomicroscope, can be manufactured by the ultramicrotomist and is designed to outline the edges of the block face so that it can be trimmed to a standard size and shape with the area of interest centered in it. The second, a rectangular "trimalign" block mounted in the knife holder of the ultramicrotome, is, with the block face, aligned to the plane of sectioning, and aids in retrimming the top and bottom edges of the block face. This is the simplest trimming device yet described and the first which will, from any sort of embedded material, produce a block face with parallel top and bottom edges even if the block face is not perpendicular to the axis of the specimen holder. If the edge of the diamond knife used for sectioning is parallel to the axis of rotation of the knife holder, the block face has also been automatically aligned to the kinfe as a consequence of this aligning and trimming procedure. As a result, sectioning can begin immediately without further adjustments. PMID:694954

  4. Effects of Block Scheduling

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  5. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  6. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  7. An introduction to finite projective planes

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  8. Edit Distance with Block Deletions

    Dana Shapira; Storer, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Several variants of the edit distance problem with block deletions are considered. Polynomial time optimal algorithms are presented for the edit distance with block deletions allowing character insertions and character moves, but without block moves. We show that the edit distance with block moves and block deletions is NP-complete (Nondeterministic Polynomial time problems in which any given solution to such problem can be verified in polynomial time, and any NP problem can be converted into...

  9. Fermion-Scalar Conformal Blocks

    Iliesiu, Luca; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called `seed blocks' in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  10. Topological equivalence of finitely determined real analytic plane-to-plane map-germs

    Skutlaberg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Generic smooth plane-to-plane map germs are topologically equivalent to cones of mappings of the circle. We carry out a complete topological classification of smooth stable mappings of the circle and show how this classification leads, via the result mentioned above, to a topological classification of finitely determined real analytic plane-to-plane map germs.

  11. Selective Absorption Mechanism for the Maintenance of Blocking

    Yamazaki, Akira; Itoh, Hisanori

    2010-05-01

    analyses and simple numerical experiments. Ten episodes of blocking that occurred in the mid-North Pacific and the eastern North Atlantic between 1990 and 2005 are investigated. Trajectories of synoptic anticyclones and cyclones during blocking persistent periods are analyzed and show the selective absorption of anticyclonic eddies by the blocking highs. We also perform numerical experiments using the nonlinear barotropic vorticity equation on a beta-plane channel. The maintenance rate of blocking is quantitatively evaluated by using an areal averaged method. The result supports the block maintenance by the SAM. From the above two results, we can conclude that the SAM is more adaptive as the block maintenance mechanism than the ESM, because the essence of the SAM is absorption of eddies, not but eddy straining.

  12. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  13. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  14. Right bundle branch block

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  15. SNUPPS power block modelling

    A series of models is being built and used as tools in the design of the SNUPPS Standard Power Block. The modelling programme includes both preliminary and final design models, a construction sequence mode, and additional models used to study various features of the design. The design of a standard power block unit has necessitated design definition which is more detailed than that customarily used in the design of nuclear power stations. One innovation is the use of engineering models as a primary design tool in the layout of process piping, preparation of isometric drawings, design of small components which are customarily designed in the field during construction. Development of a standard construction sequence and construction work plan is another innovation. (author)

  16. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  17. Growth, Endlessness, Blocks

    Nabata, Avery Misuzu

    2014-01-01

    Growth, Endlessness, Blocks is a sculptural installation comprised of a series of wood structures of various scales. Large sections of drywall function as extensions of the gallery walls. Each structure balances a number of different physical characteristics that are tied to the act of making. Balance and presence combine in a disconcerting way giving the viewer a sense of uneasiness and a moment finely tuned by the artist. The artist seeks to embody the role of the factory fabricator as a me...

  18. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  19. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  20. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

  1. Duel-Plane Optical Disdrometer

    Winsky, B. E.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Acquiring better drop-size distributions of rainfall will improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. In order to fully capture the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, a robust, calibration free, low-cost instrument that provides an accurate drop-size distribution is required. Therefore, The University of Iowa Lidar Group has developed and built a new duel-plane optical disdrometer that meets these criteria. Two sheets of laser light, vertically spaced by 1 cm are produced by two 670nm laser beams passing through a collecting lens and culminating lens, respectively. The two sheets of laser light then pass through a convex lens located 20 cm from the lasers that focuses the light on a photo detector. A computer reads in and stores the voltages at 10 kHz. The velocity, diameter, shape and drop-size distribution of raindrops are extracted from the voltage measurements. Rainfall data collected in Iowa City, IA tested our disdrometer's robustness and accuracy of providing drop-size distributions. Our distrometer is advantageous because it is simple, low-cost, and requires no calibration.

  2. Periodical plane puzzles with numbers

    Rezende, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Consider a periodical (in two independent directions) tiling of the plane with polygons (faces). In this article we shall only give examples using squares, regular hexagons, equilateral triangles and parallelograms ("unions" of two equilateral triangles). We shall call some "multiple" of the fundamental region "the board". We naturally identify pairs of corresponding edges of the the board. Figures 9 and 19-29, in this article, show different boards. The "border" of the board is represented by a yellow thick line, unless part of it or all of it is the edge of a face. The board is tiled by a finite number of polygons. Construct polygonal plates in the same number, shape and size as the polygons of the board. Adjacent to each side of each plate draw a number, or two numbers, like it is shown in Figures 1 and 18-29. Figure 1 shows the obvious possibility of having plates with simple drawings, coloured drawings, etc. Now the game is to put the plates over the board polygons in such a way that the numbers near eac...

  3. Signal processing for plane wave actuators

    T. Corbach; Holters, M.; U. Zölzer

    2010-01-01

    Plane wave actuators without an enclosure per se have a forward and backward radiation. The backward radiation is unwanted in many applications when a single direction radiation is desired. To avoid the disadvantages of an enclosure a system is proposed, which provides a high suppression of the unwanted backward radiation using a pair of plane wave actuators. This is achieved by adapted input signal filters. The influences of the second plane wave actuator to the forward rad...

  4. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  5. Enumeration of Cylindric Plane Partitions - part I

    Langer, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Cylindric plane partitions may be thought of as a natural generalization of reverse plane partitions. A generating series for the enumeration of cylindric plane partitions was recently given by Borodin. The first result of this paper is a $(q,t)$-analog of Borodin's identity which extends previous work by Okada in the reverse plane partition case. Our proof uses commutation relations for $(q,t)$-vertex operators acting on Macdonald polynomials as given by Garsia, Haiman and Tesla. The second result of this paper is an explicit combinatorial interpreation of the $(q,t)$-Macdonald weight in terms of a non-intersecting lattice path model on the cylinder.

  6. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  7. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  8. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  9. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  10. Lattice plane spacing change in hardened layer of chrome molybdenum steel after carburizing and quenching

    Block specimens of chrome molybdenum steel with 0.20 mass% C, SCM420, were carburized in carrier gas and quenched in oil bath. The hardness and carbon content gradients in the hardened layer were measured experimentally. The carburized surface of one block specimen was gradually removed by electrolytic polishing. Ten thin plates were cut from the total case depth of the other block specimen. An experimental method to determine the stress-free lattice plane spacing of the hardened layer was examined using x-ray and neutron radiations. As a result, the stress-free lattice plane spacing change in the hardened layer could be determined successfully by measuring neutron diffraction peaks from Fe-211 of the thin plates during rotating ±90deg around the specimen axis. Using x-ray, the stress-free lattice plane spacing at the carburized surface could be also determined by measuring the 2θ-sin2ψ diagrams of either removed surface of block specimen or thin plate. However, under the carburized surface, the Kα2 diffraction from the heat-treated eutectoid phase was superimposed on x-ray diffraction peak because the subsurface microstructure was composed of martensitic and heat-treated eutectoid phases. The stress-free lattice plane spacing under the carburized surface could not be determined using x-ray. Furthermore, the stress-free lattice plane spacing of Fe-211 was found to decrease with increasing the distance from the carburized surface and be expressed by the cubic function of the carbon content in the hardened layer. (author)

  11. A standard graphite block

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm3; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  12. One-Block CYRCA: an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Singer, Alice; Bronfeld, Hagit; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    One-Block CYRCA is an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries (). It is based on the LAMA and CYRCA block-to-block alignment methods. The procedure identifies whether the query blocks can form new multiple-block alignments (block sets) with blocks from a database or join pre-existing database block sets. Using pre-computed LAMA block alignments and CYRCA sets from the Blocks database reduces the computation time. LAMA and CYRCA are highly sensit...

  13. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  14. Corner diffraction coefficients for the quarter plane

    Hansen, Thorkild B.

    1991-01-01

    The current near a right-angled corner on a perfectly conducting flat scatterer illuminated by a plane wave is expressed as a sum of three currents. The first is the physical optics current, which describes the surface effect. The second is the fringe wave current, which is found from the half-plane...

  15. Criteria for singularities of smooth maps from the plane into the plane and its applications

    Saji, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    We shall give useful criteria of lips, beaks and swallowtail singularities of smooth map from the plane into the plane. As an application of criteria, we will discuss the singularities of Cauchy problem of single conservation law.

  16. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-11155, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-91176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ({mu}). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 {mu}. If {mu} > 2/7 tan {theta}, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  17. Multiple-image encryption with bit-plane decomposition and chaotic maps

    Tang, Zhenjun; Song, Juan; Zhang, Xianquan; Sun, Ronghai

    2016-05-01

    Image encryption is an efficient technique of image content protection. In this work, we propose a useful image encryption algorithm for multiple grayscale images. The proposed algorithm decomposes input images into bit-planes, randomly swaps bit-blocks among different bit-planes, and conducts XOR operation between the scrambled images and secret matrix controlled by chaotic map. Finally, an encrypted PNG image is obtained by viewing four scrambled grayscale images as its red, green, blue and alpha components. Many simulations are done to illustrate efficiency of our algorithm.

  18. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how......Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  19. Photovoltaic building blocks

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film...... coating tools to depositand develop anti-reflection filters by means of sputtering or e-beam evaporation. To reduce the area taken up by metallic contacts transparent conducting oxides like Aluminium doped ZincOxide (AZO) and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) can be deposited. We also support research...... and development of new 2D materials like graphene that is a promising candidate for cheap highly transparent contacts. Another way to increase efficiency is to structure the active layers indevice so that more light is absorbed. This can be done in one of our advanced dry etching machines either mask-less to form...

  20. Block Voter Model

    Sampaio, C I N

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of $N_{PCS}$ spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighbouring counterparts. We consider the collective behaviour of the entire system with varying PCS size. When $N_{PCS}>2$, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter $q_{c}$ which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that how large the PCS is more power of persuasion it has. It also seems that the resulting critical behaviour is Ising-like independent of the range of the interactions.

  1. Block-based reconstructions for compressive spectral imaging

    Correa, Claudia V.; Arguello, Henry; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2013-05-01

    Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imaging system (CASSI) captures spectral information of a scene using a reduced amount of focal plane array (FPA) projections. These projections are highly structured and localized such that each measurement contains information of a small portion of the data cube. Compressed sensing reconstruction algorithms are then used to recover the underlying 3-dimensional (3D) scene. The computational burden to recover a hyperspectral scene in CASSI is overwhelming for some applications such that reconstructions can take hours in desktop architectures. This paper presents a new method to reconstruct a hyperspectral signal from its compressive measurements using several overlapped block reconstructions. This approach exploits the structure of the CASSI sensing matrix to separately reconstruct overlapped regions of the 3D scene. The resultant reconstructions are then assembled to obtain the full recovered data cube. Typically, block-processing causes undesired artifacts in the recovered signal. Vertical and horizontal overlaps between adjacent blocks are then used to avoid these artifacts and increase the quality of reconstructed images. The reconstruction time and the quality of the reconstructed images are calculated as a function of the block-size and the amount of overlapped regions. Simulations show that the quality of the reconstructions is increased up to 6 dB and the reconstruction time is reduced up to 4 times when using block-based reconstruction instead of full data cube recovery at once. The proposed method is suitable for multi-processor architectures in which each core recovers one block at a time.

  2. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    Winther, G.

    2003-01-01

    The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and...... polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...

  3. The Block-block Bootstrap: Improved Asymptotic Refinements

    Donald W.K. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    The asymptotic refinements attributable to the block bootstrap for time series are not as large as those of the nonparametric iid bootstrap or the parametric bootstrap. One reason is that the independence between the blocks in the block bootstrap sample does not mimic the dependence structure of the original sample. This is the join-point problem. In this paper, we propose a method of solving this problem. The idea is not to alter the block bootstrap. Instead, we alter the original sample sta...

  4. Convergence rates of empirical block length selectors for block bootstrap

    Nordman, Daniel J.; Lahiri, Soumendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of two general non-parametric methods for estimating optimal block lengths for block bootstraps with time series – the first proposed in the seminal paper of Hall, Horowitz and Jing (Biometrika 82 (1995) 561–574) and the second from Lahiri et al. (Stat. Methodol. 4 (2007) 292–321). The relative performances of these general methods have been unknown and, to provide a comparison, we focus on rates of convergence for these block length selectors for the moving block ...

  5. Large Block Test Final Report

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  6. Knot theory of complex plane curves

    Rudolph, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The primary objects of study in the ``knot theory of complex plane curves'' are C-links: links (or knots) cut out of a 3-sphere in the complex plane by complex plane transverse and totally tangential. Transverse C-links are naturally oriented. There are many natural classes of examples: links of singularities; links at infinity; links of divides, free divides, tree divides, and graph divides; and--most generally--quasipositive links. Totally tangential C-links are unoriented but naturally fra...

  7. Analysis of Switching Noise on Power Planes

    M. Ž. Stojilović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Power delivery networks (PDNs in modern printed circuit boards (PCBs are usually realized using power planes. Since the planes have very low inductance, it is usually believed that such PDNs have the smallest amount of switching noise. However, in reality, the power planes can resonate. The noise at resonant frequencies can be significant and it deteriorates the PDN performance. One of the classical methods for decreasing the noise is bypassing. This paper investigates the behavior of a typical PDN and the effect that real SMD bypass capacitors produce when attached to it.

  8. Malfatti's problem on the hyperbolic plane

    Horváth, Ákos G

    2012-01-01

    More than two centuries ago Malfatti raised and solved the following problem called by Malfatti's construction problem: In a triangle describe three small circles, each of them touching the other two, and also two sides of the triangle. Interesting fact that nobody investigated this problem on the hyperbolic plane, while the case of the sphere were solved at once. We now compensate for this shortage and solve the following exercise: Determine three cycles of the hyperbolic plane, each of them touching the two others, and also two of three given cycles of the hyperbolic plane. We also give a proof of the hyperbolic version of Malfatti's marble problem.

  9. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  10. Covariant Approaches to Superconformal Blocks

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Khandker, Zuhair U; Li, Daliang; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2014-01-01

    We develop techniques for computing superconformal blocks in 4d superconformal field theories. First we study the super-Casimir differential equation, deriving simple new expressions for superconformal blocks for 4-point functions containing chiral operators in theories with N-extended supersymmetry. We also reproduce these results by extending the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi to supersymmetric theories, where superconformal blocks can be represented as superspace integrals of three-point functions multiplied by shadow three-point functions.

  11. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  12. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  13. Strings in plane-fronted gravitational waves

    Duval, C.; Horvath, Z.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Brinkmann's plane-fronted gravitational waves with parallel rays --~shortly pp-waves~-- are shown to provide, under suitable conditions, exact string vacua at all orders of the sigma-model perturbation expansion.

  14. Parallels plane projection and its geometric features

    ZHOU ChengHu; MA Ting; YANG Liao; QIN Biao

    2007-01-01

    A new equivalent map projection called the parallels plane projection is proposed in this paper. The transverse axis of the parallels plane projection is the expansion of the equator and its vertical axis equals half the length of the central meridian. On the parallels plane projection, meridians are projected as sine curves and parallels are a series of straight, parallel lines. No distortion of length occurs along the central meridian or on any parallels of this projection. Angular distortion and the proportion of length along meridians (except the central meridian) introduced by the projection transformation increase with increasing longitude and latitude. A potential application of the parallels plane projection is that it can provide an efficient projection transformation for global discrete grid systems.

  15. In-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of microcalorimeters and bolometers based on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) with a manageable number of readout channels. Previous to this work, TES arrays were multiplexed by extracting leads from each pixel to multiplexer filter and switching elements outside of the focal plane. As the number of pixels is increased in a close-packed array, it becomes difficult to route the leads to the multiplexer. We report on the development of an in-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer to solve this problem. In this circuit, the filter and switching elements associated with each pixel fit within the pixel area so that signals are multiplexed before being extracted from the focal plane. This in-focal-plane architecture will first be used in the SCUBA-2 instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2006

  16. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of...

  17. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  18. Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-11-24

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  19. Fisioterapia para redução da diástase dos músculos retos abdominais no pós-parto Physiotherapy for reduction of diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles in the postpartum period

    Luciana Aparecida Mesquita

    1999-06-01

    reduction in the diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles (DRAM after every treatment session, as well as a relevant reduction when compared to the control group, positively contributing to the earlier recovery of the recti abdominis muscles.

