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Sample records for abdominis plane block

  1. Transversus abdominis plane block: a cadaveric and radiological evaluation.

    McDonnell, John G

    2011-04-11

    The abdominal wall is a significant source of pain after abdominal surgery. Anterior abdominal wall analgesia may assist in improving postoperative analgesia. We have recently described a novel approach to block the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit, which we have termed a transversus abdominis plane block. The clinical efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block has recently been demonstrated in a randomized controlled clinical trial of adults undergoing abdominal surgery.

  2. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy

    Røjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik; Kiel, Louise B;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with ropivacaine compared with placebo as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. SETTING: Hvidovre...... ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period....

  3. The analgesic effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Ra, Yoon Suk; Kim, Chi Hyo; Lee, Guie Yong; Han, Jong In

    2010-01-01

    Background Several methods are performed to control the pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recently, the transverse abdominis plane block has been proposed to compensate for the problems developed by preexisting methods. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block (US-TAP block) and compare efficacy according to the concentration of local analgesics in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Fifty-four pati...

  4. Comparison of transversus abdominis plane block vs spinal morphine for pain relief after Caesarean section.

    McMorrow, R C N

    2011-05-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an alternative to spinal morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section but there are few data on its comparative efficacy. We compared the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block with and without spinal morphine after Caesarean section in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

  5. The transversus abdominis plane block provides effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

    Carney, John

    2008-12-01

    Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy suffer significant postoperative pain. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently described approach to providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  6. Distribution patterns, dermatomal anesthesia, and Ropivacaine serum concentrations after bilateral dualtransversus abdominis plane block

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2012-01-01

    The ability of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks to anesthetize the upper abdomen remains debatable. We aimed to describe the local anesthetic distribution following ultrasound-guided TAP blocks with repeated magnetic resonance imaging investigations and to relate this to the resulting der...... dermatomal anesthesia....

  7. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  8. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Complicating “Blind” Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of patients who reported quadriceps femoris weakness and hypoesthesia over the anterior thigh after an inguinal hernia repair under transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Transient femoral nerve palsy is the result of local anesthetic incorrectly injected between transversus abdominis muscle and transversalis fascia and pooling around the femoral nerve. Although it is a minor and self-limiting complication, it requires overnight hospital stay and observation of the patients. Performing the block under ultrasound guidance and injecting the least volume of local anesthetic required are ways of minimizing its incidence.

  9. Transversus abdominis plane block for analgesia in renal transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Freir, Noelle M

    2012-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has proven effective in reducing opioid requirements and pain scores for some procedures involving the lower abdominal wall. In this study we assessed its efficacy in patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation.

  10. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  11. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    McDonnell, John G

    2008-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

  12. The beneficial effect of transversus abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Stjernholm, Pia; Kristiansen, Viggo B;

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with postoperative pain of moderate intensity in the early postoperative period. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. We hypothesi...... hypothesized that a TAP block may reduce pain while coughing and at rest for the first 24 postoperative hours, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery....

  13. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a...... medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and...

  14. Ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block: a new four-point approach

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Maschmann, C; Belhage, B; Jensen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Background: We describe a new ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block. Our hypothesis was that we could anaesthetize both the upper (Th6–Th9) and the lower (Th10–Th12) abdominal wall bilaterally using a four-point single-shot technique to provide effective post-operativ......Background: We describe a new ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block. Our hypothesis was that we could anaesthetize both the upper (Th6–Th9) and the lower (Th10–Th12) abdominal wall bilaterally using a four-point single-shot technique to provide effective post...... analogue scale 0–10) from a mean of 8.2 to a mean of 2.2 10 min after block performance (P<0.001). They were discharged from the post-anaesthesia care unit after an average of 34 min. Twenty-one patients (84%) did not require any i.v. opioids in the following 6 h. Sixteen patients (64%) were mobilized......-anaesthesia care unit, few patients required opioids on the day of surgery and mobilization was improved....

  15. The transversus abdominis plane block: a valuable option for postoperative analgesia? A topical review

    Petersen, P.L.; Mathiesen, O.; Torup, H.;

    2010-01-01

    access termed the 'oblique subcostal' access. A systematic search of the literature identified a total of seven randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of TAP block on post-operative pain, including a total of 364 patients, of whom 180 received TAP blockade. The surgical procedures included......The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newly described peripheral block involving the nerves of the anterior abdominal wall. The block has been developed for post-operative pain control after gynaecologic and abdominal surgery. The initial technique described the lumbar triangle of Petit...... clinically significant reductions of post-operative opioid requirements and pain, as well as some effects on opioid-related side effects (sedation and post-operative nausea and vomiting). Further studies are warranted to support the findings of the primary published trials and to establish general...

  16. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Torup, H; Bøgeskov, M; Hansen, E G;

    2015-01-01

    on top of paracetamol and ibuprofen or diclofenac. For the first 24 post-operative hours, we monitored PCA morphine consumption and pain scores with visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and while coughing. Post-operative nausea and number of vomits (PONV) were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients......BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is widely used as a part of pain management after various abdominal surgeries. We evaluated the effect of TAP block as an add-on to the routine analgesic regimen in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. METHODS: In a...... and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment, had no effect on morphine consumption, VAS pain scores, or frequency of nausea and vomiting after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with paracetamol and NSAID alone....

  17. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    Venkatraman R; Abhinaya RJ; Sakthivel A; Sivarajan G

    2016-01-01

    Rajagopalan Venkatraman, Ranganathan Jothi Abhinaya, Ayyanar Sakthivel, Govindarajan Sivarajan Department of Anaesthesia, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Background and aim: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) is a novel procedure to provide postoperative analgesia following inguinal hernia surgery. The utilization of ultrasound has greatly augmented the success rate of this block and additionally avoiding complications. The aim of our s...

  18. Comparison of transversus abdominis plane block vs spinal morphine for pain relief after Caesarean section.

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an alternative to spinal morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section but there are few data on its comparative efficacy. We compared the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block with and without spinal morphine after Caesarean section in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Eighty patients were randomized to one of four groups to receive (in addition to spinal anaesthesia) either spinal morphine 100 microg (S(M)) or saline (S(S)) and a postoperative bilateral TAP block with either bupivacaine (T(LA)) 2 mg kg(-1) or saline (T(S)). RESULTS: Pain on movement and early morphine consumption were lowest in groups receiving spinal morphine and was not improved by TAP block. The rank order of median pain scores on movement at 6 h was: S(M)T(LA) (20 mm)block-improved analgesia after Caesarean section. The addition of TAP block with bupivacaine 2 mg kg(-1) to spinal morphine did not further improve analgesia.

  19. Efficacy of trans abdominis plane block for post cesarean delivery analgesia: A double-blind, randomized trial

    Uma Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transverse abdominis plane (TAP block, a regional block provides effective analgesia after lower abdominal surgeries if used as part of multimodal analgesia. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, we determined the efficacy of TAP block in patients undergoing cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Totally, 62 parturients undergoing cesarean section were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either bilateral TAP block at the end of surgery with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine or no TAP block, in addition to standard analgesic comprising 75 mg diclofenac 8 hourly and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA tramadol. Each patient was assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after surgery by an independent observer for pain at rest and on movement using numeric rating scale of 0-10, time of 1 st demand for tramadol, total consumption of PCA tramadol, satisfaction with pain management and side effects. Results: Use of tramadol was reduced in patients given TAP block by 50% compared to patients given no block during 48 h after surgery (P < 0.001. Pain scores were lower both on rest and activity at each time point for 24 h in study group (P < 0.001, time of first analgesia was significantly longer, satisfaction was higher, and side effects were less in study group compared to control group. Conclusion: Transverse abdominis plane block was effective in providing analgesia with a substantial reduction in tramadol use during 48 h after cesarean section when used as adjunctive to standard analgesia.

  20. Treatment of Acute Flares of Chronic Pancreatitis Pain with Ultrasound Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block: A Novel Application of a Pain Management Technique in the Acute Care Setting

    Smith, Daryl I.; Kim Hoang; Wendy Gelbard

    2014-01-01

    The use of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block to provide either analgesia or anesthesia to the anterior abdominal wall is well described. The technique yields high analgesic effectiveness and is opioid sparing and potentially of long duration with reported analgesia lasting up to 36 hours. When compared to neuraxial analgesia, TAP blocks are associated with a lower incidence of hypotension and motor blockade. TAP blocks are typically described as providing somatic analgesia only without...

  1. Comparative Study between Levobupivacine versus Levobupivacaine Plus Dexmedetomidine for Transversus Abdominis Plane Block “TAP” in Post-Operative Pain Management after Abdominoplasty

    Wail Abdelaal; Ayman Anis Metry; Mona Refaat; Milad Ragaei; George Nakhla

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the work Transversus abdominis plane “TAP’’ block has been reported to be effective for post-operative analgesia for patients undergoing surgery involving abdominal wall incision by blocking anterior branches of thoracolumbar nerves originating from T6 – L1 , which innervates anterior abdominal wall. Dexmedetomidine has a well – known benefit in the relief of postoperative pain. The objective of this study is to evaluate effect of adding dexmedetomidine to levobupivacaine for p...

  2. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    Amany S Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30 or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone "8 mg" (dexamethasone group, n=30. The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA, morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01, 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01 and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02. Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002, with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003 and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03. No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  3. Feasibility and analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block after single-port laparoscopy in patients having bariatric surgery

    Wassef M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael Wassef, David Y Lee, Jun L Levine, Ronald E Ross, Hamza Guend, Catherine Vandepitte, Admir Hadzic, Julio TeixeiraDepartment of Anesthesiology, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a technique increasingly used for analgesia after surgery on the anterior abdominal wall. We undertook this study to determine the feasibility and analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP blocks in morbidly obese patients. We describe the dermatomal spread of local anesthetic in TAP blocks administered, and test the hypothesis that TAP blocks decrease visual analog scale (VAS scores.Patients and methods: After ethics committee approval and informed consent, 35 patients with body mass index >35 undergoing single-port sleeve gastrectomy (SPSG were enrolled. All patients received balanced general anesthesia, followed by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA; hydromorphone postoperatively; all reported VAS >3 upon arrival to the recovery room. From the cohort of 35 patients having single-port laparoscopy (SPL, a sealed envelope method was used to randomly select ten patients to the TAP group and 25 patients to the control group. The ten patients in the TAP group received ultrasound-guided TAP blocks with 30 mL of 0.2% Ropivacaine injected bilaterally. The dermatomal distribution of the sensory block (by pinprick test was recorded. VAS scores for the first 24 hours after surgery and opioid use were compared between the IV-PCA+TAP block and IV-PCA only groups.Results: Sensory block ranged from T5–L1. Mean VAS pain scores decreased from 8 ± 2 to 4 ± 3 (P=0.04 within 30 minutes of TAP block administration. Compared with patients given IV-PCA only, significantly fewer patients who received TAP block had moderate or severe pain (VAS 4–10 after block administration at 6 hours and 12 hours post-surgery. However, cumulative consumption of hydromorphone at 24 hours after SPSG surgery

  4. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

    Beena K Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  5. Ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis plane block versus continuous wound infusion for post-caesarean analgesia: a randomized trial.

    Michel Chandon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP block versus Continuous Wound Infusion (CWI with levobupivacaine after caesarean delivery. METHODS: We recruited parturients undergoing elective caesareans for this multicenter study. Following written informed consent, they received a spinal anaesthetic without intrathecal morphine for their caesarean section. The postoperative analgesia was randomized to either a bilateral ultrasound guided TAP block (levobupivicaine = 150 mg or a CWI through an elastomeric pump for 48 hours (levobupivacaine = 150 mg the first day and 12.5 mg/h thereafter. Every woman received regular analgesics along with oral morphine if required. The primary outcome was comparison of the 48-hour area under the curve (AUC pain scores. Secondary outcomes included morphine consumption, adverse events, and persistent pain one month postoperatively. RESULTS: Recruitment of 120 women was planned but the study was prematurely terminated due to the occurrence of generalized seizures in one patient of the TAP group. By then, 36 patients with TAP and 29 with CWI had completed the study. AUC of pain at rest and during mobilization were not significantly different: 50 [22.5-80] in TAP versus 50 [27.5-130] in CWI (P = 0.4 and 190 [130-240] versus 160 [112.5-247.5] (P = 0.5, respectively. Morphine consumption (0 [0-20] mg in the TAP group and 10 [0-32.5] mg in the CWI group (P = 0.09 and persistent pain at one month were similar in both groups (respectively 29.6% and 26.6% (P = 0.73. CONCLUSION: In cases of morphine-free spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, no difference between TAP block and CWI for postoperative analgesia was suggested. TAP block may induce seizures in this specific context. Consequently, such a technique after a caesarean section cannot be recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01151943.

  6. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Dahl, Jørgen B;

    2013-01-01

    The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks.The aim of this d...... of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter....

  7. TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK : A COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUE FOR POST OPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER ABDOMINAL GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER SURGERIES

    Arathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Gynecological cancer surgeries differ from non - cancer surgeries as the former involves extensive dissection , and tissue handling , which contributes to increased nociception perioperatively. Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in gynecological oncological set up. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is one of the new promising regional anesthesia technique complementing multi modal analgesic regimen. This is a prospective randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the role of the TAP block in Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for periope rative analgesia and reducing the requirement of opioid consumption . METHODS : 100 patients of ASA grade 1 and 2 undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection with below umbilical incision were randomized as block group to undergo TAP blo ck with bupivacaine 0.25% 20ml on each side (n=50 , versus non - block group (n=50. All patients received general anesthethesia. Block was performed before surgical incision bilaterally by using blind double pop technique in patients who were randomized to the block group. Intra operative analgesic regimen was with inj fentanyl 1.5 mic/k.g , repeated with 0.5mic/k.g depending on the requirement as assessed by the anaesthe - siologist based on haemodynamic parameters and post operatively by pain scores on numeri c visual analogue scale with inj . paracetamol 1gm followed by tramadol 2mg/kg and fentany 0.5mic/kg . Each patient was assessed post operatively at 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 , 16 , 20 , 24 hours for pain , nausea , vomiting and sedation . The data recorded . Descriptive a nd inferential sta ti stical analysis has been carried out using student t test , chi square/ fisher exact test in the present study. RESULTS : We studied 100 patients , 50 patients in block group and 50 patients in non - block group. The block group had significantly less pain

  8. Three different approaches to Transversus abdominis plane

    Zoka Milan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim The transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a new techniquefor providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. There is ongoing debate regarding access point for TAP block. The aim of this cadaveric study was to compare the spread of 40 mL of dye using three different approaches to TAP: subcostal , via the mid-axillary and via the lumbar triangle of Petit (LTOP. Methods Injection of black dye into the TAP was performed for each hemi-abdominal wall of 13 embalmed human cadavers by using 3 different access points: subcostal (9 hemi-abdomens, mid-axillary (9 and LTOP (8. This was followed by dissection to determine the extent of dye spread and nerve involvement in the dye injection. The shapes of the dye were traced onto clear plastic, which was then photographed. These digital photographs were loaded into the mathematical software programme Matlab, and the outline of the dye spread was digitised using a piecewise cubic spline, enabling the shapes to be plotted on a graph and the areas to be calculated. Results The area of the dye spread for subcostal, mid-axillary and LTOP was 85.1 (T7-L1, 58.9 (T10-L1 and 77.9cm2 (T10-L1, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between area of dye spread between subcostal and mid-axillary approach (p<0.01. Conclusion This dye injection study in a cadaver model indicates that subcostal approach is associated with a larger area of spread of dye than the mid-axillary approach. Dye injected through subcostal, mid-axillary and LTOP approaches demonstrated different nerve involvement.

