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Sample records for abdominal computed tomography

  1. Computed tomography of abdominal trauma

    Abdominal lesions following an accident or surgical interventions are becoming more frequently indications for investigations by computed tomography. Changes of spleen, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and of the retroperitoneal space are discussed. Advantages of computed tomography compared to other investigative methods are shown. (orig.)

  2. Computer tomography following blunt abdominal trauma

    The computer tomographic appearances of lesions of parenchymatous organs following blunt abdominal trauma are described in 13 patients (five liver, four renal, two splenic and two pancreatic injuries). The value of abdominal computer tomography is discussed in relation to the interval between injury and time of abdominal examination and compared with the diagnostic value of abdominal angiography. (orig.)

  3. Dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography

    The broad availability and use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in recent years has increased the radiation dose for patients. Multiphase MDCT protocols are used in abdominal imaging for various indications. Dose reduction though novel technologies, such as dual energy CT or adapted contrast injection protocols (split bolus etc.) for reduction of scans. An optimized dose reduction can be achieved by using strict protocols which are adapted to the clinical situation of the patient. (orig.)

  4. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  5. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  6. Abdominal Computed Tomography Findings of Malaria Infection with Plasmodium vivax

    Kim, Eun Mi; Cho, Hyeon Je; Cho, Chong Rae; Kwak, Yee Gyung; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ku

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings of malaria are not well-known even though malaria is a serious infectious disease. To identify abdominal CT findings, we selected 34 of 405 patients who had a positive peripheral blood smear for Plasmodium vivax and had underwent abdominal CT as the malaria group. We also selected 80 patients who had fever and a negative peripheral blood smear as the control group and 120 healthy people as the normal group. We reviewed and analyzed their medical rec...

  7. Computed tomography for the assessment of blunt abdominal trauma

    Computed tomography (CT) was carried out on 70 patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Damage to the abdominal organs was clearly demonstrated by CT. The positive rates of CT in traumatic lesions were higher than those of ultrasound (US). Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was well demonstrated by US. Serum GPT levels were significantly elevated in patients with liver damage (p<0.001). CT proved to be useful for detecting damage to organs in patients with abdominal trauma. (author)

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  9. Abdominal computed tomography in malignant lymphoma

    The computed tomographic findings of malignant lymphoma in the pelvis and abdomen is described. Characteristic symptoms are lymph node enlargement in the diameter greater than 1,0 cm, obliteration of the contour of the surrounding structures and displacement of the neighbouring organs. In contrast to the conventional lymphography, CT gives information about mesenterial and retrocrural lymph nodes. In patients with involvement of liver and spleen, CT defines only the size of the organs, because of differences in density to normal patients are seldom observed and focal lesions are rare. 71 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically proved and untreated malignant lymphoma are investigated by CT. In 27 patients CT detected pathological findings, the sensitivity was 72%, the specifity 100%. False-negative results has been attributed to the failure to identify not enlarged, but involved lymph nodes and involved liver and spleen without focal lesions or enlargement. CT replaces lymphography in diagnosis and staging of patients with abdominal malignant lymphoma, lymphography is indicated only in patients with expected abdominal disease and normal CT to identify involved, not enlarged lymph nodes. (orig.)

  10. Computed tomography of pediatric abdominal masses

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the pediatric abdominal masses, due to faster, cheaper, and no radiation hazard than CT. But CT has more advantages in assessing precise anatomic location, and extent of the pathologic process, and also has particular value in defining the size, relation of the mass to surrounding organs and detection of lymphadenopathy. We analyzed CT features of 35 cases of pathologically proven pediatric abdominal masses for recent 2 years at Ewha Woman's University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1.The most common originating site was kidney (20 cases, 57.1%); followed by gastrointestinal (5 cases, 14.3%), nonrenal retroperitoneal (4 cases, 11.4%), hepatobiliary (3 cases, 8.6%), and genital (3 cases, 8.6%) in order of frequency. 2.The most common mass was hydronephrosis (11 cases, 31.4%), Wilms' tumor (7 cases, 20.0%), neuroblastoma, choledochal cyst, periappendiceal abscess (3 cases, 8.6%, respectively), ovarian cyst (2 cases, 5.7%) were next in order of frequency. 3.Male to female ratio was 4:5 and choledochal cyst and ovarian cyst were found only in females. The most prevalent age group was 1-3 year old (12 cases, 34.3%). 4.With CT, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis was easy in all cases and could evaluate of its severity, renal function and obstruction site with high accuracy. 5.Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma were relatively well differentiated by their characteristic CT features; such as location, shape, margin, middle cross, calyceal appearance and calcification, etc. 6.Ovarian and mensentric cysts had similar CT appearance. 7.In other pediatric abdominal masses, CT provided excellent information about anatomic detail, precise extent of tumor and differential diagnostic findings. So, CT is useful imaging modality for the demonstration and diagnosis of abdominal mass lesions in pediatric patients

  11. Computed tomography in therapy planning: Abdominal region

    The radiotherapy community is continuing to appreciate the significant contribution CBT can make to planning abdominal radiotherapy and is also beginning to appreciate the pitfalls and limitations of the technique. Specific attention should continue to focus on patient registration with the scanner and simulator radiographs, patient position during scanning and treatment, and effects of involuntary patient motion, especially breathing, on organ and tumor localization. Effects of patient positional changes and of involuntary motion during treatment on treatment planning and execution should be quantitated, as should effects of inhomogeneities, especially gut air, on abdominal dose distribution. Radiotherapy planned with CBT data can impact significantly on morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal malignancies. Faster scanners (with a scanning time of 9 sec or less) should be employed where possible to obtain maximum diagnostic information. Multiplanar reconstruction and true three-dimensional treatment planning can enhance significantly the value of CBT in treatment planning. Radiotherapists, radiodiagnosticians, radiation physicists, and oncologists must be continue to meet the challenge of realizing the true potential of CBT for the benefit of the cancer patients entrusted to their care

  12. Computed tomography and nonoperative treatment for blunt abdominal trauma

    Studies were undertaken to determine if computed tomography (CT) could reliably assist physical examination in the initial assessment of blunt abdominal trauma, and also to examine how various abdominal injuries were managed with the guidance of CT. A total of 255 patients underwent emergency abdominal CT following blunt abdominal trauma over a period of seven years. One hundred and fifty two patients had abnormal CT scans, including 58 hepatic, 36 renal, 25 splenic and 9 pancreatic injuries as well as 67 patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage and 21 patients with free abdominal air. A comparative study on the detection of pneumoperitoneum revealed CT to be far superior to plain radiography. One hundred and three patients had normal CT scans, all of whom were managed nonoperatively, except for three false-negative cases and two nontherapeutic cases. The patients with injury to the parenchymal organs were given nonoperative treatment if they had stable vital signs and no evidence of associated injuries demanding immediate surgery and the majority of these patients were managed well nonoperatively. CT was thus found to be a useful adjunct in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, since in a rapid and noninvasive fashion, CT accurately defined the extent of parenchymal organ injury and also disclosed any other abdominal injuries. (author)

  13. Dosimetry in abdominal imaging by 6-slice computed tomography

    Rodrigues, Sonia Isabel [Hospital de Faro, EPE (Portugal); Abrantes, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Almeida, Rui Pedro Pereira [University of Algarve (Portugal). School of Health. Dept. of Radiology

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To determine the effective dose in abdominal computed tomography imaging and to study the influence of patients' characteristics on the received dose. Materials and Methods: Dose values measurements were performed with an ionization chamber on phantoms to check the agreement between dose values and those presented by the computed tomography apparatus, besides their compliance with the recommended reference dose levels. Later, values of dose received by physically able patients submitted to abdominal computed tomography (n = 100) were measured and correlated with their anthropometric characteristics. Finally, the dose to organs was simulated with the Monte Carlo method using the CT-Expo V 1.5 software, and the effect of automatic exposure control on such examinations. Results: The main characteristics directly influencing the dose include the patients' body mass, abdominal perimeter and body mass index, whose correlation is linear and positive. Conclusion: The radiation dose received from abdominal CT scans depends on some patient's characteristics, and it is important to adjust the acquisition parameters to their dimensions (author)

  14. Dosimetry in abdominal imaging by 6-slice computed tomography

    Objective: To determine the effective dose in abdominal computed tomography imaging and to study the influence of patients' characteristics on the received dose. Materials and Methods: Dose values measurements were performed with an ionization chamber on phantoms to check the agreement between dose values and those presented by the computed tomography apparatus, besides their compliance with the recommended reference dose levels. Later, values of dose received by physically able patients submitted to abdominal computed tomography (n = 100) were measured and correlated with their anthropometric characteristics. Finally, the dose to organs was simulated with the Monte Carlo method using the CT-Expo V 1.5 software, and the effect of automatic exposure control on such examinations. Results: The main characteristics directly influencing the dose include the patients' body mass, abdominal perimeter and body mass index, whose correlation is linear and positive. Conclusion: The radiation dose received from abdominal CT scans depends on some patient's characteristics, and it is important to adjust the acquisition parameters to their dimensions (author)

  15. Personalized identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes on computed tomography.

    Pham, Tuan D; Le, Dinh T P; Xu, Jinwei; Nguyen, Duc T; Martindale, Robert G; Deveney, Clifford W

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal wall hernia is a protrusion of the intestine through an opening or area of weakness in the abdominal wall. Correct pre-operative identification of abdominal wall hernia meshes could help surgeons adjust the surgical plan to meet the expected difficulty and morbidity of operating through or removing the previous mesh. First, we present herein for the first time the application of image analysis for automated identification of hernia meshes. Second, we discuss the novel development of a new entropy-based image texture feature using geostatistics and indicator kriging. Third, we seek to enhance the hernia mesh identification by combining the new texture feature with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix feature of the image. The two features can characterize complementary information of anatomic details of the abdominal hernia wall and its mesh on computed tomography. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed study. The new computational tool has potential for personalized mesh identification which can assist surgeons in the diagnosis and repair of complex abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24184112

  16. Radiation Exposure of Abdominal Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PurposeTo evaluate patients radiation exposure of abdominal C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written, informed consent was waived. Radiation exposure of abdominal CBCT was evaluated in 40 patients who underwent CBCT during endovascular interventions. Dose area product (DAP) of CBCT was documented and effective dose (ED) was estimated based on organ doses using dedicated Monte Carlo simulation software with consideration of X-ray field location and patients’ individual body weight and height. Weight-dependent ED per DAP conversion factors were calculated. CBCT radiation dose was compared to radiation dose of procedural fluoroscopy. CBCT dose-related risk for cancer was assessed.ResultsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.9; 4.8 mSv, range 1.1–7.4 mSv). ED was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower abdomen (p = 0.003) and increased with patients’ weight (r = 0.55, slope = 0.045 mSv/kg, p < 0.001). Radiation exposure of CBCT corresponded to the radiation exposure of on average 7.2 fluoroscopy minutes (95 % CI 5.5; 8.8 min) in the same region of interest. Lifetime risk of exposure related cancer death was 0.033 % or less depending on age and weight.ConclusionsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv depending on X-ray field location and body weight

  17. Radiation Exposure of Abdominal Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Kemerink, Gerrit J., E-mail: gerrit.kemerink@mumc.nl; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N., E-mail: cecile.jeukens@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate patients radiation exposure of abdominal C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board; written, informed consent was waived. Radiation exposure of abdominal CBCT was evaluated in 40 patients who underwent CBCT during endovascular interventions. Dose area product (DAP) of CBCT was documented and effective dose (ED) was estimated based on organ doses using dedicated Monte Carlo simulation software with consideration of X-ray field location and patients’ individual body weight and height. Weight-dependent ED per DAP conversion factors were calculated. CBCT radiation dose was compared to radiation dose of procedural fluoroscopy. CBCT dose-related risk for cancer was assessed.ResultsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.9; 4.8 mSv, range 1.1–7.4 mSv). ED was significantly higher in the upper than in the lower abdomen (p = 0.003) and increased with patients’ weight (r = 0.55, slope = 0.045 mSv/kg, p < 0.001). Radiation exposure of CBCT corresponded to the radiation exposure of on average 7.2 fluoroscopy minutes (95 % CI 5.5; 8.8 min) in the same region of interest. Lifetime risk of exposure related cancer death was 0.033 % or less depending on age and weight.ConclusionsMean ED of abdominal CBCT was 4.3 mSv depending on X-ray field location and body weight.

  18. Value of helical computed tomography in diagnosis abdominal aorta aneurysms

    Civilization progress and achievements of medicine makes the human life longer. The exposure on vessel injuring factors such as smoking and improper diet is still growing. For those reasons the number of abdominal aorta aneurysms also increased. Early detection of this pathology, its therapy and follow up considering the most sophisticated diagnostic methods is very important. In years 2000-2002 2989 helical computed tomography (HCT) examinations of the abdomen were performed in Dolnoslaski Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej. In 173 patients (141 M and 32 F) aneurysms of abdominal aorta have been found. From this group 127 (101 M and 26 F) were patients of Surgical Ward of our hospital. 73 (63 M and 10 F) underwent the surgical operation of prosthesis implantation. 13 persons (11M and 2 F) were primarily qualified for endovascular stent-graft implantation, in 7 male this procedure was performed. In 159 patients AAA was primarily diagnosed in ultrasound (USG) examination (100%). In 10 cases additional MR examination was performed. In 13 patients qualified for stent-grafting we also performed DSA. USG examination revealed high sensitivity in establishing aneurysm diameter. HCT is characterized by significantly higher sensitivity and specificity in evaluation of renal and iliac pervasion, in comparison to USG. HCT allows for detection of concomitant pathologies and complications. HCT is necessary before stent-graft implantation and in the follow-up. There is no significant prevalence of MR over HCT. It should be performed in cases with doubtful renal arteries location, or when HCT is contraindicated. (author)

  19. Adrenal mass in patients who underwent abdominal computed tomography examination

    Hassan Al-Thani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adrenal masses are usually discovered incidentally (IAM during abdominal computed tomography (CT. Aims: We aimed to describe the prevalence, management, and outcome of incidentally discovered adrenal mass on radiological investigation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted to look for IAM identified by abdominal CT performed for other reasons between 2004 and 2008 and were followed for 4 years. IAM patients with known malignancy or clinically evident adrenal disease or overt disease originally missed due to insufficient clinical examination were excluded. Results: A total of 13,115 patients underwent abdominal CT, of which 136 were identified with adrenal mass (69 males and 67 females. Overall, 84 patients had benign IAM and six had primary adrenal carcinoma (all had tumor size ≥4 cm and five were males. Hormonal evaluation was performed in 80 cases, which revealed hypersecretion in 10 cases (six had Conn′s syndrome and four had pheochromocytoma. Males had higher frequency of right-sided IAMs; whereas, left-sided IAM swere more common among females (P = 0.02. Seven patients underwent surgery and all were males (one Conn′s syndrome, one pheochromocytoma, three primary adrenal adenocarcinoma, one benign nonfunctional adenoma, and one metastatic tumor. Only one patient died due to brain metastasis. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma is 1% in Qatar. Unfortunately, hormonal evaluation, surgical referral, and follow-up are not appropriate in this study. Moreover, screening of IAM warrants more attention to rule out malignancy. This work could be of value as a local auditing for the current management.

  20. Pediatric Computed Tomography. Radiation Dose in Abdominal Studies

    Computed tomography is one of the most popular medical imaging modalities used in the last years. However, because is one of the techniques that delivered a considerable radiation dose, precautions should be taken into account. Pediatric patients are more radiosensitive than adults, and the probability that no desirable biological effects can occur is greater. To this, also it adds the probability that they will need more radiological studies in the future. The work consisted in determining the received dose by the pediatric patients undergoing abdominal studies in a multislice computed tomograph, according to the dosimetric quantities established by a Code of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency; using a ionization chamber and a phantom that simulates the abdomen of a pediatric patient. The weighted air kerma index (Cw) was 14.3±0.4 mGy, this value is lower than the published by the American College of Radiology, 25 mGy. The multiple scan average dose (MSAD), which is a quantity established by the NOM-229-SSA1-2002 was determined, finding a value of 14.2±0.1 mGy, it is also below the value established, 25 mGy for an adult study

  1. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  2. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  3. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in abdominal diseases.