  20. Control rod blocking device

    Purpose: To increase the degree of freedom for the reactor operation by control rod blocking by monitoring the critical power ratio (CPR) with real time. Constitution: There has been a problem that the withdrawal of control rods may occasionally be inhibited with all the margin in view of CPR. The present invention dissolves this problem. That is, the control rod withdrawal device periodically calculates CPR, and calculated CPR upon generation of a control rod withdrawing signal by conpensating the result of calculation with a LPRM signal and a reactor core flow rate signal. The CPR at real time is compared with a predetermined setting value to output a control rod withdrawing inhibition signal depending on the result of the comparison. In the device as described above, since CPR is monitored at real time, the control rod can be withdrawn without causing fuel damages, as well as the inhibition of withdrawal irrespective of the presence of margin in view of CPR can be avoided. Accordingly, degree of freedom in the reactor operation can be increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Asymptotically Plane Wave Spacetimes and their Actions

    Witt, Julian Le; Ross, Simon F.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a definition of asymptotically plane wave spacetimes in vacuum gravity in terms of the asymptotic falloff of the metric, and discuss the relation to previously constructed exact solutions. We construct a well-behaved action principle for such spacetimes, using the formalism developed by Mann and Marolf. We show that this action is finite on-shell and that the variational principle is well-defined for solutions of vacuum gravity satisfying our asymptotically plane wave falloff condi...

  2. Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane

    Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs

  3. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications. PMID:25076447

  4. Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX): Galactic Plane Survey

    Lemley, Cameron; Mohammed, Steven; Schiminovich, David; Tam, Benjamin; Seibert, Mark; Martin, Christopher D.; GALEX Science Team

    2015-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) completed its survey of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet during 2012. Although preliminary data were released shortly after the completion of the survey, the full dataset was reanalyzed during 2014 using refined attitude correction techniques that yield angular resolution-limited images. The GALEX Galactic plane survey includes more than 75% of the sky between 10 > b > -10 degrees. The initial photon dataset contains about 400 individual scans, each of which is a vertical slice of the Galactic plane. Each slice spans 1500-1700 seconds, during which the 1.24 degree diameter field of view performed a double-pass sweep across the Galactic plane. The Galactic Plane survey was the only time this non-standard, high scan rate acquisition mode was exercised during the mission, and required specialized processing and astrometric refinement to produce high quality sky maps. We present the first high-resolution map of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet as well as a catalogue of thousands of sources for follow-up with HST. This work was partially supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies.

  5. Counting Plane Graphs: Flippability and its Applications

    Hoffmann, Michael; Sheffer, Adam; Tóth, Csaba D; Welzl, Emo

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the notions of flippable and simultaneously-flippable edges in a triangulation of a set S of points in the plane, into so called pseudo simultaneously-flippable edges. Such edges are related to the notion of convex decompositions spanned by S. We derive a worst-case tight lower bound on the number of pseudo simultaneously-flippable edges in any triangulation, and use this bound to obtain upper bounds for the maximal number of several types of plane graphs that can be embedded (with crossing-free straight edges) on a fixed set of N points in the plane. More specifically, denoting by tr(N)<30^N$ the maximum possible number of triangulations of a set of N points in the plane, we show that every set of N points in the plane can have at most 6.9283^N * tr(N) < 207.85^N plane graphs, O(4.8895^N) * tr(N) = O(146.69^N) spanning trees, and O(5.4723^N) * tr(N) = O(164.17^N) forests (that is, cycle-free graphs). We also obtain upper bounds for the number of crossing-free straight-edge graphs with at ...

  6. QUALITY OF GRUE-BOND EUCALYPTUS WOOD SPECIMEN GLUED IN TWO DIFFERENT DENSITIES AND SHEAR PLANES

    Moisés Silveira Lobão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate a glue-bond quality was also determined according to NBR 7190/97 in samples representing thetwo different densities and the shear planes. Eucalyptus lumber was purchased in the local market for the research purpose. It wasfoun, that the whole lot could be segregated into two sub-lots, one containing higher specific gravity timber, another containing lowerdensity wood, later, in samples made to represent the two different densities; the shear planes, however, included two possibilities: thetwo pieces that formed the block had their fibers both parallel or one of the parts had their fibers perpendicular to those of the otherpart. The adhesive used was resorcinol-formaldehyde. Shear strength was determined by compression using these blocks; thepercentage of wood failure was also measured. It was found that the low density wood glued better, because the average shear strengthof the blocks with fibers of the parts parallel to the direction of the force did not differ from the shear strength of solid wood. It was foundthe behavior of shear planes follows that of the samples made with fibers of the parts parallel to the shearing force.

  7. Four-block beam collimator

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  8. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Rim, Chaiho

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  9. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  10. The Shamrock lumbar plexus block

    Sauter, Axel R; Ullensvang, Kyrre; Niemi, Geir;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Shamrock technique is a new method for ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus blockade. Data on the optimal local anaesthetic dose are not available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate the effective dose of ropivacaine 0.5% for a Shamrock lumbar plexus block. DESIGN: A...... prospective dose-finding study using Dixon's up-and-down sequential method. SETTING: University Hospital Orthopaedic Anaesthesia Unit. INTERVENTION: Shamrock lumbar plexus block performance and block assessment were scheduled preoperatively. Ropivacaine 0.5% was titrated with the Dixon and Massey up......-and-down method using a stepwise change of 5 ml in each consecutive patient. Combined blocks of the femoral, the lateral femoral cutaneous and the obturator nerve were prerequisite for a successful lumbar plexus block. PATIENTS: Thirty patients scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgery completed the study...

  11. On Approximability of Block Sorting

    Narayanaswamy, N S

    2011-01-01

    Block Sorting is a well studied problem, motivated by its applications in Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and Computational Biology. Block Sorting has been shown to be NP-Hard, and two separate polynomial time 2-approximation algorithms have been designed for the problem. But questions like whether a better approximation algorithm can be designed, and whether the problem is APX-Hard have been open for quite a while now. In this work we answer the latter question by proving Block Sorting to be Max-SNP-Hard (APX-Hard). The APX-Hardness result is based on a linear reduction of Max-3SAT to Block Sorting. We also provide a new lower bound for the problem via a new parametrized problem k-Block Merging.

  12. An information-theoretic approach to designing the plane spacing for multifocal plane microscopy

    Tahmasbi, Amir; Ram, Sripad; Chao, Jerry; Abraham, Anish V.; Ward, E Sally; Ober, Raimund J.

    2015-01-01

    Multifocal plane microscopy (MUM) is a 3D imaging modality which enables the localization and tracking of single molecules at high spatial and temporal resolution by simultaneously imaging distinct focal planes within the sample. MUM overcomes the depth discrimination problem of conventional microscopy and allows high accuracy localization of a single molecule in 3D along the z-axis. An important question in the design of MUM experiments concerns the appropriate number of focal planes and the...

  13. Classification of plane curves with infinitely many Galois points

    Fukasawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    For a plane curve, a point in the projective plane is said to be Galois when the point projection induces a Galois extension of function fields. We completely classify plane curves with infinitely many outer Galois points.

  14. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.

    1987-11-01

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Reversibility of Whole-Plane SLE

    Zhan, Dapeng

    2010-01-01

    The main result of this paper is that for $\\kappa\\in(0,4]$, whole-plane SLE$_\\kappa$ satisfies reversibility, which means that the time-reversal of a whole-plane SLE$_\\kappa$ trace is still a whole-plane SLE$_\\kappa$ trace. In addition, we find that the time-reversal of a radial SLE$_\\kappa$ trace for $\\kappa\\in(0,4]$ is a disc SLE$_\\kappa$ trace with a marked boundary point. The main tool used in this paper is the stochastic coupling technique, which was introduced to prove the reversibility of chordal SLE$_\\kappa$ for $\\kappa\\in(0,4]$. The reversibility of whole-plane SLE is closely related to the reversibility of certain SLE traces in doubly connected domains connecting two boundary points. Such SLE is defined using the annulus Loewner equation and a drift function $\\Lambda$. For the reversibility to hold, the drift function $\\Lambda$ must satisfy certain PDE. We use the Feynman-Kac representation to find a solution to this PDE, and finally use the solution to prove the reversibility of whole-plane SLE$_\\k...

  17. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  18. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  19. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  20. [The efficacy of ultrasound-guided infraorbital nerve block with hockey stick typed probe].

    Iwase, Naoto; Fukui, Hidekimi; Yuunaiyama, Youko; Kaneko, Kouki; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of ultrasound-guided infraorbital nerve block with a hockey stick typed probe in plane approach. Individual difference of infraorbital anatomy makes it difficult to puncture the infraorbital for a man, and the risks include bleeding, double vision and paranasal sinus puncture. The advantage of ultrasound-guided nerve block has been reported. Compared with conventional land mark method approach, ultrasound technique is thought to be easy to perform, more quickly and safely without any complications. From our results, we have demonstrated that ultrasound-guided infraorbital nerve block assisted by hockey stick typed probe could become one of the safe methods for this purpose. PMID:24228458

  1. Self-complementary plane partitions by Proctor's minuscule method

    Kuperberg, Greg

    1994-01-01

    A method of Proctor [European J. Combin. 5 (1984), no. 4, 331-350] realizes the set of arbitrary plane partitions in a box and the set of symmetric plane partitions as bases of linear representations of Lie groups. We extend this method by realizing transposition and complementation of plane partitions as natural linear transformations of the representations, thereby enumerating symmetric plane partitions, self-complementary plane partitions, and transpose-complement plane partitions in a new...

  2. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The...... literature search identified nine studies eligible for inclusion. The administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics (intraperitoneally or subfascially/subcutaneously), transversus abdominis plane block, dexmedetomidine, and ketamine may improve analgesia compared to placebo...

  3. Component Separations

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H.; Ramirez, Oscar M.

    2012-01-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-...

  4. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  5. Plane wave limits and T-duality

    The Penrose limit is generalized to show that, any leading order solution of the low-energy field equations in any one of the five string theories has a plane wave solution as a limit. This limiting procedure takes into account all the massless fields that may arise and commutes with the T-duality so that any dual solution has again a plane wave limit. The scaling rules used in the limit are unique and stem from the scaling property of the D = 11 supergravity action. Although the leading order dual solutions need not be exact or supersymmetric, their plane wave limits always preserve some portion of the Poincare supersymmetry and solve the relevant field equations in all powers of the string tension parameter. Further properties of the limiting procedure are discussed. (author)

  6. Bayesian network learning with cutting planes

    Cussens, James

    2012-01-01

    The problem of learning the structure of Bayesian networks from complete discrete data with a limit on parent set size is considered. Learning is cast explicitly as an optimisation problem where the goal is to find a BN structure which maximises log marginal likelihood (BDe score). Integer programming, specifically the SCIP framework, is used to solve this optimisation problem. Acyclicity constraints are added to the integer program (IP) during solving in the form of cutting planes. Finding good cutting planes is the key to the success of the approach -the search for such cutting planes is effected using a sub-IP. Results show that this is a particularly fast method for exact BN learning.

  7. Translation planes foundations and construction principles

    Knarr, Norbert

    1995-01-01

    The book discusses various construction principles for translation planes and spreads from a general and unifying point of view and relates them to the theory of kinematic spaces. The book is intended for people working in the field of incidence geometry and can be read by everyone who knows the basic facts about projective and affine planes. The methods developed work especially well for topological spreads of real and complex vector spaces. In particular, a complete classification of all semifield spreads of finite dimensional complex vector spaces is obtained.

  8. Modeling of steady plane thermal detonations

    Steady plane thermal detonations proceeding through coarse fuel-coolant mixtures have been predicted to exhibit pressures of approximately 104 bar for UO2/Na and approximately 103 bar for Sn/H2O1. Although detailed experimental information for the crucial fragmentation step is still largely lacking, some important preliminary conclusions can nevertheless be drawn from a detailed examination of the jump balances and solution of the steady, separated-flow conservation equations in the fragmentation zone behind the shock. A few key results are presented of some parametric calculations of steady plane thermal detonations, and in addition offer some broader comments. 33 references

  9. Plane strain test for metal sheet characterization

    Flores, Paulo; Bonnet, Félix; Habraken, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This article shows the influence of a plane strain test specimen geometry on the measurable strain field and the influence of free edge effects over the stress computation. The experimental strain field distribution is measured over the whole deformable zone of a plane strain test specimen by an optical strain gauge. The chosen material is the DC06 IF steel of 0.8 mm thickness. The stress field is computed for several geometries at different strain levels by a Finite Element (FE) commer...

  10. Bifurcation of plane-to-plane map-germs with corank two of parabolic type

    Yoshida, Toshiki; Kabata, Yutaro; Ohmoto, Toru

    2015-01-01

    We study a moduli stratum of A-orbits of plane-to-plane germs of corank 2 with codimension 3. We describe explicitly the bifurcation diagram of its topologically A-versal unfolding. Two geometric applications to parabolic objects are presented.

  11. Left bundle-branch block

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  12. Learning Potentials in Number Blocks

    Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an initial exploration of how an interactive cubic user-configurable modular robotic system can be used to support learning about numbers and how they are pronounced. The development is done in collaboration with a class of 7-8 year old children and their mathematics teacher....... The tool is called Number Blocks and it combines physical interaction, learning, and immediate feedback. Number Blocks supports the children's understanding of place value in the sense that it allows them to experiment with creating large numbers. We found the blocks contributed to the learning...... process in several ways. The blocks combined mathematics and play, and they included and supported children at different academic levels. The auditory representation, especially the enhanced rhythmic effects due to using speech synthesis, and the rhythm helped the children to pronounce large numbers. This...

  13. Linear characters and block algebra

    Zeng, Jiwen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will prove that: 1. $G$ has a block only having linear ordinary characters if and only if $G$ is a $p$-nilpotent group with an abelian Sylow $p$-subgroup; 2. $G$ has a block only having linear Brauer characters if and only if $O_{p'}(G)\\leq O_{p'p}(G)=HO_{p'}(G)= \\textrm{Ker}(B_{0}^{*}) \\leq O_{p'pp'}=G$, where $H=G^{'}O^{p'}(G), \\textrm{Ker}(B_{0}^{*})=\\bigcap_{\\lambda \\in \\textrm{IBr}(B_{0})} \\textrm{Ker}(V_{\\lambda}), B_{0}$ is the principal block of $G$ and $V_{\\lambda}$ is the $F[G]$-module affording the Brauer character $\\lambda$; 3. if $G$ satisfies the conditions above, then for any block algebra $B$ of $G$, we have

  14. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  15. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block......-of-the-art block-based method in terms of asymptotic accuracy of variance estimation and distribution approximation. For stationary time series, the asymptotic validity, and the favorable bias properties of the new bootstrap method are shown in two important cases: smooth functions of means, and M-estimators. The...... estimator for the sample mean is shown to be robust against heteroskedasticity of the wild tapered block bootstrap. This easy to implement alternative bootstrap method works very well even for moderate sample sizes....

  16. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment...

  17. Statistical cryptanalysis of block ciphers

    Junod, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Since the development of cryptology in the industrial and academic worlds in the seventies, public knowledge and expertise have grown in a tremendous way, notably because of the increasing, nowadays almost ubiquitous, presence of electronic communication means in our lives. Block ciphers are inevitable building blocks of the security of various electronic systems. Recently, many advances have been published in the field of public-key cryptography, being in the understanding of involved securi...

  18. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  19. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  20. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  1. Statistical cryptanalysis of block ciphers

    Junod, Pascal; Vaudenay, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of cryptology in the industrial and academic worlds in the seventies, public knowledge and expertise have grown in a tremendous way, notably because of the increasing, nowadays almost ubiquitous, presence of electronic communication means in our lives. Block ciphers are inevitable building blocks of the security of various electronic systems. Recently, many advances have been published in the field of public-key cryptography, being in the understanding of involved securi...

  2. Techniques of facial nerve block.

    Schimek, F; Fahle, M

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

  3. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  4. Deep-Plane Lipoabdominoplasty in East Asians

    Jang, Jun-Young; Hong, Yoon Gi; Sim, Hyung Bo; Sun, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a new surgical technique by combining traditional abdominoplasty with liposuction. This combination of operations permits simpler and more accurate management of various abdominal deformities. In lipoabdominoplasty, the combination of techniques is of paramount concern. Herein, we introduce a new combination of liposuction and abdominoplasty using deep-plane flap sliding to maximize the benefits of both techniques. Methods Deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty was performed in 143 patients between January 2007 and May 2014. We applied extensive liposuction on the entire abdomen followed by a sliding flap through the deep plane after repairing the diastasis recti. The abdominal wound closure was completed with repair of Scarpa's fascia. Results The average amount of liposuction aspirate was 1,400 mL (700–3,100 mL), and the size of the average excised skin ellipse was 21.78×12.81 cm (from 15×10 to 25×15 cm). There were no major complications such as deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. We encountered 22 cases of minor complications: one wound infection, one case of skin necrosis, two cases of undercorrection, nine hypertrophic scars, and nine seromas. These complications were solved by conservative management or simple revision. Conclusions The use of deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty can correct abdominal deformities more effectively and with fewer complications than traditional abdominoplasty. PMID:27462568

  5. Large Format Multicolor QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    Soibel, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) multicolor focal plane array (FPA) cameras are essential for many DoD and NASA applications including Earth and planetary remote sensing. In this paper we summarize our recent development of large format multicolor QWIP FPA that cover MWIR and LWIR bands.