  9. TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE (TAP BLOCK REDUCES POSTOPERATIVE MORHPINE REQUIRMENT AND POSTOPERATIVE SEDATION SCORES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMI NAL OPERATIONS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Melchisedec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a region al anaesthetic technique which has recently gained popularity. It i s being used for postoperative analgesia for upper and lower abdominal surgeries. Local anaestheti c is deposited in the neuro-fascial plane between the internal oblique and the transversus ab dominis muscle. We carried on this study to assess the postoperative pain and sedation scores in pa tients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries in a randomized controlled, double blind study. METHODS: 40 patients scheduled to undergo inguinal hernia repair or appendicectomy were randomly selected. All the patients received a general anaesthetic for the proposed surg ery. Patients were divided into two groups, a Tab block group in which the patients were given a Tap block after the induction of general anaesthetic and a control group in which the patients did not receive the Tap block. Patients in both the groups received Inj acetaminophen 1gm every 8 hourly and Inj morphine 0.05mg/kg intermittently every time the patient complaint of pa in postoperatively. Patients in both the groups were assessed for postoperative morphine require ments and sedation scores at 2,6,12 and 24 hours. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the verbal a nalogue scores for pain as well as the visual analogue scores for sedat ion in both the groups. Postoperative morphine requirement (24hours was significantly red uced in the patients who did not receive the Tap block as compared to the patients who receive the block (17.5mg Vs 7mg. Postoperative sedation scores were also significantl y less in the Tap block group as compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Tap block provides a highly effective analgesia in pa tients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. It reduces the morphine requirement and sedation scores in the 24 hours postoperative period.

  10. Comparison of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block with bupivacaine and ropivacaine as adjuncts for postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomies

    Sinha, Shradha; Palta, Sanjeev; Saroa, Richa; Prasad, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a popular technique for post-operative analgesia in abdominal surgeries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of bupivacaine versus ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia using ultrasound-guided TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods: Sixty adults undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to receive ultrasound-guided TAP block at the end of the surgical procedure with either 0.25% bupivacaine (Group I, n = 30) or 0.375% ropivacaine (Group II, n = 30). All patients were assessed for post-operative pain and rescue analgesic consumption at 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h time points. Means for normally distributed data were compared using Student's t-test, and proportions were compared using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test whichever was applicable. Results: Patients receiving ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine (Group II) had significantly lower pain scores when compared to patients who received the block with bupivacaine (Group I) at 10 min, 30 min and 1 h. However, both the drugs were equivalent for post-operative analgesia and 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement (median [interquartile range]) (75.00 [75.00–75.00] in Group I vs. 75.00 [75.00–93.75] in Group II, P = 0.366). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided TAP block with ropivacaine provides effective analgesia in the immediate post-operative period up to 1 h as compared to bupivacaine. However, both the drugs are similar in terms of 24 h cumulative rescue analgesic requirement.

  11. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks for perioperative analgesia in upper abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Khaled Abdelsalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regional anesthetic techniques can be used to alleviate postoperative pain in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral ultrasound (US-guided rectus sheath (RS and transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks for better perioperative analgesia. Patients and Methods: It is a prospective, observer-blinded, randomized clinical study. 40 eligible patients undergoing elective liver resection or Whipple procedure were included. All patients received a standardized anesthetic technique. Group 1 (n = 20 received preincisional US-guided bilateral RS and TAP blocks using 20 ml volume of bupivacaine 0.25% for each, and group 2 (n = 20 received local wound infiltration at end of surgery with 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%. A standardized postoperative analgesic regimen composed of intravenous paracetamol and a morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA. The use of intraoperative fentanyl and recovery room morphine boluses, PCA-administered morphine, pain scores as well as number of patients′ experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ward at 6 and 24 h were recorded. Results: Group 1 patients received a significantly lower cumulative intraoperative fentanyl, significantly lesser boluses of morphine in postanesthesia care unit, as well, significantly lower cumulative 24 h postoperative morphine dosage than the group 2 patients. Pain visual analog scale scores were significantly lower at both 6 and 24 h postoperatively in TAP group when compared with the no-TAP group. There were no complications related to the TAP block procedures. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were detected. Conclusion: The combination of bilateral US-guided RS and TAP blocks provides excellent perioperative analgesia for major upper abdominal surgery.

  12. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters: A randomized trial in healthy volunteers

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Jørgen B Dahl; Mathiesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks. The aim of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter. Methods In this...

  13. Comparative Study between Levobupivacine versus Levobupivacaine Plus Dexmedetomidine for Transversus Abdominis Plane Block “TAP” in Post-Operative Pain Management after Abdominoplasty

    Wail Abdelaal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work Transversus abdominis plane “TAP’’ block has been reported to be effective for post-operative analgesia for patients undergoing surgery involving abdominal wall incision by blocking anterior branches of thoracolumbar nerves originating from T6 – L1 , which innervates anterior abdominal wall. Dexmedetomidine has a well – known benefit in the relief of postoperative pain. The objective of this study is to evaluate effect of adding dexmedetomidine to levobupivacaine for preemptive TAP block in the post-operative pain management after abdominoplasty surgery. Methods Sixty nine ASA I and II patients undergoing cosmetic abdominoplasty surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned in a double – blinded study divided into 3 groups. One group received bilateral TAP block performed by landmark – based technique with 20 ml 0.375% levobupivacaine plus 1 ml normal saline on each side “L group ‘’ and second dexmedetomidine group “M group ‘’received same volume of levobupivacaine plus 100µg dexmedetomidinein 1 ml, third control group” C group “received 21 ml normal saline on each side all patients received the block after induction of anesthesia and before surgical incision. Postoperative pain scores were recorded based on a visual analogue scale “VAS” using a 10 cm ruler where 0= no pain and 10 =worst possible pain just after full recovery and before administration of analgesics. Patients received meperidine 1mg/kg for every 4 h either on demand or if pain score ≥ 3. Total dose of mepridine consumption was recorded. Level of sedation, and side effects were also recorded. Results 23 patients of each group complete the study. Patients in M, L groups had significant lower pain score as compared to C group. Total postoperative 24 hours meperidine consumption in M, L group were significantly less than C group p < 0.001. Total postoperative 24 hours meperidine consumption in M group was less than in L

  14. The efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    Salman AE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ebru Salman,1 Fahri Yetisir,2 Banu Yürekli,3 Mustafa Aksoy,1 Murat Yildirim,2 Mehmet Kiliç21Anesthesiology and Reanimation Department, 2General Surgery Department, Atatürk Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3Endocrinology Department, Bozyaka Research and Training Hospital, Izmir, TurkeyPurpose: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, our aim was to compare the analgesic efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with a placebo block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair.Methods: After receiving hospital ethical committee approval and informed patient consents, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I–III patients aged 18–80 were enrolled in the study. Standard anesthesia monitoring was applied to all patients. After premedication, spinal anesthesia was administered to all patients with 3.5 mL heavy bupivacaine at the L3-L4 subarachnoid space. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group I (n = 32 received a placebo block with 20 mL saline, Group II (n = 32 received semi-blind TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine in 20 mL with a blunt regional anesthesia needle into the neurofascial plane via the lumbar triangle of Petit near the midaxillary line before fascial closure. At the end of the operation, intravenous (IV dexketoprofen was given to all patients. The verbal analog scale (VAS was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Paracetamol IV was given to patients if their VAS score > 3. A rescue analgesic of 0.05 mg/kg morphine IV was applied if VAS > 3. Total analgesic consumption and morphine requirement in 24 hours were recorded.Results: TAP block reduced VAS scores at all postoperative time points (P < 0.001. Postoperative analgesic and morphine requirement in 24 hours was significantly lower in group II (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Semi-blind TAP block provided effective analgesia, reducing total 24-hour postoperative analgesic

  15. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  16. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries

    Gadsden J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Gadsden,1 Sabry Ayad,2 Jeffrey J Gonzales,3 Jaideep Mehta,4 Jan Boublik,5 Jacob Hutchins6,7 1Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, CO, 4Department of Anesthesiology, UT Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 5Department of Anesthesiology, NYU Langone Medical Center – Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY, 6Department of Anesthesiology, 7Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by

  17. 超声引导腹横肌平面阻滞用于小儿腹股沟斜疝麻醉的临床观察%A Clinical Trial of Ultrasound-guided Transverses Abdominis Plane Block for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Inguinal Hernia Repair

    王维明; 杜立华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intra-and postoperative analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane ( TAP ) block in pediatric patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair.Methods 36 pediatric patients scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were randomly divided into two groups:study group ( group A ,n = 18 ) or control group( group B ,n = 18 ).Intravenous line was inserted before entering the operating room.KLS mixture 0.15 mL/kg was injected to make the patient sleep.Ultrasound-guided transverses abdominis plane block was performed, and 0.33% ropivacaine hydrochloride 1.5 mg/kg was injected for group A patients.The equal volume of normal saline was used instead for group B patients.KLS mixture was supplemented as needed.The hemodynamic response when incision,the volume of KLS mixture used,CHEOPS scores and Ramesay scores after operation were compared between the two groups.Results Compared to group B, the variation of mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) and hear rate ( HR ) when incision was significantly smaller in group A( P < 0.05 ).The analgesic scores of group A patients at 2,4,8 h after operation were significantly lower than group B patients( P < 0.05 ).The number of PCIA used was reduced in group A( P < 0.05 ).No TAP related side effects were observed in both groups.Conclusion Ultrasoundguided TAP block can be effectively used for inguinal hernia repair in pediatric patients.%目的 观察超声引导下腹横肌平面(TAP)阻滞用于小儿腹股沟斜疝手术患儿术中及术后的镇痛效果.方法 选择择期行小儿腹股沟斜疝修补术患儿36例,随机分为观察组(A组)和对照组(B组)各18例,入室前开放静脉通路,静脉注射KLS合剂0.15 mL/kg,待患儿入睡后,在超声引导下行TAP阻滞,A组注入0.33%盐酸罗哌卡因1.5 mg/kg,B组注入等量生理盐水.根据术中情况追加KLS合剂.比较两组患儿术中切皮反应、KLS合剂用量及术后CHEOPS评分、Ramesay评分等.结果 A

  18. Analgesic efficacy of the ultrasound-guided blockade of the transversus abdominis plane - a systematic review

    Javier Ripollés

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transverse abdominal plan blockade is a block of abdominal wall that has diffused rapidly in the clinical practice as part of a multimodal analgesia for abdominal surgery. The performance of the ultrasound-guided technique has allowed the lowering of potential complications, as well as new approaches that were carried out according to the descriptions, and the prospective studies would make it possible to utilize the transverse abdominal plan blockade in different surgical interventions; however, the results obtained in randomized clinical trials are inconsistent.OBJECTIVES: To prepare a systematic review aiming to determine the efficacy of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominal plan blockade for different surgical interventions, as well as the indications according to the approaches and their influences.METHODS: Two research approaches, one manual, and the other in Pubmed returned 28 randomized clinical trials where intervention with ultrasound-guided transverse abdominal plan blockades was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy in contrast to another technique in adults, published between 2007 and October 2013, in English or Spanish, with Jadad score > 1, according to the inclusion criteria for this review. The authors analyzed independently all the randomized clinical trials.CONCLUSIONS: The transverse abdominal plan blockades have been shown to be an effective technique in colorectal surgery, cesarean section, cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, appendectomy, donor nephrectomy, retropubic prostatectomy, and bariatric surgery. However, the data found in randomized clinical trial are not conclusive, and as a result, it is necessary to develop new and well designed randomized clinical trial, with enough statistical power to compare different approaches, drugs, doses, and volumes for the same intervention, aiming to answer the current questions and their effects in the habitual clinical practice.

  19. The effect of transversus abdominis plane block or local anaesthetic infiltration in inguinal hernia repair

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Mathiesen, Ole; Stjernholm, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    primary outcome measure was pain scores while coughing between group TAP and group placebo calculated as area under the curve for the first 24 h (AUC24 h). Secondary outcomes were pain scores while coughing and at rest, opioid consumption and side effects in groups TAP, infiltration and placebo. RESULTS......: Visual analogue pain scores while coughing and at rest demonstrated no difference between groups. Pain scores in groups infiltration, TAP and placebo were 19 versus 22 versus 15 mm at rest (P = 1.00) and 37 versus 41 versus 37 mm while coughing (P = 1.00). Pain scores at 6 h (AUC6 h) were significantly...

  20. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  1. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  2. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  3. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block for postoperative pain management: a review [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Jan Jakobsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale.

  4. Endometrioma in rectus abdominis muscle: case report

    İbrahim Halil Erdoğdu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectus abdominis muscle is one of the rare localizations of endometriosis. In this report, our aim was to present a case in which endometrioma was localized in rectus abdominis muscle. A 33-year old patient who underwent cesarean section six years before, complained of a painful mass measuring 4 cm localized at superior of the right side of incision scar. The mass which was found to be inside of the rectus abdominis muscle was excised totally. There was no relationship between the mass and intra-abdominal viscera and subcutaneous tissue. The result of pathologic examination was endometriosis. Endometrioma should be considered at differential diagnosis of abdominal wall mass in women during reproductive age especially if there is a past history of surgical intervention and shows variations according to menstrual cycle.