    Schillaci, Orazio; Filippi, Luca; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of the abdominal region are established in conventional nuclear medicine because of their easy and large availability, even in the most peripheral hospitals. It is well known that SPECT imaging demonstrates function, rather than anatomy. It is useful in the diagnosis of various disorders because of its ability to detect changes caused by disease before identifiable anatomic correlates and clinical manifestations exist. However, SPECT data frequently need anatomic landmarks to precisely depict the site of a focus of abnormal tracer uptake and the structures containing normal activity; the fusion with morphological studies can furnish an anatomical map to scintigraphic findings. In the past, software-based fusion of independently performed SPECT and CT or magnetic resonance images have been demonstrated to be time consuming and not useful for routine clinical employment. The recent development of dual-modality integrated imaging systems, which provide SPECT and CT images in the same scanning session, with the acquired images co-registered by means of the hardware, has created a new scenario. The first data have been mainly reported in oncology patients and indicate that SPECT/CT is very useful because it is able to provide further information of clinical value in several cases. In SPECT studies of abdominal diseases, hybrid SPECT/CT can play a role in the differential diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas located near vascular structures, in precisely detecting and localizing active splenic tissue caused by splenosis in splenectomy patients, in providing important information for therapy optimization in patients submitted to hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy, in accurately identifying the involved bowel segments in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and in correctly localizing the bleeding sites in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:17161039

  4. The value of ultrasonography and computed tomography in the blunt abdominal trauma: a prospective study

    From August to December 1988, eleven patients with abdominal trauma, hemodynamically stable, were studied at Souza Aguiar Municipal Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. After physical evaluation and initial resuscitation, these patients underwent abdominal paracentesis, basic roentgenographic examination and computed tomography. Either a conservative treatment or an exploratory laparotomy was carried out regarding the results of the examination. The use of ultrasound and computed tomography examination in patients with doubtful diagnosis proved to be effective and enable us to identify not only intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal lesions but also the presence of liquid collections in the peritoneal cavity. (author)

  5. Diagnosis of abdominal abscesses in patients with major trauma: the use of computed tomography

    The usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing abdominal abscesses was evaluated prospectively in 69 septic patients who had suffered massive trauma. For the 82 abdominal CT scans obtained, the accuracy rate was 84%, the sensitivity was 92%, and the specificity was 79%. With the use of abdominal CT, 32 patients were spared a ''blind'' laparotomy in the search for the focus of infection. It is concluded that CT is of significant value in the diagnosis of abdominal abscess in the septic trauma patient

  6. Computer tomography in the diagnosis of disease of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space

    It is ascertained that computer tomography of abdominal cavity organs is a promising diagnostics technique in cases when conventional radiography does not provide required information, especially for the diseases of liver parenchyma. The application of contrast substances enhances the detection of pathological changes. New contrast substances should be seeked for to enhance diagnostic capabilities of the computer tomography and to increase the difference between radiation absorption coefficient

  7. Evaluation of abdominal trauma by computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Out of 75 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of abdominal trauma and were undergone the procedures such as ultrasonography and/or CT scan within 24 hours of abdominal trauma due to suspected abdominal organ injury. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. 1. In the abdominal organ injury, solid organ injury consists of 8 cases of spleen laceration, 1 of splenic subcapsular hematoma, 7 of hepatic laceration, 7 of pancreas laceration, 3 of renal laceration, and 3 of subcapsular hematoma of kidney. 2. In addition, there were 7 bowel and/or mesenteric laceration, 2 diaphragmatic hernia, and 1 urethral rupture. 3. 2 cases of retroperitoneal hematoma and 1 case in which hemo peritoneum occurred without abdominal organ injury were confirmed by follow-up CT or ultrasonography. 4. In all of the 4 patients with multiple organ injury, pancreatic laceration was associated. 5. In abdominal trauma patients, ultrasonography or CT can be used to survey rapidly the entire abdomen for possible associated injury, and be of great help to clinicians in identifying the patients who need immediate surgery or in minimizing the incidence of unnecessary emergency abdominal exploration.

  8. A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Objective: to propose a model to standardize computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Materials and methods: interviews were carried out with members of the Vascular Surgery Division of our institution, in the period between April and October 2004, aiming at developing a standardized model of computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Based on this model, a questionnaire was elaborated and sent to other nine surgeons, all of them experienced in the field of abdominal aortic surgery. The questionnaires response rate was 55.5% (5/9). Results: the most frequently mentioned parameters of interest for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms were: maximum diameter of proximal aortic neck, proximal aortic neck length to lower renal arteries, shape of proximal aortic neck, maximum diameter of the aneurysm and diameter of the common iliac arteries. These data allowed the development of a proposal for a model to standardize computed tomography reports. Conclusion: a model for standardized tomographic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms has met vascular surgeons' needs for following-up patients and planning their treatment. (author)

  9. Multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2016-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis of pediatric acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department (ED) due to its unclear clinical presentation and non-specific findings in physical examinations, laboratory data, and plain radiographs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) performed in the ED on pediatric patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective chart review of children aged abdominal pain who visited the emergency department and underwent MDCT between September 2004 and June 2007 was conducted. Patients with a history of trauma were excluded. A total of 156 patients with acute abdominal pain (85 males and 71 females, age 1-17 years; mean age 10.9 ± 4.6 years) who underwent abdominal MDCT in the pediatric ED during this 3-year period were enrolled in the study. One hundred and eighteen patients with suspected appendicitis underwent abdominal MDCT. Sixty four (54.2%) of them had appendicitis, which was proven by histopathology. The sensitivity of abdominal MDCT for appendicitis was found to be 98.5% and the specificity was 84.9%. In this study, the other two common causes of nontraumatic abdominal emergencies were gastrointestinal tract (GI) infections and ovarian cysts. The most common etiology of abdominal pain in children that requires imaging with abdominal MDCT is appendicitis. MDCT has become a preferred and invaluable imaging modality in evaluating uncertain cases of pediatric acute abdominal pain in ED, in particular for suspected appendicitis, neoplasms, and gastrointestinal abnormalities. PMID:27154197

  10. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography

    Objective: to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and methods: in the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 × (0.75 × P + 0.25 × A)] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results: the simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion: The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity. (author)

  11. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography

    Rodrigo da Fonseca Monjardim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and Methods In the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 × (0.75 × P + 0.25 × A] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results The simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity.

  12. Abdominal computed tomography scan as a screening tool in blunt trauma

    Background. One of the most difficult problems in blunt trauma is evaluation for potential intraabdominal injury. Admission for serial abdominal exams remains the standard of care after intraabdominal injury has been initially excluded. We hypothesized a normal abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan in a subgroup of minimally injured patients would obviate admission for serial abdominal examinations, allowing safe discharge from the emergency department (ED). Methods. We reviewed our blunt trauma experience with patients admitted solely for serial abdominal examinations after a normal CT. Patients were identified from the trauma registry at a Level 1 trauma center from July 1991 through June 1995. Patients with abnormal CTs, extra-abdominal injuries necessitating admission, hemodynamic abnormalities, a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 13, or injury severity scores (ISSs) greater than 15 were excluded. Records of 238 patients remained; we reviewed them to determine the presence of missed abdominal injury. Results. None of the 238 patients had a missed abdominal injury. Average ISS of these patients was 3.2 (range, 0 to 10). Discharging these patients from the ED would result in a yearly cost savings of $32,874 to our medical system. Conclusions. Abdominal CT scan is a safe and cost-effective screening tool in patients with blunt trauma. A normal CT scan in minimally injured patients allows safe discharge from the ED. (authors)

  13. Readjustment of abdominal computed tomography protocols in a university hospital: impact on radiation dose

    Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Torres, Lucas Rios; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Bekhor, Daniel; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: ricardo.romano@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi [Fleury Medicina e Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Objective: To assess the reduction of estimated radiation dose in abdominal computed tomography following the implementation of new scan protocols on the basis of clinical suspicion and of adjusted images acquisition parameters. Materials and Methods: Retrospective and prospective review of reports on radiation dose from abdominal CT scans performed three months before (group A - 551 studies) and three months after (group B - 788 studies) implementation of new scan protocols proposed as a function of clinical indications. Also, the images acquisition parameters were adjusted to reduce the radiation dose at each scan phase. The groups were compared for mean number of acquisition phases, mean CTDI{sub vol} per phase, mean DLP per phase, and mean DLP per scan. Results: A significant reduction was observed for group B as regards all the analyzed aspects, as follows: 33.9%, 25.0%, 27.0% and 52.5%, respectively for number of acquisition phases, CTDI{sub vol} per phase, DLP per phase and DLP per scan (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The rational use of abdominal computed tomography scan phases based on the clinical suspicion in conjunction with the adjusted images acquisition parameters allows for a 50% reduction in the radiation dose from abdominal computed tomography scans. (author)

  14. Collateral abdominal circulation in patient with Leriche's syndrome diagnosed with 64-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT)

    Leriche's syndrome results from slowly developing occlusion of the abdominal aorta. It affects mainly middle-aged males. The blood flow distal to the occlusion site is secured by collateral circulation. Signs of Leriche's syndrome include claudication, gluteal pain and impotence. The paper presents a patient with Leriche's syndrome, in whom a detailed visualization of collateral circulation was obtained with multislice computed tomography angiography. Patient underwent surgical recanalization of the aorta with an excellent result. To our knowledge, the presented case is the first description of collateral circulation in Leriche's syndrome obtained with 64-row computed tomography. (author)

  15. Lymphography and abdominal computed tomography in staging Hodgkin's disease

    Lymphography and abdominal CT were performed in 78 patients staged for Hodgkin's disease. In 82% of all patients, both examinations agreed on the presence or absence of lymph node involvement. In the group of 39 patients undergoing lymphography prior to CT, the agreement was 90%. In the group of 39 patients with lymphography following CT, the agreement was 74%. In 50% of the patients with discrepant findings, lymphography revealed abnormal nodes compared with CT. Lymphography was abnormal in 26% of patients with a normal CT scan as the second examination. It is concluded that lymphography is more reliable than CT in the examination of the abdomen. CT performed after a normal or an abnormal lymphogram adds little additional information. When CT is preferred as the initial investigation in staging Hodgkin's disease, lymphography only adds significant information if the CT scan is normal or equivocal. (orig.)

  16. Many unexpected abdominal findings on staging computed tomography in patients with colorectal cancer

    Holmsted, Kim; Nørring, Keld; Laustrup, Lene Collatz;

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was proven to be superior to preoperative abdominal ultrasound in the preoperative setting for detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). The higher sensitivity of CT has resulted in a number of unexpected abdominal findings of varying importance; an...... issue that was previously studied in relation to CT colonography, but not in relation to staging CT with intravenous contrast in CRC patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the number and significance of such unexpected findings on staging CTs in CRC patients....

  17. Hypodense oral intestinal contrasting images for diagnostic improvement of abdominal computed tomography in children

    37 children were examined for diagnostic improvement of the oral intestinal contrasting images in abdominal computed tomography with a hypodense solution of mannitol (n = 23) in comparison with a suspension of BaSO4 (n = 14). Because of the hypodense intestinal contrasting images the artifacts of the images induced by the bordering surface could be reduced, the condition of fullness of the intestine and the judgement of the intestinal wall improved. The parenchymatous organs and points of abdominal lymph nodes could be defined and judged more easily through the hypodense contrasting images. On the whole the picture quality of the computed tomography of the young child could be increased with the hypodense solution of mannitol. (orig.)

  18. Respiratory gated multidetector computed tomography: Applicable for diagnostic abdominal imaging?

    Purpose: To evaluate the ability and accuracy of a respiratory gated technique used with contrast enhanced MDCT of the upper abdomen with focus on diagnostic image quality and depiction of organs and major vessels. Materials and methods: Forty-five adult patients who were referred to our institution for follow-up dynamic contrast enhanced abdominal CT imaging were included in this study. Respiratory gated CT scans were performed with the use of a dedicated hardware. A multiphasic CT scan was performed for each patient. Respiratory gated images were obtained between early arterial and portal venous phases during free breathing. Images of respiratory gated (RG) and breathhold (BH) phases were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by two radiologists. Definitive statistical methods were used for evaluating the scoring data, while Mann Whitney U test was used for comparison. Statistical significance was accepted for p values <0.05. Results: Statistical significant difference was found for comparison of scores regarding luminal opacification and contoural integrity of intrahepatic vascular structures with scores of RG scans rated poor to moderate (e.g. 2.86 ± 1.07 for luminal opacification of intrahepatic portal veins as well as border detectability) in comparison to scores of BH scans rated good to excellent (e.g. 1.37 ± 1.31 for luminal opacification, 1.35 ± 1.28 for border detectability of intrahepatic portal veins, p < 0.001). Furthermore, statistical significant differences were found for general image noise levels (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Further technical advances of RG technique could enable routine use of this technique for selected patient groups.

  19. Ultrasonography or computed tomography for diagnosis in hemodynamically stable patients with recent blunt abdominal trauma? Critically appraised topic

    We were unsure whether the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in hemodynamically stable patients in the emergency department with recent blunt abdominal trauma was sufficient to enable us to avoid performing computed tomography (CT) in selected patients. (author)

  20. MULTI - DETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND INTRA - OPERATIVE CORRELATION IN BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : With the change in the pace of life fast , faster , fastest being the motto of the present day , the incidence of trauma and the associated mortality and morbidities is on a continuous rise.Imaging plays a very important role in the management of these injuries in deciding which injuries , in trauma the final verdict of organ injury in abdomen is intra - ope rative findings. AIMS : In view of the above said we considered to study to determine diagnostic accuracy of MDCT (Multi - Detector Computed Tomography in detection of intra - abdominal solid organ injury in blunt abdominal trauma and to highlight the importance of MDCT in evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This was a prospective study done between over a period of 2 years from between January 2011 to February 2013 on patients who presented with blun t abdominal trauma after excluding patients who were managed conservatively and normal on imaging , the data we compared had 32 patients and the analysis was as follows. RESULTS : Blunt abdominal trauma was common in males , the male to female ratio was 9:1 , road traffic accident is the most common mode of injury in blunt abdominal trauma with 60% of the patients in this mode of injury , single organ injury is 22 patients (76% spleen is the most commonly injured organ 15(47% patients having splenic injury , wi th grade 3 being the commonest splenic injury 8 out of the 15 patients had splenic injury bowel injury was the second common organ injured in blunt trauma abdomen. In this study computed tomography grading correlated well with intra - operative grading with a PPV of= 95.45 % (95% ci: 84.50 % to 99.31 % Asensitivityof 76.36 % (95% ci: 62.98 % to 86.76 % . CONCLUSION : Computed tomography is an important imaging technique for diagnosis of organ injuries in patients with abdominal trauma. It helps in grading of the type of injury and accordingly deciding the management of patient. It is a highly

  1. Detection of abdominal lymph node metastases from esophageal and cardia cancer by computed tomography

    Shima, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Yonekawa, H.; Ogata, T. (National Defence Medical Coll., Tokorosawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scan in detecting the abdominal lymph node metastases, preoperative CT scan was performed in 16 patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Ten patients (62.5%) had pathological evidence of lymph node metastases in the abdominal cavity and 4 of them were identified to involve the para-aortic nodes. CT scan correctly demonstrated the lymph node metastases in the para-aortic and celiac axisis areas, but failed to detect other abdominal lymph node involvements, which were small enough to be excised by operation. The para-aortic nodes on the CT scan showed the following two features; one was nodular mass in shape, which did not obscure the aorta or inferior vena cava, and the other was conglomerated mass, which was difficult to be distinguished from the aorta. The former was resectable and the latter was not.

  2. Anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome: Multidetector computed tomography findings

    Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Yong Seok; Jung, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Polysplenia syndrome is a rare situs ambiguous anomaly associated with multiple spleens and anomalies of abdominal organs. Because most of the minor anomalies do not cause clinical symptoms, polysplenia syndrome is detected incidentally in the adults. Anomalies of abdominal organs may include multiple spleens of variable size or right-sided spleen, large midline or left-sided liver, midline gallbladder, biliary tract anomalies, short pancreas, right-sided stomach, intestinal malrotation, inferior vena cava interruption with azygos or hemiazygos continuation, and a preduodenal portal vein. As the multidetector computed tomography is increasingly used, situs anomalies will likely to be found with greater frequency in the adults. Therefore, radiologists should become familiar with these rare and peculiar anomalies of abdominal organs in polysplenia syndrome.