  6. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    manipulated in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis of sound in the horizontal plane. The manipulation of cues resulted in HRTFs with cues ranging from correct combinations of spectral information and ITDs to combinations with severely conflicting cues. Both the ITD and the spectral information seem to be...

  7. Locating a minisum circle in the plane

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a circle with respect to existing facilities in the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, i.e., we approximate a set of given points by a circle regarding the sum of weighted distances. If the radius of...

  8. Spatial Reasoning and Polya's Five Planes Problem

    Madden, Sean P.; Diaz, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Middle and High school students of the twenty-first century possess surprising powers of spatial reasoning. They are assisted by technologies not available to earlier generations. Both of these assertions are demonstrated by students who are challenged with George Polya's classic Five Planes Problem. (Contains 5 figures.)

  9. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  10. Personnel thermoluminescent dosimetry of plane pilots

    In this work are presented the results of the research realized in the pilots of commercial planes of the different flight equipment existing. The results obtained show that the pilots receive during their work, doses of ionizing radiation greater than the limit recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. (Author)

  11. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  12. Elastic Constants of Plane Orthotropic Elasticity

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The four independent material parameters of plane orthotropic elasti city are introduced as the effective stiffness, the effective Poisson ratio, the stiffness ratio and the shear parameter. It is proved that stress boundary value problems with zero resulting force on internal contours lead to st...

  13. Some Reflections on Plane Mirrors and Images.

    Galili, Igal; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the following questions based on the assumption that students' personal experiences and prior beliefs about plane mirrors can promote interesting discussions: (1) How mirror images are formed? (2) Why doesn't paper behave like a mirror? (3) Does a mirror left-right reverse objects? and (4) Why are corner images of two perpendicular…

  14. Plane wave fast color flow mode imaging

    Bolic, Ibrahim; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik;

    2006-01-01

    A new Plane wave fast color flow imaging method (PWM) has been investigated, and performance evaluation of the PWM based on experimental measurements has been made. The results show that it is possible to obtain a CFM image using only 8 echo-pulse emissions for beam to flow angles between 45...

  15. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  17. Field in a plane plasma waveguide

    Representation of electromagnetic field radiated from harmonic source placed in a plane waveguide filled with cold electron plasma is given. Radiation-mode and hybrid representation of this field depend on frequency of source is discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs. (L.I.)

  18. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  19. Presurgical Botulinum Toxin A Treatment Increases Angiogenesis by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Subsequent Superiorly Based Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Survival in a Rat Model.

    Park, Tae Hwan; Lee, Song Hyun; Park, Yun Joo; Lee, Young Seok; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Sung Young

    2016-06-01

    To date, there have been several experimental studies to assess tissue viability of transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps. Botulinum toxin A (BoTA) has gained popularity in many clinical fields, for a variety of therapeutic and aesthetic purposes. In addition, there have been reports regarding the positive effect of BoTA on flap survival by various mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that pretreatment with BoTA could augment the survival of TRAM flaps via increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent angiogenesis.Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group and a BoTA group. Five days before superiorly based TRAM flap elevation, the BoTA group was pretreated with BoTA, whereas the control group was pretreated with normal saline. Gross flap survival rates were assessed, and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed for the evaluation of angiogenesis-related factors (CD34, HIF-1α, and VEGF).In the BoTA group, the gross flap survival rate was significantly higher than that in the control group on both ipsilateral (92.78.3 ± 5.05% vs 86.8 ± 3.88%, P = 0.009) and contralateral (91.57 ± 5.79% vs 74.28 ± 11.83%, P < 0.001) sides.The relative mRNA expression of CD34 and VEGF was significantly higher in the BoTA group than that in the control group in every zone, whereas the relative mRNA expression of HIF-1α was significantly higher in the BoTA group than that in the control group on contralateral sides. The relative protein expression of CD34, VEGF, and HIF-1α was significantly higher in the BoTA group than that in the control group in every zone.In conclusion, we demonstrate that presurgical BoTA treatment might increase angiogenesis by HIF-1α/VEGF, subsequently increase superiorly based TRAM flap survival in a rat model. PMID:25695458

  20. On building 4-critical plane and projective plane multiwheels from odd wheels

    Zeps, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    We build unbounded classes of plane and projective plane multiwheels that are 4-critical that are received summing odd wheels as edge sums modulo two. These classes can be considered as ascending from single common graph that can be received as edge sum modulo two of the octahedron graph O and the minimal wheel W3. All graphs of these classes belong to 2n-2-edges-class of graphs, among which are those that quadrangulate projective plane, i.e., graphs from Gr\\"otzsch class, received applying Mycielski's Construction to odd cycle.

  1. EUV transmission of Optical Blocking Filter and Optical Blocking Layer for Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) onboard Astro-H

    渡辺, 辰雄; Watanabe, Tatsuo; 幸村, 孝由; Kohmura, Takayoshi; 北本, 俊二; Kitamoto, Shunji; 村上, 弘志; Murakami, Hiroshi; 竹中, 恵理; Takenaka, Eri; 長崎, 健太; Nagasaki, Kenta; 東, 慶一; Higashi, Keiichi; 吉田, 正樹

    2010-01-01

    We have developed the X-ray CCD camera system for the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) which will be launched as focal plane detectors of X-ray telescope onboard the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite, Astro-H. The X-ray CCD is back-illuminated (BI) CCD which has an Optical Blocking Layer (OBL) directly coating its X-ray illumination surface with Aluminum-Polyimide-Aluminum instead of Optical Blocking Filter (OBF). The X-ray CCD is affected by large doses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation ...

  2. Progress on VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey

    Shu, Fengchun; Jiang, Wu; McCallum, Jamie; Yi, Sang-oh; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Li, Jinling; Lovell, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We launched the VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey program in 2015. The goal of this program is to find all compact sources within 7.5 degrees of the ecliptic plane which are suitable as phase calibrators for anticipated phase referencing observations of spacecrafts. We planned to observe a complete sample of the sources brighter than 50 mJy at 5 GHz listed in the PMN and GB6 catalogues that have not yet been observed with VLBI. By April 2016, eight 24-hour sessions have been performed and processed. Among 2227 observed sources, 435 sources were detected in three or more observations. We have also run three 8-hour segments with VLBA for improving positions of 71 ecliptic sources.

  3. Heteroclinic connections in plane Couette flow

    Halcrow, Jonathan; Cvitanović, Predrag; Viswanath, Divakar

    2008-01-01

    Plane Couette flow transitions to turbulence for Re~325 even though the laminar solution with a linear profile is linearly stable for all Re (Reynolds number). One starting point for understanding this subcritical transition is the existence of invariant sets in the state space of the Navier Stokes equation, such as upper and lower branch equilibria and periodic and relative periodic solutions, that are quite distinct from the laminar solution. This article reports several heteroclinic connections between such objects and briefly describes a numerical method for locating heteroclinic connections. Computing such connections is essential for understanding the global dynamics of spatially localized structures that occur in transitional plane Couette flow. We show that the nature of streaks and streamwise rolls can change significantly along a heteroclinic connection.

  4. Focal Plane Image Assembly of Subpixel

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scanning assembly principle and construction of scanning assembly sample.The factors that affect assembly accuracy are analyzed.There are two steps in CCD focal plane scanning assembly.The first is rough assembly,and the second is accurate assembly.In this paper,the moiré fringe is introduced in judging assembly accuracy directly and accurately.The equation for optical transmission characteristics of CCD Moiré fringes is presented.The measurement of Moiré fringes can be completed when some conditions are satisfied.2D-assembly error can be obtained by using digital correlation filtering technique.Finally,the result of focal plane scanning assembly is presented.The result is in good accordance with theory.

  5. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants

    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  6. Waveguide metacouplers for in-plane polarimetry

    Pors, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of the vectorial nature of light and a crucial parameter in a wide range of remote sensing applications. Nevertheless, the SOP is rather cumbersome to probe experimentally, as conventional detectors only respond to the intensity of the light, hence loosing the phase information between orthogonal vector components. In this work, we propose a new type of polarimeter that is compact and well-suited for in-plane optical circuitry, while allowing for immediate determination of the SOP through simultaneous retrieval of the associated Stokes parameters. The polarimeter is based on plasmonic phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces that facilitate normal incident light to launch in-plane photonic waveguide modes propagating in six predefined directions with the coupling efficiencies providing a direct measure of the incident SOP. The functionality and accuracy of the polarimeter, which essentially is an all-polarization sensitive waveguide metacoupler, is confi...

  7. Worldvolume supersymmetries for branes in plane waves

    Freedman, D Z; Taylor, M; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2003-01-01

    We study the worldvolume supersymmetries of M2 branes in the maximally supersymmetric plane wave background of M theory. For certain embeddings the standard probe analysis indicates that the worldvolume theory has less than 16 supersymmetries. We show that at the quadratic level the worldvolume theory admits additional linearly realized supersymmetries, and that the spectra of the branes are organized into multiplets of these symmetries. We find however that these supersymmetries are not respected by worldvolume interactions. Our analysis was motivated by recent work showing that D-branes in the maximally supersymmetric plane wave background of IIB string theory admit supersymmetries beyond those of the probe analysis. The construction of the additional supercharges in this case was specific to a string worldsheet that is a strip and the present results suggest that string interactions do not preserve these symmetries.

  8. On the map of Vogel's plane

    Mkrtchyan, R L

    2013-01-01

    We search points in a Vogel plane with regular universal expression for character of adjoint representation. This gives seven patterns of singularities cancellation, each giving a certain Diophantine equation of third order on three variables. Solutions of these equations are classical series of simple Lie algebras (including an "odd symplectic" one), $D_{2,1,\\lambda}$ superalgebra, the straight line of three-dimensional algebras, and a number of isolated solutions, including exceptional simple Lie algebras. One of these Diophantine equations, namely knm=4k+4n+2m+12 contains all simple Lie algebras, except SO(2N+1). Isolated solutions contain, beside exceptional simple Lie algebras, so called $E_{71/2}$ algebra and also two other similar (unknown) objects with positive dimensions. In addition, there are 47 isolated solutions in "unphysical semiplane" with negative dimensions. Isolated solutions mainly lie on a few straight lines in Vogel plane. All solutions give an integers in universal dimension formulae fo...

  9. String theory on Dp-plane waves

    We study the spectrum of solvable string models on plane waves descending from non-conformal Dp-brane geometries. We mainly focus on S-dual F1/D1-waves in type-IIB and type-I/heterotic 10D superstrings. We derive the Kaluza-Klein spectrum of N=1,2 10D supergravities on D1/F1-waves. We compute helicity supertraces counting multiplicities and R-charges of string excitations in the plane wave geometry. The results are compared against the expectations coming from gauge/supergravity descriptions. In the type I case, the Klein, Annulus and Moebius one-loop amplitudes are computed for ten-dimensional D1-waves. We test the consistency of the open string descendant by showing that after modular transformations to the closed string channel, the three amplitudes combine themselves to reconstruct a complete square (vertical bar B> + vertical bar C>)2. Tadpole conditions are also discussed. (author)

  10. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  11. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow

    Zammert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace reveal several interior and exterior crisis bifurcations. They appear in the upper branch that emerges in a saddle-node bifurcation near $Re_{SN}=641$ and then undergoes several bifurcations into a chaotic attractor. Near $Re_{XC}=785.95$ the attractor collides with the lower-branch state and turns into a chaotic saddle in a exterior crisis, with a characteristic $(Re-Re_{XC})^{-\\delta}$ variation in lifetimes. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. They contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space. The exterior crisis marks the onset of transient turbulence in this subspace of plane Poiseuille flow.

  12. Projectors, Shadows, and Conformal Blocks

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the "embedding space" R^{d+1,1}. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples.

  13. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  14. Tharsis block tectonics on Mars

    Raitala, Jouko T.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogeneities in Martian internal structure, energy distribution, magma accumulation and motion below the lithosphere. Thermal convection can be seen as a necessary consequence for transient initial phase of Martian cooling. This produced part of the elevated topography with tensional stresses and graben systems radial to the main bulge. The linear grabens, radial to the Tharsis center, can be interpreted to indicate rift zones that define the crustal block boundaries. The load-induced stresses may then have contributed on further graben and ridge formation over an extended period of time.

  15. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Spatial localization of sound is often described as unconscious evaluation of cues given by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the spectral information of the sound that reaches the two ears. Our present knowledge suggests the hypothesis that the ITD roughly determines the cone of the perce...... independently in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis. The ITD seems to be dominant for localization in the horizontal plane even when the spectral information is severely degraded....

  16. Plane correlations in small colliding systems

    Yan, Li

    2015-01-01

    I propose event-plane correlations as a test of collectivity in small colliding systems: In d-Au and $^3$He-Au collisions, I predict a strong anti-correlation between elliptic and triangular flow, generated by the geometry of the light projectile. A significant anti-correlation is also predicted in central p-Pb collisions at the LHC, which is solely generated by fluctuations. Similar, but stronger correlation patterns are predicted in correlations involving dipolar flow.

  17. STABLE AND UNSTABLE IDEAL PLANE FLOWS

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigate the stability of a steady ideal plane flow in an arbitrary domain in terms of the L2 norm of the vorticity. Linear stability implies nonlinear instability provided the growth rate of the linearized system exceeds the Liapunov exponent of the flow. In contrast,a maximizer of the entropy subject to constant energy and mass is stable. This implies the stability of certain solutions of the mean field equation.

  18. Free string evolution across plane wave singularities

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    In these proceedings, we summarize our studies of free string propagation in (near-)singular scale-invariant plane wave geometries. We analyze the singular limit of the evolution for the center-of-mass motion and all excited string modes. The requirement that the entire excitation energy of the string should be finite excludes consistent propagation across the singularity, in case no dimensionful scales are introduced at the singular locus (in an otherwise scale-invariant space-time).

  19. Plane sets invisible in finitely many directions

    Plakhov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of mirror invisibility for plane sets. Given a circle and a finite number of unit vectors (defining the directions of invisibility) such that the angles between them are commensurable with $\\pi$, for any $\\varepsilon > 0$ there exists a set invisible in the chosen directions that contains the circle and is contained in its $\\varepsilon$-neighborhood. This set is the disjoint union of infinitely many domains with piecewise smooth boundary.

  20. Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes

    Biancofiore, L.; Gallaire, F.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability...

  1. Hard Discs on the Hyperbolic Plane

    Modes, Carl D.; Kamien, Randall D.

    2007-01-01

    We examine a simple hard disc fluid with no long range interactions on the two dimensional space of constant negative Gaussian curvature, the hyperbolic plane. This geometry provides a natural mechanism by which global crystalline order is frustrated, allowing us to construct a tractable model of disordered monodisperse hard discs. We extend free area theory and the virial expansion to this regime, deriving the equation of state for the system, and compare its predictions with simulation near...

  2. Plane strain problem in microstretch elastic solid

    Rajneesh Kumar; Ranjit Singh; T K Chadha

    2003-12-01

    The eigenvalue approach is developed for the two-dimensional plane strain problem in a microstretch elastic medium. Applying Laplace and Fourier transforms, an infinite space subjected to a concentrated force is studied. The integral transforms are inverted using a numerical technique to get displacement, force stress, couple stress and first moment, which are also shown graphically. The results of micropolar elasticity are deduced as a special case from the present formulation.

  3. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  4. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed

  5. Hamiltonian maps in the complex plane

    Following Arnol'd's proof of the KAM theorem, an analogy with the vertical pendulum, and some general arguments concerning maps in the complex plane, detailed calculations are presented and illustrated graphically for the standard map at the golden mean frequency. The functional dependence of the coordinate q on the canonical angle variable theta is analytically continued into the complex theta-plane, where natural boundaries are found at constant absolute values of Im theta. The boundaries represent the appearance of chaotic motion in the complex plane. Two independent numerical methods based on Fourier analysis in the angle variable were used, one based on a variation-annihilation method and the other on a double expansion. The results were further checked by direct solution of the complex equations of motion. The numerically simpler, but intrinsically complex, semipendulum and semistandard map are also studied. We conjecture that natural boundaries appear in the analogous analytic continuation of the invariant tori or KAM surfaces of general nonintegrable systems

  6. On the Road Map of Vogel's Plane

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben L.

    2016-01-01

    We define "population" of Vogel's plane as points for which universal character of adjoint representation is regular in the finite plane of its argument. It is shown that they are given exactly by all solutions of seven Diophantine equations of third order on three variables. We find all their solutions: classical series of simple Lie algebras (including an "odd symplectic" one), {D_{2,1,λ}} superalgebra, the line of sl(2) algebras, and a number of isolated solutions, including exceptional simple Lie algebras. One of these Diophantine equations, namely {knm=4k+4n+2m+12,} contains all simple Lie algebras, except so{(2N+1).} Among isolated solutions are, besides exceptional simple Lie algebras, so called {e_{71/2}} algebra and also two other similar unidentified objects with positive dimensions. In addition, there are 47 isolated solutions in "unphysical semiplane" with negative dimensions. Isolated solutions mainly belong to the few lines in Vogel plane, including some rows of Freudenthal magic square. Universal dimension formulae have an integer values on all these solutions at least for first three symmetric powers of adjoint representation.

  7. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  8. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    architectures and frameworks. For a long time they were known as the main building block that will provide confidentiality in an information system. They would also be able to represent a full spectrum of cryptographic services as many block ciphers can be used to construct stream ciphers, hash functions...... PRINTcipher for a significant fraction of its keys. This new attack also gives us new insights into other, more well-established attacks. In addition, we also show that for weak keys, strongly biased linear approximations exists for any number of rounds. Furthermore, we provide variety of attacks...