  5. Digital camcorder image stabilizer based on gray-coded bit-plane block matching

    Yeh, YeouMin; Chiang, Huang-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Jyh

    2001-10-01

    We propose an efficient algorithm to eliminate the nonpleasing effect caused by involuntary hand movement of camera holders. In our approach, 1-bit gray-coded bit- plane block matching, instead of 8-bit gray-level block matching, is used to greatly simplify the computation of motion estimation. This computation saving makes possible a finer division of image frame and thus facilitates the employment of a much more robust procedure for motion decision. To deal with various interfering factors in motion estimation, the temporal information of each local motion vector is also used to efficiently distinguish random-like movement from temporally correlated movement. To compensate for camera rotation, an affine model is used in the motion compensation unit without adding too much computation load. Having considered both programming flexibility and hardware efficiency, the motion decision unit and the motion compensation unit are coded in a microprocessor that interconnects with the stabilization hardware, which consists of the motion estimation unit and the digital zooming unit. A slightly simplified version of the proposed stabilizer is implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) board.

  6. Analysis of the effect of blocking mass at corner interface of two plates at arbitrary angles on transmission of plane bending waves

    2007-01-01

    Vibration energy transmission at corner interface of two infinite plates rigidly jointed at arbitrary angles was studied by wave approach so as to investigate the effect of blocking mass used for reducing plane bending wave transmission. Two local coordinate systems were introduced and six new non-dimensional coefficients implying corresponding ratio governing characteristic impedances of plates or blocking mass were introduced to simplify formulations of transmission and reflection coefficients. Five samples were tested in experiment.Discussions were carried out based on the comparison between prediction and experiment in terms of insertion loss. It is concluded that blocking mass at corner interface acts like a "lowpass filter", effective for vibration attenuation above certain frequency. The value of TL and IL in "attenuation band" depends mainly on mass per unit length and band width of "attenuation band" on mass moment of inertia per unit length of the blocking mass.

  7. Anatomical and Functional Recovery of Neurotized Remnant Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Muscle-Sparing Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap

    Woonhyeok Jeong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  Pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps typically sacrificethe entire muscle. In our experience, the lateral strip of the rectus abdominis muscle can bespared in an attempt to maintain function and reduce morbidity. When the intercostal nervesare injured, muscle atrophy appearswith time. The severed intercostal nervewasreinserted intothe remnantlateralstrip ofthe rectus abdominismuscle to reducemuscle atrophy.Methods  The authors retrospectively reviewed 9 neurotized cases and 10 non-neurotizedcases. Abdominal computed tomography was performed to determine the area of the rectusmuscles. Electromyography (EMGwas performed to check contractile function ofthe remnantmuscle. A single investigator measured the mean areas ofrandomly selected locations(secondlumbarspine using ImageJsoftware in a series of 10 cross-sectionalslices. We compared theHounsfield unit(HU pre- and postoperatively to evaluate regeneration quality.Results  In the neurotization group, 7 of 9 cases maintained the mass of remnant muscle.However, in the non-neurotization group, 8 of 10 losttheir mass. The number oftotally atrophied muscles in each of the two groups was significantly different (P= 0.027. All of theremnantmusclesshowed contractile function on EMG. The 9 remaining remnantrectus abdominis muscles showed declined the HU value after surgery but also within a normal range ofmuscle.Conclusions  Neurotization was found to be effective in maintaining the mass of remnantmuscle. Neurotized remnant muscle had contractile function on EMG and no fatty degeneration byHUvalue.

  8. In depth fusion flame spreading with a deuterium-tritium plane fuel density profile for plasma block ignition

    B.Malekynia; S.S.Razavipour

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state fuel ignition was given by Chu and Bobin according to the hydrodynamic theory at x =0 qualitatively.A high threshold energy flux density,i.e.,E* =4.3 x 1012 J/m2,has been reached.Recently,fast ignition by employing clean petawatt-picosecond laser pulses was performed.The anomalous phenomena were observed to be based on suppression of prepulses.The accelerated plasma block was used to ignite deuterium-tritium fuel at solid-state density.The detailed analysis of the thermonuclear wave propagation was investigated.Also the fusion conditions at x ≠ 0 layers were clarified by exactly solving hydrodynamic equations for plasma block ignition.In this paper,the applied physical mechanisms are determined for nonlinear force laser driven plasma blocks,thermonuclear reaction,heat transfer,electron-ion equilibration,stopping power of alpha particles,bremsstrahlung,expansion,density dependence,and fluid dynamics.New ignition conditions may be obtained by using temperature equations,including thc dcnsity profile that is obtained by the continuity equation and expansion velocity.The density is only a function of x and independent of time.The ignition energy flux density,E*t,for the x ≠ 0 layers is 1.95 × 1012 J/m2.Thus threshold ignition energy in comparison with that at x =0 layers would be reduced to less than 50 percent.

  9. SELECTIVE ACTIVATION OF THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE DURING LOW-INTENSITY AND FATIGUING TASKS

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the potential selective activation of the rectus abdominis muscle, we conducted two experiments. In the first, subjects performed two controlled isometric exercises: the curl up (supine trunk raise and the leg raise (supine bent leg raise at low intensity (in which only a few motor units are recruited. In the second experiment, subjects performed the same exercises, but they were required to maintain a certain force level in order to induce fatigue. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG activities of the lower and upper portions of the rectus abdominis muscle during the exercises and used spatial-temporal and frequency analyses to describe muscle activation patterns. At low-intensity contractions, the ratio between the EMG intensities of the upper and lower portions during the curl up exercise was significantly larger than during the leg raise exercise (p = 0.02. A cross-correlation analysis indicated that the signals of the abdominal portions were related to each other and this relation did not differ between the tasks (p = 0.12. In the fatiguing condition, fatigue for the upper portion was higher than for the lower portion during the curl up exercise (p = 0.008. We conclude that different exercises evoked, to a certain degree, individualized activation of each part of the rectus abdominis muscle, but different portions of the rectus abdominis muscle contributed to the same task, acting like a functional unit. These results corroborate the relevance of varying exercise to modify activation patterns of the rectus abdominis muscle

  10. Fibromatosis in vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap imitating tumor recurrence after surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer: case report

    Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Hole, Knut Håkon; Tønne, Elin; Ryder, Truls; Grøholt, Krystyna Kotanska; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    Background Abdominoperineal excision is performed in patients with locally advanced, low rectal carcinoma. Reconstruction of the dorsal vagina and perineum using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap following extensive surgery results in favorable surgical outcome and quality of life. However, the rectus abdominis muscle, as part of the anterior abdominal wall, may develop fibrous lesions also as a transplant. Case presentation A 39-year-old female patient with low rectal cancer an...

  11. Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players.

    Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA in professional tennis players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02 and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01 sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001. In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75. The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.

  12. Soccer attenuates the asymmetry of rectus abdominis muscle observed in non-athletes.

    Fernando Idoate

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA in professional soccer players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05 and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01 sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42 and in controls (P = 0.75 (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups. Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05 and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05. The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury.

  13. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscu...

  14. Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasonography to Measure Transverse Abdominis and Multifidus Muscle Dimensions

    Lumbar paraspinal muscles play an important role in providing both mobility and stability during dynamic tasks. Among paraspinal muscles, transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus have been of particular interest as active stabilizers of the lumbar spine. These muscles may become dysfunctional in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Low back injury can result in muscle inhibition and control loss that cannot recover spontaneously, and specific exercises are required to stimulate their recovery. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of ultrasonography to measure muscle dimensions and to present a reliable method for measuring transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus as stabilizing muscles of the lumbar spine. Fifteen healthy participants (18-55 year olds) were evaluated by a radiologist using ultrasonography (ES500) with two probes (50mm linear 7.5 MHZ and 70 mm curvilinear 3.5 MHz). The muscle thickness of transverse abdominis and the anterior-posterior diameter and cross sectional area of the LMF were measured. To determine within and between days reliabilities, second and third measurements were repeated with half an hour and one week intervals, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for left and right showed good to high reliability for the cross sectional area of lumbar multifidi (0.74 and 0.88, respectively) as well as the anterior-posterior dimensions of lumbar multifidi (0.89 and 0.91, respectively) and transverse abdomini thickness (0.73 and 0.85, respectively). Rehabilitative ultrasonography is a reliable and non-invasive instrument to measure muscle thickness. The method used in this study is a reliable way to measure lumbar stabilizing muscles

  15. [Free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps for reconstruction of the head and neck defects].

    Koshima, I; Handa, T; Satoh, Y; Akisada, K; Orita, Y; Yamamoto, H

    1995-01-01

    During the past eight years, tissue defects of the head and neck region in a total of 45 patients were repaired with free rectus abdominis muscle perforating artery flaps. These flaps are subclassified into (1) reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (2) thin reduced musculocutaneous flaps, (3) paraumbilical perforator-based flaps, and (4) thin paraumbilical perforator-based flaps. The advantages of these flaps are as follows. Since the flaps involve no or only a small portion of the rectus abdominis muscle, (1) the muscle can be left intact on the abdominal wall, and (2) a thin flap can be easily created by simple defatting of the flap. These flaps overcome the major disadvantages of the conventional rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, i.e., bulkiness of the flap and frequent postoperative abdominal herniation. The territory of the thin flaps is within 10 cm around the perforator. These flaps are suitable for defects in the head and neck region, because simultaneous flap elevation is possible at the time of tumor resection. Paraumbilical perforator-based flaps are suitable for young females and elderly patients. PMID:7897566

  16. Intrathecal opioid versus ultrasound guided fascia iliaca plane block for analgesia after primary hip arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomised, blinded, noninferiority controlled trial

    Kinsella John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip replacement surgery is increasingly common due to an ageing population, and rising levels of obesity. The provision of excellent pain relief with minimal side effects is important in order to facilitate patient mobilisation and rehabilitation. Spinal opioids provide excellent analgesia but are associated with adverse effects. The fascia-iliaca block is an alternative technique which provides analgesia to the nerves innervating the hip. The success of fascia iliaca blocks has been demonstrated to be superior when using ultrasound compared to landmark techniques. However, the clinical benefit of this improvement has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for hip replacement surgery. Methods/Design This study is a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial. Patients scheduled to undergo unilateral primary hip arthroplasty will receive a study information sheet and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either; (i Ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block using levobupivacaine, plus spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine containing no morphine, or (ii sham ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block performed with sterile saline, and spinal anaesthesia containing hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.1 mg of spinal morphine. A total of 108 patients will be recruited. Primary outcome is post-operative morphine consumption in a 24 hour period. Secondary outcomes include; pain scores at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, episodes of respiratory depression, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, time to first mobilisation and patient satisfaction. Conclusions There are no studies to date comparing ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for pain control after hip arthroplasty. If the ultrasound guided fascia iliaca

  17. Imaging-based assessment of rectus abdominis muscle thickness in an adult population: evaluating possible anthropometric relationships

    Ogugua Augustine Egwu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Very little attention has been paid to muscle architecture in the Sub-Saharan African environment, and the rectus abdominis muscle, being a stabilising agent in the trunk, should not be left out. Considering the incidence of trunk musculoskeletal discomfort, it is necessary to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Aim of the research: To assess the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle in an apparently healthy adult population using ultrasound and to evaluate its possible relationship with important anthropometric variables. Material and methods : A total of 120 healthy subjects made up of 60 males and 60 females, who gave their written consent, were recruited for this study. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Anthropometric variables were also assessed. Results: The results show that the rectus abdominis thickness (RAT was 14.68 ±2.92 mm and 14.37 ±2.74 mm for the right (RRAT and left (LRAT sides, respectively. The males had significantly thicker muscles than the females (p = 0.004 and the RAT correlated positively with age, weight, height, body mass index, body surface area, waist circumference, and conicity index. Conclusions: These results show robust myoanthropometric relationships that will assist surgeons in reconstructive procedures involving the muscle. They will also serve as a guidepost in the biomechanical assessment of the muscle in lifting sports for an African population, in the study of muscle flaps, and in the general evaluation of trunk mass.

  18. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  19. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Balius R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Balius1, Carles Pedret2, Laura Pacheco1, Josep Antoni Gutierrez3, Joan Vives4, Jaume Escoda11Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona; 2Centro Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Barcelona; 3Spanish National Handball Team, Spain; 4Granollers Handball Club, Granollers, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.Keywords: rectus abdominis, muscle injury, sonography, MRI, handball 

  20. Fabrication of ultra-dense sub-10 nm in-plane Si nanowire arrays by using a novel block copolymer method: optical properties.

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Ntaras, Christos; O'Connell, John; Shaw, Matthew T; Holmes, Justin D; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Morris, Michael A

    2016-01-28

    The use of a low-χ, symmetric block copolymer as an alternative to the high-χ systems currently being translated towards industrial silicon chip manufacture has been demonstrated. Here, the methodology for generating on-chip, etch resistant masks and subsequent pattern transfer to the substrate using ultra-small dimension, lamellar, microphase separated polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) is described. Well-controlled films of a perpendicularly oriented lamellar pattern with a domain size of ∼8 nm were achieved through amplification of an effective interaction parameter (χeff) of the BCP system. The self-assembled films were used as 'templates' for the generation of inorganic oxides nanowire arrays through selective metal ion inclusion and subsequent processing. Inclusion is a significant challenge because the lamellar systems have less chemical and mechanical robustness than the cylinder forming materials. The oxide nanowires of uniform diameter (∼8 nm) were isolated and their structure mimics the original BCP nanopatterns. We demonstrate that these lamellar phase iron oxide nanowire arrays could be used as a resist mask to fabricate densely packed, identical ordered, good fidelity silicon nanowire arrays on the substrate. Possible applications of the materials prepared are discussed, in particular, in the area of photonics and photoluminescence where the properties are found to be similar to those of surface-oxidized silicon nanocrystals and porous silicon. PMID:26731306

  1. Delayed Soft Tissue Reconstruction with a Horizontal Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap following Hip Exarticulation

    Jes Christian Rødgaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage of large soft tissue defects at the hip region constitutes a challenge for plastic surgeons. We report the case of a 43-year-old female with necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh, necessitating hip exarticulation and substantial debridement of necrotic tissue. An ipsilateral horizontal rectus abdominis myocutaneous (HRAM flap was used to cover the defect. The reconstruction was carried out after the attempt of local tissue rearrangement. In light of the successful outcome, we propose that this flap be considered in the future planning of soft tissue reconstruction at the hip region.