  3. Added value of lung window in detecting drug mules on non-contrast abdominal computed tomography.

    Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman; Vakilian, Fatemeh; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Pourghorban, Ramin

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the added value of lung window in non-contrast computed tomography (CT) of suspected body packers or stuffers. Forty suspected drug mules who were referred to our tertiary toxicology center were included. The final diagnosis of drug mule was based on the detection of packs in stool examination or surgery. Non-contrast CT scans were retrospectively interpreted by two blinded radiologists in consensus before and after reviewing the lung window images. The diagnostic performance of abdominal window scans alone and scans in both abdominal and lung windows were subsequently compared. Seven body packers and 21 body stuffers were identified. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of scans in detection of drug mules (either drug packers or stuffers) raised from 60.7, 52.1, and 72.5 to 64.2, 54.5, and 75.0 %, respectively, with a more number of packs being detected (114 vs. 105 packs). In the body packers group, the diagnostic performance of both abdominal windows scans and combined abdominal and lung windows scans were 100 %. In the body stuffers group, the sensitivity, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of scans increased from 47.6, 52.1, and 55.0 to 52.3, 54.5, and 57.5 %, respectively, after the addition of lung windows. Reviewing the lung window on non-contrast abdominal CT can be helpful in detection of drug mules. PMID:26830789

  4. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  5. The role of the unenhanced phase in the routine abdominal computed tomography

    Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Mattos, Leandro Accardo de; Pinto, Gustavo Alfredo Duarte Henriques; Scaciota, Andrea Puchnick; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: scoposl@uol.com.br; Franco, Rita Maria Aparecida Monteiro Moura [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Gastroclinica; Andreoni, Cassio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Urologia

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To determine the role of the unenhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography in patients without a definite diagnosis or undergoing tumor staging. Materials and methods: A prospective and transversal study was developed with 100 consecutive patients submitted to unenhanced and contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography. Two observers evaluated all the computed tomography images in the contrast-enhanced phase (first analysis) and, later, in the unenhanced phase (second analysis) in an attempt to establish the primary and secondary diagnoses as a function of the clinical indication for the study. The frequency of changes in the diagnoses resulting from a combined analysis of the images in the pre- and post-contrast phases was evaluated. Cases with changes in the diagnosis were reviewed by clinical specialists for determining possible changes in the therapeutic approach. Results: Primary and secondary diagnoses were changed in respectively 1 and 18 cases (p = 1.000; p = 0.143) as follows: steatosis, adrenal nodules, nephrolithiasis, renal cysts and hepatic calcification. In the cases where the unenhanced phase changed the diagnosis, the specialists changed the therapeutic approach in 14 of the 19 patients (73%) (p = 0.038). Conclusion: No significant change was observed in the primary or secondary diagnosis as a result of the findings in the unenhanced phase. However, changes in secondary diagnoses affected the therapeutic approach adopted by the specialists. (author)

  6. The role of the unenhanced phase in the routine abdominal computed tomography

    Objective: To determine the role of the unenhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography in patients without a definite diagnosis or undergoing tumor staging. Materials and methods: A prospective and transversal study was developed with 100 consecutive patients submitted to unenhanced and contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography. Two observers evaluated all the computed tomography images in the contrast-enhanced phase (first analysis) and, later, in the unenhanced phase (second analysis) in an attempt to establish the primary and secondary diagnoses as a function of the clinical indication for the study. The frequency of changes in the diagnoses resulting from a combined analysis of the images in the pre- and post-contrast phases was evaluated. Cases with changes in the diagnosis were reviewed by clinical specialists for determining possible changes in the therapeutic approach. Results: Primary and secondary diagnoses were changed in respectively 1 and 18 cases (p = 1.000; p = 0.143) as follows: steatosis, adrenal nodules, nephrolithiasis, renal cysts and hepatic calcification. In the cases where the unenhanced phase changed the diagnosis, the specialists changed the therapeutic approach in 14 of the 19 patients (73%) (p = 0.038). Conclusion: No significant change was observed in the primary or secondary diagnosis as a result of the findings in the unenhanced phase. However, changes in secondary diagnoses affected the therapeutic approach adopted by the specialists. (author)

  7. What is the real role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography?

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Galvao, Breno Vitor Tomaz; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Rios, Lucas Torres; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Department of Diagnostic Imaging

    2013-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study reviewed 219 consecutive contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography images acquired in a three-month period, for different clinical indications. For each study, two reports were issued - one based on the initial analysis of non-contrast-enhanced, arterial and portal phases only (first analysis), and a second reading of these phases added to the equilibrium phase (second analysis). At the end of both readings, differences between primary and secondary diagnoses were pointed out and recorded, in order to measure the impact of suppressing the equilibrium phase on the clinical outcome for each of the patients. The extension of the exact Fisher's test was utilized to evaluate the changes in the primary diagnosis (p < 0.05 as significant). Results: Among the 219 cases reviewed, the absence of the equilibrium phase determined change in the primary diagnosis in only one case (0.46%; p > 0.999). As regards secondary diagnoses, changes after the second analysis were observed in five cases (2.3%). Conclusion: For clinical scenarios such as cancer staging, acute abdomen and investigation for abdominal collections, the equilibrium phase is dispensable and does not offer any significant diagnostic contribution. (author)

  8. Effect of oral contrast administration for abdominal computed tomography in the evaluation of acute blunt trauma

    The objective of this study was to determine how frequently oral contrast medium (OC) is essential for computed tomography (CT) diagnosis of blunt abdominal injury and to quantify delay associated with OC administration and the incidence of adverse effects. In conclusion, OC is rarely essential for CT diagnostic of intraabdominal injury. It may improve sensitivity for pancreatic injury, but it does not help identify injuries requiring surgical treatment. Even with OC, CT is insensitive for intestinal injury. Vomiting and aspiration are significant risks. Use of OC adds a significant amount of time to ED evaluation. Adverse effects of OC administration, in this setting, mays outweigh its benefits. (N.C.)

  9. A Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis of Multiorgan Abdominal Motion

    Purpose: To characterize and quantify multiorgan respiration-induced motion in the abdomen in liver and pancreatic cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography scans were acquired for 18 patients treated for abdominal tumors. Contours of multiple abdominal organs were drawn by the radiation oncologist at one respiratory phase; these contours were propagated to other respiratory phases by deformable registration. Three-dimensional organ models were generated from the resulting contours at each phase. Motions of the bounding box and center of mass were extracted and analyzed for the clinical target volume and organs at risk. Results: On average, the center of mass motion for liver clinical target volumes was 9.7 mm (SD 5 mm) in the superior–inferior direction, with a range of 3 to 18 mm; for pancreatic tumors, the average was 5 mm (SD 1 mm) m with a range of 3 to 7 mm. Abdominal organs move in unison, but with varying amplitudes. Gating near exhale (T40–T60) reduces the range of motion by a factor of ∼10. Conclusion: We have used deformable registration to calculate the trajectories of abdominal organs in four dimensions, based on center of mass and bounding box motion metrics. Our results are compared with previously reported studies. Possible reasons for differences are discussed.

  10. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  11. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  12. The contribution of ultrasonography and computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis

    Paula, Ivie Braga de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra; Ferreira, Cid Sergio, E-mail: enio@medicina.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2014-01-15

    Introduction: paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a polymorphic systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease determined by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of the 10 leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the parasitic diseases endemic in Brazil. Objective: To identify the following aspects of PCM by ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT): abdominal changes, intensity and characteristics of the observed images, frequency of changes depending on clinical presentation, differences from other nosological entities. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study carried out with 35 patients with PCM treated at the Hospital das Clinicas (HC) at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). Patients with tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, generalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or in contact with silica or mines, as well as those with granulomatous diseases at any point in their current or past clinical history and detected through serology, anatomopathology or microbiological exams were excluded. Collected data were transcribed into SPSS for Windows® for statistical analysis. The study was approved by the UFMG Ethics Committee (082/00). Results and conclusion: CT and U.S. showed involvement of abdominal organs in all forms of PCM, including lymphadenopathy (40%), hepatomegaly (37%), splenomegaly (37%) and adrenal involvement (17%). Gallbladder and retroperitoneal musculature involvement were also observed, along with ascites and pleural effusion. Lymph node calcification, adrenal involvement and ascites constituted evidence of high probability of PCM even though these findings are not enough to differentiate PCM from tuberculosis. Chronic and sequelae forms, abdominal involvement is more frequent than indicated by the clinical manifestations. (author)

  13. A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms; Proposta para padronizacao do relatorio de tomografia computadorizada nos aneurismas da aorta abdominal

    Torlai, Fabiola Goda; Meirelles, Gustavo S. Portes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil); Miranda Junior, Fausto; Fonseca, Jose Honorio A.P. da [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia; Ajzen, Sergio; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: to propose a model to standardize computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Materials and methods: interviews were carried out with members of the Vascular Surgery Division of our institution, in the period between April and October 2004, aiming at developing a standardized model of computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Based on this model, a questionnaire was elaborated and sent to other nine surgeons, all of them experienced in the field of abdominal aortic surgery. The questionnaires response rate was 55.5% (5/9). Results: the most frequently mentioned parameters of interest for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms were: maximum diameter of proximal aortic neck, proximal aortic neck length to lower renal arteries, shape of proximal aortic neck, maximum diameter of the aneurysm and diameter of the common iliac arteries. These data allowed the development of a proposal for a model to standardize computed tomography reports. Conclusion: a model for standardized tomographic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms has met vascular surgeons' needs for following-up patients and planning their treatment. (author)

  14. Abdominal tuberculosis: a radiological review with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Tuberculosis is a disease whose incidence has increased principally as a consequence of HIV infection and use of immunosuppressive drugs. The abdomen is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It may be confused with several different conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and other infectious diseases. Delay in the diagnosis may result in significantly increased morbidity, and therefore an early recognition of the condition is essential for proper treatment. In the present essay, cases with confirmed diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis were assessed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating the involvement of different organs and systems, and presentations which frequently lead radiologists to a diagnostic dilemma. A brief literature review was focused on imaging findings and their respective prevalence. (author)

  15. Abdominal tuberculosis: a radiological review with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Rocha, Eduardo Lima da; Pedrassa, Bruno Cheregati; Bormann, Renata Lilian; Kierszenbaum, Marcelo Longo; Torres, Lucas Rios; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2015-05-15

    Tuberculosis is a disease whose incidence has increased principally as a consequence of HIV infection and use of immunosuppressive drugs. The abdomen is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It may be confused with several different conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and other infectious diseases. Delay in the diagnosis may result in significantly increased morbidity, and therefore an early recognition of the condition is essential for proper treatment. In the present essay, cases with confirmed diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis were assessed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating the involvement of different organs and systems, and presentations which frequently lead radiologists to a diagnostic dilemma. A brief literature review was focused on imaging findings and their respective prevalence. (author)

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis: a radiological review with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Eduardo Lima da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis is a disease whose incidence has increased principally as a consequence of HIV infection and use of immunosuppressive drugs. The abdomen is the most common site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It may be confused with several different conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and other infectious diseases. Delay in the diagnosis may result in significantly increased morbidity, and therefore an early recognition of the condition is essential for proper treatment. In the present essay, cases with confirmed diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis were assessed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating the involvement of different organs and systems, and presentations which frequently lead radiologists to a diagnostic dilemma. A brief literature review was focused on imaging findings and their respective prevalence.

  17. Abdominal fat-evaluation by use of single scan computed tomography

    Purpose: Several studies emphasised the importance of the relationship between intraabdominal and total body adipose tissue as a risk factor for the development of metabolic or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether a single scan computed tomography is able to determine the whole intraabdominal fat volume with high accuracy and reproducibility. Materials and methods: Regions of interests (ROIs) were drawn manually for measuring intraabdominal fat in 51 unsuspicious abdominal CT. Results: The sexual differentiation of adipose tissue already described in a lot of studies could be confirmed in this study. Fat still predominates in females in lower half of the body (gynoid obesity). In men it predominates in the upper half (android obesity). Significant correlation concerning measuring the whole intraabdominal fat volume could be found in L1-level in women (r=0.992) and in L2-level in men (r=0.992). Measurement of a single scan enables us to assess whole intraabdominal fat volume due to a special formula. Conclusion: The determination of intraabdominal fat measured by a single scan computed tomography is a procedure associated with high accuracy and reproducibility. (orig.)

  18. Optimization of contrast-enhanced multidetector abdominal computed tomography in sedated canine patients.

    Fields, Erica L; Robertson, Ian D; Brown, James C

    2012-01-01

    A major disadvantage of computed tomography for abdominal screening in dogs has been the need for general anesthesia to prevent motion artifacts. With multidetector helical CT, it is possible to decrease examination time, allowing patients to be scanned under sedation. It is also desirable to decrease tube loading to prolong x-ray tube life. To develop a protocol that will allow for examination of sedated patients with minimal image artifacts, milliamperage (mA) and helical pitch were varied, providing 16 experimental scan protocols. A standard clinical protocol was also tested, providing 17 protocols for evaluation. These protocols were tested, using a standard CT phantom, canine tissues in a water bath, and a canine cadaver. The cadaver images were scored semiquantitatively by three reviewers to determine the protocol with the best combination of speed and minimal image artifact. The optimized protocol was then applied to 27 sedated canine patients of three body weight categories. The images obtained were compared to the standard protocol by two reviewers for presence of motion, streak, and quantum mottle artifacts. There was significantly more streak artifact noted by one observer using the optimized study protocol, but no significant difference in any other category. Scanning under sedation was well tolerated in all patients, and sedated CT examination is a promising tool for screening abdominal disease in dogs. PMID:22612282

  19. ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISON OF ABDOMINAL MASSES BY SONOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    Suman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the role of ultrasonography and computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal masses , to compare their diagnostic accuracies , to evaluate the imaging features of lesions and to know the exact site of origin and extension into surrounding structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study of 104 patients with abdominal masses. USG was done with Toshiba SSA and Philips Envisor C machine and CT - Scan examination was performed in all patients on Philips brilliance 6 - slice whole body CT scanner. RESULTS: There were 35(30.62% cases of hepatobilliary masses , renal15(14.40%cases , pancreatic 7(6.72% cases , 5(4.80% cases of splenic masses and 30 ( 28.82% cases of pelvic masses.8 cases with other abdominal masses. Hepatic SOL were detected in 6(5.76% and 8(7.69% , 5(4.80%cases o f gall bladder masses and 4(3.85% , Omental caking was seen in 2(1.92% cases and 4(3.85% , calcification was seen in 2(1.92% cases and 4(3.85% cases , renal calculi were seen in 4(3.84% cases and6(5.77% cases , on sonography and CT examination. Peritone al deposits were seen in 3 ( 2.88% cases of ovarian carcinoma and unknown malignancy on US and in 5(4.88% cases on CT. Ascites and lymphadenopathy was more accurately detected on CT as compared to US.CT detected splenicinfarct s which were missed on ultrasonography. CONCLUSION : CT is more sensitive in evaluation of site and size of lesion , detection of calcification , adjacent organ infiltration and regional lymphadenopathy. The limitations of CT are ionizing radiation , high cost and contras t administration. Hence ultrasound should be the primary screening modality and CT should be used for further characterizing the masses.

  20. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Lucas Rios; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-06-15

    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  1. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  2. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Danilo Manuel Cerqueira Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis. Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14% cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%, steatosis (3%, adrenal nodule (0.7% and cholelithiasis (0.3%. Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis.

  3. Contrast medium usage reduction in abdominal computed tomography by using high-iodinated concentration contrast medium

    Suwannasri, A.; Kaewlai, R.; Asavaphatiboon, S.

    2016-03-01

    This study was to determine if administration of a low volume high-concentration iodinated contrast medium can preserve image quality in comparison with regular-concentration intravenous contrast medium in patient undergoing contrast-enhancement abdominal computed tomography (CT). Eighty-four patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of similar iodine delivery rate; A: 1.2 cc/kg of iomeprol-400, B: 1.0 cc/kg of iomeprol-400 and C: 1.5 cc/kg of ioversol-350. Contrast enhancement of the liver parenchyma, pancreas and aorta was quantitatively measured in Hounsfield units and qualitative assessed by a radiologist. T-test was used to evaluate contrast enhancement, and Chi-square test was used to evaluate qualitative image assessment, at significance level of 0.05 with 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant differences in contrast enhancement of liver parenchyma and pancreas between group A and group C in both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Group C showed superior vascular enhancement to group A and B on quantitative analysis.

  4. Relationship between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computed tomography and serum lipids in the elderly

    Imamura, Toshiharu; Kano, Hiroko; Shin, Kouichi; Konjiki, Ou; Ohsawa, Yoko; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    A nutritional assessment is necessary to evaluate the pathophysiological state of patients, and serum lipids are one of the factors which must be evaluated. Body fat distribution is considered to be associated with cardiac diseases, metabolic diseases and hypertension. In this study, we performed quantitative measurements of fat distribution by X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 31 elderly outpatients. Thirteen men (mean age 74.8 years) and 18 women (mean age 75.4 years) were examined by abdominal CT. All subjects had body mass indices within the normal range and did not have malignant disease, hyperlipidemia, liver dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. CT scans were carried out at the level of the middle abdomen, these scan slices included intraabdominal fat which consisted of omental retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues. Subcutaneous fat areas and intraabdoinal fat areas were measured from six 10-mm-thick slice films using a 2-dimensional computerized calculator. The relationship between serum lipids and fat distribution was also examined. The ratio of intraabdominal adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area (V/S) was higher in men than women. V/S correlated positively with serum triacylgycerol and correlated negatively with serum HDL-Ch. These results suggest that the measurement of body fat distribution is important to evaluate lipid metabolism and nutritional states in the elderly. (author).

  5. Comparison of Colour Duplex Ultrasound with Computed Tomography to Measure the Maximum Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmal Diameter

    C. Gray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximum diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is the main indication for surgery. This study compared colour duplex ultrasound (CDU and computed tomography (CT in assessing AAA diameter. Patients and Methods. Patients were included if they had both scans performed within 90 days. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, paired t-test, and limits of agreement (LOA were calculated for the whole group. Subgroup analysis of small (6.5 cm aneurysms was performed. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. 389 patients were included, giving 130 pairs of tests for comparison. Excellent correlation was in the whole group (r = 0.95 and in the subgroups (r = 0.94; 0.69; 0.96, resp.. Small LOA between the two imaging modalities was found in all subgroups. Conclusion. Small aneurysms can be accurately measured using CDU. CDU is preferable for small AAAs, but cannot supplant CT for planning aortic intervention.

  6. Relationship between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computed tomography and serum lipids in the elderly

    A nutritional assessment is necessary to evaluate the pathophysiological state of patients, and serum lipids are one of the factors which must be evaluated. Body fat distribution is considered to be associated with cardiac diseases, metabolic diseases and hypertension. In this study, we performed quantitative measurements of fat distribution by X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 31 elderly outpatients. Thirteen men (mean age 74.8 years) and 18 women (mean age 75.4 years) were examined by abdominal CT. All subjects had body mass indices within the normal range and did not have malignant disease, hyperlipidemia, liver dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. CT scans were carried out at the level of the middle abdomen, these scan slices included intraabdominal fat which consisted of omental retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues. Subcutaneous fat areas and intraabdoinal fat areas were measured from six 10-mm-thick slice films using a 2-dimensional computerized calculator. The relationship between serum lipids and fat distribution was also examined. The ratio of intraabdominal adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area (V/S) was higher in men than women. V/S correlated positively with serum triacylgycerol and correlated negatively with serum HDL-Ch. These results suggest that the measurement of body fat distribution is important to evaluate lipid metabolism and nutritional states in the elderly. (author)

  7. 3D SPIRAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF AN ABDOMINAL TUMOUR

    R.C. Tiutiuca; Iuliana Eva

    2006-01-01

    Patients with digestive illnesses requires a full exploration, cases where imagistic assets support (echographic examination, radiological data, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) are very usefully. Computed tomography, in this process, has a special value. The results from axial images are sustained by the informations supplied from three-dimensional reconstruction processes (3D reconstruction) with relevant importance in establishment of diagnosis and therapeutic plan.