  9. Numerical modeling of block structure dynamics: Application to the Vrancea region and study of earthquakes sequences in the synthetic catalogs

    A seismically active region is represented as a system of absolutely rigid blocks divided by infinitely thin plane faults. The interaction of the blocks along the fault planes and with the underlying medium is viscous-elastic. The system of blocks moves as a consequence of prescribed motion of boundary blocks and the underlying medium. When for some part of a fault plane the stress surpasses a certain strength level a stress-drop (''a failure'') occurs. It can cause a failure for other parts of fault planes. The failures are considered as earthquakes. As a result of the numerical simulation a synthetic earthquake catalogue is produced. This procedure is applied for numerical modeling of dynamics of the block structure approximating the tectonic structure of the Vrancea region. By numerical experiments the values of the model parameters were obtained which supplied the synthetic earthquake catalog with the space distribution of epicenters close to the real distribution of the earthquake epicenters in the Vrancea region. The frequency-magnitude relations (Gutenberg-Richter curves) obtained for the synthetic and real catalogs have some common features. The sequences of earthquakes arising in the model are studied for some artificial structures. It is found that ''foreshocks'', ''main shocks'', and ''aftershocks'' could be detected among earthquakes forming the sequences. The features of aftershocks, foreshocks, and catalogs of main shocks are analysed. (author). 5 refs, 12 figs, 16 tabs

  10. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  11. Scintigraphic visualization of 'Blocking' thyroid

    Full text: An important problem in nuclear endocrinology is 'blocking' of thyroid gland, which necessitates postpone of the investigation, adverse clinical effect of stopping medications and a delay of making diagnosis. The aim of the study was to introduce and to determine the clinical value of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI in patients (Pts) with 'blocked thyroid'. In 365 Pts (aged 38-75 years), indicated for a thyroid scintigraphy after proper preparation, an investigation was performed with 74 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate, 20 min. p.i. In 14 of them (3.8%), the thyroid was 'blocked' and additional scintigraphy was done with 370-555 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, 15 and 120 min.p.i. It was estimated that in all Pts there was a visualization of thyroid. In 1 of them, a large 'hot' nodule was visualized in the early and late image. Later on a differentiated thyroid carcinoma was proved histologically. In the rest of the patients 'cold' nodules with different size were visualized, eventually as a result of cysts. As a conclusion we consider, that a scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI is a useful tool in Pts with 'blocked' thyroid. In addition an evaluation of the thyroid nodule could be done and therefore- a recommendation for therapy

  12. Building block filtering and mixing

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1998-01-01

    A three-stage evolutionary method, the BBF-GA is introduced. BBF-GA is an acronym for building block filtering genetic algorithm. During the first stage, an ensemble of fast evolutionary algorithms is used to explore the search space. The best individual found by each of these evolutionary algorithm

  13. A physical model for measuring thermally-induced block displacements

    Bakun-Mazor, Dagan; Feldhiem, Aviran; Keissar, Yuval; Hatzor, Yossef H.

    2016-04-01

    A new model for thermally-induced block displacement in discontinuous rock slopes has been recently suggested. The model consists of a discrete block that is separated from the rock mass by a tension crack and rests on an inclined plane. The tension crack is filled with a wedge block or rock fragments. Irreversible block sliding is assumed to develop in response to climatic thermal fluctuations and consequent contraction and expansion of the sliding block material. While a tentative analytical solution for this model is already available, we are exploring here the possibility of obtaining such a permanent, thermally-induced, rock block displacement, under fully controlled conditions at the laboratory, and the sensitivity of the mechanism to geometry, mechanical properties, and temperature fluctuations. A large scale concrete physical model (50x150x60 cm^3) is being examined in a Climate-Controlled Room (CCR). The CCR permits accurate control of ambient temperature from 5 to 45 Celsius degrees. The permanent plastic displacement is being measured using four displacement transducers and a high resolution (29M pixel) visual range camera. A series of thermocouples measure the heating front inside the sliding block, hence thermal diffusivity is evaluated from the measured thermal gradient and heat flow. In order to select the appropriate concrete mixture, the mechanical and thermo-physical properties of concrete samples are determined in the lab. Friction angle and shear stiffness of the sliding interface are determined utilizing a hydraulic, servo-controlled direct shear apparatus. Uniaxial compression tests are performed to determine the uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poison's ratio of the intact block material using a stiff triaxial load frame. Thermal conductivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined experimentally using a self-constructed measuring system. Due to the fact that this experiment is still in progress, preliminary

  14. Innovative masonry blocks for partition walls

    Vasconcelos, Graça; Poletti, Elisa; Medeiros, Pedro; Mendonça, Paulo; Carvalho, Pedro; Cunha, Sandra Raquel Leite; Camões, Aires; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to propose a non structural system of partition walls with monolithic blocks based on a composite material resulting from an admixture of cork and textile fibers combined with a non cement binder, gypsum. These blocks consist of two half blocks which have to be connected during laying process. The developed blocks were first tested under compressive and flexural loading in order to derive their mechanical behaviour. Different curing conditions were applied to the blocks dur...

  15. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  16. Block Algorithms for Quark Propagator Calculation

    Pickles, Stephen M.; Collaboration, UKQCD

    1997-01-01

    Computing quark propagators in lattice QCD is equivalent to solving large, sparse linear systems with multiple right-hand sides. Block algorithms attempt to accelerate the convergence of iterative Krylov-subspace methods by solving the multiple systems simultaneously. This paper compares a block generalisation of the quasi-minimal residual method (QMR), Block Conjugate Gradient on the normal equation, Block Lanczos and ($\\gamma_5$-symmetric) Block BiConjugate Gradient.

  17. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).

  18. Dynamic interaction of slip displacement accumulation in a two-block Newmark model

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.; Psarropoulos, Prodromos N.

    2011-01-01

    aforementioned interfaces. The well-known Newmark’s sliding block has been widely applied to mimic the seismic response of structures with distinct interfaces. In the current study a new model is presented, which is based on the principles of Newmark’s approach. This model comprises of three stacked rigid blocks...... reduction of the permanent relative displacements along both interfaces. The interaction mechanism is dominated by the inclination of the sliding planes, the mass ratio of the two blocks, the ratio of the yield acceleration of the two interfaces and the angle of friction of the lower interface. Moreover......, the sensitivity of the interaction mechanism to the excitation characteristics and to the mass of the two blocks was also investigated...

  19. Dynamical Analysis of Blocking Events: Spatial and Temporal Fluctuations of Covariant Lyapunov Vectors

    Schubert, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    One of the most relevant weather regimes in the mid latitudes atmosphere is the persistent deviation from the approximately zonally symmetric jet stream to the emergence of so-called blocking patterns. Such configurations are usually connected to exceptional local stability properties of the flow which come along with an improved local forecast skills during the phenomenon. It is instead extremely hard to predict onset and decay of blockings. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors (CLVs) offer a suitable characterization of the linear stability of a chaotic flow, since they represent the full tangent linear dynamics by a covariant basis which explores linear perturbations at all time scales. Therefore, we will test whether CLVs feature a signature of the blockings. We examine the CLVs for a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane two-layer model in a periodic channel baroclinically driven by a meridional temperature gradient $\\Delta T$. An orographic forcing enhances the emergence of localized blocked regimes. We detect the blockin...

  20. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes: Preprint

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Bush, Brian W.; Gruchalla, Kenny; Smith, Steve

    2016-03-01

    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  1. Fault plane solutions of microearthquakes in the Loviisa region in south-eastern Finland

    Fifteen microearthquakes have been recorded by a small seismic network in the Loviisa area from 1985 to 1988. Fault plane solutions of these events based on spectral amplitudes and polarities of vertical first motions are presented. In addition, multievent locations have been performed to define the geometry of the seismically active block boundaries. The study also deals with the possibilities to use modern data acquisition and analysis techniques as a tool for measuring slow block movements of the bedrock. The results are discussed with the framework of the previous seismic and seismotectonic interpretations obtained by more conventional methods. The small number of seismic stations available prevents in many cases definite conclusions. The seismic network only consisted of three stations. The seismic events were clustered in five source areas. In these areas, the most probable fault geometries and mechanisms associated with the seismic observations are presented. (29 refs.)

  2. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  3. Symmetric cumulants and event-plane correlations

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration has recently measured the correlations between amplitudes of anisotropic flow in different Fourier harmonics, referred to as symmetric cumulants. We derive approximate relations between symmetric cumulants involving $v_4$ and $v_5$ and the event-plane correlations measured by ATLAS. The validity of these relations is tested using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations. The corresponding results are in better agreement with ALICE data than existing hydrodynamic predictions. We make quantitative predictions for three symmetric cumulants which are not yet measured.

  4. The space complexity of cutting planes refutations

    Galesi, N.; Pudlák, Pavel; Thapen, Neil

    Dagstuhl : Schloss Dagstuhl, Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2015 - (Zuckerman, D.), s. 433-447 ISBN 978-3-939897-81-1. ISSN 1868-8969. - (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics. 33). [Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC) /30./. Portland (US), 17.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : proof complexity * space * cutting planes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2015/5055/

  5. The quasar mass-luminosity plane

    Steinhardt, Charles Louis

    2010-11-01

    This thesis investigates the quasar mass-luminosity plane, as a new tool to explore the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity over time. Previous techniques used quasar luminosity function and mass functions, which are one-dimensional projections of the mass-luminosity plane. The M --- L plane contains information that cannot be seen in these projections. We use 62,185 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR5 sample to develop several new constraints on quasar accretion. Black hole masses, based on the widths of their Hbeta, Mg II, and C IV lines and adjacent continuum luminosities, were used assuming using standard virial mass estimate scaling laws. In each redshift interval over the range 0.2 4.0, low-mass quasars reach at their Eddington luminosity, but high-mass quasars fall short, even by a factor of ten or more at 0.2 < z < 0.6. We examine several potential sources of measurement uncertainty or bias and show that none of them can account for this effect. We also show the statistical uncertainty in virial mass estimation to have an upper bound of ˜ 0.2 dex, smaller than the 0.4 dex previously reported. The maximum mass of quasars at each redshift is sharp and evolving. High-mass black holes turn off their luminous accretion at higher redshift than lower-mass black holes. Further, turnoff for quasars at any given mass is synchronized to within 0.7--3 Gyr, tighter than would be expected given the dynamics of their host galaxies. We find potential signatures of the quasar turnoff mechanism, including a dearth of high-mass quasars at low Eddington ratio, low CIV/MgII emission line ratio, and a red spectral tilt. Finally, we use these new constraints to analyze models for the evolution of individual quasars over time. We find a restricted family of tracks that lie within the M --- L plane at all redshifts, suggesting that a single, constant feedback mechanism between all supermassive black holes and their host galaxies might apply at all

  6. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on an inclined plane. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes---triangular and sinusoidal waves---across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficient, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling-wave motions with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  7. Structure Scalars In Charged Plane Symmetry

    Sharif, M

    2013-01-01

    We consider non-adiabatic flow of the fluid possessing dissipation in the form of shearing viscosity in electromagnetic field. The scalar functions (structure scalars) for charged plane symmetry are formulated and are related with the physical variables of the fluid. We also develop a relationship between the Weyl tensor and other physical variables by using Taub mass formalism. The role of electric charge as well as its physical significance for the evolution of the shear tensor and expansion scalar are also explored. Finally, we discuss a special case for dust with cosmological constant.

  8. Lattice actions on the plane revisited

    Maucourant, Francois

    2010-01-01

    We study the action of a lattice in the group SL(2,R) on the plane. We obtain a formula which simultaneously describes visits of an orbit to either a fixed ball, or an expanding or contracting family of annuli. We also discuss the `shrinking target problem'. Our results are valid for an explicitly described set of initial points: all nonzero vectors in the case of a cocompact lattice, and all vectors satisfying certain diophantine conditions in case SL(2,Z). The proofs combine the method of Ledrappier with effective equidistribution results for the horocycle flow due to Burger, Strombergsson, Forni and Flaminio.

  9. Planes departamentales de CT&I

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Urge la formulación de los Planes de CT&I para los Departamentos, gestionando el territorio como una construcción social, con ideas que den respueta a los retos contemporáneos y medulares de nuestro entorno, tales como: la violencia, la drogadicción y la falta de oportunidades; la inequidad, la exclusión y la pobreza; el consumismo, la contaminación y el calentamiento global; la pérdida de identidad de los pueblos, la fragmentación social y la degradación de los valores éticos; la desestructu...

  10. Conformal field theory on the plane

    Ribault, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    We provide an introduction to conformal field theory on the plane in the conformal bootstrap approach. We introduce the main ideas of the bootstrap approach to quantum field theory, and how they apply to two-dimensional theories with local conformal symmetry. We describe the mathematical structures which appear in such theories, from the Virasoro algebra and its representations, to the BPZ equations and their solutions. As examples, we study a number of models: Liouville theory, (generalized) minimal models, free bosonic theories, the $H_3^+$ model, and the $SU_2$ and $\\widetilde{SL}_2(\\mathbb{R})$ WZW models.

  11. Planes óptimos con preferencias desconocidas

    Mantel, Rolf R.

    1999-01-01

    Recientemente Rustem y Velupillaj (1985) han vuelto a investigar el "método de las entrevistas" originalmente propuesto por Ragnar Frisch y descripta por Johansen (1974) para la cooperación entre el planificador -abreviatura que se utilizará para designar a el o los responsables de la política económica-y el econometrista -o responsable del modelo económico- para la determinación de un conjunto de medidas de política económica óptimo. Van Eijk y Sandee (1959) ya habían propuesto diseñar plane...

  12. Brane webs and O5-planes

    Zafrir, Gabi

    2016-03-01

    We explore the properties of five-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories living on 5-brane webs in orientifold 5-plane backgrounds. This allows constructing quiver gauge theories with alternating USp(2 N) and SO(N) gauge groups with fundamental matter, and thus leads to the existence of new 5 d fixed point theories. The web description can be further used to study non-perturbative phenomena such as enhancement of symmetry and duality. We further suggest that one can use these systems to engineer 5 d SO group with spinor matter. We present evidence for this claim.

  13. Multiple M2-Branes and Plane Waves

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We propose a natural generalisation of the BLG multiple M2-brane action to membranes in curved plane wave backgrounds, and verify in two different ways that the action correctly captures the non-trivial space-time geometry. We show that the M2 to D2 reduction of the theory along a non-trivial direction in field space is equivalent to the D2-brane world-volume Yang-Mills theory with a non-trivial (null-time dependent) dilaton in the corresponding IIA background geometry. As another consistency...

  14. New plastic plane stress model for concrete

    In the paper a description of concrete behaviour in the plane stress case is given on the basis of the modified bounding surface plasticity theory. Three independent plastic mechanisms have been introduced describing axiatoric and deviatoric plastic strains and their coupling. All the new analytical formulae for material functions being in agreement with experiments and loading/unloading criteria have been proposed. In addition, for the proper description of concrete behaviour in tension a new, separate function of bounding surface shrinkage has been introduced. (author)

  15. Plane partitions with 2-periodic weights

    Mkrtchyan, Sevak

    2013-01-01

    We study scaling limits of skew plane partitions with periodic weights under several boundary conditions. We compute the correlation kernel of the limiting point process in the bulk and near turning points on the frozen boundary. The turning points that appear in the homogeneous case split in our model into pairs of turning points macroscopically separated by a "semi-frozen" region. As a result the point process at a turning point is not the GUE minor process, but rather a pair of GUE minor p...

  16. Linear Forced In-Plane and Out-of Plane Vibrations of Frames Having a Curved Member

    Özyiğit, H. A.; Öz, H. R.; Tekelioğlu, M.

    2004-01-01

    The forced, in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of frames comprised of straight and curved members are investigated using Finite Element Methods. The straight and curved beams are assumed as Euler-Bernoulli type and they have circular cross-sections.  The frame lies in a single plane. In the analysis, elongation, bending and rotary inertia effects are included. Four degrees of freedom for in-plane vibrations and three degrees of freedom for out-of-plane vibrations are assumed. The in-plane a...

  17. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. ARC Code TI: X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC) is an open source research tool used to interact with the commercial flight simulator software X-Plane. XPC allows users to...

  19. Hyperelliptic plane curves of type (d,d-2)

    Sakai, Fumio; Saleem, Mohammad; Tono, Keita

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we classified and constructed all rational plane curves of type (d,d-2). In this paper, we generalize these results to irreducible plane curves of type (d,d-2) with positive genus.