  2. A comparative study of aging of the elastic fiber system of the diaphragm and the rectus abdominis muscles in rats

    C.J. Rodrigues

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the age-related changes of the striated muscle elastic fiber system were investigated in the diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles of 1-, 4-, 8- and 18-month-old rats. The activation patterns of these muscles differ in that the diaphragm is regularly mobilized tens of times every minute during the entire life of the animal whereas the rectus abdominis, although mobilized in respiration, is much less and more irregularly activated. The elastic fibers were stained by the Verhoeff technique for mature elastic fibers. Weigert stain was used to stain mature and elaunin elastic fibers, and Weigert-oxone to stain mature, elaunin and oxytalan elastic fibers. The density of mature and elaunin elastic fibers showed a progressive increase with age, whereas the amount of oxytalan elastic fibers decreased in both diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles and their muscular fascias. These age-related quantitative and structural changes of the elastic fiber system may reduce the viscoelastic properties of the diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles, which may compromise the transmission of tensile muscle strength to the tendons and may affect maximum total strength.

  3. Reconstruction of large composite oromandibulomaxillary defects with free vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps.

    Butler, Charles E; Lewin, Jan S

    2004-02-01

    Large composite oromandibulomaxillary defects resulting from oncologic resection can be challenging to reconstruct with a single flap, and functional outcomes remain anecdotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the authors' surgical experience and scientifically analyze and describe the functional outcomes associated with the use of the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of these defects. The records of seven patients (mean age, 62 years) who underwent composite resection including hemimandibulectomy, partial maxillectomy, partial pharyngectomy, and floor-of-mouth resection followed by immediate free vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (1998 to 2002) were retrospectively reviewed. The tumor type was squamous cell carcinoma in all seven cases; four patients had T4 primary lesions and three had local recurrences. Radiotherapy was used preoperatively in each of the three recurrent cases (mean dose, 70.6 Gy) and postoperatively in three of the four patients with primary tumors (mean dose, 63.0 Gy). The mean length of hospitalization was 8.7 days. There were no major flap complications, fistulas, or donor-site complications. Partial flap necrosis (4 percent of flap area) occurred in one patient and dehiscence of the neck incision occurred in another. Both cases were managed with surgical débridement and closure. A third patient developed a 0.75-cm superficial suture line abscess that healed with dressing changes. The mean postoperative follow-up was 15 months. Six of the seven patients remained tube dependent for their nutrition despite some swallowing improvement; one patient returned to full oral intake. The most common swallowing deficit was impaired laryngeal excursion, which occurred in all six patients evaluated with videofluoroscopic examination and resulted in risk for aspiration in patients and frank aspiration in 83 percent. Speech was

  4. A panel data set on harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis.

    Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Wen Yue; Hu, Zhi Qian; Turner, Neill J; Zhang, Li; Wang, Qiang; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-06-01

    In this dataset, we particularly depicted the harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis (RA), accompanied with displaying of the retained vascular trees within the perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle matrix (pM-ECM) using vascular corrosion casting. In addition, several important tips for successful pM-ECM preparation were emphasized, which including using anatomically isolated skeletal muscle as tissue source with all main feeding and draining vessels perfused, preserving the internal microcirculation availability, aseptic technique and pyrogen free in all steps, sequential perfusion via artery or vein, and longtime washing after decellularization. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of pM-ECM as a clinically relevant scale, three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template for tissue-specific regeneration, "Perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle as a three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template" Zhang et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27158653

  5. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  6. Reconstruction of an emergency thoracotomy wound with free rectus abdominis flap: Anatomic and radiologic basis for the surgical technique

    Barnett Carlton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An alcoholic 50-year-old male patient with a history of schizophrenia sustained stab wounds into both ventricles and left lung, and survived following an emergency department thoracotomy. The EDT wound, however became infected requiring serial debridements of soft tissue, rib cartilage and sternum. Regional flap options such as pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps could not be employed due to inadequate reach of these flaps. Additionally, bilateral transection of the internal mammary arteries during emergency thoracotomy eliminated the use of rectus abdominis muscles as pedicled flaps based on the superior epigastric vasculature. Therefore, the EDT wound was reconstructed by using the right rectus abdominis muscle as a free flap. The deep inferior epigastric vessels of the flap were anastomosed to the right internal mammary vessels proximal to their transection level in the third-forth intercostal space. The flap healed with no further wound complications.

  7. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Sung Kyu Bae; Seok Joo Kang; Jin Woo Kim; Young Hwan Kim; Hook Sun

    2013-01-01

    Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underw...

  8. Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo

    TRAN, Doris; Mitton, David; Voirin, David; TURQUIER, Frédéric; Beillas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, a new experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the mechanical response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of 1: skin and subcutaneous fat, 2: anterior rectus sheath, 3: rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to...

  9. Modified Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap for Limb Salvage Procedures in Proximal Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Sarcomas

    Tarek Mahboub

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim. Management of complicated wounds after tumor extipiration of pelvic and proximal lower limb musculoskeletal sarcoma represents an essential component in the outcome of these patients. The authors present modified vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM flap techniques to reconstruct extensive defects after debridment of these complicated wounds. Material and Methods. Over a period of 4 years (2002–2005, 5 men and 2 women were managed. Median age was 21 years (range 15–49. The patients were managed for complicated lower trunk, groin, and upper thigh wounds after resection of three pelvic chondrosarcomas as well as two pelvic and two proximal femur osteosarcomas. The modifications included a VRAM flap with lateral and tongue-like extension design of the skin paddle (5 cases or a delayed extended VRAM flap (2 cases. Results. All flaps showed complete survival and healing with no ischemic events providing stable coverage. All patients were ambulant with good limb functions in terms of walking and gait after adequate rehabilitation, 2 needed support with crutches. Conclusion. The modified VRAM flaps offer reliable reconstructive tools for coverage of complex groin and thigh defects by providing larger well-vascularized soft tissue with acceptable donor site.

  10. Closure and augmentation of bladder exstrophy using rectus abdominis musculo-peritoneal flap

    P Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the rectus abdominis myo-peritoneal flap (RAMP technique for the closure and augmentation of small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder exstrophies. Materials and Methods: The RAMP technique was used in three boys with bladder exstrophy who presented late with small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder. The clinical outcome, imaging, cystoscopy, biochemical and microbiological studies were assessed during a follow-up of 36 months. Results: Bladder closure and augmentation was achieved in all patients without any complications. There were no urinary tract infections, metabolic problems or electrolyte disturbances and the kidney function remained normal in all patients. Radiography confirmed intact function and anatomy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy showed complete coverage of the inner peritoneal layer of RAMP with uroepithelium. No stone formation or mucous production was detected. Conclusions: The RAMP technique is a good alternative for closing bladder exstrophies and achieves an increase in bladder capacity and compliance. The technique is indicated in the closure of large bladder defects, bladder exstrophies with small, inelastic, non-compliant bladder remnants and failed primary closures.

  11. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation. PMID:26756600

  12. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (pexpiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. PMID:27077819

  13. Quaternion hermitian planes

    Stroppel, Markus

    1993-01-01

    The quaternion hermitian planes are defined, and are characterized by certain groups of automorphisms. For this purpose, characterizations of locally compact connected translation planes (in the context of stable planes) and compact connected projective desarguesian planes are given.

  14. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  15. Precession of a Spinning Ball Rolling down an Inclined Plane

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A routine problem in an introductory physics course considers a rectangular block at rest on a plane inclined at angle a to the horizontal. In order for the block not to slide down the incline, the coefficient of sliding friction, µ, must be at least tan a. The situation is similar for the case of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In order…

  16. Heart Block

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  17. Population Blocks.

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  18. Euclid Squares on Infinite Planes

    W.B.Vasantha Kandasamy; Ilanthenral, K.; Florentin Smarandache

    2015-01-01

    In this book for the first time the authors study the new type of Euclid squares in various planes like real plane, complex plane, dual number plane, special dual like number plane and special quasi dual number plane.

  19. Corticospinal Facilitation of Erector Spinae and Rectus Abdominis Muscles During Graded Voluntary Contractions is Task Specific: A Pilot Study on Healthy Individuals

    Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Zoghi, Maryam; Morgan, Prue; Storr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study we compared transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a postural (bilateral low back extension: BLBE) and a respiratory (forced expiration during breath holding: FEBH) task. Methods Using TMS of the left motor cortex, simultaneous patterns of corticospinal facilitation of the contralateral erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles during graded voluntary activation were compared in seven healthy subjects. Result T...

  20. Lighter and stronger planes

    Attard, Bonnie; Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The price of fuel is a large cost burden on the aerospace industry. A lighter plane means cheaper flights, increased aircraft range, and less environmental pollution. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/lighter-and-stronger-planes/

  1. Interrelationships between meat quality traits, texture measurements and physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    Oury, M P; Picard, B; Briand, M; Blanquet, J P; Dumont, R

    2009-10-01

    Ninety-nine Charolais heifers were used to study the variability of meat quality traits in relation to the physicochemical characteristics of M. rectus abdominis. The heifers of the same trade class were slaughtered at 33months of age (±4months) and 381kg carcass weight (±31kg). Muscle and bone development scores were evaluated before slaughter. Carcass weight, slaughter age and life average daily gain were recorded. Shear force measurements and meat quality traits were evaluated after 14days of aging. Some physicochemical characteristics were measured 24h post-slaughter. Tenderness was correlated with slaughter age (r=-0.31), bone development (r=-0.22) and life average daily gain (r=+0.37). Tenderness was significantly related to total collagen content (r=-0.24), lipid content (r=+0.27) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.24). Juiciness was positively correlated with lipid content (r=+0.31) and I myosin heavy chain proportion (r=+0.20). Flavor intensity was correlated with lipid content (r=+0.26) and mean fiber area (r=+0.24). Shear force was correlated with total collagen, lipid and 27K proteasome sub-unit contents. Taking animal characteristics and muscle properties together in a multiple regression analysis increased the explained tenderness variability to 33%. The independent variables listed in order of importance were life average daily gain, total collagen content, bone development, lipid content, I myosin heavy chain isoform proportion, shear force of broiled meat and slaughter age. PMID:20416732

  2. Cutaneous reinnervation of the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after chest wall reconstruction: development of herpes zoster in the transplanted musculocutaneous flap.

    Tomita, K; Inoue, K

    1998-08-01

    We report a patient in whom herpes zoster developed in the transplanted rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap 14 months after a chest wall reconstruction for recurrent breast cancer. Based on the distribution of the varicella zoster virus spreading along the sensory nerve fibers, we concluded that the virus spread along the reinnervated sensory nerves from the dorsal ganglia, through the intercostal nerves, and into the flap skin. It is suggested that this finding demonstrates the pathway of reinnervation into the transferred musculocutaneous flap on the chest wall. PMID:9718154

  3. Er det noen forskjell i muskelaktiveringen ved bilaterale kontra unilaterale amerikanske kettlebell svinger i rectus abdominis, external oblique, erector spinae og multifidus?

    Slåttland, Roy-André Vang; Vraalsen, Øyvind Fougli

    2013-01-01

    Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke muskelaktiveringen i kettlebell-sving ved unilateral og bilateral trening, i og med at dette ikke er gjort tidligere. Etter 2-5 tilvenningsøkter (til teknikken ble godkjent av sertifisert kettlebell-instruktør) ble 15 friske og styrketrente menn (alder 24,9 år ± 6,1, høyde 179,5 cm ± 6,8, og vekt 79,5 kg ± 7,95) testet i 10 repetisjoner unilateralt og bilateralt i randomisert rekkefølge. EMG- aktiviteten fra rectus abdominis, external oblique og erec...

  4. Ghost Block

    Webb, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Filmed on the English south coast 'Ghost Block' depicts the uncanny and eerie atmosphere at the site of a WW2 coastal defence line. The concrete cubes were used as an anti-invasion blockade against potential landing forces. This protection line now slowly decaying and becoming enmeshed into the environment still acts as a defence to repel unwanted visitors. The area is a natural reserve to nesting birds that often lay eggs directly onto the beach surface. The blocks act as a final barrier ...

  5. Efectos de la vibración sobre la actividad del rectus abdominis y sobre la transmisión de aceleraciones durante la realización de un puente frontal. (Effects of whole body vibration on rectus abdominis activity and transmission of accelerations during a front bridge exercise.

    Francisco José Vera-García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Durante las dos últimas décadas se ha incrementado notablemente la utilización de la vibración como medio complementario de ejercicio físico. La literatura científica muestra distintos efectos positivos, aunque la mayor parte de ensayos se han centrado en el análisis del ejercicio de squat. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la actividad muscular del rectus abdominis y la transmisión de la vibración en el cuerpo humano durante la realización de un puente frontal sobre una plataforma vibratoria oscilante vibrando a diferentes frecuencias (5, 16, 20 Hz y a una amplitud constante (3 mm. Las aceleraciones máximas en la cabeza (ejes X, Y, Z y la actividad electromiográfica media del rectus abdominis fueron determinadas en 31 sujetos sanos por medio de un acelerómetro triaxial y electromiografía de superficie. Para cada eje se calculó un coeficiente de amortiguación restando la aceleración máxima registrada en la cabeza a la aceleración máxima registrada sobre la plataforma. La actividad electromiográfica del rectus abdominis y los coeficientes de amortiguación en los ejes X y Z aumentaron significativamente con cada incremento en la frecuencia de vibración de la plataforma (p AbstractWhole-body vibration exercise have been widely used during the last two decades, with most scientific publications reporting various positive effects. Most commonly, squat exercises have been studied. Instead, this study explored the rectus abdominis activity and the transmission of sinusoidal vibration to the human body during the performance of front bridges on a oscillating vibration platform at different frequencies (5, 16, 20 Hz with constant amplitude (3 mm. Maximal vibration-induced accelerations at the head (axis X, Y, Z and mean electromyographic activity were assessed in thirty-one healthy subjects using a skin-mounted triaxial accelerometer and surface electromyography. A damping coefficient was calculated for each

  6. Epidural block

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth. An epidural block may also be used to ...

  7. Combinatorics associated with inflections and bitangents of plane quartics

    After a preliminary survey and a description of some small Steiner systems from the standpoint of the theory of invariants of binary forms, we construct a binary Golay code (of length 24) using ideas from J. Grassmann's thesis of 1875. One of our tools is a pair of disjoint Fano planes. Another application of such pairs and properties of plane quartics is a construction of a new block design on 28 objects. This block design is a part of a dissection of the set of 288 Aronhold sevens. The dissection distributes the Aronhold sevens into 8 disjoint block designs of this type

  8. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352. PMID:27374014

  9. On rank 4 projective planes

    Bachmann, O.