  8. Abdominal Computed tomography of 25 patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy Syndrome

    Arrive, L.; Frija, J.; Couderc, L.J.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1986-03-01

    An abdominal computed tomographic examination was performed to 20 patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to 5 patients with Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS). Intraabdominal lymph nodes were seen in 18 out of 20 cases of AIDS and in 5 cases of LAS. Lymph nodes have a normal size or are slightly enlarged but they are too numerous. Splenomegaly was found in 17 patients. Rectal modifications secondary to a proctitis were seen in the homosexual patients.

  9. Abdominal Computed tomography of 25 patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy Syndrome

    An abdominal computed tomographic examination was performed to 20 patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to 5 patients with Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS). Intraabdominal lymph nodes were seen in 18 out of 20 cases of AIDS and in 5 cases of LAS. Lymph nodes have a normal size or are slightly enlarged but they are too numerous. Splenomegaly was found in 17 patients. Rectal modifications secondary to a proctitis were seen in the homosexual patients

  10. Abdominal body composition measured by quantitative computed tomography and risk of non-spine fractures

    Sheu, Y; Marshall, L M; Holton, K F;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of abdominal adiposity and muscle on fracture is unclear in older men; therefore, we examined the association among 749 men aged 65+. Among various adipose tissues and muscle groups, lower psoas muscle volume and higher fatty infiltration of abdominal muscle contribute to higher fractu...

  11. Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography

    Jahanbakhsh; Hashemi; Yasmin; Davoudi; Mina; Taghavi; Masoud; Pezeshki; Rad; Amien; Mahajeri; Moghadam

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2%(positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography.METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 m L of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 m L of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent(P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent(P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent.

  12. The efficacy of ultrasonography in hemodynamically stable children with blunt abdominal trauma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography

    Purpose: In this prospective study we aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography (US) in hemodynamically stable children after blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) using computed tomography (CT) as the gold standard. Materials and methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 96 children with BAT were evaluated prospectively. CT was performed first, followed by US. US and CT examinations were independently evaluated by two radiologists for free fluid and organ injury. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and overall accuracy of US were assessed regarding CT as the gold standard. Results: Overall 128 organ injuries were determined in 96 patients with CT; however, 20 (15.6%) of them could not be seen with US. Free intraabdominal fluid (FIF) was seen in 82 of 96 patients by CT (85.4%) and eight of them (9.7%) could not be seen by US. We found that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and overall accuracy of the US for free intra-abdominal fluid were 90.2, 100, 100, 63.6 and 91.7%, respectively. Conclusions: US for BAT in children is highly accurate and specific. It is highly sensitive in detecting liver, spleen and kidney injuries whereas its sensitivity is moderate for the detection of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and pancreatic injuries

  13. Usefulness of computed tomography in patients with right inferior abdominal quadrant pain: acute appendicitis and its alternative diagnosis

    Purpose: To review the tomography findings of the acute appendicitis, their complications and alternative diagnosis. To value the use of helicoidal computed tomography (HCT) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and in the study of patients with right inferior abdominal quadrant (RIQ) pain and acute abdomen, for diagnosis and eventual complications, in order to decide treatment. Materials and method: For five months, the populations included in this retrospectively study were all patients delivered for presenting with RIQ pain for a HCT exam. These exams were made with oral and intravenous contrasts, when there were not contraindications. The HCT results were correlated with clinical follow up, surgery and histopathologic exams. Results: Over a total of 100 patients studied, 53 presented tomographic diagnosis of appendicitis, 22 of which presented perforation signs; 27 showed an alternative diagnosis (ovaries follicles, ureteral litiasis, tiphlitis, diverticulitis, colitis, salpingitis), 18 patients did not present tomographic findings to support the clinical symptoms and 2 presented indeterminated results. These data represented a sensibility of 100%, specificity of 95,7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 96,2% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% for the tomography diagnosis of acute appendicitis and a sensibility of 100%, specificity of 81,8%, PPV of 95,1% and NPV of 100% for the tomography diagnosis of the different etiology in patient with right inferior acute abdomen. Conclusion: HCT is extremely useful in the study of patients with acute abdomen with origin in the RIQ, not only to make a diagnosis, but also to evaluate the complications, so as to decide proper treatment. (authors)

  14. Quality of abdominal computed tomography angiography: hand versus mechanical intravenous contrast administration in children

    Abdominal CT angiography has been increasingly used for evaluation of various conditions related to abdominal vasculature in the pediatric population. However, no direct comparison has evaluated the quality of abdominal CT angiography in children using hand versus mechanical administration of intravenous (IV) contrast agent. To compare hand versus mechanical administration of IV contrast agent in the quality of abdominal CT angiography in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical record to identify pediatric patients (≤18 years) who had abdominal CT angiography between August 2012 and August 2013. The information obtained includes: (1) type of administration of IV contrast agent (hand [group 1] versus mechanical [group 2]), (2) size (gauge) of IV catheter, (3) amount of contrast agent administered and (4) rate of contrast agent administration (ml/s). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality. Qualitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the region of interest (ROI) based on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation of each CT angiography examination was performed by measuring the Hounsfield unit (HU) using an ROI within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and the inferior mesenteric artery) for each child. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F-test was applied to compare contrast enhancement within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and inferior mesenteric artery) between hand administration and mechanical administration of IV contrast methods with adjustment for age. We identified 46 pediatric patients (24 male, 22 female; mean age 7.3 ± 5.5 years; range 5 weeks to 18 years) with abdominal CT angiography performed during the study period. Of these patients, 16 (35%; 1.7 ± 2.2 years; range 5 weeks to 5 years) had hand

  15. Quality of abdominal computed tomography angiography: hand versus mechanical intravenous contrast administration in children

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Abdominal CT angiography has been increasingly used for evaluation of various conditions related to abdominal vasculature in the pediatric population. However, no direct comparison has evaluated the quality of abdominal CT angiography in children using hand versus mechanical administration of intravenous (IV) contrast agent. To compare hand versus mechanical administration of IV contrast agent in the quality of abdominal CT angiography in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical record to identify pediatric patients (≤18 years) who had abdominal CT angiography between August 2012 and August 2013. The information obtained includes: (1) type of administration of IV contrast agent (hand [group 1] versus mechanical [group 2]), (2) size (gauge) of IV catheter, (3) amount of contrast agent administered and (4) rate of contrast agent administration (ml/s). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality. Qualitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the region of interest (ROI) based on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation of each CT angiography examination was performed by measuring the Hounsfield unit (HU) using an ROI within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and the inferior mesenteric artery) for each child. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F-test was applied to compare contrast enhancement within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and inferior mesenteric artery) between hand administration and mechanical administration of IV contrast methods with adjustment for age. We identified 46 pediatric patients (24 male, 22 female; mean age 7.3 ± 5.5 years; range 5 weeks to 18 years) with abdominal CT angiography performed during the study period. Of these patients, 16 (35%; 1.7 ± 2.2 years; range 5 weeks to 5 years) had hand

  16. A study of preoperative diagnosis using abdominal computed tomography in acute appendicitis

    To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in differential diagnosis and decisions for operative indications in patients with acute appendicitis, CT was done in 45 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. CT was retrospectively analyzed for the following findings: enlarged appendix, hazy periappendiceal density, increased enhancement of the appendiceal wall, deficiency of the appendiceal wall, appendiceal stones, abscess, and ascites. Surgery was conducted 28 patients, of whom 25 were pathologically diagnosed with gangrenous or phlegmonous appendicitis. Seventeen improved without surgery, i.e., 9 with acute appendicitis, 7 with diverticulitis of the colon, and 1 with pelvic peritonitis. Except for 3 with severe abscess, enlarged appendix, hazy periappendiceal density, and increased enhancement of the appendiceal wall were observed in 22 with phlegmonous or gangrenous appendicitis. In 25 with phlegmonous or gangrenous appendicitis, appendiceal stones were observed in 32% and abscess or ascites in 60%. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in CT diagnosis images were 100%, 80%, and 96%. CT findings thus provide useful information in differential diagnosis and decisions on operative indication in patients with acute appendicitis. (author)

  17. Abdominal computed tomography during pregnancy for suspected appendicitis: a 5-year experience at a maternity hospital.

    Shetty, Mahesh K; Garrett, Nan M; Carpenter, Wendy S; Shah, Yogesh P; Roberts, Candace

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) in a pregnant patient with right lower quadrant pain in whom there was a clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis. During a 5-year period the clinical records of all pregnant women who underwent imaging examination for clinically suspected appendicitis were reviewed. The imaging findings were correlated with patient management and final outcome. Thirty-nine pregnant patients were referred for imaging, of which 35 underwent initial evaluation with sonography, 23 of these women underwent a computed tomographic examination, and an additional 4 patients were directly imaged with CT without earlier sonographic assessment. Surgery confirmed appendicitis in all 5 patients who were operated on on the basis of findings of appendicitis on a CT scan. Two patients underwent surgery based on an alternate diagnosis suggested preoperatively (tubal torsion = 1, ovarian torsion = 1). All patients with negative findings at CT had an uneventful clinical course. In those patients who were evaluated only with ultrasound, a diagnosis of appendicitis was missed in 5 patients. The sensitivity of CT in the diagnosis of appendicitis in our study group was 100%, compared with a sensitivity of 46.1% for ultrasound. CT provides an accurate diagnosis in patients suspected to have acute appendicitis and is of value in avoiding false negative exploratory laparatomy with its consequent risk of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Although sonography is the preferred initial imaging modality as its lack of ionizing radiation, CT is more accurate in providing a timely diagnosis and its use is justified to reduce maternal mortality and mortality in patients with appendicitis. PMID:20102691

  18. Comparison of spirometry and abdominal height as four-dimensional computed tomography metrics in lung

    An important consideration in four-dimensional CT scanning is the selection of a breathing metric for sorting the CT data and modeling internal motion. This study compared two noninvasive breathing metrics, spirometry and abdominal height, against internal air content, used as a surrogate for internal motion. Both metrics were shown to be accurate, but the spirometry showed a stronger and more reproducible relationship than the abdominal height in the lung. The abdominal height was known to be affected by sensor placement and patient positioning while the spirometer exhibited signal drift. By combining these two, a normalization of the drift-free metric to tidal volume may be generated and the overall metric precision may be improved

  19. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m2 ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R2=0.474).

  20. The diagnosis and management of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a comparison of computed tomography, ultrasound and aortography

    It is suggested that all clinically significant abdominal aneurysms can be shown by infusion C.T. or ultrasound and routine aortography is no longer indicated. These methods give more information about wall thickness and wall thrombus but do not give detailed information about the extent of an aneurysm and its exact relationship to important aortic branches. They should complement rather than replace aortography

  1. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography; Diagnostico da esteatose hepatica pela tomografia computadorizada de abdome com meio de contraste intravenoso

    Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Santos, Jaime de Vargas Conde dos; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli Von; Shigueoka, David Carlos; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of abdominal computed tomography in the assessment of hepatic steatosis using the portal phase with a simplified calculation method as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase. Materials and methods: in the present study, 150 patients were retrospectively evaluated by means of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. One hundred patients had hepatic steatosis and 50 were control subjects. For the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in the portal phase, the authors considered a result of < 104 HU calculated by the formula [L - 0.3 Multiplication-Sign (0.75 Multiplication-Sign P + 0.25 Multiplication-Sign A)] / 0.7, where L, P and A represent the attenuation of the liver, of the main portal vein and abdominal aorta, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated, using non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the reference standard. Results: the simplified calculation method with portal phase for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis showed 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, negative predictive value of 100% and positive predictive value of 75.8%. The rate of false positive results was 64%. False negative results were not observed. Conclusion: The portal phase presents an excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, as compared with the non-contrast-enhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography. However, the method has low specificity. (author)

  2. Multidetector computed tomography in abdominal emergencies; Multidetektor-CT bei abdominellen Notfaellen

    Zorger, N.; Schreyer, A.G. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2009-06-15

    Abdominal emergencies encompass traumatic events in the region of the abdomen as well as the clinical term acute abdomen. Multidetector CT (MDCT) represents one of the most important imaging modalities for detection and correct diagnosis in such abdominal emergencies. Based on the acquired data MDCT allows a stable imaging of the abdomen in an extremely short time even in critically ill patients. Multiplanar reconstructions can be created based on the high resolution data allowing an impressive visualization of the pathology. In this review article the most important abdominal pathologies of the abdomen diagnosed by MDCT are presented with special emphasis on the liver, bile ducts, spleen and kidneys as well as the gastro-intestinal tract. Additionally, MDCT imaging of the individual organ regions will be dealt with in detail. (orig.) [German] Abdominelle Notfaelle beinhalten sowohl traumatische Ereignisse im Bereich des Bauchraums als auch den klinischen Begriff des ''akuten Abdomens''. Die Darstellung solcher Notfaelle mittels Multidetektor-Computertomographie (MDCT) ist eine leistungsfaehige Methode zur Detektion und richtigen Diagnosefindung der abdominellen Notfaelle. Die MDCT erlaubt eine stabile Bildgebung des Abdomens in extrem kurzer Zeit bei schwerkranken Patienten und zudem multiplanare Rekonstruktionen, basierend auf den akquirierten Rohdatensaetzen mit der Moeglichkeit, zusaetzlich Befunde anschaulicher zu visualisieren. In diesem Uebersichtsartikel werden die MDCT-Charakteristika verschiedener abdomineller Notfaelle der wichtigsten Organregionen des Abdomens, wie der Leber und der Gallenwege, des Pankreas, der Milz und der Niere sowie des Gastrointestinaltrakts erlaeutert. Dabei wird speziell auf die Multidetektor-CT-Technik der einzelnen Organregionen eingegangen. (orig.)

  3. Abdominal lymph node metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed by computed tomography and angiography

    Nakamura, Hironobu; Oi, Hiromichi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Microbial Diseases); Tanaka, Takeshi; Sai, Soomi; Hori, Shinichi

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 164 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were studied, and abdominal lymph node metastases were detected in 13 cases. Most of these lymph node metastases occured in periportal, peripancreatic and paraaortic lymph nodes. Ten instances of each these metastases were identified by CT. Six of the patients had metastases in all three sites. In 9 of 13 cases, lymph node metastases were demonstrated by angiography and various degrees of contrast material stain were seen. Lymph node metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is apt to be hypervascular. Most of hepatocellular carcinoma with lymph node metastasis showed infiltrative growth, and tumor thrombosis in the portal vein was commonly complicated.

  4. An Incidentally Found Inflamed Uterine Myoma Causing Low Abdominal Pain, Using Tc-99m-Tektrotyd Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography-CT Hybrid Imaging

    Zandieh, Shahin; Schütz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated ch...