  20. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  1. Exact relativistic solution of disordered radiation with plane symmetry

    An exact solution of Einstein equations corresponding to an equilibrium distribution of disordered electromagnetic radiation with plane symmetry is obtained. This equilibrium is due solely to the gravitational and pressure effects inherent to the radiation. The distribution of radiation is found to be maximum and finite at the plane of symmetry, and to decrease monotonically in directions normal to this plane. The solution tends asymptotically to the static plane symmetric vacuum solution obtained by Levi-Civita. Timelike and null geodesics are discussed

  2. Waveguide Metacouplers for In-Plane Polarimetry

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-06-01

    The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of the vectorial nature of light and a crucial parameter in a wide range of remote sensing applications. Nevertheless, the SOP is rather cumbersome to probe experimentally, as conventional detectors respond only to the intensity of the light, hence losing the phase information between orthogonal vector components. In this work, we propose a type of polarimeter that is compact and well suited for in-plane optical circuitry while allowing for immediate determination of the SOP through simultaneous retrieval of the associated Stokes parameters. The polarimeter is based on plasmonic phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces that facilitate normal incident light to launch in-plane photonic-waveguide modes propagating in six predefined directions with the coupling efficiencies providing a direct measure of the incident SOP. The functionality and accuracy of the polarimeter, which essentially is an all-polarization-sensitive waveguide metacoupler, is confirmed through full-wave simulations at the operation wavelength of 1.55 μ m .

  3. The hybrid solution for the Fundamental Plane

    D'Onofrio, M; Moretti, A; Marziani, P; Bindoni, D; Fritz, J; Varela, J; Bettoni, D; Cava, A; Poggianti, B M; Gullieuszik, M; Kjaergaard, P; Moles, M; Vulcani, B; Omizzolo, A; Couch, W J; Dressler, A

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the database of early-type galaxies (ETGs) members of the WINGS survey of nearby clusters, we address here the long debated question of the origin and shape of the Fundamental Plane (FP). Our data suggest that different physical mechanisms concur in shaping and tilting the FP with respect to the virial plane (VP) expectation. In particular, an hybrid solution in which the structure of galaxies and their stellar population are the main contributors to the FP tilt seems to be favoured. We find that the bulk of the tilt should be attributed to structural non-homology, while stellar population effects play an important but less crucial role. Our data indicate that the differential FP tilt between the V and K-band is due to a sort of entanglement between structural and stellar population effects, for which the inward steepening of color profiles (V-K) tends to increase at increasing the stellar mass of ETGs. The same analysis applied to the ATLAS3D and SDSS data in common with WINGS (WSDSS throughout...

  4. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  5. Multiple M2-branes and plane waves

    We propose a natural generalisation of the BLG multiple M2-brane action to membranes in curved plane wave backgrounds, and verify in two different ways that the action correctly captures the non-trivial space-time geometry. We show that the M2 to D2 reduction of the theory along a non-trivial direction in field space is equivalent to the D2-brane world-volume Yang-Mills theory with a non-trivial (null-time dependent) dilaton in the corresponding IIA background geometry. As another consistency check of this proposal we show that the properties of metric 3-algebras ensure the equivalence of the Rosen coordinate version of this action (time-dependent metric on the space of 3-algebra valued scalar fields, no mass terms) and its Brinkmann counterpart (constant couplings but time-dependent mass terms). We also establish an analogous result for deformed Yang-Mills theories in any dimension which, in particular, demonstrates the equivalence of the Rosen and Brinkmann forms of the plane wave matrix string action.

  6. Multiple M2-Branes and Plane Waves

    Blau, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a natural generalisation of the BLG multiple M2-brane action to membranes in curved plane wave backgrounds, and verify in two different ways that the action correctly captures the non-trivial space-time geometry. We show that the M2 to D2 reduction of the theory along a non-trivial direction in field space is equivalent to the D2-brane worldvolume Yang-Mills theory with a non-trivial (null-time dependent) dilaton in the corresponding IIA background geometry. As another consistency check of this proposal we show that the properties of metric 3-algebras ensure the equivalence of the Rosen coordinate version of this action (time-dependent metric on the space of 3-algebra valued scalar fields, no mass terms) and its Brinkmann counterpart (constant couplings but time-dependent mass terms). We also establish an analogous result for deformed Yang-Mills theories in any dimension which, in particular, demonstrates the equivalence of the Rosen and Brinkmann forms of the plane wave matrix string action.

  7. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  8. Multi-level block permutation.

    Winkler, Anderson M; Webster, Matthew A; Vidaurre, Diego; Nichols, Thomas E; Smith, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Under weak and reasonable assumptions, mainly that data are exchangeable under the null hypothesis, permutation tests can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of various non-standard statistics. There are, however, various common examples in which global exchangeability can be violated, including paired tests, tests that involve repeated measurements, tests in which subjects are relatives (members of pedigrees) - any dataset with known dependence among observations. In these cases, some permutations, if performed, would create data that would not possess the original dependence structure, and thus, should not be used to construct the reference (null) distribution. To allow permutation inference in such cases, we test the null hypothesis using only a subset of all otherwise possible permutations, i.e., using only the rearrangements of the data that respect exchangeability, thus retaining the original joint distribution unaltered. In a previous study, we defined exchangeability for blocks of data, as opposed to each datum individually, then allowing permutations to happen within block, or the blocks as a whole to be permuted. Here we extend that notion to allow blocks to be nested, in a hierarchical, multi-level definition. We do not explicitly model the degree of dependence between observations, only the lack of independence; the dependence is implicitly accounted for by the hierarchy and by the permutation scheme. The strategy is compatible with heteroscedasticity and variance groups, and can be used with permutations, sign flippings, or both combined. We evaluate the method for various dependence structures, apply it to real data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) as an example application, show that false positives can be avoided in such cases, and provide a software implementation of the proposed approach. PMID:26074200

  9. Weighted norm inequalities for k-plane transforms

    Rubin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    We obtain sharp inequalities for the k-plane transform, the "j-plane to k-plane" transform, and the corresponding dual transforms, acting on $L^p$ spaces with a radial power weight. The operator norms are explicitly evaluated. Some generalizations and open problems are discussed.

  10. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

  11. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  12. Interfaces between Block Copolymer Domains

    Kim, Jaeup; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers naturally form nanometer scale structures which repeat their geometry on a larger scale. Such a small scale periodic pattern can be used for various applications such as storage media, nano-circuits and optical filters. However, perfect alignment of block copolymer domains in the macroscopic scale is still a distant dream. The nanostructure formation usually occurs with spontaneously broken symmetry; hence it is easily infected by topological defects which sneak in due to entropic fluctuation and incomplete annealing. Careful annealing can gradually reduce the number of defects, but once kinetically trapped, it is extremely difficult to remove all the defects. One of the main reasons is that the defect finds a locally metastable morphology whose potential depth is large enough to prohibit further morphology evolution. In this work, the domain boundaries between differently oriented lamellar structures in thin film are studied. For the first time, it became possible to quantitatively study the block copolymer morphology in the transitional region, and it was shown that the twisted grain boundary is energetically favorable compared to the T-junction grain boundary. [Nano Letters, 9, 2300 (2010)]. This theoretical method successfully explained the experimental results.

  13. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis. PMID:26596046

  14. Some new construction methods of variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks

    Ceranka, Bronisław; Graczyk, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Some new construction methods of the variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks are given. They are based on the specialized product of incidence matrices of the balanced incomplete block designs.

  15. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate Transformation

    Q. F. Zhang; Q. Y. Peng; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the linear approximate transformation should be taken seriously.

  16. Design of an interface between the smart grid control plane and the telecommunications network control plane / data center control plan

    Mugisa, Justine

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the energy costs and carbon foot print of the ICT industry, with focus on the Telecommunications Network and Data Center Networks we study the design of an interface between the Smart Grid control plane and the Telecommunications Network Control Plane/Data Center Control Plane

  17. Point Charge Dynamics Near a Grounded Conducting Plane

    Haglin, Kevin L.

    2010-01-01

    The classic image problem in electromagnetism involves a grounded infinite conducting plane and a point charge. The force of attraction between the point charge and the plane is identified using an equivalent-field picture of an image charge with opposite sign equidistant behind the plane resulting in a 1/{\\it r}$^{\\rm 2}$ force of attraction between the original charge and the plane. If the point charge is released from rest it will reach the plane in a time $\\tau$. This time $\\tau$ has not ...

  18. Dynamical Analysis of Blocking Events: Spatial and Temporal Fluctuations of Covariant Lyapunov Vectors

    Schubert, Sebastian; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    One of the most relevant weather regimes in the mid latitudes atmosphere is the persistent deviation from the approximately zonally symmetric jet stream to the emergence of so-called blocking patterns. Such configurations are usually connected to exceptional local stability properties of the flow which come along with an improved local forecast skills during the phenomenon. It is instead extremely hard to predict onset and decay of blockings. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors (CLVs) offer a suitable characterization of the linear stability of a chaotic flow, since they represent the full tangent linear dynamics by a covariant basis which explores linear perturbations at all time scales. Therefore, we will test whether CLVs feature a signature of the blockings. We examine the CLVs for a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane two-layer model in a periodic channel baroclinically driven by a meridional temperature gradient ΔT. An orographic forcing enhances the emergence of localized blocked regimes. We detect the blocking events of the channel flow with a Tibaldi-Molteni scheme adapted to the periodic channel. When blocking occurs, the global growth rates of the fastest growing CLVs are significantly higher. Hence against intuition, globally the circulation is more unstable in blocked phases. Such an increase in the finite time Lyapunov exponents with respect to the long term average is attributed to stronger barotropic and baroclinic conversion in the case of high temperature gradients, while for low values of ΔT, the effect is only due to stronger barotropic instability. For the localization of the CLVs, we compare the meridionally averaged variance of the CLVs during blocked and unblocked phases. We find that on average the variance of the CLVs is clustered around the center of blocking. These results show that the blocked flow affects all time scales and processes described by the CLVs.

  19. Experimental and numerical response of rigid slender blocks with geometrical defects under seismic excitation

    Mathey Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates on the influence of small geometrical defects on the behavior of slender rigid blocks. A comprehensive experimental campaign was carried out on one of the shake tables of CEA/Saclay in France. The tested model was a massive steel block with standard manufacturing quality. Release, free oscillations tests as well as shake table tests revealed a non-negligible out-of-plane motion even in the case of apparently plane initial conditions or excitations. This motion exhibits a highly reproducible part for a short duration that was used to calibrate a numerical geometrically asymmetrical model. The stability of this model when subjected to 2 000 artificial seismic horizontal bidirectional signals was compared to the stability of a symmetrical one. This study showed that the geometrical imperfections slightly increase the rocking and overturning probabilities under bidirectional seismic excitations in a narrow range of peak ground acceleration.

  20. Landau levels on the hyperbolic plane

    Fakhri, H [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran 19395-5531 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariati, M [Department of Physics, Khajeh Nassir-Al-Deen Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-11-05

    The quantum states of a spinless charged particle on a hyperbolic plane in the presence of a uniform magnetic field with a generalized quantization condition are proved to be the bases of the irreducible Hilbert representation spaces of the Lie algebra u(1, 1). The dynamical symmetry group U(1, 1) with the explicit form of the Lie algebra generators is extracted. It is also shown that the energy has an infinite-fold degeneracy in each of the representation spaces which are allocated to the different values of the magnetic field strength. Based on the simultaneous shift of two parameters, it is also noted that the quantum states realize the representations of Lie algebra u(2) by shifting the magnetic field strength. (letter to the editor)

  1. Landau levels on the hyperbolic plane

    The quantum states of a spinless charged particle on a hyperbolic plane in the presence of a uniform magnetic field with a generalized quantization condition are proved to be the bases of the irreducible Hilbert representation spaces of the Lie algebra u(1, 1). The dynamical symmetry group U(1, 1) with the explicit form of the Lie algebra generators is extracted. It is also shown that the energy has an infinite-fold degeneracy in each of the representation spaces which are allocated to the different values of the magnetic field strength. Based on the simultaneous shift of two parameters, it is also noted that the quantum states realize the representations of Lie algebra u(2) by shifting the magnetic field strength. (letter to the editor)

  2. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  3. On inner constraints in plane circular arches

    Ruta, G.C. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, via Eudossiana 18, I-00184 Roma (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    A one-dimensional model of plane circular arches with rigid sections is introduced. Suitable strain measures are defined as deviations from rigid displacements. If the arch is thin, constitutive arguments make the shearing strain negligible. Hence, the shearing indeformability will be assumed as inner constraint. By means of a formal power series expansion of the exact measures of deformation it is shown that the shearing indeformability implies some constraints on the axial strain. In particular, the first-order axial strain must vanish in the case of infinitesimal displacements. The same procedure is applied to pure flexible arches, in order to compare the two sets of results. It is shown that the hypothesis of finite pure flexibility is not compatible with small deformations of the arch. An example is provided to evaluate the effects of the two constraints at the first non-linear step of the perturbation expansions. (orig.)

  4. Beta-plane turbulence: experiments with altimetry

    Zhang, Y

    2013-01-01

    Results from a new series of experiments on flows generated by an electromagnetic method in a rotating tank with topographic beta-effect are presented. The velocity fields are measured by the Altimetric Imaging Velocimetry. The turbulent flows observed in the experiments develop zonal jets which are latent in a stationary forced-dissipative regime of the flow but become prominent in the decaying flow. The two-dimensional energy spectra of the flows exhibit the development of anisotropy towards zonal motions. The experiments demonstrate dual turbulent cascade with energy and enstrophy ranges. The frequency-wavenumber spectra reveal the presence of Rossby waves at low wavenumbers which are excited by the turbulent motions. The experimental results are compared with available theory of beta-plane turbulence.

  5. Plane posets, special posets, and permutations

    Foissy, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    We study the self-dual Hopf algebra $\\h_{\\SP}$ of special posets introduced by Malvenuto and Reutenauer and the Hopf algebra morphism from $\\h_{\\SP}$ to to the Hopf algebra of free quasi-symmetric functions $\\FQSym$ given by linear extensions. In particular, we construct two Hopf subalgebras both isomorphic to $\\FQSym$; the first one is based on plane posets, the second one on heap-ordered forests. An explicit isomorphism between these two Hopf subalgebras is also defined with the help of two transformations on special posets. The restriction of the Hopf pairing of $\\h_{\\SP}$ to these Hopf subalgebras and others is also studied, as well as certain isometries between them. These problems are solved using duplicial and dendriform structures.

  6. Magnetic measurements with atomic-plane resolution.

    Rusz, Ján; Muto, Shunsuke; Spiegelberg, Jakob; Adam, Roman; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Bürgler, Daniel E; Oppeneer, Peter M; Schneider, Claus M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of magnetic nanotechnologies calls for experimental techniques capable of providing magnetic information with subnanometre spatial resolution. Available probes of magnetism either detect only surface properties, such as spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy or spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, or they are bulk probes with limited spatial resolution or quantitativeness, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or classical electron magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD). Atomic resolution EMCD methods have been proposed, although not yet experimentally realized. Here, we demonstrate an EMCD technique with an atomic size electron probe utilizing a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in its standard operation mode. The crucial element of the method is a ramp in the phase of the electron beam wavefunction, introduced by a controlled beam displacement. We detect EMCD signals with atomic-plane resolution, thereby bringing near-atomic resolution magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to hundreds of laboratories worldwide. PMID:27578421

  7. Plane shock wave studies of geologic media

    Plane shock wave experiments have been conducted on eight geologic materials in an effort to determine the importance of time-dependent mechanical behavior. Of the eight rocks studied, only Westerly granite and nugget sandstone appear to show time independence. In the slightly porous materials (1-5 percent), Blair dolomite and sodium chloride, and in the highly porous (15 to 40 percent) rock, Mt. Helen tuff and Indiana limestone, time-dependent behavior is associated with the time required to close the available porosity. In water-saturated rocks the time dependence arises because the water that is present shows no indication of transformation to the higher pressure ice phases, thus suggesting the possibility that a metastable form of water exists under dynamic conditions

  8. Infrared focal plane array crosstalk measurement

    Dang, Khoa V.; Kauffman, Christopher L.; Derzko, Zenon I.

    1992-07-01

    Crosstalk between two neighboring elements in a focal plane array (FPA) occurs when signal incident on one element in the array is seen on another. This undesired effect can occur due to both the electrical and optical properties of the FPA. An effort is underway at the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electro-Optics Directorate to develop a capability to measure crosstalk on both mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared FPAs. A single detector in an array is illuminated using a laser source coupled with a beam expander, collimating lens, and focusing lens. The relative response of that detector to that of its neighboring detectors is measured to calculate crosstalk. The various components of the test station, the methodology for implementing the crosstalk measurement, and a model of the laser spot size are discussed.

  9. Coincidence lattices in the hyperbolic plane.

    Rodríguez-Andrade, M A; Aragón-González, G; Aragón, J L; Gómez-Rodríguez, A

    2011-01-01

    The problem of coincidences of lattices in the space R(p,q), with p + q = 2, is analyzed using Clifford algebra. We show that, as in R(n), any coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of at most two reflections by vectors of the lattice. Bases and coincidence indices are constructed explicitly for several interesting lattices. Our procedure is metric-independent and, in particular, the hyperbolic plane is obtained when p = q = 1. Additionally, we provide a proof of the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem for R(p,q), with p + q = 2, that includes an algorithm to decompose an orthogonal transformation into a product of reflections. PMID:21173471

  10. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  11. Using Quilt Blocks to Construct Understanding

    Westegaard, Susanne K.

    2008-01-01

    The article documents student experiences with quilt blocks in a mathematics classroom. Using blocks as tools, students construct their understanding of perimeter, area, probability, and transformations. (Contains 9 figures.)