    1981-01-01

    Let a finite projective plane be called rank m plane if it admits a collineation group G of rank m, let it be called strong rank m plane if moreover GP=G1 for some point-line pair (P,1). It is well known that every rank 2 plane is desarguesian (Theorem of Ostrom and Wagner). It is conjectured that the only rank 3 plane is the plane of order 2. By [1] and [7] the only strong rank 3 plane is the plane of order 2. In this paper it is proved that no strong rank 4 plane exists.

  10. Blocked strainers

    Thermal insulation was the cause of the blockages that shut down five BWRs in Sweden. The main culprit was mineral wool installed when the plants started up. Physical degradation of the wool over the lifetime of the plant meant it could easily be washed out of place during a loss of coolant accident and could quickly block strainers in the emergency core cooling systems. The five BWRs are almost all back on line, equipped with larger strainers and faster backwashing capability. But the incident prompted more detailed investigation into how materials in the containment would behave during an accident. One material that caused particular concern is Caposil, a material often used to insulate the reactor vessel. Composed of natural calcium, aluminium silicates and cellulose fibres, in the event of a LOCA Caposil becomes particularly hazardous. Under high pressure, or when brought into contact with high pressure water and steam, Caposil fragments into 1 cm clumps, free fibres, and ''fines''. It is these fines which cause major problems and can block a strainer extremely quickly. The successful testing of a high performance water filter which can handle Caposil is described. (4 figures) (Author)

  11. Rectus abdominis diastasis

    Akram, Javed; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    cosmetic reasons. The condition does not necessarily require repair, and conservative management may be an alternative. If done, the protrusion of the abdomen, rather than the diastasis itself should influence the decision of repair. It is recommended that future studies use the established classifications...... (e.g. Beer, Rath, or Nahas) when reporting RD and long-term outcome of treatment. Comparison of surgical techniques and studies that address and compare conservative management with surgery are needed....

  12. Study on the cutting plane friction law of sandstone

    ZHAI Ying-da (翟英达); KANG Li-xun(康立勋)

    2003-01-01

    The friction characteristics of rock damage plane have important impact on the stability of block structure formed after the stratum is broken. The mechanics properties of rock damage plane are described by parameters such as roughness coefficient, wall compress strength and basic friction angle. These three coefficients for fine grain sandstone and medium-granular sandstone and grit sandstone are test. The friction stress is researched at the condition of different normal compressive stress acting on the tension damage plane. The friction law of tension damage plane of sandstone abided by is summed up. This law will provide scientific basis for block structure stability judging in basic roof stratum and roof pressure intensity calculating.

  13. Simplified ground plane invisibility cloak by multilayer dielectrics.

    Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun; Yu, Zhenzhong; Jiang, Tian; Zhao, Junming

    2010-11-22

    Most implementations of the ground plane invisibility cloak are based on the isotropic design through the quasi-conformal transformation. However recent theoretical analysis predicts the unavoidable lateral shift of the scattering fields associated with these cloaks making them detectable. In this paper, we propose an alternative method to design the ground plane invisibility clock with electromagnetic beam modulation blocks through simple coordinate transformation discussed in our previous work. The ground plane cloak obtained with the rigorous transformation optics possesses moderate anisotropic distributions of material parameters, but results in no lateral shift of the scattering fields. To realize the design, a possible scheme is suggested by discretizing the ground plane cloak to several homogeneous sub-blocks. These sub-blocks can be realized with multilayer isotropic dielectrics with alignment angles that are determined by the effective medium theory. Thus the non-magnetic ground plane invisibility cloak can be constructed by several multilayered normal dielectrics aligned in different angles. The performance of the proposed cloak and its practical implementation is validated by full-wave electromagnetic simulations with both near field distributions and far field scattering patterns under different EM wave incident angles. The proposed cloak is composed of normal dielectric multilayers, thus can leads to easy experimental demonstration of non-magnetic ground plane cloak in the frequency range from microwave to optical. PMID:21164794

  14. Boundaries in digital planes

    Efim Khalimsky

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of topological connectedness properties in processing digital pictures is well known. A natural way to begin a theory for this is to give a definition of connectedness for subsets of a digital plane which allows one to prove a Jordan curve theorem. The generally accepted approach to this has been a non-topological Jordan curve theorem which requires two different definitions, 4-connectedness, and 8-connectedness, one for the curve and the other for its complement.

  15. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  16. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  17. BKP plane partitions

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  18. Homogeneous Plane Waves

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant $A_{ij}$) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, $A_{ij}(t)$, and the Ozsvath-Sch\\"ucking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of ...

  19. Plane and geodetic surveying

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2004-01-01

    Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends theory and practice, conventional techniques and GPS, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying.Detailed guidance is given on how and when the principle surveying instruments (theodolites, Total Stations, levels and GPS) should be used. Concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful results are explained. Rigorous explanations of the theoretical aspects of surveying are given, while at the same time a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice is provided. An accompanying least squares adjustment program

  20. The MOND Fundamental Plane

    Cardone, V F; Diaferio, A; Tortora, C; Molinaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has been shown to be able to fit spiral galaxy rotation curves as well as giving a theoretical foundation for empirically determined scaling relations, such as the Tully - Fisher law, without the need for a dark matter halo. As a complementary analysis, one should investigate whether MOND can also reproduce the dynamics of early - type galaxies (ETGs) without dark matter. As a first step, we here show that MOND can indeed fit the observed central velocity dispersion $\\sigma_0$ of a large sample of ETGs assuming a simple MOND interpolating functions and constant anisotropy. We also show that, under some assumptions on the luminosity dependence of the Sersic n parameter and the stellar M/L ratio, MOND predicts a fundamental plane for ETGs : a log - linear relation among the effective radius $R_{eff}$, $\\sigma_0$ and the mean effective intensity $\\langle I_e \\rangle$. However, we predict a tilt between the observed and the MOND fundamental planes.

  1. Homogeneous plane waves

    Blau, Matthias E-mail: mblau@ictp.trieste.it; O' Loughlin, Martin E-mail: loughlin@sissa.it

    2003-03-24

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant A{sub ij}) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, A{sub ij}(x{sup +}), and the Ozsvath-Schuecking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with A{sub ij}{approx}1/(x{sup +}){sup 2} to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for lightcone quantisation, and illustrate the procedure in some examples.

  2. Homogeneous plane waves

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant Aij) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, Aij(x+), and the Ozsvath-Schuecking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with Aij∼1/(x+)2 to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for lightcone quantisation, and illustrate the procedure in some examples

  3. Homogeneous Plane Waves

    Blau, Matthias; Blau, Matthias; Loughlin, Martin O'

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics with null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant $A_{ij}$) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, $A_{ij}(t)$, and the Ozsvath-Sch\\"ucking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with $A_{ij}\\sim 1/t^2$ to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for ...

  4. Parallel eigensolvers in plane-wave Density Functional Theory

    Levitt, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of parallelizing electronic structure computations in plane-wave Density Functional Theory. Because of the limited scalability of Fourier transforms, parallelism has to be found at the eigensolver level. We show how a recently proposed algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials can scale into the tens of thousands of processors, outperforming block conjugate gradient algorithms for large computations.

  5. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior

  6. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    STEPHEN C. BLAIR AND STEPHANIE A. WOOD

    1998-04-10

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior.

  7. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  8. Duality and noncommutative planes

    Jøndrup, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We study extensions of simple modules over an associative ring A   and we prove that for twosided ideals mm and nn with artinian factors the condition ExtA1(A/m,A/n)≠0 holds for the left A  -modules A/mA/m and A/nA/n if and only if it holds for the right modules A/nA/n and A/mA/m. The methods pro...... proving this are applied to show that noncommutative models of the plane, i.e. algebras of the form k〈x,y〉/(f)k〈x,y〉/(f), where f∈([x,y])f∈([x,y]) are noetherian only in case (f)=([x,y])...

  9. New technical approach for the repair of an abdominal wall defect after a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap: a case report

    Kaemmer Daniel A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast reconstruction with autologous tissue transfer is now a standard operation, but abnormalities of the abdominal wall contour represent a complication which has led surgeons to invent techniques to minimize the morbidity of the donor site. Case presentation We report the case of a woman who had bilateral transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM-flap breast reconstruction. The surgery led to the patient developing an enormous abdominal bulge that caused her disability in terms of abdominal wall and bowel function, pain and contour. In the absence of rectus muscle, the large defect was repaired using a combination of the abdominal wall component separation technique of Ramirez et al and additional mesh augmentation with a lightweight, large-pore polypropylene mesh (Ultrapro®. Conclusion The procedure of Ramirez et al is helpful in achieving a tension-free closure of large defects in the anterior abdominal wall. The additional mesh augmentation allows reinforcement of the thinned lateral abdominal wall.

  10. Block clustering with collapsed latent block models

    Wyse, Jason; Friel, Nial

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian extension of the latent block model for model-based block clustering of data matrices. Our approach considers a block model where block parameters may be integrated out. The result is a posterior defined over the number of clusters in rows and columns and cluster memberships. The number of row and column clusters need not be known in advance as these are sampled along with cluster memberhips using Markov chain Monte Carlo. This differs from existing work on latent bloc...

  11. Plane Mercury librations

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    theory of Mercury librations in longitude by using three characteristics of Mercury rotation determined in the paper [3]. Two from these parameters are values of angle of librations in longitude and angular velocity in moment of passage of perihelion of Mercury orbit on 17 April 2002: (^g)0 = 0007 ± 0001, (^?•? )0 = (2.10± 0.06)•? ars/d. Third parameter determined in [3] is a dynamical coefficient: K = (B -A)•(4Cm ) = (5.08± 0.30) × 10-5. B > A are principal moment of inertia, corresponding to equatorial axes of inertia; Cm is a polar moment of inertia of the mantle of Mercury. 1 Analytical theory of plane Mercury librations. This theory describes forced and free librations of Mercury in longitude in the frame of plane problem about resonant librations of Mercury considered or as non-spherical rigid body, or as system of rigid non-spherical mantle and liquid ellipsoidal core. Saving the main terms for the perturbations of angle of librations ^g and angular velocity ^? in both mentioned cases we will have formulae [6]: ^g = K(E sin M + E sin2M + E sin 3M + E sin4M + E sin5M ) 1 2 3 4 5+K0 sin(E šKM- - φ) (A)

  12. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  13. A conformal block Farey tail

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  14. Conceptual Design of Wave Plane

    Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter;

    The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...

  15. Incomplete block designs

    Dey, Aloke

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t

  16. Postmastectomy reconstruction: comparative analysis of the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap versus breast implant reconstruction.

    Cederna, P S; Yates, W R; Chang, P; Cram, A E; Ricciardelli, E J

    1995-11-01

    Over 40,000 postmastectomy breast reconstructions are performed annually. In this study, we investigated the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap versus breast implant reconstruction. Thirty-three women who had undergone postmastectomy breast reconstruction were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Twenty-two women completed the self-assessment questionnaires regarding their quality of life, psychological symptoms, functional status, body image, and global satisfaction. The TRAM and implant groups contained 8 and 14 patients, respectively. The groups were well matched for age, employment status, marital status, race, religion, and severity of medical and surgical illnesses. The average follow-up was 36 months. Statistical analysis of the responses revealed that women who had undergone TRAM flap reconstruction were more satisfied with how their reconstructed breast felt to the touch (p = .01), and there was a trend toward greater satisfaction with the appearance of their reconstructed breast (p = .08). However, these same patients identified more difficulties as far as functioning at work or school, performing vigorous physical activities, participating in community or religious activities, visiting with relatives, and interacting with male friends (p < .04). There were no statistically significant differences in body image or overall satisfaction. In this small cohort study, both the TRAM flap group and the implant group were satisfied with the results of their breast reconstruction, but the TRAM flap group was more satisfied with how their breast felt and tended to be more satisfied with the cosmetic result. The TRAM flap group reported greater psychological, social, and physical impairments as a result of their reconstruction. PMID:8579262

  17. Les "Transversus Abdominis" et la contraction asymétrique: quels patterns d'activation lors de déstabilisation spinale induite par les membres supérieurs?

    Lacheteau, Grégoire; Lerch, Maude; Schnyder, David; Degache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : Actuellement le traitement de la lombalgie est entre autre basé sur la rééducation de l'altération d'activation des Transversus Abdominis (TrAs). Elle repose sur l'entraînement d'une cocontraction anticipée des TrAs. Cependant de nouveaux résultats mettent en avant un pattern d'activation asymétrique de ceux-ci. Objectif : Afin de permettre d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients lombalgiques, il est important de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement des TrAs. C’est pourquoi, ...

  18. Postural heart block.

    Seda, P E; McAnulty, J H; Anderson, C J

    1980-01-01

    A patient presented with orthostatic dizziness and syncope caused by postural heart block. When the patient was supine, atrioventricular conduction was normal and he was asymptomatic; when he was standing he developed second degree type II block and symptoms. The left bundle-branch block on his electrocardiogram and intracardiac electrophysiological study findings suggest that this heart block occurred distal to the His bundle. Orthostatic symptoms are usually presumed to be secondary to an i...

  19. COMPARISION OF POTENCY OF DIFFERENT TYPES NEURO-MUSCULAR JUNCTION (NMJ BLOCKERS ON ISOLATED RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE OF RANA TIGRINA

    Sanghishetty Vijay Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important use of neuromuscular blockers is as adjuvant to general anaesthesia whereadequate muscle relaxation can be achieved at lighter plane. They also reduce reflex muscle contraction in the regionundergoing surgery and assist maintenance of controlled ventilation during anaesthesia. They are particularly helpfulin abdominal and thoracic surgery, intubations and endoscopies, orthopedic manipulation, etc. Thus, the risk ofrespiratory and cardiovascular depression is minimized, and post anesthetic recovery is shortened. The potency ratioof two commonly used neuromuscular agents depolarizing succinylcholine and non depolarizing pancuronium.Double pith a frog and fasten it to a frog board with ventral side up. The sternum was cut through just above thexiphisternum at its base and a pair of muscle attached to it were dissected out and transferred to a dish containingfrog Ringer solution at room temperature. All the drug containing solutions were freshly prepared before theexperiments Succinyl choline, Pancuronium (1,10,100μg/ml and 1mg/dl respectively Acetyl choline (10,100μg/mland 1mg/dl. Acetylcholine solution in various strength were prepared starting from 0.1% to 0.0001%.NMJblockerPancuroniumwas added to the biophase in addition to selected dose (128μgor 256μgand the contraction ofmuscle till the 70-80% of inhibition is produced and the difference from sub maximal contractions. The medianED50was interpolated from the figure taking 50%of inhibition from Height of contractionin mm. The ‘t’ test wasperformed to compare the ED50value were interpolated from the regression line to find out the ED50of the drug. Themedian doses (ED50 of both of them were calculated graphically and compared. The mean ED50 value ofsuccinylcholine was found to be 1.59 ± 0.08μg (95% confidential limit was from 1.53 to 1.66μg. The ED50ofpancuronium was found to be 0.52 ± 0.10μg with 95% confidence limit being from 0.44 to 0.60μg. The ED50valueof the

  20. Generalized Block Failure

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  1. Geography of irreducible plane sextics

    Akyol, Ayşegül; Degtyarev, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We complete the equisingular deformation classification of irreducible singular plane sextic curves. As a by-product, we also compute the fundamental groups of the complement of all but a few maximizing sextics.