  5. 10% low density corn-oil emulsion oral contrast agent for abdominal computed tomography

    CT of the gastrointestinal tract is commonly performed after administration of a high-density diluted iodinated oral contrast material. However, because if inadequate mixing of the contrast material with the gastrointestinal contents, pseudotumor and poor mucosal visualization are frequently shown on abdominal CT. To overcome these problem, 10% corn oil emulsion (COE) is tested as an alternative oral contrast agent in 40 patients. We analyse patients tolerance, gastric mucosal visualization and discrimination of pancreas from the duodenal C-loop to 10% COE in 40 patients compared with those obtained from 35 patients, who was received high-density diluted iodinated oral contrast agent (gastrografin). The results are as follows : 1. Patients' tolerance to 10% COE is similar to that to conventional oral contrast agent. 2. Image of the gastric mucosa from patients receiving 10% COE is superior to that receiving oral contrast agent. 3. The discrimination between pancreatic head from duodenal C-loop is better in patients receiving 10% COE than in patients receiving conventional oral contrast agent. 4. In patients receiving 10% COE, differentiation of cystic masses from intestinal loops is sometimes difficult. The results of this study indicate that 10% COE may be useful oral contrast agent for optimal visualization of gastric mucosa and pancreatico-duodenal discrimination on abdominal CT

  6. Quantitative evaluation of rigid and elastic registrations for abdominal perfusion imaging with X-ray computed tomography

    Objectives. Dynamic X-ray computed tomography with contrast agent injection allows quantifying the tumor response to an anti-angiogenic treatment. For hepatic tumors, it is crucial to correct for respiratory movements to ensure a good quantification of perfusion parameters. Material and Methods. Two registration models were tested on eight dynamic exams: 1) rigid model and 2) elastic model based on Free Form Deformation. Each exam included about 50 volumes acquired under free-breathing conditions. The registration methods were quantitatively and automatically evaluated by defining a global score. This score was based on a Dice index and measured the superimposition rate between corresponding bony structures of different frames of the temporal exam. Results. Before registration, the mean value of the score was 0.78. After rigid registration, these values were globally lower with an average of 0.73. After elastic registration, a mean score of 0.90 was reached which was much higher than before registration. Conclusion. This automatic evaluation showed its interest for controlling the quality of dynamic CT registrations. It also helped proving that elastic methods are much more efficient than rigid methods for registering abdominal dynamic volumes, when considering the whole field of view. (authors)

  7. The usefulness of computed tomography in evaluating patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    During the past 28 months since the opening of our critical care medical center, a total of 31 patients with blunt abdominal trauma underwent CT scanning. CT findings were analyzed and compared for intraoperative findings and clinical courses. Parenchymal organ trauma is easily able to be diagnosed by CT scan, which provides definite information about the site, shape and bleeding condition of the traumatic lesion. A high-density hematoma in the mesenterium indicating the site of trauma, following bowel ischemia should be carefully observed. For assessment of bowel trauma with any modality, careful observation is also needed, because there are almost no findings in the early stage. Contrast CT was valuable in that we could obtain definite information on the site of bleeding, roughly know the vascular injury, and examine the urinary tract by additional plain film. (author)

  8. A comparative study to validate the use of ultrasonography and computed tomography in patients with post-operative intra-abdominal sepsis

    Purpose: To validate abdominal ultrasonography and helical computed tomography in detecting causes for sepsis in patients after abdominal surgery and to determine improved criteria for its use. Materials and methods: Eighty-five consecutive surgical patients primarily operated for non-infectious disease were included in this prospective study. Forty-one patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. All patients were suspected of an intra-abdominal sepsis after abdominal surgery. Both ultrasonography (US) and helical abdominal computed tomography (CT) were performed to investigate the origin of an intra-abdominal sepsis. The images of both US and CT were interpreted on a four-point scale by different radiologists or residents in radiology, the investigators were blinded of each other's test. Interpretations of US and CT were compared with a reference standard which was defined by the result of diagnostic aspiration of suspected fluid collections (re)laparotomy, clinical course or the opinion of an independent panel. Likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities were calculated and interobserver agreement was determined using κ statistics. Results: The overall prevalence of an abdominal infection was 0.49. The likelihood ratio (LR) of a positive test-result for US was 1.33 (95% CI: 0.8-2.5) and for CT scan 2.53 (95% CI: 1.4-5.0); corresponding post-test probabilities for US 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42-0.70) and for CT 0.71 (95% CI: 0.57-0.83). The LR of a negative test-result was, respectively, 0.60 (95% CI: 0.3-1.3) and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06-0.5); corresponding post-test probabilities for US 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20-0.57) and for CT 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06-0.32) were calculated. Conclusion: Computed tomography can be used as the imaging modality of choice in patients suspected of intra-abdominal sepsis after abdominal surgery. Because of the low discriminatory power ultrasonography should not be performed as initial diagnostic test

  9. Reproducibility of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Diameter Measurement and Growth Evaluation on Axial and Multiplanar Computed Tomography Reformations

    Purpose: To compare different methods measuring abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximal diameter (Dmax) and its progression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan. Materials and Methods: Forty AAA patients with two MDCT scans acquired at different times (baseline and follow-up) were included. Three observers measured AAA diameters by seven different methods: on axial images (anteroposterior, transverse, maximal, and short-axis views) and on multiplanar reformation (MPR) images (coronal, sagittal, and orthogonal views). Diameter measurement and progression were compared over time for the seven methods. Reproducibility of measurement methods was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Dmax, as measured on axial slices at baseline and follow-up (FU) MDCTs, was greater than that measured using the orthogonal method (p = 0.046 for baseline and 0.028 for FU), whereas Dmax measured with the orthogonal method was greater those using all other measurement methods (p-value range: <0.0001–0.03) but anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.18 baseline and 0.10 FU). The greatest interobserver ICCs were obtained for the orthogonal and transverse methods (0.972) at baseline and for the orthogonal and sagittal MPR images at FU (0.973 and 0.977). Interobserver ICC of the orthogonal method to document AAA progression was greater (ICC = 0.833) than measurements taken on axial images (ICC = 0.662–0.780) and single-plane MPR images (0.772–0.817). Conclusion: AAA Dmax measured on MDCT axial slices overestimates aneurysm size. Diameter as measured by the orthogonal method is more reproducible, especially to document AAA progression.

  10. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. PMID:26932162

  11. Successful treatment of a free-moving abdominal mass with radiation therapy guided by cone-beam computed tomography: a case report

    Shihadeh Ferial

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Because tumors in the abdomen can change position, targeting these tumors for radiation therapy should be done with caution; use of daily image-guided radiation therapy is advised. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian man with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma who was referred for palliative radiation therapy for an abdominopelvic tumor. Computed tomography was used to generate images for radiation treatment planning. Comparison of those planning images with a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan ordered during the planning period revealed that the tumor had moved from one side of the abdomen to the other during the three-day interval between scans. To account for this unusual tumor movement, we obtained a second set of planning computed tomography scans and used a Varian cone-beam computed tomography scanner with on-board imaging capability to target the tumor before each daily treatment session, leading to successful treatment and complete resolution of the mass. Conclusion Abdominal masses associated with the mesentery should be considered highly mobile; thus, radiation therapy for such masses should be used with the utmost caution. Modern radiation therapy techniques offer the ability to verify the tumor location in real time and shift the treatment ports accordingly over the course of treatment.

  12. A prospective study assessing the efficacy of abdominal computed tomography scan without bowel preparation in diagnosing intestinal wall and luminal lesions in patients presenting to the emergency room with abdominal complaints

    Michal Mizrahi; Yoav Mintz; Avraham Rivkind; David Kisselgoff; Eugene Libson; Mayer Brezis; Eran Goldin; Oren Shibolet

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the positive predictive value of abdominal non-prepared computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing intestinal lumen or wall lesions in patients presenting to the emergency room (ER) with abdominal complaints.METHODS: For 1-year we prospectively evaluated all ER patients hospitalized after abdominal CT scan detected either intraluminal or intestinal wall lesions. These patients underwent colonoscopy serving as gold standard. Patients with prior abdominal pathology or CT findings of appendicitis or diverticulitis were excluded.RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-eight abdominopelvic CT scans were performed in the ER, 96 had positive colonic findings. Sixty-two patients were excluded, 46 because of diverticulitis or appendicitis, 16 because of prior abdominal pathology. Of the remaining 34 patients, 14 did not undergo colonoscopy during hospitalization.Twenty eligible patients were included in the study. The positive predictive value of the CT scans performed in the ER was calculated to be 45% (95% CI 25-67).CONCLUSION: CT findings correlated with colonoscopic findings only in approximately half of the cases. Relying on non-prepared CT scan findings in planning patient management and colonoscopy may lead to unnecessary diagnostic work-ups.

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses What is CT (Computed Tomography) of ... of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  16. Discrepancies in determination of abdominal aortic aneurysms maximum diameter and growth rate, using axial and orhtogonal computed tomography measurements

    Purpose: Maximum diameter and growth rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) which are currently used as the only variables to set the indication for elective repair are recorded through computed tomography (CT) measurements on an axial plane or on an orthogonal plane that is perpendicular to vessel centerline, interchangeably. We will attempt to record possible discrepancies between the two methods, identify whether such differences could influence therapeutic decisions and determine in which cases this should be expected. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed sixty CT-scans performed in thirty-nine patients. Three-dimensional reconstruction of AAAs has been performed and differences in maximum diameter measured on axial and orthogonal planes were recorded. A measure for asymmetry was introduced termed ShapeIndex defined as the value of section minor over major axis and was related with differences in maximum diameter recordings. Growth rates were also determined using both axial and orthogonal measurements. Results: Axial measurements overestimate maximum diameter by 2 ± 2.7 mm (P < 0.001) with a range of 0–12.3 mm. Overall, 20% of the CTs had an axial maximum diameter >5.5 cm indicating the need for intervention whereas, orthogonal diameter was below that threshold. Asymmetry of the axial sections with ShapeIndex ≤ 0.8 was found to be related to an overestimation of maximum diameter by >5 mm. There were no significant differences in growth rates when determined using orthogonal or axial measurements in both examinations (median growth rate: 2.3 mm and 3.3 mm respectively P = 0.2). However there were significant differences when orthogonal measurements were used at initial and axial measurements used at follow-up examination or vice versa (median growth rate: 4.9 mm and 0.9 mm respectively P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although the mean difference between measurements is low there is a wide range among cases, mainly observed in asymmetrical AAAs

  17. Discrepancies in determination of abdominal aortic aneurysms maximum diameter and growth rate, using axial and orhtogonal computed tomography measurements

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos, E-mail: kontopodisn@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion (Greece); Metaxa, Eleni, E-mail: emmetaxa@gmail.com [Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Gionis, Michalis, E-mail: gkionismichalis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion (Greece); Papaharilaou, Yannis, E-mail: yannisp@iacm.forth.gr [Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Ioannou, Christos V., E-mail: ioannou@med.uoc.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Maximum diameter and growth rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) which are currently used as the only variables to set the indication for elective repair are recorded through computed tomography (CT) measurements on an axial plane or on an orthogonal plane that is perpendicular to vessel centerline, interchangeably. We will attempt to record possible discrepancies between the two methods, identify whether such differences could influence therapeutic decisions and determine in which cases this should be expected. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed sixty CT-scans performed in thirty-nine patients. Three-dimensional reconstruction of AAAs has been performed and differences in maximum diameter measured on axial and orthogonal planes were recorded. A measure for asymmetry was introduced termed ShapeIndex defined as the value of section minor over major axis and was related with differences in maximum diameter recordings. Growth rates were also determined using both axial and orthogonal measurements. Results: Axial measurements overestimate maximum diameter by 2 ± 2.7 mm (P < 0.001) with a range of 0–12.3 mm. Overall, 20% of the CTs had an axial maximum diameter >5.5 cm indicating the need for intervention whereas, orthogonal diameter was below that threshold. Asymmetry of the axial sections with ShapeIndex ≤ 0.8 was found to be related to an overestimation of maximum diameter by >5 mm. There were no significant differences in growth rates when determined using orthogonal or axial measurements in both examinations (median growth rate: 2.3 mm and 3.3 mm respectively P = 0.2). However there were significant differences when orthogonal measurements were used at initial and axial measurements used at follow-up examination or vice versa (median growth rate: 4.9 mm and 0.9 mm respectively P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although the mean difference between measurements is low there is a wide range among cases, mainly observed in asymmetrical AAAs

  18. The role of computed tomography in evaluating body composition and the influence of reduced muscle mass on clinical outcome in abdominal malignancy: a systematic review.

    Gibson, D J; Burden, S T; Strauss, B J; Todd, C; Lal, S

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that there were 3.45 million new cases and 1.75 million deaths from cancer in Europe in 2012. Colorectal cancer was one of the most common cancers, accounting for 13% of new cases and 12.2% of all deaths. Conditions causing reduced muscle mass, such as sarcopenia, can increase the morbidity and mortality of people with cancer. Computed tomography (CT) scans can provide accurate, high-quality information on body composition, including muscle mass. To date, there has been no systematic review on the role of CT scans in identifying sarcopenia in abdominal cancer. This review aimed to examine the role of CT scans in determining the influence of reduced muscle mass on clinical outcome in abdominal cancer. A systematic review of English-language articles published in 2000 or later was conducted. Articles included cohort, randomised controlled trials and validation studies. Participants were people diagnosed with abdominal cancer who had undergone a CT scan. Data extraction and critical appraisal were undertaken. Ten cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies demonstrated that low muscle mass was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome, with six specifically demonstrating reduced survival rates. Eight studies demonstrated that a greater number of patients (27.3-66.7%) were identified as sarcopenic using CT scans compared with numbers identified as malnourished using body mass index. CT scans can identify reduced muscle mass and predict negative cancer outcomes in people with abdominal malignancies, where traditional methods of assessment are less effective. PMID:25782424

  19. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Kyong [Yonsei University, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. (orig.)

  20. Quantitative assessment of relationships between abdominal aortic calcification and bone mineral content of lumbar vertebrae in the elderly by computed tomography

    The relationship between abdominal aortic calcification and osteoporosis in 224 elderly patients (82 men, 142 women, age ranging from 60 to 94 yrs [77.8±7.6]) was investigated by computed tomography. We calculated the aortic calcification index (ACI;%) of calcification volume to aortic volume within 10 slices in the lower abdominal aorta, and measured the bone mineral content (BMC; mg/cm3) of three lumbar vertebral bodies (the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th) using a calibrated phantom. ACI increased, but BMC decreased gradually with aging. ACIs in women were significantly less in the 60s decade of age (p<0.01), but higher in the 80s and 90s (NS) than those in men. BMCs in women were significantly less than those in men in the 70s and 80s (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). In both the 70s and 80s, there were significant negative correlations between ACIs and BMCs in women (70s: n=61, r=-0.371, p<0.01; 80s: n=55, r=-0.334, p<0.01), but was no relation between them in men. These results suggested that in the elderly women, abdominal aortic calcification is closely related to the bone loss caused by postmenopausal osteoporosis. (author)

  1. Differentiation between tuberculosis and leukemia in abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes: evaluation with contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography

    Ge Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics of tubercular vs. leukemic involvement of abdominopelvic lymph nodes using multidetector computed tomography (CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed multidetector computed tomography features including lymph node size, shape, enhancement patterns, and anatomical distribution, in 106 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, untreated tuberculosis (55 patients; 52% or leukemia (51 patients; 48%. In patients with leukemia, 32 (62.7% had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and 19 (37.3% had acute leukemias; of these, 10 (19.6% had acute myeloid leukemia, and 9 (17.6% had acute lymphocytic leukemia. RESULTS: The lower para-aortic (30.9% for tuberculosis, 63.2% for acute leukemias and 87.5% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and inguinal (9.1% for tuberculosis, 57.9% for acute leukemias and 53.1% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymph nodes were involved more frequently in the three types of leukemia than in tuberculosis (both with p <0.017. Tuberculosis showed peripheral enhancement, frequently with a multilocular appearance, in 43 (78.2% patients, whereas patients with leukemia (78.9% for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, 87.5% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia demonstrated predominantly homogeneous enhancement (both with p <0.017. For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, the analysis showed that a peripheral enhancement pattern had a sensitivity of 78.2%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 88.7%. For the diagnosis of leukemia, the analysis showed that a homogeneous enhancement pattern was associated with a sensitivity of 84.3%, a specificity of 94.5%, and an accuracy of 89.6%. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the anatomical distribution and enhancement patterns of lymphadenopathy seen on multidetector computed tomography are useful for differentiating between untreated tuberculosis and leukemia of the abdominopelvic lymph nodes.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  3. Can lab data be used to reduce abdominal computed tomography (CT) usage in young adults presenting to the emergency department with nontraumatic abdominal pain?

    Scheinfeld, Meir H; Mahadevia, Soham; Stein, Evan G; Freeman, Katherine; Rozenblit, Alla M

    2010-09-01

    We sought to determine whether laboratory parameters could be found, predictive of a negative abdominal CT scan in young adults with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Following institutional review board approval, we evaluated CT reports of 522 patients, aged 21-35 years old, who presented to the Emergency Department with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Bivariate analyses relating ten laboratory parameters to whether the CT detected a cause for abdominal pain were conducted. A multivariate logistic regression model was then derived, with all variables in the final model significant at p meeting inclusion criteria, 45% had a cause for pain demonstrated by CT. Predictors of a negative CT in men were normal hematocrit and negative urine blood (p = 0.045, p = 0.016, respectively), and in women normal hematocrit, granulocyte percent, and alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.023, p = 0.039, p sufficient to offer reassurance that a CT is not necessary in a young adult patient with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Alternative strategies should be considered to decrease the use of CT, and its associated radiation exposure, in young adults with nontraumatic abdominal pain. PMID:20306104

  4. COMPARATIVE ROLE AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE GRADING OF HEMOPERITONEUM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE GRADING OF ORGAN INJURY

    Kunwarpal; Sukhdeep; Thukral; Amandeep; Harmeet; Sonali

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US) and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each moda...