  12. Hubble Views Saturn Ring-Plane Crossing

    1995-01-01

    This sequence of images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope documents a rare astronomical alignment -- Saturn's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This occurs when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane, as it does approximately every 15 years.These pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on 22 May 1995, when Saturn was at a distance of 919 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. At Saturn, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles (725 km) across. In each image, the dark band across Saturn is the ring shadow cast by the Sun which is still 2.7 degrees above Saturn's ring plane. The box around the western portion of the rings (to the right of Saturn) in each image indicates the area in which the faint light from the rings has been multiplied through image processing (by a factor of 25) to make the rings more visible.[Top] -This image was taken while the Earth was above the lit face of the rings. The moons Tethys and Dione are visible to the east (left) of Saturn; Janus is the bright spot near the center of the ring portion in the box, and Pandora is faintly visible just inside the left edge of this box. Saturn's atmosphere shows remarkable detail: multiple banding in both the northern and southern hemispheres, wispy structure at the north edge of the equatorial zone, and a bright area above the ring shadow that is caused by sunlight scattered off the rings onto the atmosphere. There is evidence of a faint polar haze over the north pole of Saturn and a fainter haze over the south.[Center] -This image was taken close to the time of ring-plane crossing. The rings are 75% fainter than in the top image, though they do not disappear completely because the vertical face of the rings still reflects sunlight when the rings are edge-on. Rhea is visible to the east of Saturn, Enceladus is the bright satellite in the rings to the west, and Janus is the fainter blip to its right. Pandora is just to the left of Enceladus, but is not

  13. Multigrid Methods for General Block Toeplitz Matrices

    Thomas Huckle; Jochen Staudacher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss multigrid methods for symmetric positive definite Block Toeplitz matrices. Our Block Toeplitz systems are general in the sense that the individual blocks are not necessarily Toeplitz. We investigate how transfer operators for prolongation and restriction have to be chosen such that our multigrid algorithms converge quickly. We will point out why these transfer operators can be understood as block matrices as well. We explain how our new algorithms can also be combined...

  14. High performance word level sequential and parallel coding methods and architectures for bit plane coding

    XIONG ChengYi; TIAN JinWen; LIU Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced a novel high performance algorithm and VLSI architectures for achieving bit plane coding (BPC) in word level sequential and parallel mode. The proposed BPC algorithm adopts the techniques of coding pass prediction and par-allel & pipeline to reduce the number of accessing memory and to increase the ability of concurrently processing of the system, where all the coefficient bits of a code block could be coded by only one scan. A new parallel bit plane architecture (PA) was proposed to achieve word-level sequential coding. Moreover, an efficient high-speed architecture (HA) was presented to achieve multi-word parallel coding. Compared to the state of the art, the proposed PA could reduce the hardware cost more efficiently, though the throughput retains one coefficient coded per clock. While the proposed HA could perform coding for 4 coefficients belonging to a stripe column at one intra-clock cycle, so that coding for an N×N code-block could be completed in approximate N2/4 intra-clock cycles. Theoretical analysis and ex-perimental results demonstrate that the proposed designs have high throughput rate with good performance in terms of speedup to cost, which can be good alter-natives for low power applications.

  15. Multi-block parallel Navier-Stokes simulation of unsteady wind tunnel and ground interference effects

    Castro, Breno Moura

    2001-01-01

    A numerical investigation of unsteady wind tunnel and ground interference effects is carried out in the time domain to study the transonic flutter characteristics of the NLR 7301 section inside a wind tunnel and the thrust generation characteristics of a NACA 0014 airfoil plunging near a ground plane. A parallelized, multi-block, deforming grid, unsteady flow-solver is coupled with a two-degreeof- freedom structural model. For the transonic flutter problem, two types of porous-wall boundary-c...

  16. Evolution of Dipole-Type Blocking Life Cycles: Analytical Diagnoses and Observations

    Huang, Fei; Tang, Xiao-yan; Lou, S. Y.; LU, CUI-HUA

    2008-01-01

    A variable coefficient Korteweg de Vries (VCKdV) system is derived by considering the time-dependent basic flow and boundary conditions from a nonlinear, inviscid, nondissipative, and equivalent barotropic vorticity equation in a beta-plane. One analytical solution obtained from the VCKdV equation can be successfully used to explain the evolution of atmospheric dipole-type blocking (DB) life cycles. Analytical diagnoses show that background mean westerlies have great influence on evolution of...

  17. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  18. New Considerations of Turbo Block Codes

    YUEDianwu; EdSHWEDYK

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that (1) a general linear systematic block code can be expressed as a turbo block code and therefore can be decoded using any turbo decoding algorithm; (2) a turbo block code can be also encoded and decoded without any interleaver with the same performance as when an interleaver is present.

  19. 31 CFR 500.319 - Blocked account.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account. 500.319 Section 500... § 500.319 Blocked account. The term blocked account shall mean an account in which any designated national has an interest, with respect to which account payments, transfers or withdrawals of...

  20. 31 CFR 515.319 - Blocked account.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account. 515.319 Section 515... § 515.319 Blocked account. The term blocked account shall mean an account in which any designated national has an interest, with respect to which account payments, transfers or withdrawals or...

  1. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  2. A HIGH-PERFORMANCE VLSI ARCHITECTURE OF EBCOT BLOCK CODING IN JPEG2000

    Liu Kai; Wu Chengke; Li Yunsong

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a new architecture composed of bit plane-parallel coder for Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) entropy encoder used in JPEG2000. In the architecture, the coding information of each bit plane can be obtained simultaneously and processed parallel. Compared with other architectures, it has advantages of high parallelism, and no waste clock cycles for a single point. The experimental results show that it reduces the processing time about 86% than that of bit plane sequential scheme. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) prototype chip is designed and simulation results show that it can process 512×512 gray-scaled images with more than 30 frames per second at 52MHz.

  3. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  4. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  5. Precision motion and control for the plane grating monochromator at SRC

    A nearly stigmatic Plane Grating Monochromator (PGM) under commissioning for the new undulator beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center will provide a resolving power > 10,000 as it scans from 8 to 240 eV. Scanning requires the precise, simultaneous rotation of a plane mirror and a combined rotation-translation of a plane grating in close proximity to one another inside a UHV chamber. The required scanning motions are significant due to the large energy range covered by a single grating. The mirror and grating rotate nearly 23 and 33 degrees respectively and the grating translates approximately 200 mm. Sub-arcsec angular resolution allows several steps to be taken across the monochromator's energy resolution. Both rotations utilize a combination stepping motor-piezoelectric actuator scan drive that is controlled with a feedback loop using a laser interferometer to measure the in-situ rotation of the optics. The grating mechanism is supported via bellows to an external stepping motor driven stage that travels directly on an inspection grade granite block. The stage position is controlled with a feedback loop using a precision linear encoder. A positional accuracy and vertical stability of a few micrometers is achieved on the grating translation which prevents the image from shifting at the exit slit and introducing energy calibration errors

  6. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  8. Ganglion block. When and how?

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.)

  9. The effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonary infilled frames

    In order to address the effect of prior out-of-plane damage on the in-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry infills, two full-scale (24 feet tall by 28 feet long) structural clay tile infills and one frame-only (no infilling) were constructed and tested. The infilled frame, consisting of two wide flange columns surrounded by masonry pilasters and an eccentric wide flange purlin, was identical to many of the infills located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The masonry infill was approximately 12.5 inches thick and was composed of individual four- and eight-inch hollow clay tile (HCT) units. One of the infill panels was tested out-of-plane by four quasi-static actuators - two on each column. The test structure was deflected out-of-plane equally at all four actuator locations in order to simulate the computed deflection path of the top and bottom chords of a roof truss framing into the columns at these locations. Prior to the infill testing, a bare frame was loaded similarly in order to determine the behavior and stiffness contribution of the frame only. Following the out-of-plane test of the infilled panel, the structure was loaded in-plane to failure in order to ascertain residual strength. A second, identical infilled frame was then constructed and tested in-plane to failure. In this way, in-plane behavior with and without prior out-of-plane damage could be established and compared. For both out-of-plane and in-plane testing, reversed-cyclic quasi-static loading was used in order to obtain full tension/compression hystereses. Also, natural frequencies of the first infilled panel were determined before and after the out-of-plane testing. This paper describes the test series and discusses the conclusions pertinent to the effect of out-of-plane cracking on in-plane stiffness and behavior

  10. Plane section of cone and cylinder in computer geometry

    Obradović Ratko M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a mathematical apparatus for determination of plane section of cone and cylinder was formed. By using the descriptive geometric approach the contour lines of these quadrics were determined. The fact that the tangent lines of a circle could be transformed to the tangent lines of an ellipse using affinity was employed. In that way surfaces are represented by contour lines (tangent lines of basic ellipse in oblique projection and thus they have a realistic view. Intersecting plane α is a plane normal to a frontal plane. For determination of intersecting points of intersecting curve between the plane α and the quadrics, the lock of auxiliary planes, which contain the vertex of quadrics, was used. Each auxiliary plane from the observed lock intersect the surface in two lines which intersect the given plane α in two points. By using a sufficient number of auxiliary planes the intersecting curve as a set of pairs of points for all auxiliary planes is determined and the intersecting curve was drawn by lightening of these pairs of points on the graphical screen.

  11. Self-assembly of block copolymers

    Hidenori Otsuka

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers in a selective solvent have a tendency to self-assemble at surfaces and into micelles1–4. At an aqueous interface, the amphiphilic property of block copolymers composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments can cause the distal end of the hydrophilic chain to extend into the bulk aqueous solution, anchoring the hydrophilic block to the substrate surface through hydrophobic segments1, 2. In an aqueous solution, micelles with core-shell structure are formed by the segregation of insoluble blocks into the core, which is surrounded by a hydrophilic shell composed of hydrophilic blocks3, 4. This interfacial activity of amphiphilic block copolymers provides their utility in the biomedical field as colloidal dispersants, surface modifiers and drug carriers, prompting many studies of block copolymer adsorption on solid surfaces5, 6, 7, 8, force measurements between tethered layers9, 10, 11 and the characterization of micelle properties12, 13, 14.

  12. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu

    2006-01-01

    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  13. Interactive visualizations of blowups of the plane.

    Schenzel, Peter; Stussak, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Blowups are an important technique in algebraic geometry that permit the smoothing of singular algebraic varieties. It is a challenge to visualize this process even in the case of blowups of points X in the affine plane AA(IR)(2). First results were obtained by Brodmann with the aid of the so-called toroidal blowup, a compact embedding of the blowup into affine 3-space. In fact, Brodmann provides a rational parametrization of the toroidal blowup, but its visualization fails in the neighborhood of X because the parametrization tends to indefinite terms of the form 0/0. Our approach is based on implicitization of the parametric form. By methods from commutative algebra we are able to reduce the implicitization to the computation of a single, fairly simple resultant. This provides an algebraic equation of the implicit surface of the toroidal blowup including the so-called exceptional fiber associated with X. Surprisingly, the degree of the equation grows only linearly with the degree of the parametrization. By applying additional clipping techniques to the implicit surface we are able to visualize the toroidal blowup as well as its deformations by several parameters interactively in real time using GPU-based ray casting techniques. The methods of the paper provide insights in the structure of blowups of points, even if the points are interactively moved or tend to degenerations. PMID:22802122

  14. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane - an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δN formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: The fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  15. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model

  16. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  17. YAP (Ce) as focal plane detectors

    YAP (Ce) has been known to be one of the commercially available new scintillators that can be used for several applications. It has a good timing response and a very high value for the radiation hardness, compared to other known inorganic scintillators. Several studies have been reported on the properties of the scintillator, viz., light yield, decay time constant, gamma and charged particle response, pulse shape discrimination and timing characteristics. The YAP(Ce) crystals has a very good response to the energetic heavy ions and attempts have been made to employ it as a viable alternative to the Si detectors for the detection of heavy ions. As a part of the experimental facilities, being developed for the upcoming Superconducting cyclotron at VECC, the possibility is being explored for using the YAP(Ce) as an E detector, preceded by a position sensitive MWPCs as αE counterpart, at the focal plane of the proposed superconducting solenoid spectrometer. The selection of Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMT) has been very crucial in such cases in order to have good timing response and energy resolution for energetic heavy ions. The responses have been tested for different bias voltages of the tube and the best values have been reported here

  18. The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey

    Burton, Michael; Glueck, Christian; Goldsmith, Paul; Hawkes, Jarryd; Hollenbach, David; Kulesa, Craig; Martin, Chris; Pineda, Jorge; Rowell, Gavin; Simon, Robert; Stark, Tony; Stutzki, Juergen; Tothill, Nick; Urquhart, James; Walker, Chris; Walsh, Andrew; Wolfire, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from a new carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the southern Galactic plane being conducted with the Mopra radio telescope in Australia. The 12CO, 13CO and C18O J=1-0 lines are being mapped over the l = 305-345 deg, b = +/- 0.5 deg portion of the 4th quadrant of the Galaxy, at 35" spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution. The survey is being undertaken with two principal science objectives: (i) to determine where and how molecular clouds are forming in the Galaxy and (ii) to probe the connection between molecular clouds and the "missing" gas inferred from gamma-ray observations. We describe the motivation for the survey, the instrumentation and observing techniques being applied, and the data reduction and analysis methodology. In this paper we present the data from the first degree surveyed, l = 323-324 deg, b = +/- 0.5 deg. We compare the data to the previous CO survey of this region and present metrics quantifying the performance being achieved; the rms sensitivity per 0.1 km/s veloc...

  19. Elasticplastic discs under plane stress conditions

    Alexandrov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This Volume presents a unified approach to calculate the plane stress distribution of stress and strain in thin elastic/plastic discs subject to various loading conditions. There is a vast amount of literature on analytical and semi-analytical solutions for such discs obeying Tresca’s yield criterion and its associated flow rule. On the other hand, most of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for Mises yield criterion are based on the deformation theory of plasticity. A distinguished feature of the solutions given in the present volume is that the flow theory of plasticity and Mises yield criterion are adopted. The solutions are semi-analytical in the sense that numerical methods are only necessary to evaluate ordinary integrals and solve transcendental equations. The book shows that under certain conditions solutions based on the deformation and flow theories of plasticity coincide. All the solutions are illustrated with numerical examples. The goal of the book is to provide the reader with a vision an...

  20. Quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum

    A semianalytical approach to the quantum dynamics of a plane pendulum is developed, based on Mathieu functions which appear as stationary wave functions. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for pendular analogs of coherent and squeezed states of a harmonic oscillator, induced by instantaneous changes of the periodic potential energy function. Coherent pendular states are discussed between the harmonic limit for small displacements and the inverted pendulum limit, while squeezed pendular states are shown to interpolate between vibrational and free rotational motion. In the latter case, full and fractional revivals as well as spatiotemporal structures in the time evolution of the probability densities (quantum carpets) are quantitatively analyzed. Corresponding expressions for the mean orientation are derived in terms of Mathieu functions in time. For periodic double well potentials, different revival schemes, and different quantum carpets are found for the even and odd initial states forming the ground tunneling doublet. Time evolution of the mean alignment allows the separation of states with different parity. Implications for external (rotational) and internal (torsional) motion of molecules induced by intense laser fields are discussed.

  1. Collaborative Search on the Plane without Communication

    Feinerman, Ofer; Lotker, Zvi; Sereni, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    We use distributed computing tools to provide a new perspective on the behavior of cooperative biological ensembles. We introduce the Ants Nearby Treasure Search (ANTS) problem, a generalization of the classical cow-path problem, which is relevant for collective foraging in animal groups. In the ANTS problem, k identical (probabilistic) agents, initially placed at some central location, collectively search for a treasure in the two-dimensional plane. The treasure is placed at a target location by an adversary and the goal is to find it as fast as possible as a function of both k and D, where D is the distance between the central location and the target. This is biologically motivated by cooperative, central place foraging, such as performed by ants around their nest. In this type of search there is a strong preference to locate nearby food sources before those that are further away. We focus on trying to find what can be achieved if communication is limited or altogether absent. Indeed, to avoid overlaps agen...

  2. Counterpropagating Rossby waves in confined plane wakes.

    Biancofiore, L; Gallaire, F

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, we revisit the temporal and the spatio-temporal stability of confined plane wakes under the perspective of the counterpropagating Rossby waves (CRWs). Within the context of broken line velocity profiles, each vorticity discontinuity can be associated to a counterpropagating Rossby wave. In the case of a wake modeled by a broken line profile, the interaction of two CRWs is shown to originate in a shear instability. Following this description, we first recover the stability results obtained by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 590, 163-185 (2007)]10.1017/S0022112007007975 and Biancofiore and Gallaire [Phys. Fluids 23, 034103 (2011)]10.1063/1.3554764 by means of the classical normal mode analysis. In this manner, we propose an explanation of the stabilizing influence of the confinement on the temporal stability properties. The CRW description further allows us to propose a new interpretation of the counterintuitive spatio-temporal destabilization in wake flows at moderate confinement noticed by Juniper [J. Fluid Mech. 565, 171-195 (2006)]10.1017/S0022112006001558: it is well predicted by the mean group velocity of the uncoupled CRWs. PMID:22865998

  3. Non-crossing Connectors in the Plane

    Kratochvíl, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the non-crossing connectors problem, which is stated as follows: Given n simply connected regions R_1,...,R_n in the plane and finite point sets P_i subset of R_i for i=1,...,n, are there non-crossing connectors y_i for (R_i,P_i), i.e., arc-connected sets y_i with P_i subset of y_i subset of R_i for every i=1,...,n, such that y_i and y_j are disjoint for all i different from j? We prove that non-crossing connectors do always exist if the regions form a collection of pseudo-disks, i.e., the boundaries of every pair of regions intersect at most twice. We provide a simple polynomial-time algorithm if the regions are axis-aligned rectangles. Finally we prove that the general problem is NP-complete, even if the regions are convex, the boundaries of every pair of regions intersect at most four times and P_i consists of only two points on the boundary of R_i for i=1,...,n.