  2. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  4. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  5. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  6. Block Advertisement Protocol

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  7. Explosive plane-wave lens

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  8. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  9. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  10. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  11. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Abdalla, M.C.B., E-mail: mabdalla@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Holender, L., E-mail: holender@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil); Santos, M.A., E-mail: masantos@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Avenida Fernando Ferarri S/N, Goiabeiras, 29060-900 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vancea, I.V., E-mail: ionvancea@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  12. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  13. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...

  14. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    Sales, J. H. O.; Suzuki, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  15. Gravitational Couplings for y-Gop-Planes

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for y deformed and generalized orientifold planes (yGOp-planes) is presented and one power expantion is realized from which processes that involves yGOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard yGOp-planes are showed.

  16. Gravitational Couplings for Generalized Orientifold Planes

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) is presented and a series power expantion is realized from which processes that involves GOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes are showed.

  17. Linear Instability of the Plane Couette and Plane Poiseuille Flows

    Chefranov, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    We show possibility of the Plane Couette (PC) flow instability for Reynolds number Re>Reth=140. This new result of the linear hydrodynamic stability theory is obtained on the base of refusal from the traditionally used assumption on longitudinal periodicity of the disturbances along the direction of the fluid flow. We found that earlier existing understanding on the linear stability of this flow for any arbitrary large Reynolds number is directly related with an assumption on the separation of the variables of the spatial variability for the disturbance field and their periodicity in linear theory of stability. By the refusal from the pointed assumptions also for the Plane Poiseuille (PP) flow, we get a new threshold Reynolds value Reth=1040 that with 4% accuracy agrees with the experiment contrary to more than 500% discrepancy for the earlier known estimate Reth=5772 obtained in the frame of the linear theory but when using the "normal" disturbance form (S. A. Orszag, 1971).

  18. Optimization of starshades: focal plane versus pupil plane

    Flamary, R.; Aime, C.

    2014-09-01

    We search for the best possible transmission for an external occulter coronagraph that is dedicated to the direct observation of terrestrial exoplanets. We show that better observation conditions are obtained when the flux in the focal plane is minimized in the zone in which the exoplanet is observed, instead of for the total flux received by the telescope. We describe the transmission of the occulter as a sum of basis functions. For each element of the basis, we numerically computed the Fresnel diffraction at the aperture of the telescope and the complex amplitude at its focus. The basis functions are circular disks that are linearly apodized over a few centimeters (truncated cones). We complemented the numerical calculation of the Fresnel diffraction for these functions by a comparison with pure circular disks (cylinder) for which an analytical expression, based on a decomposition in Lommel series, is available. The technique of deriving the optimal transmission for a given spectral bandwidth is a classical regularized quadratic minimization of intensities, but linear optimizations can be used as well. Minimizing the integrated intensity on the aperture of the telescope or for selected regions of the focal plane leads to slightly different transmissions for the occulter. For the focal plane optimization, the resulting residual intensity is concentrated behind the geometrical image of the occulter, in a blind region for the observation of an exoplanet, and the level of background residual starlight becomes very low outside this image. Finally, we provide a tolerance analysis for the alignment of the occulter to the telescope, which also favors the focal plane optimization. This means that telescope offsets of a few decimeters do not strongly reduce the efficiency of the occulter.

  19. Predictability of blocking

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  20. Mathematical simulation of block SID-3-148 non-stayiomary thermal conditions

    Ranchenko G. S.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The description of mathematical simulation technique and results of block SID-3-148 radioelectronic elements thermal operation conditions is given. Block is established on plane An-148 under engine D-436-148 hood. The thermometering data received during certified tests of the plane were used for simulation. The analysis tool – method of final balances (updating of a grids method. The task is reduced to ordinary differential nonlinear non-uniform equations system solved in the matrix form.

  1. The Grushin plane and quasiconformal Jacobians

    Meyerson, William

    2011-01-01

    We construct a quasiconformal map from the Grushin plane to the Euclidean plane. Then, we generalize the Grushin plane slightly and explain how the Grushin plane can serve as an intermediary in dealing with quasiconformal maps on Euclidean spaces. In particular, we construct a family of quasiconformal embeddings of the Euclidean plane into larger Euclidean spaces whose Jacobians fail to be locally integrable on a line.

  2. Block Cipher Analysis

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard......(AES).Wedescribe the mostgeneraltypes ofblock cipher cryptanalysis but concentrate on the algebraic attacks. While the algebraic techniques have been successful oncertainstreamcipherstheirapplicationtoblock ciphershasnot shown any significant results so far. This thesis contributes to the field of algebraic attacks on...... algebraic results on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  3. Simple Common Plane contact algorithm for explicit FE/FD methods

    Vorobiev, O

    2006-12-18

    Common-plane (CP) algorithm is widely used in Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model contact forces between interacting particles or blocks. A new simple contact algorithm is proposed to model contacts in FE/FD methods which is similar to the CP algorithm. The CP is defined as a plane separating interacting faces of FE/FD mesh instead of blocks or particles used in the original CP method. The new method does not require iterations even for very stiff contacts. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D parallel codes.

  4. Simple Common Plane contact detection algorithm for FE/FD methods

    Vorobiev, O

    2006-07-19

    Common-plane (CP) algorithm is widely used in Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model contact forces between interacting particles or blocks. A new simple contact detection algorithm is proposed to model contacts in FE/FD methods which is similar to the CP algorithm. The CP is defined as a plane separating interacting faces of FE/FD mesh instead of blocks or particles in the original CP method. The method does not require iterations. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D case.

  5. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Forgács, Péter; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems plane waves can act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode having a larger wave number, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. Such a tractor beam or negative radiation pressure effect arises naturally in systems where the coupling between the scattering channels is due to Aharonov-Bohm (AB) gauge potentials. It is demonstrated that this effect is also present if the AB potential is an induced, ("artificial") gauge potential such as the one found in J. March-Russell, J. Preskill, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 2567 (1992).

  6. The general relativistic infinite plane

    Jones, Preston; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Uniform fields are one of the simplest and most pedagogically useful examples in introductory courses on electrostatics or Newtonian gravity. In general relativity there have been several proposals as to what constitutes a uniform field. In this article we examine two metrics that can be considered the general relativistic version of the infinite plane with finite mass per unit area. The first metric is the 4D version of the 5D "brane" world models which are the starting point for many current research papers. The second case is the cosmological domain wall metric. We examine to what extent these different metrics match or deviate from our Newtonian intuition about the gravitational field of an infinite plane. These solutions provide the beginning student in general relativity both computational practice and conceptual insight into Einstein's field equations. In addition they do this by introducing the student to material that is at the forefront of current research.

  7. Plane SPDC-Quantum Mirror

    Ion, M. L. D.; Ion, D. B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the kinematical correlations from the phase conjugated optics (equivalently with crossing symmetric spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) phenomena) in the nonlinear crystals are used for the description of a new kind of optical device called SPDC-quantum mirrors. Then, some important laws of the plane SPDC-quantum mirrors combined with usual mirrors or lens are proved only by using geometric optics concepts. In particular, these results allow us to obtain a new interpre...

  8. Twisted sectors from plane partitions

    Datta, Shouvik; Li, Wei; Peng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Twisted sectors arise naturally in the bosonic higher spin CFTs at their free points, as well as in the associated symmetric orbifolds. We identify the coset representations of the twisted sector states using the description of W_\\infty representations in terms of plane partitions. We confirm these proposals by a microscopic null-vector analysis, and by matching the excitation spectrum of these representations with the orbifold prediction.

  9. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    Rathkjen, Arne

    1994-01-01

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second place, the map comprises a complete graphic representation of the stress at any point.

  10. Block copolymer battery separator

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  11. Air ionization wire plane chamber

    Radiation Measurement for protection level instrumentation requires large number of detectors. Since the number is large, the detector should be cost effective and yet should have good sensitivity. Gas detectors with presently available microelectronics and signal processing capabilities opened a new era in radiation monitoring. Present paper describes the use of air filled multi anode grid planes as detector for alpha detection. Due to multiple anode wire planes, the charge collection efficiency of the air ionization chamber is higher as compared to conventional ionization chamber. The signal from this Wire Plane Chamber (WPC) has a faster and narrower pulse shape as compared to conventional two-electrode chamber of similar dimensions. The reduction in capacitance also improves the signal to noise ratio so that air can be used as the ionization medium without any special cleaning procedure etc and it may be possible to use even engineering plastic as the structural material for the chamber. The paper gives the results obtained so far with this air ionization chamber. (author)

  12. Concord Housing Blocks

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Concord type Housing Blocks. A high rise public housing project using prefabriction and advanced formwork systems. Both Harmony and Concord Blocks are designed on the basis of standard modular flats which permit the use of factory produced components and a construction sequence which makes extensive use of advanced formwork systems.

  13. Efficient Block Truncation Coding

    K.Somasundaram,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Block Truncation Coding (BTC is one of the lossy image compression techniques. The computational complexity involved in this method is very simple. In the proposed method, the feature of inter-pixel correlation is exploited to further reduce the requirement of bits to store a block. The proposed method gives very good performance in terms of bit-rate and PSNR values when compared to the conventional BTC.

  14. Blocking in Category Learning

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  15. Generalized plane gravitational waves of non-symmetric unified field theories in plane symmetry

    Bhoyar, Sanjiv R.; Ajit Deshmukh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the plane wave solutions of both the weak and strong non-symmetric unified field equations of Einstein and Bonner in a generalized plane symmetric space-time in the sense of Taub [Ann. Math. 53, 472 (1951)] for plane gravitational waves. We show that the plane wave solutions of Einstein and Bonner field equations exist in plane symmetry.

  16. Plane wave diffraction by a perfectly transparent half-plane.

    Anokhov, Sergey P

    2007-09-01

    The exact solution is found for plane wave diffraction by an arbitrary phase step. The analysis is performed by using the Huygens-Fresnel principle and the superposition integral, where every secondary wave was identified with the surface element field of the actual electromagnetic wave. The dependence of the total field structure on the height of the phase step is analyzed. The formation algorithm is demonstrated for the primary wave component of the edge diffraction, which has a singular nature and determines nearly all physical properties of this phenomenon. PMID:17767219

  17. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  18. Impression block with orientator

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  19. Distributed Storage in the Plane

    Altman, Eitan; Avrachenkov, Konstantin; Goseling, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    We consider storage devices located in the plane according to a general point process and specialize the results for the homogeneous Poisson process. A large data file is stored at the storage devices, which have limited storage capabilities. Hence, they can only store parts of the data. Clients can contact the storage devices to retrieve the data.We compare the expected cost of obtaining the complete data under uncoded as well as coded data allocation strategies. It is shown that for the gen...

  20. Plane SPDC-Quantum Mirror

    Ion, M L D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the kinematical correlations from the phase conjugated optics (equivalently with crossing symmetric spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) phenomena) in the nonlinear crystals are used for the description of a new kind of optical device called SPDC-quantum mirrors. Then, some important laws of the plane SPDC-quantum mirrors combined with usual mirrors or lens are proved only by using geometric optics concepts. In particular, these results allow us to obtain a new interpretation of the recent experiments on the two-photon geometric optics.

  1. Semantic versus syntactic cutting planes

    Filmus, Y.; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, M.

    Dagstuhl: Schloss Dagstuhl, Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2016 - (Ollinger, N.; Vollmer, H.), s. 1-13. (Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics. 47). ISBN 978-3-95977-001-9. ISSN 1868-8969. [33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Orléans (FR), 17.02.2016-20.02.2016] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Keywords : proof complexity * cutting planes * lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/frontdoor.php?source_opus=5736

  2. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Holender, M C B AbdallaL; Vancea, I V

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space from the perturbative point of view. To this end, the relevant quantities are treated as series in powers of the noncommutative parameter. At the Planck scale, the relevant terms are of first order and the dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monocromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and linear for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of these solutions is calculated.

  3. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  4. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  5. Constructing a uniform plane-filling path in the ternary heptagrid of the hyperbolic plane

    Maurice Margenstern

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we distinguish two levels for the plane-filling property. We consider a simple and a strong one. In this paper, we give the construction which proves that the simple plane-filling property also holds for the hyperbolic plane. The plane-filling property was established for the Euclidean plane by J. Kari, see [2], in the strong version. We also give an application of the construction to devise a Peano curve in the hyperbolic plane.

  6. Block diagonal and schur complement preconditioners for block-toeplitz systems with small size blocks

    Ching, WK; Ng, MK; Wen, YW

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the solution of Hermitian positive definite block-Toeplitz systems with small size blocks. We propose and study block diagonal and Schur complement preconditioners for such block-Toeplitz matrices. We show that for some block-Toeplitz matrices, the spectra of the preconditioned matrices are uniformly bounded except for a fixed number of outliers where this fixed number depends only on the size of the block. Hence, conjugate gradient type methods, when applied to solv...

  7. Contact Cohomology of the Projective Plane

    Ernstr{ö}m, Lars; Kennedy, Gary

    1997-01-01

    We construct an associative ring which is a deformation of the quantum cohomology ring of the projective plane. Just as the quantum cohomology encodes the incidence characteristic numbers of rational plane curves, the contact cohomology encodes the tangency characteristic numbers.

  8. On free fermions and plane partitions

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.; Zuparic, M.

    2008-01-01

    We use free fermion methods to re-derive a result of Okounkov and Reshetikhin relating charged fermions to random plane partitions, and to extend it to relate neutral fermions to strict plane partitions.