  5. The use of fat emulsion ingested into alimentary tract in abdominal computed tomography for the detection of extracanal infiltration of cancer

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed with 200 - 500 ml of fat emulsion (FM) ingested per os or per anus in 30 patients suspected of having infiltration of advanced gastrointestinal cancer into the other organs. FM was useful for distinguishing the alimentary tract from the abdominal cavity tissues and for clearly delineating the relation between the tumor and the other organs. CT showed the disappearance of the fat tissues surrounding the lesion and the boundary between the mass and its adjacent organs in 10 patients with surgically-proven cancer infiltration into the other organs. This is thus considered specific to cancer infiltration. Furry images of the wall were not seen in 14 patients with negative or questionable infiltration into the serous membrane (SM), but seen in 14 (78 %) of 18 patients with positive SM infiltration. The CT appearance seems to be related to SM infiltration. Similarly, this was seen in 11 (92 %) of 12 patients with gastrointestinal stricture, which suggests the possibility of reflecting inflammation and edema of the alimentary tract due to stricture. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Usefulness of measurement of the outer appendiceal diameter on abdominal computer tomography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of our computer tomography (CT)-based protocol and the usefulness of measurement of the outer appendiceal diameter on CT in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Two-hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients with clinical diagnoses of acute appendicitis during the period from January 2002 to Jun 2004 were evaluated. The CT criterion of acute appendicitis was the outer appendiceal diameter of 6 mm or more, and/or other associated inflammatory changes. The histological criterion of acute appendicitis was the presentation of polymorphic granulocytes throughout the appendiceal wall. Of 239 patients, 235 underwent CT examination. Among 222 patients with appendectomy, 205 had histologically proven acute appendicitis. Of 200 patients who had the outer appendiceal diameter of 6 mm or more on CT, 193 had histologically proven acute appendicitis. The positive predictive value for diagnosing acute appendicitis was 92.3% in the surgery group, and 96.5% in the group that the outer appendiceal diameter was 6 mm or more on CT. The recurrence rate of acute appendicitis diagnosed by CT following conservative therapy was 35.3%, and was high (50%) in the group with the appendiceal diameter of at least 10 mm. CT is useful in the diagnosis for acute appendicitis. (author)

  7. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  8. O valor da fase sem contraste na tomografia computadorizada do abdome The role of the unenhanced phase in the routine abdominal computed tomography

    Ana Paula Klautau Leite

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o valor agregado da fase sem meio de contraste da tomografia computadorizada do abdome em pacientes sem diagnóstico determinado ou em estadiamento tumoral. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e transversal em 100 pacientes consecutivos submetidos a tomografia computadorizada abdominal sem e com meio de contraste intravenoso. Dois examinadores avaliaram todos os exames, procurando estabelecer, através da fase com meio de contraste intravenoso (primeira análise e posteriormente através da fase sem contraste (segunda análise, o diagnóstico principal e os secundários em função da indicação clínica do exame. Mediu-se a freqüência de mudança diagnóstica decorrente da análise combinada das fases pré- e pós-contraste intravenoso. Casos que tiveram mudança diagnóstica foram avaliados por especialistas clínicos para determinar se implicaria mudanças de conduta. RESULTADOS: Diagnósticos principal e secundário foram modificados em 1 e 18 casos, respectivamente (p = 1,000; p = 0,143. Os diagnósticos modificados foram: esteatose, definição de nódulo em adrenal, nefrolitíase, classificação de cistos renais e calcificação hepática. Nos casos em que a fase sem contraste modificou o diagnóstico, os especialistas mudaram sua conduta em 14/19 (73% dos pacientes (p = 0,038. CONCLUSÃO: A fase sem contraste não modificou significativamente o diagnóstico principal ou secundário. Porém, as mudanças nos diagnósticos secundários influenciaram na conduta adotada pelos especialistas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of the unenhanced phase of abdominal computed tomography in patients without a definite diagnosis or undergoing tumor staging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective and transversal study was developed with 100 consecutive patients submitted to unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography. Two observers evaluated all the computed tomography images in the contrast-enhanced phase

  9. Low-dose Computed Tomography in a Pregnant Woman with a Ruptured Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta.

    Ramac, Jelena Popić; Vidjak, Vinko; Skegro, Dinko; Duić, Zeljko; Blasković, Darko; Erdelez, Lidija; Skopljanac-Macina, Andrija; Suknaić, Slaven; Slavica, Marko; Leder, Nikola Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Imaging the pregnant patient presents a unique challenge to radiologist due to the risk of radiation to the conceptus (embryo/fetus). A rare case of a successfully recognized and treated pseudoaneurysm (PA) of the abdominal aorta is to be presented. The pseudoaneurysm occurred in the third trimester and had a favorable outcome for the mother and the baby. Emergent abdominal ultrasound (US) is the first modality in diagnostic algorithm for the rupture of aortic aneurysm in a pregnant woman. It provides the most rapid diagnostic information, although intestinal gas and abdominal tenderness may limit its accuracy. To confirm the findings, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or CT angiography (CTA) can be used. In our case, the diagnosis was established using a color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdomen and was later confirmed by a low dose CT scan of the abdominal aorta. MRA in such cases have some disadvantages. At many health centers, the monitoring of patients with acute ruptures is more difficult in the MR suite than at the CT scanner. MRA angiographic images are also subject to degradation by multiple artifacts and the visualization of the distal vasculature is suboptimal and inferior to the one done by CTA. Due to fetal movements, a small quantity of fresh blood can be overlooked by MR. MRA is often not available on a 24-hours basis, and the time required for making a diagnosis can preclude the use of MRA in an unstable patient. For this reason, we used a low dose CTA protocol to confirm the diagnosis. Low dose scanning protocols in CT can obtain sufficient diagnostic information while reducing the risk of radiation. A particular focus is put on the outline of new concepts for dose management and optimization. We used new approaches based on tube current modulation. The birth was induced by an urgent Caesarean section followed by a resection of a pseudoaneurysm and a reconstruction of the aorta with an end-to-end vascular prosthesis. PMID:26898082

  10. A comparison of the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain

    Randen, Adrienne van; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (suite G1-227), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lameris, Wytze; Boermeester, Marja A. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Es, H.W. van; Heesewijk, Hans P.M. van [St Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Ramshorst, Bert van [St Antonius Hospital, Department of Surgery, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Hove, Wim ten [Gelre Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Bouma, Willem H. [Gelre Hospitals, Department of Surgery, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Maarten S. van [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keulen, Esteban M. van [Tergooi Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Hilversum (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Bioinformatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Head-to-head comparison of ultrasound and CT accuracy in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. Consecutive patients with abdominal pain for >2 h and <5 days referred for imaging underwent both US and CT by different radiologists/radiological residents. An expert panel assigned a final diagnosis. Ultrasound and CT sensitivity and predictive values were calculated for frequent final diagnoses. Effect of patient characteristics and observer experience on ultrasound sensitivity was studied. Frequent final diagnoses in the 1,021 patients (mean age 47; 55% female) were appendicitis (284; 28%), diverticulitis (118; 12%) and cholecystitis (52; 5%). The sensitivity of CT in detecting appendicitis and diverticulitis was significantly higher than that of ultrasound: 94% versus 76% (p < 0.01) and 81% versus 61% (p = 0.048), respectively. For cholecystitis, the sensitivity of both was 73% (p = 1.00). Positive predictive values did not differ significantly between ultrasound and CT for these conditions. Ultrasound sensitivity in detecting appendicitis and diverticulitis was not significantly negatively affected by patient characteristics or reader experience. CT misses fewer cases than ultrasound, but both ultrasound and CT can reliably detect common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. Ultrasound sensitivity was largely not influenced by patient characteristics and reader experience. (orig.)

  11. A comparison of the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain

    Head-to-head comparison of ultrasound and CT accuracy in common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. Consecutive patients with abdominal pain for >2 h and <5 days referred for imaging underwent both US and CT by different radiologists/radiological residents. An expert panel assigned a final diagnosis. Ultrasound and CT sensitivity and predictive values were calculated for frequent final diagnoses. Effect of patient characteristics and observer experience on ultrasound sensitivity was studied. Frequent final diagnoses in the 1,021 patients (mean age 47; 55% female) were appendicitis (284; 28%), diverticulitis (118; 12%) and cholecystitis (52; 5%). The sensitivity of CT in detecting appendicitis and diverticulitis was significantly higher than that of ultrasound: 94% versus 76% (p < 0.01) and 81% versus 61% (p = 0.048), respectively. For cholecystitis, the sensitivity of both was 73% (p = 1.00). Positive predictive values did not differ significantly between ultrasound and CT for these conditions. Ultrasound sensitivity in detecting appendicitis and diverticulitis was not significantly negatively affected by patient characteristics or reader experience. CT misses fewer cases than ultrasound, but both ultrasound and CT can reliably detect common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. Ultrasound sensitivity was largely not influenced by patient characteristics and reader experience. (orig.)

  12. Jejunal diverticulitis: an unusual cause of an intra-abdominal abscess - coronal Computed Tomography reconstruction can aid the diagnosis

    Jim Virjee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare condition that can present with an acute abdomen and be referred for imaging.  We present the case of an elderly patient who at CT was diagnosed with an intra-abdominal abscess involving both jejunum and transverse colon. However, the underlying eitiology was not initially clear until small bowel barium follow-through.Pertinent points regarding CT findings in jejunal diverticulitis are discussed, and practical recommendations in small bowel diverticulum recognition and diagnosis are made. 

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head What is CT Scanning of the ... Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  15. Diagnostic investigation of the abdominal vasculature by means of electron-beam computed tomography; Diagnostik des abdominellen Gefaesssystems mit der Elektronenstrahlcomputertomographie (EBT)

    Vogl, T.J.; Diebold, T. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Hammerstingl, R.; Balzer, J.O.; Hidajat, N.; Beier, J.; Felix, R. [Strahlen- und Poliklinik, Humboldt Univ. Berlin Charite, Campus Virchow (Germany); Zipfel, B. [Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (Germany). Abt. fuer Herz-, Thorax und Gefaesschirurgie; Scheinert, D.; Vogt, A. [Abt. fuer Innere Medizin, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Charite, Campus Virchow, Berlin Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of electron-beam computed tomography (EBT) in the pre- and postinterventional assessment of vascular abdominal pathologies. Results: In 30 to 40 TIPS patients, identical results were found with EBT, Doppler sonography and/or DSA. Reduced perfusions of the TIPS, which were subsequently confirmed by DSA, could not be shown with EBT in 3 patients. Nine of 12 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and angiographically proven stenosis (>75%) showed a reduced and delayed peak density of the time-density curves. The quantification of arterial stenosis, however, did not follow the angiographic values. In all patients with the implanted bifurcation stents, EBT could correctly exclude a leakage of the stent. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Wertigkeit der Elektronenstrahlcomputertomographie (EBT) bei der prae- und postinterventionellen Abklaerung von Pathologien des arteriellen und portalvenoesen Gefaesssystems. Ergebnisse: Bei 30/40 TIPS-Patienten stimmte die EBT mit der Dopplersonographie bzw. der DSA ueberein, bei 3 Patienten konnte eine dopplersonographisch nachgewiesene und interventionell bestaetigte Minderperfusion des TIPS im EBT nicht diagnostiziert werden. Bei 9/12 Patienten mit angiographisch nachgewiesenen Gefaessstenosen (>75%) konnte eine Abflachung und ein verzoegerter Anstieg der Zeit-Dichte-Kurven nachgewiesen werden. Die Quantifizierung der Stenose mit den Zeit-Dichte-Kurven zeigte jedoch nur eine eingeschraenkte Korrelation mit der i.a.-DSA. Bei den Patienten mit endovaskulaer implantierter Aortenprothese konnte in allen Faellen eine komplette Ausschaltung des Aortenaneurysmas nachgewiesen werden. (orig./AJ)

  16. Quantification of aortic distensibility in abdominal aortic aneurysm using ECG-gated multi-detector computed tomography

    To detect distensibility changes that might be an indicator for an increased risk of rupture, cross-sectional area changes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been determined using ECG-gated CT. Distensibility measurements of the aorta were performed in 67 patients with AAA. Time-resolved images were acquired with a four detector-row CT system using a modified CT-angiography protocol. Pulsatility-related cross-sectional area changes were calculated above and at AAA level by semiautomatic segmentation; distensibility values were obtained using additional systemic blood pressure measurements. Values were compared for small Oe 5 cm (n = 23) aneurysms. The aorta could be segmented successfully in all patients. Upstream AAA distensibility D was significantly higher than at AAA level for both groups: means above AAA (at AAA) Dabove = (1.3 ±0.8) .10 -5 Pa -1 (DAAA (0.6 ±0.5) .10 -5 Pa -1) t-test pD<0.0001. Differences of the distensibility between smaller and larger aneurysms were not found to be significant. Distensibility can be measured non-invasively with ECG-gated CT. The reduction of distensibility within aneurysms compared to normal proximal aorta is subtle; the lack of difference between both small and large aneurysms suggests that this reduction occurs early in the aneurysm's development. Hence, reduced distensibility might be a predictive parameter in patients with high risk of aortic disease. (orig.)

  17. Computer tomographic findings in pelvic and abdominal trauma

    Twenty-two patients with trauma to the pelvis and abdomen were examined by computer tomography. Subcapsular haematomas, haematomas and rupture of organs, intra- and retroperitoneal haematomas and pelvic fractures could be reliably diagnosed in this way. Serial observations on the tissue density of an haematoma allows one to judge its age. Lack of contrast enhancement of an haematoma makes the injection of contrast a useful test. Computer tomography has reduced the indications for angiography in blunt abdominal trauma. (orig.)

  18. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? What are ...

  20. Computed tomography prospective study of pleural-pulmonary changes after abdominal surgery : assessment of associated risk factors; Estudo prospectivo por tomografia computadorizada das alteracoes pleuro-pulmonares apos cirurgia abdominal: avaliacao dos fatores de risco associados

    Rossi, Luis Antonio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas]. E-mail: luizrossimd@uol.com.br; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique [Instituto de Assistencia Medica ao Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (IAMSPE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Gastroenterologia Cirurgica

    2005-07-01

    Postoperative pleural-pulmonary changes (PPC) are very common following elective abdominal surgery, resolving without clinical manifestations in most patients. The incidence and risk factors associated are unknown. Objective: to determine the incidence of PPC and possible association with risk factors using computerized tomography (CT). Material and method: thirty seven patients submitted to elective abdominal surgery were prospectively analyzed using CT performed in the preoperative period and 48 hours after surgery. The PPC was scored from 0 to III. The risk factors evaluated were: age, sex, obesity, smoking history, alcoholism, comorbid conditions, cancer, ASA classification, duration of surgery, surgical incision type and number of days of hospitalization. Results: Pleura effusion was detected by CT in 70.3% (26/37) of the patients and pulmonary atelectasis in 75.5% (28/37). Grade I and II PPC was found in 59.5% (22/37) of the patients and grade III in 21.6% (8/37). Two (5.4%) of these patients developed serious pulmonary complications whereas one patient died. Surgery due to cancer, class ASA >2, longitudinal incision and > 15 cm showed statistical significance and were associated with pleural effusion. The hospitalization was over 2.4 longer for patients with PPC. Conclusion: PPC is frequently seen in patients submitted to abdominal surgery. The use of the CT for the detection of pulmonary atelectasis and pleural effusion proved to be effective. Most cases of PPC are self-limited, resolving without symptoms. (author)

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  2. Measuring Abdominal Circumference and Skeletal Muscle From a Single Cross-Sectional Computed Tomography Image: A Step-by-Step Guide for Clinicians Using National Institutes of Health ImageJ.

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis, including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular), and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings, and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross-sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole-body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole-body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, but this tutorial uses ImageJ, a free public-domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health. PMID:26392166

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  7. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome normal: estudo retrospectivo das angulações dos hilos renais Normal abdominal computed tomography: a retrospective study of renal hila angles

    Makoto Sakate

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter valores da angulação média dos hilos renais em relação ao plano horizontal, traçado sobre músculos eretores da espinha direito e esquerdo, considerando como parâmetro de referência para as medidas das angulações o centro da coluna vertebral lombar. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 250 exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdomes considerados normais de indivíduos de ambos os sexos, sendo 128 masculinos (idade média de 52,45 ± 17,42 anos e 122 femininos (idade média de 54,39 ± 18,27 anos, totalizando 500 hilos renais estudados. A angulação média de cada hilo renal em relação ao plano horizontal foi obtida, sendo considerados sempre os ângulos agudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo comparativo entre os sexos mostrou que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante em relação aos ângulos agudos dos hilos renais. A análise estatística mostrou, com intervalo de confiança de 95%, para média do ângulo direito os limites de 40,40° e 44,54° e para o hilo renal esquerdo os limites de 39,91° e 43,23°. CONCLUSÃO: Os hilos renais, independentemente do sexo, apresentam angulações semelhantes. Valores angulares maiores terão anomalia de hiper-rotação ou hiper-rotação exagerada e valores menores terão anomalia de rotação incompleta ou rotação invertida.OBJECTIVE: To obtain mean angulation values for renal hila in relation to the horizontal plane traced over the right and left spinal erector muscles, considering the center of the lumbar vertebral spine as a parameter for measuring the renal hila angles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors have analyzed 250 abdominal computed tomography studies of both male and female healthy individuals (128 men with mean age 52.45 ± 17.42 years, and 122 women with mean age 54.39 ± 18.27 years, corresponding to 500 renal hila evaluated. The mean angulation of each hilum in relation to the horizontal plane was obtained taking acute angles into consideration

  8. Systematic review: Use of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis, assessment of activity and abdominal complications of Crohn?s disease

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: Cross-sectional imaging techniques, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are increasingly used for evaluation of Crohn?s disease (CD). Aim: To perform an assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional imaging techniques for diagnosis of CD, evaluation of disease extension and activity, and diagnosis of complications, and to provide recommendations for their optimal use. Methods: Relevant ...

  9. Cervical computed tomography

    This book describes the possibilities of cervical computed tomography with the apparatus available at present. The normal anatomy of the cervical region as it appears in computed tomography is described with special regard to its compartimental structure and functional aspects; this is supplemented by anatomically normal measures obtained from cervical computed tomograms of 60 healthy individuals of different age and both sexes. The morphology of cervical anomalies obtained via CT and of the various acquired cervical disease processes is discussed and illustrated by means of the authors' own observations; the diagnostic value of the findings obtained by CT is discussed, a diagnosis is set up. (orig./MG)

  10. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 ± 27 cm3 and 489 ± 34 cm3 (p 3 and 132 ± 19 cm3 (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery

  11. Neutron Computed Tomography

    Computed tomography is a non-destructive testing method which can visualize cross-section of materials based on their nuclear characteristics. In the previous work, X-ray was used as its radiation media. The aim of this experiment was to improve the computed tomography technique using neutron beam. For reconstructing the cross-section image of materials, a filtered back projection was used. Result indicated that a minimum hole shown was 3 mm in diameter using a black and white presentation. While using eight colour levels, a hole of 2 mm in diameter could be seen clearly. It is expected that neutron computed tomography can improve the results of non-destructive testing. (author). 5 refs., 6 figs

  12. The ACTIVE trial: Comparison of the effects on renal function of lomeprol-400 and lodixanol-320 in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing abdominal computed tomography

    Morcos, S.K.; Erley, C.M.; Grazioli, L.;

    2008-01-01

    forty-eight patients with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease, ie, serum creatinine (SCr) >= 1.5 mg/dL (132.6 mu mol/L) and/or calculated creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 60 mL/min, undergoing contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography of the liver were randomized to equi-iodine doses (40 gI...... assessed. A Renal Safety Review Board comprised 3 medical experts reviewed the renal safety data, demographics, medical history, CIN risk factors, concomitant medications, and hydration status of each subject in a blinded manner. Results: The 2 study groups were comparable with regard to age, gender...