  4. Condensation on a cooled plane upright wall

    The vapor condensation along a cooled upright plane wall was studied. The theoretical and experimental results obtained in the simple case, give the essential characteristics of the phenomenon of condensation along a cold wall that keeps the vapor apart from the coolant inside a surface condenser. The phenomenon presents two different appearances according as the wall is wetted or not by the liquid. In the first case a continuous liquid film runs down the wall and a conventional Nusselt calculation gives the film thickness and the heat exchange coefficient between a pure saturated vapor and the cold wall. The calculation is developed in detail and the effect of a vapor flow along the film is discussed as well as that of the presence of a noncondensable gas inside the vapor. In the second case, separated liquid drops are formed on the wall, the phenomenon is called ''dropwise condensation'' and the heat exchange coefficients obtained are much higher than with film condensation. The theoretical aspects of the problem are discussed with some experimental results

  5. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  6. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  7. Plane Partitions with Two-Periodic Weights

    Mkrtchyan, Sevak

    2014-09-01

    We study scaling limits of skew plane partitions with periodic weights under several boundary conditions. We compute the correlation kernel of the limiting point process in the bulk and near turning points on the frozen boundary. The system develops pairs of turning points (points where three different phases meet), which are separated by "semi-frozen" regions. We show that the point process at such a turning point is a pair of non-trivially correlated GUE minor processes. In the limit when all weights become the same, i.e. in the homogeneous case, such a pair of turning points collapses into a single turning point and the local process becomes the GUE minor process. We also study an intermediate regime when the weights are periodic but all converge to 1. In this regime the limit shape and correlations in the bulk are the same as in the case of homogeneous weights, and periodicity is not visible in the bulk. However, the process at turning points is still not the GUE minor process.

  8. Variable Radio Sources in the Galactic Plane

    Becker, Robert H; White, Richard L; Proctor, Deanne D

    2010-01-01

    Using three epochs of VLA observations of the Galactic Plane in the first quadrant taken ~15 years apart, we have conducted a search for a population of variable Galactic radio emitters in the flux density range 1-100 mJy at 6 cm. We find 39 variable sources in a total survey area of 23.2 sq deg. Correcting for various selection effects and for the extragalactic variable population of active galactic nuclei, we conclude there are ~1.6 Galactic sources per sq deg which vary by more than 50% on a time scale of years (or shorter). We show that these sources are much more highly variable than extragalactic objects; more than 50% show variability by a factor >2 compared to <10% for extragalactic objects in the same flux density range. We also show that the fraction of variable sources increases toward the Galactic center (another indication that this is a Galactic population), and that the spectral indices of many of these sources are flat or inverted. A small number of the variables are coincident with mid-IR ...

  9. Head rotation and sound image localization in the median plane

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2005-01-01

    The effect of head rotation on median plane sound source (or image) localization is studied. It is suggested that, at low frequency, the change of interaural time difference (ITD) caused by head rotation supplies information for determining sound source direction in the median plane. Based on the suggestion, the summed sound image localization equations for multiple loudspeakers arranged in the median plane are derived. Especially, for a pair of loudspeakers arranged front-back symmetrically in the median plane, the localization equations are similar to that of stereophonic sound in horizontal plane. A sound image localization experiment was carried out to prove the theoretical analysis. The results of this paper are not only available to virtual spatial auditory, but also supply a quantitative validation of the hypothesis that head rotation is a cue for sound source localization in the median plane at low frequency.

  10. Continuous-time block-monotone Markov chains and their block-augmented truncations

    Masuyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers continuous-time block-monotone Markov chains (BMMCs) and their block-augmented truncations. We first introduce the block-monotonicity and block-wise dominance relation for continuous-time Markov chains and then provide some fundamental results on the two notions. Using these results, we show that the stationary probability vectors obtained by the block-augmented truncation converge to the stationary probability vector of the original BMMC. We also show that the last-colum...

  11. Computing eigenvectors of block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations

    König, Gerhard; Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N.

    2012-01-01

    New methods for computing eigenvectors of symmetric block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations are explored. The relation of the block where two twisted factorizations meet to an eigenvector of the block tridiagonal matrix is reviewed. Based on this, several new algorithmic strategies for computing the eigenvector efficiently are motivated and designed. The underlying idea is to determine a good starting vector for an inverse iteration process from the twisted block fact...

  12. A comparison between caudal block versus splash block for postoperative analgesia following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children

    Cheon, Jun Kong; Park, Cheon Hee; Hwang, Kan Taeck; Choi, Bo Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of preincisional caudal epidural block versus instillation (splash block) following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children. Methods Thirty children (age range: 1-7 years) who were scheduled to undergo inguinal herniorrhaphy were divided into 2 groups: the caudal block group and the splash block group with 15 children in each group. Tracheal intubation was performed. Fifteen children received caudal block with 1.0 ml/kg of 0.25...

  13. Technological development of the OGRE focal plane array

    Tutt, James; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Rogers, Thomas; Murray, Neil; Holland, Andrew; Weatherill, Daniel; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David; Farn, David

    2015-01-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer sub-orbital rocket payload designed as a technology development platform for three low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) components. The incident photons will be focused using a light-weight, high resolution, single-crystal silicon optic. They are then dispersed conically according to wavelength by an array of off-plane gratings before being detected in a focal plane camera comprised of four Electron Mu...

  14. Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes

    Grantham, D. Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Erpenbeck, Eric A.

    2003-08-01

    Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60°) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10°, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

  15. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert

  16. System for Gauge Blocks Diagnostics

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Čížek, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag GmbH, 2011, s. 91-96. ISBN 978-3-18-092156-3. ISSN 0083-5560. [IMEKO Symposium - Laser Metrology for Precision Measurement and Inspection in Industry 2011 /10./. Braunschweig (DE), 12.09.2011-14.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GPP102/11/P819; GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : gauge blocks calibration * low-coherence interferometry * laser interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. Landscape block of geoinformation system

    Expirience of constructing landscape block of geoinformation system, designated for regional geoecological forecasting on the basis of mega-line-Delta computer is presented. Works were conducted in summer of 1986 for the purpose of forecasting radionuclide migration in 30-km zone of the Chernobyl accident, as well as evaluation of radioecological situation in Kiev, Zhitomir and Chernigov regions. System design work lies in choice and construction of information model of the natural medium, reflected and processed in data bank by methods of information science. Three groups were distinguished in examined region according to intensity of substance migration: 1) zones of preferred evacuation with surface run-off, 2) transit zones, 3) zones of evacuation and accumulation of flood plain substance

  18. Reconstruction of Dislocation Potential Relief by Means of Self-Blocking Effect

    The effect of dislocation self-blocking in intermetallic compounds with an anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In essence, this effect is a dislocation self-immersion in a deep potential relief valley (without external stress). The possibility of reconstructing the relief shape (from one-valley to two-valley) is shown and the relief parameters are reported. The allowed and forbidden regions for self-blocking are revealed. The method for determining the ratio of the valley depths by measuring the self-blocking limiting angles between the dislocation segments is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy images of the dislocation structure can be used to this end. As an example, this ratio is estimated for a superpartial dislocation sliding in the cube plane in Ni3Ge.

  19. Ultrasound-guided block of the suprascapular nerve - a volunteer study of a new proximal approach

    Rothe, C; Steen-Hansen, C; Lund, J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The standard approach for the suprascapular nerve block is deep in the supraspinous fossa. However, with this approach, the suprascapular nerve is difficult to visualize by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe a new method to visualize and selectively block the...... suprascapular nerve in a more superficial and proximal location. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers were included. We located the brachial plexus in transverse section with ultrasound, and by longitudinal slide, we identified the departure of the suprascapular nerve from the superior trunk. The suprascapular...... nerve was followed under ultrasound visualization into the subclavian triangle under the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle. We performed in-plane ultrasound-guided selective suprascapular nerve block by injecting 1 ml of lidocaine, 20 mg/ml close to the nerve. Nerve identification was aided by nerve...

  20. Is the phase of plane waves an invariant?

    Huang, Young-Sea

    2009-01-01

    Based on the invariance of the phase of waves, plane waves was shown to propagate with negative frequencies in a medium which moves at superluminal speeds opposite to the propagation direction of plane waves. The validity of the invariance of the phase of plane waves was then called into question. A radical change of the conventional concept of plane waves is recently proposed to solve the problem of negative frequency of waves. Here, we point out flaws in that proposal. Thus, the validity of...

  1. Information Model for Resource of ASON Control Plane

    XU Yun-bin; SONG Hong-sheng; GUI Xuan; ZHANG Jie; GU Wan-yi

    2004-01-01

    Automatic Switched Optical network (ASON) is the key technology for the next generation optical networks, and the recommendations for ASON were also developed by ITU-T. However, the recommendations for the management plane have not been made yet. In this paper, the management information model for the resources of control plane is proposed based on the management requirements of ASON for the first time. The managed objects for control plane could be used for the management of control Network Elements(NEs) and control channels, they can also be used for route areas division in control plane, parameter configuration and performance inspection for the control modules in a control NEs.

  2. The plane wave spectrum representation of electromagnetic fields

    Clemmow, P C

    1966-01-01

    The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields presents the theory of the electromagnetic field with emphasis to the plane wave. This book explains how fundamental electromagnetic fields can be represented by the superstition of plane waves traveling in different directions. Organized into two parts encompassing eight chapters, this book starts with an overview of the methods whereby plane wave spectrum representation can be used in attacking different characteristic problems belonging to the theories of radiation, diffraction, and propagation. This book then discusses the co

  3. Updating the QR decomposition of block tridiagonal and block Hessenberg matrices generated by block Krylov space methods

    Gutknecht, Martin; Schmelzer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    For MINRES and SYMMLQ it is essential to compute the QR decompositions of tridiagonal coefficient matrices gained in the Lanczos process. Likewise, for GMRES one has to find those of Hessenberg matrices. These QR decompositions are computed by an update scheme where in every step a single Givens rotation is constructed. Generalizing this approach we introduce a block-wise update scheme for the QR decomposition of the block tridiagonal and block Hessenberg matrices that come up in generalizati...

  4. VARIABLE RADIO SOURCES IN THE GALACTIC PLANE

    Using three epochs of Very Large Array observations of the Galactic plane in the first quadrant taken ∼15 years apart, we have conducted a search for a population of variable Galactic radio emitters in the flux density range 1-100 mJy at 6 cm. We find 39 variable sources in a total survey area of 23.2 deg2. Correcting for various selection effects and for the extragalactic variable population of active galactic nuclei, we conclude there are ∼1.6 deg-2 Galactic sources which vary by more than 50% on a time scale of years (or shorter). We show that these sources are much more highly variable than extragalactic objects; more than 50% show variability by a factor >2 compared to <10% for extragalactic objects in the same flux density range. We also show that the fraction of variable sources increases toward the Galactic center (another indication that this is a Galactic population), and that the spectral indices of many of these sources are flat or inverted. A small number of the variables are coincident with mid-IR sources and two are coincident with X-ray emitters, but most have no known counterparts at other wavelengths. Intriguingly, one lies at the center of a supernova remnant, while another appears to be a very compact planetary nebula; several are likely to represent activity associated with star formation regions. We discuss the possible source classes which could contribute to the variable cohort and follow-up observations which could clarify the nature of these sources.

  5. The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W.

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of AV ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg2 of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18° to 56° and b =-1° to +1°. Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 μm) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain "step-and-integrate" polarimetry over its full 10 × 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/σ P > 3); most of these have mH < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  6. Seismicity and Stress in the Southern Jalisco Block, Mexico.

    Sánchez, J. J.; Núñez-Cornũ, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Fault plane solutions for a group of 41 earthquakes with Mw magnitudes between 4.9 and 8.0, detected between November 1980 and May 2007, were extracted from the CMT catalog and used to investigate possible spatial and temporal variations of stress in the south part of the Jalisco Block. Using rigorous statistical tests we decide on the quality and variability of the earthquake source mechanisms and with the use of FMSI and LSIB stress tensor inversion techniques and cumulative misfit analysis find, at the 95% confidence level or more, significantly different regions and periods of stress regime. An important difference in seismicity and stress between the southern and northern regions of the Jalisco Block is highlighted by the regular occurrence of earthquakes to the south, in stark contrast with the scarcity of seismicity with Mw > 4.9 north of 19.36°N, a region that is illuminated with smaller earthquakes when local temporal or permanent deployments of seismographs are used, as noted by previous studies. We conclude that the region located near the coordinates 105°W and 18.43°N appears as a particularly diffuse zone affected by various stress styles and that the period following the great Mw 8.0 earthquake on October 9, 1995 appears as a short-lived change in stress induced by the great shock.

  7. BLOCKING SUN WITH ORBITING BALLOONS

    Chul Park [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Kor ea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea)

    2008-09-30

    Sun's radiation power reaching Earth's surface can be reduced by letting large balloons circle the Earth in orbits at approximately 1000 km altitude. These balloons, made of plastic films 1 mm in thickness, of a diameter of approximately 46 km, will weigh about 10,000 tons each. A balloon will consist of one hundred of 100 ton pieces. They are transported to the orbit piece by piece, and are assembled there into the spherical shape. They are kept inflated with the vapor pressure of potassium and the electrostatic forces. The inclination angles of these balloons with respect to the solar ecliptic plane can be varied from zero to 90 degrees, although efficiency is highest with the zero degree inclination. If zero degree inclination is chosen, twenty-three of these will reduce the average sun's radiation by 0.01%. In the 1000 km orbits, which are stable and are populated only by space debris, these balloons will serve also to remove the debris.

  8. Readiness for surgery after axillary block

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Stens-Pedersen, H L; Lippert, F K

    1997-01-01

    We have assessed prospectively the time to readiness for surgery following axillary block (sum of block performance and latency times) in 80 patients. The brachial plexus was identified using a nerve stimulator, and anaesthetized with 45 mL of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline 5 micrograms mL-1. In...... group 1 (single injection) the whole volume of mepivacaine was injected after locating only one of the plexus nerves. In group 2 (multiple injections) at least three plexus nerves were located, and the volume of mepivacaine was divided between them. Sensory block was assessed by a blinded observer every...... required less time for block performance (mean 5.5 min) than multiple injections (mean 9.5 min), P <0.0001. However, latency of the block was longer and the requirement for supplemental nerve blocks was greater, after single injections (33 min and 57%) than after multiple injections (15.5 min and 7...

  9. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M.

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  10. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    Guo, Fengxiao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential applications as, e.g., membranes for separation and purification, templates for nanostructured materials, sensors, substrates for catalysis, low dielectric constant materials, photonic materials, and...

  11. Block methods for linear Hamiltonian systems

    Tian, Hongjiong; Chen, Bailin

    2014-01-01

    For the numerical treatment of Hamiltonian differential equations,symplectic integrators are regarded as the most suitable choice.In this paper we are concerned with the applicability of block methods for the discrete approximate solution of linear Hamiltonian systems.The k-dimensional block methods are convergent of order at least k+1 for ordinary differential equations.We provide conditions on the coefficients of the equivalent block methods in order to maintain two important properties of...

  12. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  13. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  14. Selection of planes in nuclear magnetic resonance tomography

    A prototype aiming to obtain images in nuclear magnetic resonance tomography was developed, by adjusting NMR spectrometer in the IFQSC Laboratory. The techniques for selecting planes were analysed by a set of computer codes, which were elaborated from Bloch equation solutions to simulate the spin system behaviour. Images were obtained using planes with thickness inferior to 1 cm. (M.C.K.)

  15. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.

  16. ON A PERIMETER-PRESERVING PLANE CURVE FLOW

    PanShengliang

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a new type of evolution problem for closedconvex plane curves which will preserves the perimeter of the curve but expands the enclosedarea and the final limiting curve is a circle in the Hausdorff metric in the plane.

  17. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting III: Similarities

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This is the third part of a study of plane transformations described in a complex setting. After the study of homotheties, translations, rotations and reflections, we proceed now to the study of plane similarities, either direct or inverse. Their group theoretical properties are described, and their action on classical geometrical objects is…

  18. Integral representation in the hodograph plane for compressible flow problems

    Hansen, Erik Bent; Hsiao, George C.

    1999-01-01

    The compressible flow equations are linear in the hodograph plane. This fact is exploited to derive a representation formula and to construct a fundamental solution for compressible, subsonic flow problems.......The compressible flow equations are linear in the hodograph plane. This fact is exploited to derive a representation formula and to construct a fundamental solution for compressible, subsonic flow problems....

  19. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    2005-01-01

      On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.……

  20. Random skew plane partitions with a piecewise periodic back wall

    Boutillier, Cedric; Mkrtchyan, Sevak; Reshetikhin, Nicolai;

    Random skew plane partitions of large size distributed according to an appropriately scaled Schur process develop limit shapes. In the present work we consider the limit of large random skew plane partitions where the inner boundary approaches a piecewise linear curve with non-lattice slopes. Much...