  9. On maps taking lines to plane curves

    Petrushchenko, Vsevolod; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-01-01

    We study cubic rational maps that take lines to plane curves. A complete description of such cubic rational maps concludes the classification of all planarizations, i.e., maps taking lines to plane curves.

  10. Nymble Blocking System

    Anand Joshi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to allow users to access Internet services privately, anonymizing networks like Tor uses a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. These networks, however, have been marred by users employing this anonymity for abusive purposes such as defacing popular web sites. Usually, web site administrators rely on IP-address blocking in order to disable access to misbehaving users, but it is impractical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing network. In order to avoid this, administrators bar all known exit nodes of the anonymizing network, thereby denying anonymous access to all the users(whether misbehaving or not. To solve this issue, we introduce Nymble, a system where servers blacklist misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without affecting their anonymity. Nymble is thus agnostic to varied definitions of misbehavior. Servers can block users for any reason, and the privacy of blacklisted users is not affected in any case.

  11. The half plane UIPT is recurrent

    Angel, Omer; Ray, Gourab

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the half plane version of the uniform infinite planar triangulation (UIPT) is recurrent. The key ingredients of the proof are a construction of a new full plane extension of the half plane UIPT, based on a natural decomposition of the half plane UIPT into independent layers, and an extension of previous methods for proving recurrence of weak local limits (still using circle packings).

  12. Aspects of Plane Wave (Matrix) String Dynamics

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin; Seri, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    We analyse two issues that arise in the context of (matrix) string theories in plane wave backgrounds, namely (1) the use of Brinkmann- versus Rosen-variables in the quantum theory for general plane waves (which we settle conclusively in favour of Brinkmann variables), and (2) the regularisation of the quantum dynamics for a certain class of singular plane waves (discussing the benefits and limitations of regularisations of the plane-wave metric itself).

  13. The INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning

    Fiocchi, Mariateresa

    2013-01-01

    After the first nine years of INTEGRAL operational life, the discovery of new sources and source types, a large fraction of which are highly transient or highly absorbed, is certainly one of the most compelling results and legacies of INTEGRAL. Frequent monitoring of the Galactic Plane in AO8 and AO9 campaigns allowed us to detect transient sources, both known and new, confirming that the gamma-ray sky is dominated by the extreme variability of different classes of objects. Regular scans of the Galactic Plane by INTEGRAL provide the most sensitive hard X-ray wide survey to date of our Galaxy, with flux limits of the order of 0.3 mCrab for an exposure time of ~2Ms. Many transient sources have been detected on a wide range of time scales (~hours to months) and identified by triggered followup observations, mainly by Swift/XRT and optical/infrared telescopes. These discoveries are very important to characterize the X-ray binary population in our Galaxy, that is necessary input for evolution studies. The transien...

  14. The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey

    Lucas, P W; Longmore, A; Schröder, A C; Davis, C J; Adamson, A; Bandyopadhyay, R M; De Grijs, R; Smith, M; Gosling, A; Mitchison, S; Gaspar, A; Coe, M; Tamura, M; Parker, Q; Irwin, M; Hambly, N; Byant, J; Collins, R S; Cross, N; Evans, D W; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Hodgkin, S; Lewis, J; Read, M; Riello, M; Sutorius, E T W; Lawrence, A; Drew, J E; Dye, S

    2007-01-01

    The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) is one of the five near infrared Public Legacy Surveys that are being undertaken by the UKIDSS consortium, using the Wide Field Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. It is surveying 1868 sq.deg. of the northern and equatorial Galactic plane at Galactic latitudes -5

  15. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  16. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  17. Optimization of starshades: focal plane versus pupil plane

    Flamary, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    We search for the best possible transmission for an external occulter coronagraph that is dedicated to the direct observation of terrestrial exoplanets. We show that better observation conditions are obtained when the flux in the focal plane is minimized in the zone in which the exoplanet is observed, instead of the total flux received by the telescope. We describe the transmission of the occulter as a sum of basis functions. For each element of the basis, we numerically computed the Fresnel diffraction at the aperture of the telescope and the complex amplitude at its focus. The basis functions are circular disks that are linearly apodized over a few centimeters (truncated cones). We complemented the numerical calculation of the Fresnel diffraction for these functions by a comparison with pure circular discs (cylinder) for which an analytical expression, based on a decomposition in Lommel series, is available. The technique of deriving the optimal transmission for a given spectral bandwidth is a classical reg...

  18. The characteristic numbers of quartic plane curves

    Vakil, Ravi

    1998-01-01

    The characteristic numbers of smooth plane quartics are computed using intersection theory on a component of the moduli space of stable maps. This completes the verification of Zeuthen's prediction of characteristic numbers of smooth plane curves. A short sketch of a computation of the characteristic numbers of plane cubics is also given as an illustration.

  19. Counting plane curves of any genus

    Caporaso, Lucia; Harris, Joe

    1996-01-01

    We obtain a recursive formula answering the following question: How many irreducible, plane curves of degree d and (geometric) genus g pass through 3d-1+g general points in the plane? The formula is proved by studying suitable degenerations of plane curves.

  20. Monopole Antenna with Modify Ground Plane

    kamal raj singh rajoriya; Singhal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents on modified the ground plane of monopole antenna with varying the shape and length. Basically the length of ground plane of monopole antenna is equal and greater than λ/4. Here analyzed a different ground plane of monopole antenna that is provided an efficient bandwidth with sufficient return loss.

  1. Monopole Antenna with Modify Ground Plane

    kamal raj singh rajoriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents on modified the ground plane of monopole antenna with varying the shape and length. Basically the length of ground plane of monopole antenna is equal and greater than λ/4. Here analyzed a different ground plane of monopole antenna that is provided an efficient bandwidth with sufficient return loss.

  2. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  3. Methods for precisely trimming block faces for ultramicrotomy.

    Gorycki, M A

    1978-03-01

    Two devices are described to aid in trimming block faces of embedded tissue for ultramicrotomy. The first, a reticle to fit the ocular of a stereomicroscope, can be manufactured by the ultramicrotomist and is designed to outline the edges of the block face so that it can be trimmed to a standard size and shape with the area of interest centered in it. The second, a rectangular "trimalign" block mounted in the knife holder of the ultramicrotome, is, with the block face, aligned to the plane of sectioning, and aids in retrimming the top and bottom edges of the block face. This is the simplest trimming device yet described and the first which will, from any sort of embedded material, produce a block face with parallel top and bottom edges even if the block face is not perpendicular to the axis of the specimen holder. If the edge of the diamond knife used for sectioning is parallel to the axis of rotation of the knife holder, the block face has also been automatically aligned to the kinfe as a consequence of this aligning and trimming procedure. As a result, sectioning can begin immediately without further adjustments. PMID:694954

  4. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  5. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  6. Effects of Block Scheduling

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  7. An introduction to finite projective planes

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  8. Fermion-Scalar Conformal Blocks

    Iliesiu, Luca; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called `seed blocks' in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  9. Edit Distance with Block Deletions

    Dana Shapira; Storer, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Several variants of the edit distance problem with block deletions are considered. Polynomial time optimal algorithms are presented for the edit distance with block deletions allowing character insertions and character moves, but without block moves. We show that the edit distance with block moves and block deletions is NP-complete (Nondeterministic Polynomial time problems in which any given solution to such problem can be verified in polynomial time, and any NP problem can be converted into...

  10. Topological equivalence of finitely determined real analytic plane-to-plane map-germs

    Skutlaberg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Generic smooth plane-to-plane map germs are topologically equivalent to cones of mappings of the circle. We carry out a complete topological classification of smooth stable mappings of the circle and show how this classification leads, via the result mentioned above, to a topological classification of finitely determined real analytic plane-to-plane map germs.

  11. Selective Absorption Mechanism for the Maintenance of Blocking

    Yamazaki, Akira; Itoh, Hisanori

    2010-05-01

    analyses and simple numerical experiments. Ten episodes of blocking that occurred in the mid-North Pacific and the eastern North Atlantic between 1990 and 2005 are investigated. Trajectories of synoptic anticyclones and cyclones during blocking persistent periods are analyzed and show the selective absorption of anticyclonic eddies by the blocking highs. We also perform numerical experiments using the nonlinear barotropic vorticity equation on a beta-plane channel. The maintenance rate of blocking is quantitatively evaluated by using an areal averaged method. The result supports the block maintenance by the SAM. From the above two results, we can conclude that the SAM is more adaptive as the block maintenance mechanism than the ESM, because the essence of the SAM is absorption of eddies, not but eddy straining.

  12. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  13. Right bundle branch block

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  14. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  15. SNUPPS power block modelling

    A series of models is being built and used as tools in the design of the SNUPPS Standard Power Block. The modelling programme includes both preliminary and final design models, a construction sequence mode, and additional models used to study various features of the design. The design of a standard power block unit has necessitated design definition which is more detailed than that customarily used in the design of nuclear power stations. One innovation is the use of engineering models as a primary design tool in the layout of process piping, preparation of isometric drawings, design of small components which are customarily designed in the field during construction. Development of a standard construction sequence and construction work plan is another innovation. (author)

  16. Growth, Endlessness, Blocks

    Nabata, Avery Misuzu

    2014-01-01

    Growth, Endlessness, Blocks is a sculptural installation comprised of a series of wood structures of various scales. Large sections of drywall function as extensions of the gallery walls. Each structure balances a number of different physical characteristics that are tied to the act of making. Balance and presence combine in a disconcerting way giving the viewer a sense of uneasiness and a moment finely tuned by the artist. The artist seeks to embody the role of the factory fabricator as a me...

  17. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  18. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  19. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

  20. Duel-Plane Optical Disdrometer

    Winsky, B. E.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Acquiring better drop-size distributions of rainfall will improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. In order to fully capture the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall, a robust, calibration free, low-cost instrument that provides an accurate drop-size distribution is required. Therefore, The University of Iowa Lidar Group has developed and built a new duel-plane optical disdrometer that meets these criteria. Two sheets of laser light, vertically spaced by 1 cm are produced by two 670nm laser beams passing through a collecting lens and culminating lens, respectively. The two sheets of laser light then pass through a convex lens located 20 cm from the lasers that focuses the light on a photo detector. A computer reads in and stores the voltages at 10 kHz. The velocity, diameter, shape and drop-size distribution of raindrops are extracted from the voltage measurements. Rainfall data collected in Iowa City, IA tested our disdrometer's robustness and accuracy of providing drop-size distributions. Our distrometer is advantageous because it is simple, low-cost, and requires no calibration.

  1. Periodical plane puzzles with numbers

    Rezende, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Consider a periodical (in two independent directions) tiling of the plane with polygons (faces). In this article we shall only give examples using squares, regular hexagons, equilateral triangles and parallelograms ("unions" of two equilateral triangles). We shall call some "multiple" of the fundamental region "the board". We naturally identify pairs of corresponding edges of the the board. Figures 9 and 19-29, in this article, show different boards. The "border" of the board is represented by a yellow thick line, unless part of it or all of it is the edge of a face. The board is tiled by a finite number of polygons. Construct polygonal plates in the same number, shape and size as the polygons of the board. Adjacent to each side of each plate draw a number, or two numbers, like it is shown in Figures 1 and 18-29. Figure 1 shows the obvious possibility of having plates with simple drawings, coloured drawings, etc. Now the game is to put the plates over the board polygons in such a way that the numbers near eac...

  2. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  3. Signal processing for plane wave actuators

    T. Corbach; Holters, M.; U. Zölzer

    2010-01-01

    Plane wave actuators without an enclosure per se have a forward and backward radiation. The backward radiation is unwanted in many applications when a single direction radiation is desired. To avoid the disadvantages of an enclosure a system is proposed, which provides a high suppression of the unwanted backward radiation using a pair of plane wave actuators. This is achieved by adapted input signal filters. The influences of the second plane wave actuator to the forward rad...

  4. Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes

    Nanostructured carbon films with oriented graphitic planes can be deposited by applying energetic carbon bombardment. The present work shows the possibility of structuring graphitic planes perpendicular to the substrate in following two distinct ways: (i) applying sufficiently large carbon energies for deposition at room temperature (E>10 keV), (ii) utilizing much lower energies for deposition at elevated substrate temperatures (T>200 deg. C). High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to probe the graphitic planes. The alignment achieved at elevated temperatures does not depend on the deposition angle. The data provides insight into the mechanisms leading to the growth of oriented graphitic planes under different conditions.

  5. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  6. Enumeration of Cylindric Plane Partitions - part I

    Langer, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Cylindric plane partitions may be thought of as a natural generalization of reverse plane partitions. A generating series for the enumeration of cylindric plane partitions was recently given by Borodin. The first result of this paper is a $(q,t)$-analog of Borodin's identity which extends previous work by Okada in the reverse plane partition case. Our proof uses commutation relations for $(q,t)$-vertex operators acting on Macdonald polynomials as given by Garsia, Haiman and Tesla. The second result of this paper is an explicit combinatorial interpreation of the $(q,t)$-Macdonald weight in terms of a non-intersecting lattice path model on the cylinder.

  7. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  8. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  9. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  10. Lattice plane spacing change in hardened layer of chrome molybdenum steel after carburizing and quenching

    Block specimens of chrome molybdenum steel with 0.20 mass% C, SCM420, were carburized in carrier gas and quenched in oil bath. The hardness and carbon content gradients in the hardened layer were measured experimentally. The carburized surface of one block specimen was gradually removed by electrolytic polishing. Ten thin plates were cut from the total case depth of the other block specimen. An experimental method to determine the stress-free lattice plane spacing of the hardened layer was examined using x-ray and neutron radiations. As a result, the stress-free lattice plane spacing change in the hardened layer could be determined successfully by measuring neutron diffraction peaks from Fe-211 of the thin plates during rotating ±90deg around the specimen axis. Using x-ray, the stress-free lattice plane spacing at the carburized surface could be also determined by measuring the 2θ-sin2ψ diagrams of either removed surface of block specimen or thin plate. However, under the carburized surface, the Kα2 diffraction from the heat-treated eutectoid phase was superimposed on x-ray diffraction peak because the subsurface microstructure was composed of martensitic and heat-treated eutectoid phases. The stress-free lattice plane spacing under the carburized surface could not be determined using x-ray. Furthermore, the stress-free lattice plane spacing of Fe-211 was found to decrease with increasing the distance from the carburized surface and be expressed by the cubic function of the carbon content in the hardened layer. (author)

  11. A standard graphite block

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm3; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  12. One-Block CYRCA: an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Singer, Alice; Bronfeld, Hagit; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    One-Block CYRCA is an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries (). It is based on the LAMA and CYRCA block-to-block alignment methods. The procedure identifies whether the query blocks can form new multiple-block alignments (block sets) with blocks from a database or join pre-existing database block sets. Using pre-computed LAMA block alignments and CYRCA sets from the Blocks database reduces the computation time. LAMA and CYRCA are highly sensit...