  13. Chest computed tomography

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret;

    2013-01-01

    are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ... CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ... visibility of certain tissues or blood vessels. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head What is CT Scanning of the Head? What are some ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ... used in your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ... used in your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  1. Epiploic appendicitis - ultrasonography and computed tomography findings

    Epiploic appendicitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition, which is presently better diagnosed by current imaging methods such as computed tomography and ultrasonography that allow a non-invasive and efficient diagnostic approach. The author studied 6 patients with epiploic appendicitis. The patients were submitted to computed tomography that showed paracolic oval lesions of 1 to 2 cm of diameter, fat attenuation and a thin peripheral hyperdense rim associated with adjacent fat stranding. Ultrasound examination performed in two patients showed hyperechoic ovoid noncompressible masses at the site of maximum abdominal tenderness. (author)

  2. Quando a fase de equilíbrio pode ser suprimida nos exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdome? What is the real role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography?

    Priscila Silveira Salvadori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a necessidade de realização da fase de equilíbrio nos exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdome. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo, transversal e observacional, avaliando 219 exames consecutivos de tomografia computadorizada de abdome com contraste intravenoso, realizados num período de três meses, com diversas indicações clínicas. Para cada exame foram emitidos dois pareceres, um avaliando o exame sem a fase de equilíbrio (primeira análise e o outro avaliando todas as fases em conjunto (segunda análise. Ao final de cada avaliação, foi estabelecido se houve mudança nos diagnósticos principais e secundários, entre a primeira e a segunda análise. Foi utilizada a extensão do teste exato de Fisher para avaliar a modificação dos diagnósticos principais (p 0,999. Com relação aos diagnósticos secundários, cinco exames (2,3% foram modificados. CONCLUSÃO: Para indicações clínicas como estadiamento tumoral, abdome agudo e pesquisa de coleção abdominal, a fase de equilíbrio não acrescenta contribuição diagnóstica expressiva, podendo ser suprimida dos protocolos de exame.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of the equilibrium phase in abdominal computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study reviewed 219 consecutive contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography images acquired in a three-month period, for different clinical indications. For each study, two reports were issued - one based on the initial analysis of non-contrast-enhanced, arterial and portal phases only (first analysis, and a second reading of these phases added to the equilibrium phase (second analysis. At the end of both readings, differences between primary and secondary diagnoses were pointed out and recorded, in order to measure the impact of suppressing the equilibrium phase on the clinical outcome for each of the patients. The extension of the exact Fisher

  3. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY PERITONEAL CANCER INDEX

    Tiutiuca RC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal surface malignancy results from seeding of gastrointestinal cancer or abdomino-pelvic sarcoma, or it can occur as a primary disease, such as peritoneal mesothelioma. In the past, this clinical situation was treated only with palliative intent. Actual treatment options for surgical management uses cytoreductive surgery which combines peritonectomy and visceral resection in an effort to remove all visible cancer within the abdomen and pelvis. Then the peritoneal cavity is flooded with chemotherapy solution. To select patients for this agressive approach quantitative prognostic indicators for carcinomatosis must be evaluated. The peritoneal cancer index (PCI is a synthesis of the distribution of tumor and a lesion size score. In such conditions abdominal medium contrast computed-tomography it is very helpful in identification of neoplasic implants.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  6. Abdominal anatomy in computer tomograms

    Computerized tomography leads to exact visualization for it adds the third dimension to the ordinary two-dimensional X-ray picture. This applies in particular to the visualization of the liver, the spleen, and the kidneys; it does not require the additional use of drugs or contrast media. In the case of the pancreas, however, we must take into consideration that possible variations in its position might call for additional examination methods such as the oblique positioning of the patient. The stomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine can be visualized by using a solution fo contrast medium in low concentration. Intravenous injection lead to visualization of the gallbladder, the bile duct, the ureters, and the urinary bladder; the retroperitoneal lymphnodes can be demonstrated by lymphography. The use of these additional methods is of particular value in the case of nonobese patients. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  7. Computed Tomography Status

    Hansche, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a relatively new radiographic technique which has become widely used in the medical field, where it is better known as computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. This technique is also being adopted by the industrial radiographic community, although the greater range of densities, variation in samples sizes, plus possible requirement for finer resolution make it difficult to duplicate the excellent results that the medical scanners have achieved.

  8. Computed Tomography. Chapter 11

    After its clinical introduction in 1971, computed tomography (CT) developed from an X ray modality that was limited to axial imaging of the brain in neuroradiology into a versatile 3-D whole body imaging modality for a wide range of applications, including oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and interventional radiology. CT is applied for diagnosis and follow-up studies of patients, for planning of radiotherapy, and even for screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors

  9. Computed tomography of intussusception in adult

    Intussusception is rare in adult and usually caused by organic lesions, although there is a significant number of so-called idiopathic cases. The diagnosis of intussusception have been made by plain abdomen, barium enema and small bowel series. But recently ultrasound and computed tomography make a contribution to diagnose intussusception. Computed tomography is not the primary means for evaluating a gastrointestinal tract abnormality but also provides valuable information in evaluating disorders affecting the hollow viscera of the alimentary tract. Computed tomography image of intussusception demonstrates a whirl like pattern of bowel loops separated by fatty stripe correlating of the intestinal walls. Abdominal ultrasonogram was used as the initial diagnostic test in 2 cases out of total 4 cases, with abdominal mass of unknown cause. It revealed a typical pattern, composed of a round or oval mass with central dense echoes and peripheral poor echoes. We report 4 all cases of intussusception in adult who were performed by computed tomography and/or ultrasound. All cases were correlated with barium enema examination and/or surgical reports.

  10. Computed tomography of intussusception in adult

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Byeong Yeob; Cha, Soon Joo; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Intussusception is rare in adult and usually caused by organic lesions, although there is a significant number of so-called idiopathic cases. The diagnosis of intussusception have been made by plain abdomen, barium enema and small bowel series. But recently ultrasound and computed tomography make a contribution to diagnose intussusception. Computed tomography is not the primary means for evaluating a gastrointestinal tract abnormality but also provides valuable information in evaluating disorders affecting the hollow viscera of the alimentary tract. Computed tomography image of intussusception demonstrates a whirl like pattern of bowel loops separated by fatty stripe correlating of the intestinal walls. Abdominal ultrasonogram was used as the initial diagnostic test in 2 cases out of total 4 cases, with abdominal mass of unknown cause. It revealed a typical pattern, composed of a round or oval mass with central dense echoes and peripheral poor echoes. We report 4 all cases of intussusception in adult who were performed by computed tomography and/or ultrasound. All cases were correlated with barium enema examination and/or surgical reports.

  11. Lymphography and computed tomography of abdominal nodes in newly diagnosed patients with Hodgkin's disease in clinical stage I-III

    Neumann, C.H.

    1986-10-01

    Between 1978 and 1983, 80 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) in clinical Stage I-III had computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis and lymphography (LAG) prior to staging laparatomy with multiple lymph node biopsies at Stanford University Medical Center. There were 224 biopsied nodal sites. The sensitivity and specificity for CT to determine the status of biopsied paraortic and iliac nodes was .61 and .91 vs. .94 and .90 for LAG. CT appeared of even lower sensitivity (.13) in evaluating splenic hilar, celiac axis and portal nodes. Including all biopsy proven subdiaphragmatic nodal sites, CT's sensitivity to diagnose the presence of subdiaphragmatic adenopathy was .38 vs. .52 in LAG. Assessment of the final pathological stage was more successful by LAG (.61) than by CT (.49). Positive and negative predictive values of both tests indicate higher reliability of LAG results as regards individual intraabdominal nodes (LAG .71, .98 vs. CT .58, .86), the entire subdiaphragmatic nodal area (LAG .79, .77 vs. CT .61, .71) and prediction of final pathological stage. LAG appeared to be the more useful test during initial staging of newly diagnosed and untreated patients with HD. None of the test for itself or in combination can replace laparatomy when exact information is necessary for further clinical decisions.

  12. Usefulness of the Bolus-Tracking Baseline Scan for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Steatosis in Abdominal Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Study

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common pathology in western societies. Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the liver is a valuable tool in determining the presence of steatosis hepatis, but in most departments standard CT protocols of abdomen often do not include unenhanced scans anymore. In a small series of 22 patients the liver density was measured in the acquired low-dose baseline scan for bolus tracking and was compared to the measurement in a regular unenhanced CT scan of the upper abdomen. The mean difference between the unenhanced CT scan and the low-dose baseline scan was 3.4 HU (range 0.2–8.6 HU); the difference between these two scans was 5 HU or smaller in 82% of the patients. There was a significant difference between the two used CT scanners; this has to be kept in mind before implementing this approach into daily practice. All but one patient with fatty liver disease on unenhanced CT were diagnosed using the baseline scan. The baseline scan for bolus tracking may be useful for the diagnosis or in the followup of fatty liver disease

  13. Positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)

    SakalihasanN, Natzi; Van Damme, Hendrik; Gomez, P.; RIGO, PIERRE; Lapiere, C. M.; Nusgens, Betty; Limet, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    Background: aneurysmal disease is associated with all inflammatory Cell infiltrate and enzymatic degradation of the vessel wall. Aim of the study: to detect increased metabolic activity in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) by means of positron emission tomography (PET-imaging). Study design: twenty-six patients with AAA underwent PET-imaging Results: in tell patients, PET-imaging revealed increased, fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18-FDG) uptake at the level of the aneurysm. Patients with positive PET-i...

  14. Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Balda, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a wide-spread medical imaging modality. Traditional CT yields information on a patient's anatomy in form of slice images or volume data. Hounsfield Units (HU) are used to quantify the imaged tissue properties. Due to the polychromatic nature of X-rays in CT, the HU values for a specific tissue depend on its density and composition but also on CT system parameters and settings and the surrounding materials. The main objective of Quantitative CT (QCT) is measuring ch...

  15. Computed tomography device

    A computed tomography device comprising a subtraction unit which obtains differential data strings representing the difference between each time-serial projection data string of a group of projection data strings corresponding to a prospective reconstruction image generated by projection data strings acquired by a data acquisition system, a convolution unit which convolves each time-serial projection data string of the group of projection data strings corresponding to the prospective reconstruction image, and a back-projection unit which back-projects the convolved data strings

  16. Stored Luminescence Computed Tomography

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The phosphor nanoparticles made of doped semiconductors, pre-excited by well-collimated X-ray radiation, were recently reported for their light emission upon NIR light stimulation. The characteristics of X-ray energy storage and NIR stimulated emission is highly desirable to design targeting probes and improve molecular and cellular imaging. Here we propose stored luminescence computed tomography (SLCT), perform realistic numerical simulation, and demonstrate a much-improved spatial resolution in a preclinical research context. The future opportunities are also discussed along this direction.

  17. Proposta para padronização do relatório de tomografia computadorizada nos aneurismas da aorta abdominal A proposal for standardizing computed tomography reports on abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Fabiola Goda Torlai; Gustavo S. Portes Meirelles; Fausto Miranda Jr; José Honório A.P. da Fonseca; Sérgio Ajzen; Giuseppe D'Ippolito

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo de padronização de relatório para aneurisma da aorta abdominal na tomografia computadorizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas, no período de abril a outubro de 2004, entrevistas com integrantes da Disciplina de Cirurgia Vascular da nossa instituição, para elaboração de um modelo de padronização de relatório de tomografia computadorizada para o estudo do aneurisma da aorta abdominal. A partir deste modelo foi elaborado um questionário, enviado a nove outros cir...

  18. Computed tomography of electronics

    Bossi, Richard H.; Kruse, Robert J.; Knutson, Benjamin W.

    1989-12-01

    The application of Computed Tomography (CT) and laminography was tested on a variety of electronic components. The effort was performed as a preliminary testing task assignment in the Advanced Development of X ray Computed Tomography Application program. A key area for testing was printed circuit boards for the inspection of solder bonds and in particular for leadless chip carrier devices. During the course of the task assignment several other categories of electronic devices were examined including transformers, connectors, switches from solution and contrast sensitivity phantoms developed for the programs were used to establish quantitative measures of capability used to generate images. This preliminary testing of electronics lead to the conclusion that higher resolution CT scanning is needed to resolve details of interest. CT testing on commercially available system could resolve high contrast details in the range of 2 to 4 lp/mm; however, in many electronic components finer resolution is needed to detect microcracking, voiding and other features. Further testing on high resolution system is recommended. Two areas of immediate potential economic payback for electronics inspection were identified; the inspection of high volume printed circuit board production using high speed laminography and nondestructive failure analysis studies components using high-resolution CT.

  19. Radiation dose and imaging quality of abdominal computed tomography before and scan protocol adjustment: Single-institution experience in three years

    To compare radiation dose and image quality of abdominal CT for patients who underwent repeated CT examinations before and after adjustment of scan protocol. We compared radiation dose and image quality of repeated abdominal CT scans (at three-year-interval) of 50 patients with chronic liver disease, 50 patients with early gastric cancer, and 50 patients with uterine cancer. To reduce radiation dose, we optimized CT protocols by omitting unnecessary pre-contrast phase, reducing kVp, and setting higher noise index. Data of dose reports were collected. Objective image quality was evaluated for noise level, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and contrast noise ratio (CNR). For subjective image quality, we evaluated image noise, contrast, and overall diagnostic acceptability. The mean values of dose length product of 2011 CT scans compared to those of 2008 CT scans were 27.6% to 45.7%. The image noise level, SNR, and CNR were significantly (p < 0.05) worse in 2011 CT scans compared to 2008 CT scans. For subjective image quality, image noise was also significantly (p < 0.05) worse in 2011. However, CNR and diagnostic acceptability showed variable results. No CT scans were considered as unacceptable image.We modified abdominal CT protocols to reduce radiation exposure while trying to maintain diagnostic acceptability.

  20. 小儿腹部Burkitt淋巴瘤结外侵犯的MSCT表现%Multislice spiral computed tomography manifestations of extranodal involvement in pediatric abdominal Burkitt lymphoma

    霍爱华; 彭芸; 路娣; 程华; 于彤; 宋蕾; 刘玥; 温洋; 孙国强

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the multislice spiral CT (MSCT) manifestations of extra-nodal involvement in pediatric abdominal Burkitt lymphoma. Methods: The MSCT materials of pathology proved abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in 22 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results : Multiple extranodal organs of abdomen and pelvis were frequently invloved in Burkitt lymphoma, including solid organs (n=8) and hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract (n= 21). The imaging manifestations were mostly presented as homogeneous and mildly enhanced solid mass, but hemorrhage and necrosis were seldom assessed, calcification was rare. Diffuse omental thickening and ascites were frequently revealed with infiltration of distal ileum and multiple nodular lesions of pancreas as the most common. Conclusion : Multiple intra-abdominal and pelvic extranodal organs are commonly involved in pediatric abdominal Burkitt lymphoma with certain imaging characteristics.%目的:探讨儿童腹部Burkitt淋巴瘤结外侵犯的MSCT表现及其诊断价值.方法:回顾性分析本院22例经病理证实的Burkitt琳巴瘸的腹部MSCT资料,对其结外病变进行分类和影像学表现分析.结果:Burkitt淋巴瘤可侵犯腹盆腔的多个结外脏器,包括腹部实质脏嚣(8/22)和胃肠道(21/22).痛变多表现为轻度强化的密度均匀的实性肿物,出血、坏死少见,钙化罕见;常伴肠系膜及腹膜后多个肿大淋巴蛄、大网膜广泛增厚或腹腔积液,以回肠远端浸润型和胰腺多发结节型曩多见.结论:Burkitt淋巴瘤常同时侵犯腹盆腔多个结外脏嚣,儿童Burkitt淋巴瘤腹部结外侵犯的MSCT表现有一定特征性.

  1. Computed tomography in neurocysticercosis

    Three hundred and fifty seven computed tomography (CT) from 100 different patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) were studied between 1979 and 1988. All patients were treated with praziquantel (PZQ). A new classification attempting to recognize the CT evolution profile in NC as well as assigning a possible link between CT findings and biological conditions of cysts is evaluated. It was possible to conclude that: intact cysts remain unchanged in consecutive CTs by 11 months and exhibit signs of degeneration in about 18 months after PZQ drug therapy; degenerating cysts can be detected by 10.5 months, disappear in 11 months and become nodular calcifications in about 25 months. Therefore, a time period of at least 36 months can be estimated for the complete evolution profile of cysts in the brain parenchyma. (author)

  2. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography

    Cademartiri, Filippo

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England, and independently by South Mrican born physicist Allan Cormack of Tufts University, Massachusetts.1 • 2 Hounsfield was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and honoured with K...

  3. Computed Tomography Measuring Inside Machines

    Wozniak, James F.; Scudder, Henry J.; Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography applied to obtain approximate measurements of radial distances from centerline of turbopump to leading edges of diffuser vanes in turbopump. Use of computed tomography has significance beyond turbopump application: example of general concept of measuring internal dimensions of assembly of parts without having to perform time-consuming task of taking assembly apart and measuring internal parts on coordinate-measuring machine.