  1. THE PROJECTIVE PLANE CROSSING NUMBERS OF CIRCULAR GRAPHS

    Dengju MA; Han REN

    2008-01-01

    The authors give an upper bound for the projective plane crossing number of a circular graph. Also, the authors prove the projective plane crossing numbers of circular graph C (8,3) and C (9,3) are 2 and 1, respectively.

  2. Plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration

    Dai, Wei

    2013-06-03

    A plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is formulated with a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot gather is updated separately and an ensemble of prestack images is produced along with common image gathers. The merits of plane-wave prestack LSRTM are the following: (1) plane-wave prestack LSRTM can sometimes offer stable convergence even when the migration velocity has bulk errors of up to 5%; (2) to significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase-shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of plane waves. Unlike phase-shift encoding with random time shifts applied to each shot gather, plane-wave encoding can be effectively applied to data with a marine streamer geometry. (3) Plane-wave prestack LSRTM can provide higher-quality images than standard reverse-time migration. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model and a marine field data set are performed to illustrate the benefits of plane-wave LSRTM. Empirical results show that LSRTM in the plane-wave domain, compared to standard reversetime migration, produces images efficiently with fewer artifacts and better spatial resolution. Moreover, the prestack image ensemble accommodates more unknowns to makes it more robust than conventional least-squares migration in the presence of migration velocity errors. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Function algebras on a 2-dimensional quantum complex plane

    The well-behaved representations of the coordinate algebra of a 2-dimensional quantum complex plane are classified and a C*-algebra is defined which can be viewed as the algebra of continuous functions on the 2-dimensional quantum complex plane vanishing at infinity

  4. Non-linear flow response and reaction plane correlations

    Teaney, Derek; Yan, Li

    2012-01-01

    We apply the non-linear flow response formalism to the recently measured event plane correlations. We find that as a result of the combined effects of linear and non-linear flow response, the observed event plane correlations can be understood as an effective average of the 'linear limit' and 'non-linear limit'.

  5. Electric field modelling for point-plane gap

    The electric field distribution for point-plane gap is modelled both for stressed point and stressed plane electrodes. In simulations, the influence of the discharge chamber walls is taken into account. The size of an avalanche and the corresponding current pulse are calculated. The results are compared with those got other field distribution approximations. (author)

  6. Gain induced stability of active plane-parallel resonators

    Witteman, W.J.; Ernst, G.J.

    1975-01-01

    It has been observed for a plane-parallel resonator with a saturated medium that under certain conditions confined beams mainly concentrated near the axis are present. The experiments have been done with a sealed-off plane-parallel CO2 laser of one meter length and with an internal diameter of 20 mm

  7. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  8. On rationality of logarithmic Q-homology planes - I

    Normal surfaces over the complex plane are considered that are logarithmic (i.e., all its singularities are of the quotient type) and of which all reduced homology groups with rational coefficients vanish. It is proved that all such planes are rational. 16 refs

  9. Uniform theory for the diffraction of evanescent plane waves.

    Umul, Yusuf Z

    2007-08-01

    A uniform diffracted field is obtained in terms of Fresnel functions with complex argument by subtracting the unit step function from the Fresnel integral. The method is applied to the problem of diffraction of inhomogeneous plane waves by a perfectly conducting half-plane and wedge. The results are plotted numerically and compared with results reported in the literature. PMID:17621346

  10. Free motion on the Poisson plane and sphere

    Zakrzewski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Poisson plane and sphere --- homogeneous spaces of Poisson groups E(2) and SU(2) (resp.) --- have phase spaces (corresponding symplectic groupoids), in which a free Hamiltonian is naturally defined. We solve the equations of motion and point out some unexpected features: free motion on the plane is bounded (periodic) and free trajectories on the sphere are all circles except the big ones.

  11. Z$_3$-graded differential geometry of quantum plane

    Celik, Salih

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the Z$_3$-graded differential geometry of the quantum plane is constructed. The corresponding quantum Lie algebra and its Hopf algebra structure are obtained. The dual algebra, i.e. universal enveloping algebra of the quantum plane is explicitly constructed and an isomorphism between the quantum Lie algebra and the dual algebra is given.

  12. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow is obta...... flow. The thickness and the velocity are functions of the Archimedes number....

  13. Power tracks instead of planes to reduce radiated electromagnetic fields

    Leferink, Frank B.J.; Etten, van Wim C.

    2006-01-01

    The noise voltage in the reference or ground of a printed circuit board is often the cause of unwanted radiated emission. Power supply planes attribute to the noise voltage. By replacing the power supply planes by tracks, the noise voltage in the reference or ground can be reduced, which leads to a

  14. An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array using heating based resistance nonuniformity compensation

    Tepegoz, Murat; Oguz, Alp; Toprak, Alperen; Senveli, S. Ufuk; Canga, Eren; Tanrikulu, M. Yusuf; Akin, Tayfun

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of a unique method called heating based resistance nonuniformity compensation (HB-RNUC). The HB-RNUC method utilizes a configurable bias heating duration for each pixel in order to minimize the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) output voltage distribution range. The outputs of each individual pixel in a resistive type microbolometer differ from each other by a certain amount due to the resistance non-uniformity throughout the focal plane array (FPA), which is an inevitable result of the microfabrication process. This output distribution consumes a considerable portion of the available voltage headroom of the ROIC unless compensated properly. The conventional compensation method is using on-chip DACs to apply specific bias voltages to each pixel such that the output distribution is confined around a certain point. However, on-chip DACs typically occupy large silicon area, increase the output noise, and consume high power. The HB-RNUC method proposes modifying the resistances of the pixels instead of the bias voltages, and this task can be accomplished by very simple circuit blocks. The simplicity of the required blocks allows utilizing a low power, low noise, and high resolution resistance nonuniformity compensation operation. A 9-bit HB-RNUC structure has been designed, fabricated, and tested on a 384x288 microbolometer FPA ROIC on which 35μm pixel size detectors are monolithically implemented, in order to evaluate its performance. The compensation operation reduces the standard deviation of the ROIC output distribution from 470 mV to 9 mV under the same readout gain and bias settings. The analog heating channels of the HB-RNUC block dissipate around 4.1 mW electrical power in this condition, and the increase in the output noise due to these blocks is lower than 10%.

  15. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    Moór, A; Kiss, Cs; Balog, Z; Billot, N; Marton, G

    2013-01-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5% (standard deviation) or about 8% peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2% (stdev) or 2% in the blue, 3% in the green and 5% in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic h...

  16. Building blocks of the universe

    COSI [Ohio's Center for Science and Industry], a well established science center, and SciTech, an emerging one, have formed a collaboration to develop a group of original interactive exhibits conveying to a wide audience the nature of the most fundamental features of the Universe, as revealed in the fascinating world of nuclear and particle science. These new exhibits will add to, and be supported by, the basic science exhibits which have already attracted large numbers of visitors to both centers. The new project, called Building Blocks of the Universe, aims to foster an appreciation of the way all features of the Universe arise from simple, basic rules and to lead the visitor from the perceived complexities of our surroundings, to the unperceived, but simpler features of the sub-nuclear world. It has already become apparent from individual prototypes that these simple but immensely far-reaching ideas can indeed be conveyed by hands-on exhibits. These exhibits will be linked and enhanced by an effective museum environment, using pictorial diagrams, accurate non-technical text, and artistic displays to create an atmosphere in which visitors can learn about phenomena beyond the range of direct perception. This paper describes the goals, content and organization of the exhibition. The authors also outline their experience with prototype exhibits, and thereby invite additional input into the development process

  17. Analysis of nulling phase functions suitable to image plane coronagraphy

    Henault, Francois; Verinaud, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Coronagraphy is a very efficient technique for identifying and characterizing extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star, especially when used in a space environment. An important family of coronagraphs is based on phase plates located at an intermediate image plane of the optical system, that spread the starlight outside the "Lyot" exit pupil plane of the instrument. In this communication we present a set of candidate phase functions generating a central null at the Lyot plane, and study how it propagates to the image plane of the coronagraph. These functions include linear azimuthal phase ramps (the well-known optical vortex), azimuthally cosine-modulated phase profiles, and circular phase gratings. Numerical simulations of the expected null depth, inner working angle, sensitivity to pointing errors, effect of central obscuration located at the pupil or image planes, and effective throughput including image mask and Lyot stop transmissions are presented and discussed. The prelim...

  18. Development of Ray Tracing Algorithms for Scanning Plane and Transverse Plane Analysis for Satellite Multibeam Application

    N. H. Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflector antennas have been widely used in many areas. In the implementation of parabolic reflector antenna for broadcasting satellite applications, it is essential for the spacecraft antenna to provide precise contoured beam to effectively serve the required region. For this purpose, combinations of more than one beam are required. Therefore, a tool utilizing ray tracing method is developed to calculate precise off-axis beams for multibeam antenna system. In the multibeam system, each beam will be fed from different feed positions to allow the main beam to be radiated at the exact direction on the coverage area. Thus, detailed study on caustics of a parabolic reflector antenna is performed and presented in this paper, which is to investigate the behaviour of the rays and its relation to various antenna parameters. In order to produce accurate data for the analysis, the caustic behaviours are investigated in two distinctive modes: scanning plane and transverse plane. This paper presents the detailed discussions on the derivation of the ray tracing algorithms, the establishment of the equations of caustic loci, and the verification of the method through calculation of radiation pattern.

  19. Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: 'Real world' responses with practical image-plane separations?

    MacKenzie, K. J.; Dickson, R. A.; Watt, S. J.

    2011-03-01

    Conventional stereoscopic displays present images on a single focal plane. The resulting mismatch between the stimuli to the eyes' focusing response (accommodation) and to convergence causes fatigue and poor stereo performance. One promising solution is to distribute image intensity across a number of relatively widely spaced image planes - a technique referred to as depth filtering. Previously, we found this elicits accurate, continuous monocular accommodation responses with image-plane separations as large as 1.1 Diopters, suggesting that a relatively small (i.e. practical) number of image planes is sufficient to eliminate vergence-accommodation conflicts over a large range of simulated distances. However, accommodation responses have been found to overshoot systematically when the same stimuli are viewed binocularly. Here, we examined the minimum image-plane spacing required for accurate accommodation to binocular depth-filtered images. We compared accommodation and vergence responses to step changes in depth for depth-filtered stimuli, using image-plane separations of 0.6-1.2 D, and equivalent real stimuli. Accommodation responses to real and depth-filtered stimuli were equivalent for image-plane separations of ~0.6-0.9 D, but inaccurate thereafter. We conclude that depth filtering can be used to precisely match accommodation and vergence demand in a practical stereoscopic display, using a relatively small number of image planes.

  20. Diffraction of a plane wave on a half-plane located at the vacuum-anti-vacuum interface

    Fisanov, V. V.

    2011-06-01

    The Wiener-Hopf method (the Jones variant) is used to solve the problem of diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave incident normally on the perfectly conducting half-plane located at the vacuum-anti-vacuum interface. Exact analytical solutions comprising the Fresnel integrals are derived for vertical and horizontal polarization states.

  1. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    Loos, Katja; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization. The maltoheptaose derivatives were attached by reductive amination or hydrosilation to amino

  2. Transformation of frequency-magnitude relation prior to large events in the model of block structure dynamics

    A. Soloviev

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The b-value change in the frequency-magnitude (FM distribution for a synthetic earthquake catalogue obtained by means of the model of block structure dynamics has been studied. The catalogue is divided into time periods preceding strong earthquakes and time periods that do not precede strong earthquakes. The separate analysis of these periods shows that the b-value is smaller before strong earthquakes. The similar phenomenon has been found also for the observed seismicity of the Southern California. The model of block structure dynamics represents a seismic region as a system of perfectly rigid blocks divided by infinitely thin plane faults. The blocks interact between themselves and with the underlying medium. The system of blocks moves as a consequence of prescribed motion of the boundary blocks and of the underlying medium. As the blocks are perfectly rigid, all deformation takes place in the fault zones and at the block base in contact with the underlying medium. Relative block displacements take place along the fault zones. Block motion is defined so that the system is in a quasistatic equilibrium state. The interaction of blocks along the fault zones is viscous-elastic ("normal state" while the ratio of the stress to the pressure remains below a certain strength level. When the critical level is exceeded in some part of a fault zone, a stress-drop ("failure" occurs (in accordance with the dry friction model, possibly causing failure in other parts of the fault zones. These failures produce earthquakes. Immediately after the earthquake and for some time after, the affected parts of the fault zones are in a state of creep. This state differs from the normal state because of a faster growth of inelastic displacements, lasting until the stress falls below some other level. This numerical simulation gives rise a synthetic earthquake catalogue.

  3. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  4. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems ...

  5. Improving massive experiments with threshold blocking.

    Higgins, Michael J; Sävje, Fredrik; Sekhon, Jasjeet S

    2016-07-01

    Inferences from randomized experiments can be improved by blocking: assigning treatment in fixed proportions within groups of similar units. However, the use of the method is limited by the difficulty in deriving these groups. Current blocking methods are restricted to special cases or run in exponential time; are not sensitive to clustering of data points; and are often heuristic, providing an unsatisfactory solution in many common instances. We present an algorithm that implements a widely applicable class of blocking-threshold blocking-that solves these problems. Given a minimum required group size and a distance metric, we study the blocking problem of minimizing the maximum distance between any two units within the same group. We prove this is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem and derive an approximation algorithm that yields a blocking where the maximum distance is guaranteed to be, at most, four times the optimal value. This algorithm runs in O(n log n) time with O(n) space complexity. This makes it, to our knowledge, the first blocking method with an ensured level of performance that works in massive experiments. Whereas many commonly used algorithms form pairs of units, our algorithm constructs the groups flexibly for any chosen minimum size. This facilitates complex experiments with several treatment arms and clustered data. A simulation study demonstrates the efficiency and efficacy of the algorithm; tens of millions of units can be blocked using a desktop computer in a few minutes. PMID:27382151

  6. Building blocks for embedded control systems

    Broenink, Jan F.; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Bakkers, André W.P.; Veen, Jean Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Developing embedded control systems using a building-block approach at all the parts enables an efficient and fast design process. Main reasons are the real plug-and-play capabilities of the blocks. Furthermore, due the simulatability of the designs, parts of the system can already be tested before

  7. C++ application development with Code::Blocks

    Modak, Biplab Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a comprehensive tutorial with step-by-step instructions on how to develop applications with Code::Blocks.This book is for C++ developers who wish to use Code::Blocks to create applications with a consistent look and feel across multiple platforms. This book assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the C++ programming language.

  8. Block Grants: Federal Data Collection Provisions.

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet compares statutory data collection and reporting provisions of the federal education block grant (chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981) with the nine other block grant programs funded in fiscal year 1986; data on statutory administrative cost limits are also provided. Each grant's legislation was…

  9. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things...

  10. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  11. Transient non-autoimmune fetal heart block

    Breur, JMPJ; Oudijk, MA; Stoutenbeek, P; Visser, GHA; Meijboom, EJ

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Fetal heart block is a rare and irreversible condition associated with structural heart defects or maternal autoantibodies (SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La) resulting in permanent damage of the atrioventricular (AV) node. This is the first report of 4 cases with a transient fetal heart block in stru

  12. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund;

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  13. Programs for the calculi of blocks permeabilities

    This report studies the stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport. The permeability values of blocks are necessary to do a numeric model for the flux and transport problems in ground soils. The determination of block value by function on grill value is the objective of this program

  14. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  15. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  16. A revisit of transthecal digital block and traditional digital block for anesthesia of the finger

    Mohammad Dehghani; Arsalan Mahmoodian

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finger injuries are very common and the majority can be treated under digital block anesthesia. Traditional digital block is one of the most commonly performed blocks by care providers in several medical fields. There is another less known method, transthecal (Pulley) block, in which local anesthesia is injected into the flexor tendon sheath.
    METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the tran...

  17. Virasoro conformal blocks in closed form

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro conformal blocks are fixed in principle by symmetry, but a closed-form expression is unknown in the general case. In this work, we provide three closed-form expansions for the four-point Virasoro blocks on the sphere, for arbitrary operator dimensions and central charge $c$. We do so by solving known recursion relations. One representation is a sum over hypergeometric global blocks, whose coefficients we provide at arbitrary level. Another is a sum over semiclassical Virasoro blocks obtained in the limit in which two external operator dimensions scale linearly with large $c$. In both cases, the $1/c$ expansion of the Virasoro blocks is easily extracted. We discuss applications of these expansions to entanglement and thermality in conformal field theories and particle scattering in three-dimensional quantum gravity.

  18. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  19. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    Guo, Fengxiao

    functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  20. STUDY ON POLYSULFONE-POLYESTER BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    DING Youjun; QI Daquan

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of Polysulfone (PSF)-Polyester (PEs) block copolymers were studied.The degree of randomness (B) of these block copolymers was calculated from the intensities of their proton signals in 1H NMR spectra and lies in the region of 0 < B < 1. It was shown that the degree of randomness (B) and the average sequence length (L) in block copolymers were relatively dependent on the reaction conditions, various feed ratios and structure of diols.The phenomenon was observed, when the PSF-PEs block copolymers dissolved in different solvents they had different viscosities and molecular conformations.The PSF-PEs block copolymers had better solvent resistance than homo-polysulfone.