  13. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  14. Corner diffraction coefficients for the quarter plane

    Hansen, Thorkild B.

    1991-01-01

    The current near a right-angled corner on a perfectly conducting flat scatterer illuminated by a plane wave is expressed as a sum of three currents. The first is the physical optics current, which describes the surface effect. The second is the fringe wave current, which is found from the half-plane...

  15. Criteria for singularities of smooth maps from the plane into the plane and its applications

    Saji, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    We shall give useful criteria of lips, beaks and swallowtail singularities of smooth map from the plane into the plane. As an application of criteria, we will discuss the singularities of Cauchy problem of single conservation law.

  16. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Aghamohammadi, Cina [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-11155, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-91176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ({mu}). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 {mu}. If {mu} > 2/7 tan {theta}, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  17. Multiple-image encryption with bit-plane decomposition and chaotic maps

    Tang, Zhenjun; Song, Juan; Zhang, Xianquan; Sun, Ronghai

    2016-05-01

    Image encryption is an efficient technique of image content protection. In this work, we propose a useful image encryption algorithm for multiple grayscale images. The proposed algorithm decomposes input images into bit-planes, randomly swaps bit-blocks among different bit-planes, and conducts XOR operation between the scrambled images and secret matrix controlled by chaotic map. Finally, an encrypted PNG image is obtained by viewing four scrambled grayscale images as its red, green, blue and alpha components. Many simulations are done to illustrate efficiency of our algorithm.

  18. Block-based reconstructions for compressive spectral imaging

    Correa, Claudia V.; Arguello, Henry; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2013-05-01

    Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imaging system (CASSI) captures spectral information of a scene using a reduced amount of focal plane array (FPA) projections. These projections are highly structured and localized such that each measurement contains information of a small portion of the data cube. Compressed sensing reconstruction algorithms are then used to recover the underlying 3-dimensional (3D) scene. The computational burden to recover a hyperspectral scene in CASSI is overwhelming for some applications such that reconstructions can take hours in desktop architectures. This paper presents a new method to reconstruct a hyperspectral signal from its compressive measurements using several overlapped block reconstructions. This approach exploits the structure of the CASSI sensing matrix to separately reconstruct overlapped regions of the 3D scene. The resultant reconstructions are then assembled to obtain the full recovered data cube. Typically, block-processing causes undesired artifacts in the recovered signal. Vertical and horizontal overlaps between adjacent blocks are then used to avoid these artifacts and increase the quality of reconstructed images. The reconstruction time and the quality of the reconstructed images are calculated as a function of the block-size and the amount of overlapped regions. Simulations show that the quality of the reconstructions is increased up to 6 dB and the reconstruction time is reduced up to 4 times when using block-based reconstruction instead of full data cube recovery at once. The proposed method is suitable for multi-processor architectures in which each core recovers one block at a time.

  19. Photovoltaic building blocks

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film...... coating tools to depositand develop anti-reflection filters by means of sputtering or e-beam evaporation. To reduce the area taken up by metallic contacts transparent conducting oxides like Aluminium doped ZincOxide (AZO) and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) can be deposited. We also support research...... and development of new 2D materials like graphene that is a promising candidate for cheap highly transparent contacts. Another way to increase efficiency is to structure the active layers indevice so that more light is absorbed. This can be done in one of our advanced dry etching machines either mask-less to form...

  20. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how......Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  1. Block Voter Model

    Sampaio, C I N

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of $N_{PCS}$ spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighbouring counterparts. We consider the collective behaviour of the entire system with varying PCS size. When $N_{PCS}>2$, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter $q_{c}$ which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that how large the PCS is more power of persuasion it has. It also seems that the resulting critical behaviour is Ising-like independent of the range of the interactions.

  2. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    Winther, G.

    2003-01-01

    The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and...... polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...

  3. The Block-block Bootstrap: Improved Asymptotic Refinements

    Donald W.K. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    The asymptotic refinements attributable to the block bootstrap for time series are not as large as those of the nonparametric iid bootstrap or the parametric bootstrap. One reason is that the independence between the blocks in the block bootstrap sample does not mimic the dependence structure of the original sample. This is the join-point problem. In this paper, we propose a method of solving this problem. The idea is not to alter the block bootstrap. Instead, we alter the original sample sta...

  4. Convergence rates of empirical block length selectors for block bootstrap

    Nordman, Daniel J.; Lahiri, Soumendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of two general non-parametric methods for estimating optimal block lengths for block bootstraps with time series – the first proposed in the seminal paper of Hall, Horowitz and Jing (Biometrika 82 (1995) 561–574) and the second from Lahiri et al. (Stat. Methodol. 4 (2007) 292–321). The relative performances of these general methods have been unknown and, to provide a comparison, we focus on rates of convergence for these block length selectors for the moving block ...

  5. Malfatti's problem on the hyperbolic plane

    Horváth, Ákos G

    2012-01-01

    More than two centuries ago Malfatti raised and solved the following problem called by Malfatti's construction problem: In a triangle describe three small circles, each of them touching the other two, and also two sides of the triangle. Interesting fact that nobody investigated this problem on the hyperbolic plane, while the case of the sphere were solved at once. We now compensate for this shortage and solve the following exercise: Determine three cycles of the hyperbolic plane, each of them touching the two others, and also two of three given cycles of the hyperbolic plane. We also give a proof of the hyperbolic version of Malfatti's marble problem.

  6. Analysis of Switching Noise on Power Planes

    M. Ž. Stojilović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Power delivery networks (PDNs in modern printed circuit boards (PCBs are usually realized using power planes. Since the planes have very low inductance, it is usually believed that such PDNs have the smallest amount of switching noise. However, in reality, the power planes can resonate. The noise at resonant frequencies can be significant and it deteriorates the PDN performance. One of the classical methods for decreasing the noise is bypassing. This paper investigates the behavior of a typical PDN and the effect that real SMD bypass capacitors produce when attached to it.

  7. Knot theory of complex plane curves

    Rudolph, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The primary objects of study in the ``knot theory of complex plane curves'' are C-links: links (or knots) cut out of a 3-sphere in the complex plane by complex plane transverse and totally tangential. Transverse C-links are naturally oriented. There are many natural classes of examples: links of singularities; links at infinity; links of divides, free divides, tree divides, and graph divides; and--most generally--quasipositive links. Totally tangential C-links are unoriented but naturally fra...

  8. Large Block Test Final Report

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  9. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  10. Covariant Approaches to Superconformal Blocks

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Khandker, Zuhair U; Li, Daliang; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2014-01-01

    We develop techniques for computing superconformal blocks in 4d superconformal field theories. First we study the super-Casimir differential equation, deriving simple new expressions for superconformal blocks for 4-point functions containing chiral operators in theories with N-extended supersymmetry. We also reproduce these results by extending the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi to supersymmetric theories, where superconformal blocks can be represented as superspace integrals of three-point functions multiplied by shadow three-point functions.

  11. Parallels plane projection and its geometric features

    ZHOU ChengHu; MA Ting; YANG Liao; QIN Biao

    2007-01-01

    A new equivalent map projection called the parallels plane projection is proposed in this paper. The transverse axis of the parallels plane projection is the expansion of the equator and its vertical axis equals half the length of the central meridian. On the parallels plane projection, meridians are projected as sine curves and parallels are a series of straight, parallel lines. No distortion of length occurs along the central meridian or on any parallels of this projection. Angular distortion and the proportion of length along meridians (except the central meridian) introduced by the projection transformation increase with increasing longitude and latitude. A potential application of the parallels plane projection is that it can provide an efficient projection transformation for global discrete grid systems.

  12. In-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of microcalorimeters and bolometers based on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) with a manageable number of readout channels. Previous to this work, TES arrays were multiplexed by extracting leads from each pixel to multiplexer filter and switching elements outside of the focal plane. As the number of pixels is increased in a close-packed array, it becomes difficult to route the leads to the multiplexer. We report on the development of an in-focal-plane SQUID multiplexer to solve this problem. In this circuit, the filter and switching elements associated with each pixel fit within the pixel area so that signals are multiplexed before being extracted from the focal plane. This in-focal-plane architecture will first be used in the SCUBA-2 instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in 2006

  13. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of...

  14. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  15. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  16. Strings in plane-fronted gravitational waves

    Duval, C.; Horvath, Z.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Brinkmann's plane-fronted gravitational waves with parallel rays --~shortly pp-waves~-- are shown to provide, under suitable conditions, exact string vacua at all orders of the sigma-model perturbation expansion.

  17. Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-11-24

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  18. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  19. Fisioterapia para redução da diástase dos músculos retos abdominais no pós-parto Physiotherapy for reduction of diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles in the postpartum period

    Luciana Aparecida Mesquita

    1999-06-01

    reduction in the diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles (DRAM after every treatment session, as well as a relevant reduction when compared to the control group, positively contributing to the earlier recovery of the recti abdominis muscles.

  20. Asymptotically Plane Wave Spacetimes and their Actions

    Witt, Julian Le; Ross, Simon F.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a definition of asymptotically plane wave spacetimes in vacuum gravity in terms of the asymptotic falloff of the metric, and discuss the relation to previously constructed exact solutions. We construct a well-behaved action principle for such spacetimes, using the formalism developed by Mann and Marolf. We show that this action is finite on-shell and that the variational principle is well-defined for solutions of vacuum gravity satisfying our asymptotically plane wave falloff condi...

  1. Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane

    Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs

  2. Control rod blocking device

    Purpose: To increase the degree of freedom for the reactor operation by control rod blocking by monitoring the critical power ratio (CPR) with real time. Constitution: There has been a problem that the withdrawal of control rods may occasionally be inhibited with all the margin in view of CPR. The present invention dissolves this problem. That is, the control rod withdrawal device periodically calculates CPR, and calculated CPR upon generation of a control rod withdrawing signal by conpensating the result of calculation with a LPRM signal and a reactor core flow rate signal. The CPR at real time is compared with a predetermined setting value to output a control rod withdrawing inhibition signal depending on the result of the comparison. In the device as described above, since CPR is monitored at real time, the control rod can be withdrawn without causing fuel damages, as well as the inhibition of withdrawal irrespective of the presence of margin in view of CPR can be avoided. Accordingly, degree of freedom in the reactor operation can be increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX): Galactic Plane Survey

    Lemley, Cameron; Mohammed, Steven; Schiminovich, David; Tam, Benjamin; Seibert, Mark; Martin, Christopher D.; GALEX Science Team

    2015-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) completed its survey of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet during 2012. Although preliminary data were released shortly after the completion of the survey, the full dataset was reanalyzed during 2014 using refined attitude correction techniques that yield angular resolution-limited images. The GALEX Galactic plane survey includes more than 75% of the sky between 10 > b > -10 degrees. The initial photon dataset contains about 400 individual scans, each of which is a vertical slice of the Galactic plane. Each slice spans 1500-1700 seconds, during which the 1.24 degree diameter field of view performed a double-pass sweep across the Galactic plane. The Galactic Plane survey was the only time this non-standard, high scan rate acquisition mode was exercised during the mission, and required specialized processing and astrometric refinement to produce high quality sky maps. We present the first high-resolution map of the Galactic plane in the near-ultraviolet as well as a catalogue of thousands of sources for follow-up with HST. This work was partially supported by the Keck Institute for Space Studies.

  4. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications. PMID:25076447

  5. Counting Plane Graphs: Flippability and its Applications

    Hoffmann, Michael; Sheffer, Adam; Tóth, Csaba D; Welzl, Emo

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the notions of flippable and simultaneously-flippable edges in a triangulation of a set S of points in the plane, into so called pseudo simultaneously-flippable edges. Such edges are related to the notion of convex decompositions spanned by S. We derive a worst-case tight lower bound on the number of pseudo simultaneously-flippable edges in any triangulation, and use this bound to obtain upper bounds for the maximal number of several types of plane graphs that can be embedded (with crossing-free straight edges) on a fixed set of N points in the plane. More specifically, denoting by tr(N)<30^N$ the maximum possible number of triangulations of a set of N points in the plane, we show that every set of N points in the plane can have at most 6.9283^N * tr(N) < 207.85^N plane graphs, O(4.8895^N) * tr(N) = O(146.69^N) spanning trees, and O(5.4723^N) * tr(N) = O(164.17^N) forests (that is, cycle-free graphs). We also obtain upper bounds for the number of crossing-free straight-edge graphs with at ...

  6. QUALITY OF GRUE-BOND EUCALYPTUS WOOD SPECIMEN GLUED IN TWO DIFFERENT DENSITIES AND SHEAR PLANES

    Moisés Silveira Lobão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate a glue-bond quality was also determined according to NBR 7190/97 in samples representing thetwo different densities and the shear planes. Eucalyptus lumber was purchased in the local market for the research purpose. It wasfoun, that the whole lot could be segregated into two sub-lots, one containing higher specific gravity timber, another containing lowerdensity wood, later, in samples made to represent the two different densities; the shear planes, however, included two possibilities: thetwo pieces that formed the block had their fibers both parallel or one of the parts had their fibers perpendicular to those of the otherpart. The adhesive used was resorcinol-formaldehyde. Shear strength was determined by compression using these blocks; thepercentage of wood failure was also measured. It was found that the low density wood glued better, because the average shear strengthof the blocks with fibers of the parts parallel to the direction of the force did not differ from the shear strength of solid wood. It was foundthe behavior of shear planes follows that of the samples made with fibers of the parts parallel to the shearing force.

  7. Four-block beam collimator

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  8. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Rim, Chaiho

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  9. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  10. On Approximability of Block Sorting

    Narayanaswamy, N S

    2011-01-01

    Block Sorting is a well studied problem, motivated by its applications in Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and Computational Biology. Block Sorting has been shown to be NP-Hard, and two separate polynomial time 2-approximation algorithms have been designed for the problem. But questions like whether a better approximation algorithm can be designed, and whether the problem is APX-Hard have been open for quite a while now. In this work we answer the latter question by proving Block Sorting to be Max-SNP-Hard (APX-Hard). The APX-Hardness result is based on a linear reduction of Max-3SAT to Block Sorting. We also provide a new lower bound for the problem via a new parametrized problem k-Block Merging.