  4. COMPARATIVE ROLE AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE GRADING OF HEMOPERITONEUM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE GRADING OF ORGAN INJURY

    Kunwarpal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each modality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at advanced diagnostics and institute of imaging , Amritsar. The study comprised of 50 patients who were stable enough to undergo both US and CT scans.US was preceded by MSCT in most of the patients and the time gap between the imaging modalities was less than 1 hour to make the study comparable. TECHNIQUES ADOPTED : 1. US was performed on Versa plus (Siemens and Xario (Toshiba with Cardiac , 3.5 - 5 Mhz - Convex and 5 - 7.5 Mhz - Line ar probes. Particular attention was paid to the amount of free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. 2. MSCT was performed with MSCT Volume Zoom (Siemens Forchheim Germany AG. 500 - 1000cc of water orally or through nasogastric tube was given 15 - 20 minutes before the study , followed by 120cc I/V contrast at the rate of 2 - 3ml/second using power injector. Parameters used: Single breath hold ; A. 165 mAs . B. 120 kvp . C. Scan delay - 40 seconds . D. Collimation - 4x2.5mm . E. Pitch - 5mm . Following findings were observed : a. Presence of peritoneal fluid. B. Any tear or hematoma in the solid abdominal organs like spleen and liver. C. Status of hollow viscera like small bowel , large bowel and urinary bladder. Hemoperitoneum was scored on both US and MSCT. Visceral injuries were graded according to O.I.S grading system. Score was correlated with the underlying organ injury and the management of the patient. US scoring (Table A and MSCT quantification of hemoperitoneum was done. (Table B Location of hemoperitoneum . A

  5. Local diagnostic reference level based on size-specific dose estimates: Assessment of pediatric abdominal/pelvic computed tomography at a Japanese national children's hospital

    Imai, Rumi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kurosawa, Hideo; Nosaka, Shunsuke [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Horiuchi, Tetsuya [Osaka University, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Course of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    A child's body size is not accurately reflected by volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP). Size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) was introduced recently as a new index of radiation dose. However, it has not yet been established as a diagnostic reference level (DRL). To calculate the SSDE of abdominal/pelvic CT and compare the SSDE with CTDI{sub vol}. To calculate the DRLs of CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE. Our hypotheses are: SSDE values will be greater than CTDI{sub vol}, and our DRL will be smaller than the known DRLs of other countries. The CTDI{sub vol} and DLP of 117 children who underwent abdominal/pelvic CT were collected retrospectively. The SSDE was calculated from the sum of the lateral and anteroposterior diameters. The relationships between body weight and effective diameter and between effective diameter and CTDI{sub vol}/SSDE were compared. Further, the local DRL was compared with the DRLs of other countries. Body weight and effective diameter and effective diameter and SSDE were positively correlated. In children ages 1, 5 and 10 years, the SSDE is closer to the exposure dose of CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom, while in children ages 15 years, the SSDE falls between CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom and that for the 32-cm phantom. The local DRL was lower than those of other countries. With SSDE, the radiation dose increased with increasing body weight. Since SSDE takes body size into account, it proved to be a useful indicator for estimating the exposure dose. (orig.)

  6. Impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on reproducibility of volume measurements in semiautomated segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm on computed tomography

    Morin-Roy, Florence; Hadjadj, Sofiane; Thomas, Olivier; Yang, Dan Yang [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kauffmann, Claude [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Tang, An [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Piche, Nicolas [Object Research System, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Elkouri, Stephane [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Vascular surgery, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Therasse, Eric [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    To assess the impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) volume and maximal diameter (D-max) measurements using segmentation software. CT images of 80 subjects presenting AAA were divided into four equal groups: with or without contrast enhancement, and with or without stent-graft implantation. Semiautomated software was used to segment the aortic wall, once by an expert and twice by three readers. Volume and D-max reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and accuracy was estimated between the expert and the readers by mean relative errors. All segmentations were technically successful. The mean AAA volume was 167.0 ± 82.8 mL and the mean D-max 55.0 ± 10.6 mm. Inter- and intraobserver ICCs for volume and D-max measurements were greater than 0.99. Mean relative errors between readers varied between -1.8 ± 4.6 and 0.0 ± 3.6 mL. Mean relative errors in volume and D-max measurements between readers showed no significant difference between the four groups (P ≥ 0.2). The feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of AAA volume and D-max measurements using segmentation software were not affected by the absence of contrast injection or the presence of stent-graft. (orig.)

  7. Evolution of Computed Tomography Findings in Secondary Aortoenteric Fistula

    Aortoenteric fistula is a rare but significant clinical entity associated with high morbidity and mortality if remain untreated. Clinical presentation and imaging findings may be subtle and prompt diagnosis can be difficult. Herein, we present a patient who initially presented with abdominal pain and computed tomography showed an aortic aneurysm compressing duodenum without any air bubbles. One month later, the patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and computed tomography revealed air bubbles within aneurysm. With a diagnosis of aortoenteric fistula, endovascular aneurysm repair was carried out. This case uniquely presented the computed tomography findings in progression of an aneurysm to an aortoenteric fistula

  8. Spinal computed tomography

    Sartor, K.

    1980-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the spine and spinal cord is gaining more and more importance as a valuable investigative method in neuroradiology. Performed as a noninvasive procedure, with or without intravenous contrast enhancement, it can be used to diagnose paravertebral soft tissue lesions, constrictive lesions of the bony spinal canal, structure changes of the vertebral column or of individual vertebrae, vascular intraspinal lesions, and intraspinal tumors with abnormally high or abnormally low attenuation values. Performed as an invasive procedure, after intrathecal introduction of metrizamide, spinal CT can in selected cases be used in conjunction with conventional metrizamide myelography as an additional procedure (secondary CT-myelography) or even as initial procedure ( primary CT-myelography), taking advantage of its unique properties, namely to provide a transverse axial image of the spine and related soft tissue structures and to detect even small differences in density. Further improvement of spinal CT, particularly the routine non-invasive demonstration of the intraspinal soft tissues, is to be expected.

  9. Computed tomography apparatus

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  10. Quantitative computed tomography

    Adams, Judith E. [Royal Infirmary and University, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: judith.adams@manchester.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was introduced in the mid 1970s. The technique is most commonly applied to 2D slices in the lumbar spine to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cm{sup 3}). Although not as widely utilized as dual-energy X-ray absortiometry (DXA) QCT has some advantages when studying the skeleton (separate measures of cortical and trabecular BMD; measurement of volumetric, as opposed to 'areal' DXA-BMDa, so not size dependent; geometric and structural parameters obtained which contribute to bone strength). A limitation is that the World Health Organisation (WHO) definition of osteoporosis in terms of bone densitometry (T score -2.5 or below using DXA) is not applicable. QCT can be performed on conventional body CT scanners, or at peripheral sites (radius, tibia) using smaller, less expensive dedicated peripheral CT scanners (pQCT). Although the ionising radiation dose of spinal QCT is higher than for DXA, the dose compares favorably with those of other radiographic procedures (spinal radiographs) performed in patients suspected of having osteoporosis. The radiation dose from peripheral QCT scanners is negligible. Technical developments in CT (spiral multi-detector CT; improved spatial resolution) allow rapid acquisition of 3D volume images which enable QCT to be applied to the clinically important site of the proximal femur, more sophisticated analysis of cortical and trabecular bone, the imaging of trabecular structure and the application of finite element analysis (FEA). Such research studies contribute importantly to the understanding of bone growth and development, the effect of disease and treatment on the skeleton and the biomechanics of bone strength and fracture.

  11. [Computed tomography of the heart

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von;

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature th...

  12. Computed Tomography Features of Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra: A Case Report

    Chan, K.S.; Tan, C.K.; Mak, C.W.; Chia, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Yu, W.L. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Intensive Care Medicine, Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery

    2006-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  13. What is Computed Tomography?

    ... word "tomography" is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphe" meaning "drawing." A CT imaging system produces cross-sectional ... The patient may receive an injection of a "contrast material" to facilitate visualization of vascular structure. Detectors ...

  14. Neuroanatomy of cranial computed tomography

    Based on the fundamental structures visualized by means of computed tomography, the authors present the functional systems which are relevant in neurology by means of axial cross-sections. All drawings were prepared from original preparations by means of a new technique which is similar to the grey values of X-ray CT and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. A detailed description is given of the topics of neurofunctional lesions

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  19. Computer tomography in acute pyelonephritis

    Triller, J.; Scheidegger, J.; Terrier, F.

    1983-07-01

    Computer tomography of the kidneys was performed on 30 patients with acute renal infections (acute suppurative pyelonephritis, acute renal abscess, infected cyst, pyelonephrosis, calculus perforation, retroperitoneal abscess). Computer tomography provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the renal and extra-renal inflammatory process than did the urogram or sonogram. This may significantly affect the choice of treatment, particularly concerning the use of drugs or of surgery. Angiography and retrograde pyelography may be used in selected cases, especially where there is a suspicion of acute bacterial nephritis, renal vein thrombosis or ureteric obstruction.

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a ... by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a ... by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional ...

  2. Emission computed tomography

    Although there are many common aspects to x-ray transmission and radionuclide emission (ECT) computerized tomography, there are added difficulties and a number of particular factors which form the basis of ECT. The relationship between the physical factors, system design, methodologic approach and assumptions of ECT is discussed. The instrumentation design and application strategies in ECT at this time are diverse and in a rapid stage of development. The approaches are divided into two major categories of Single Photon Counting (SPC) employing scanner and camera concepts with radionuclides of 99/sup m/Tc, 201Tl, 123I etc., and Annihilation Coincidence Detection (ACD) of positron-emitting radionuclides. Six systems in the former and ten systems in the latter category, with examples of typical studies, illustrate the different approaches

  3. Reproducibility in the assessment of acute pancreatitis with computed tomography

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography in the assessment of patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Fifty-one unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography studies of patients with acute pancreatitis were blindly reviewed by two radiologists (observers 1 and 2). The morphological index was separately calculated for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and the disease severity index was established. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computed tomography was measured by means of the kappa index (κ). Results: Interobserver agreement was κ 0.666, 0.705, 0.648, 0.547 and 0.631, respectively for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced morphological index, presence of pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic necrosis extension, and disease severity index. Intraobserver agreement (observers 1 and 2, respectively) was κ = 0.796 and 0.732 for unenhanced morphological index; κ 0.725 and 0.802 for contrast- enhanced morphological index; κ = 0.674 and 0.849 for presence of pancreatic necrosis; κ = 0.606 and 0.770 for pancreatic necrosis extension; and κ = 0.801 and 0.687 for disease severity index at computed tomography. Conclusion: Computed tomography for determination of morphological index and disease severity index in the staging of acute pancreatitis is a quite reproducible method. The absence of contrast- enhancement does not affect the computed tomography morphological index reproducibility. (author)

  4. Reproducibility in the assessment of acute pancreatitis with computed tomography

    Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Vieira, Renata La Rocca; Yamada, Andre Fukunishi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Bekhor, Daniel; Freire, Maxime Figueiredo de Oliveira; Ajzen, Sergio; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis]. E-mail: eofilho@ig.com.br; eoffilho@uol.com.br

    2007-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography in the assessment of patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Fifty-one unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography studies of patients with acute pancreatitis were blindly reviewed by two radiologists (observers 1 and 2). The morphological index was separately calculated for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and the disease severity index was established. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computed tomography was measured by means of the kappa index ({kappa}). Results: Interobserver agreement was {kappa} 0.666, 0.705, 0.648, 0.547 and 0.631, respectively for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced morphological index, presence of pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic necrosis extension, and disease severity index. Intraobserver agreement (observers 1 and 2, respectively) was {kappa} = 0.796 and 0.732 for unenhanced morphological index; {kappa} 0.725 and 0.802 for contrast- enhanced morphological index; {kappa} = 0.674 and 0.849 for presence of pancreatic necrosis; {kappa} = 0.606 and 0.770 for pancreatic necrosis extension; and {kappa} = 0.801 and 0.687 for disease severity index at computed tomography. Conclusion: Computed tomography for determination of morphological index and disease severity index in the staging of acute pancreatitis is a quite reproducible method. The absence of contrast- enhancement does not affect the computed tomography morphological index reproducibility. (author)

  5. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.)

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... look like? The CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short ... spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross- ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... look like? The CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short ... spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross- ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications generally need to be taken 12 hours ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications generally need to be taken 12 hours ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  16. X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Michael, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Describes computed tomography (CT), a medical imaging technique that produces images of transaxial planes through the human body. A CT image is reconstructed mathematically from a large number of one-dimensional projections of a plane. The technique is used in radiological examinations and radiotherapy treatment planning. (Author/MM)

  17. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.;

    2014-01-01

    The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  18. Computed tomography for dimensional metrology

    Kruth, J.P.; Bartscher, M.; Carmignato, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives a survey of the upcoming use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for dimensional quality control purposes: i.e. for traceable measurement of dimensions of technical (mechanical) components and for tolerance verification of such components. It describes the basic principles of CT...

  19. Facility for positron computed tomography

    The positron computed tomography facility has got scintillator detector rings simultaneously recording more than one tomogrphic image of different cross-sections of the patient. The detectors in neighboring rings are staggered and can be rotated with respect to each other in order to increase the count rate without loss of efficiency. (DG)

  20. Computed tomography of intramuscular myxoma

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in seven patients with intramuscular myxoma. All lesions were well demarcated, of homogeneous appearance and attenuation values ranging from 10 to 60 (HU). The tumor size, as estimated at CT, correlated well with the size of the surgical specimen, which is in contrast to the findings in some high grade malignant sarcomas. (orig.)

  1. Computed tomography:the details.

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  6. Computed Tomography findings in Fournier's gangrene

    To assess the utility of computed tomography (CT) as an imaging technique in the diagnosis and determination of the extension of Fournier's gangrene (FG). We report the cases of six patients who had been clinically diagnosed as having FG, CT, enhanced by oral and intravenous contrast media, was performed in all the patients. All six patients presented soft tissue masses and gas in the scrotal region, which were also detected in the perineal region in five. In two patients, the gas extended toward anterior abdominal wall and in one of them, it also observed in anterior and posterior para renal space. The major predisposing factors were diabetes and alcoholism and the most common triggering factor was urologic disease. CT confirms the existence of FG and aids in assessing its extension and, in some cases, in identifying the underlying cause. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Pediatric cranial computed tomography

    The introduction of CT in the investigation of intercranial pathology has revolutionized the approach to clinical neurological and neurosurgical practice. This book applies the advances of cranial CT to the pediatric patient. The test is divided into two sections. The first portion describes the practical methodology, anatomy and normal and abnormal CT scan appearance, including high or low density lesions, cystic lesions and ventricular or subarachnoid space dilation. The characteristic scans for various neurological diseases are presented and discussed. The author has given special attention to the CT diagnosis of congenital malformations and cerebral neoplasms. Partial Contents: Normal Computed Tomographic Anatomy/ High Density Lesions/Low Density Lesions/Cystic Lesions; Supratentorial/Cystic Lesions; Infratentorial/Increased Head Circumference/Increased Ventricular Size/Small Ventricular Size/Cranial Lesions/Spinal Lesions/CT Cisternography/Part II CT in Neonates/Congenital Craniocerebral Malformations/Hydrocephalus/Craniosynostosis/Head Trauma/Cerebrovascular Lesions/Intracranial Lesions/Seizure Disorders/Intracranial and Other Chronic Neurological Disorders

  8. Relevance of computed tomography in gynecological tumors

    Hagemann, J.R.; Hagemann, J.

    1983-11-01

    1. Abdominal CT examination is the method of choice when examining ovarial tumours. 2. Abdominal CT is redundant in the early stages of carcinoma of the collum and if the carcinoma has penetrated into the vagina. 3. In advanced stages of carcinoma of the collum, CT enables accurate staging. CT is at least equal in relevance to gynecological examination in respect of assessment of parametraneous infiltration. Distant metastases, as well as complications of the efferent urinary tract can be visualized. In view of this, the following procedure appears meaningful in advanced carcinoma of the collum: First of all, gynecological examination is performed without anaesthesia to confirm the findings in the regions of the portio and vagina; as far as possible, the existence of the central parametraneous infiltrations is confirmed. For the purpose of further staging of the parametraneous infiltration, as well as of the paraaortal lymphomas and possible metastases, as well as for the purpose of excluding hydronephrosis, computed tomography is performed. This avoids burdening the patient with an examination under anaesthesia, and it also avoids invasive examination methods, such as urography and lymphography.

  9. Relevance of computed tomography in gynaecological tumors

    1. Abdominal CT examination is the method of choice when examining ovarial tumours. 2. Abdominal CT is redundant in the early stages of carcinoma of the collum and if the carcinoma has penetrated into the vagina. 3. In advanced stages of carcinoma of the collum, CT enables accurate staging. CT is at least equal in relevance to gynaecological examination in respect of assessment of parametraneous infiltration. Distant metastases, as well as complications of the efferent urinary tract can be visualized. In view of this, the following procedure appears meaningful in advanced carcinoma of the collum: First of all, gynaecological examination is performed without anaesthesia to confirm the findings in the regions of the portio and vagina; as far as possible, the existence of the central parametraneous infiltrations is confirmed. For the purpose of further staging of the parametraneous infiltration, as well as of the paraaortal lymphomas and possible metastases, as well as for the purpose of excluding hydronephrosis, computed tomography is performed. This avoids burdening the patient with an examination under anaesthesia, and it also avoids invasive examination methods, such as urography and lymphography. (orig.)

  10. Intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess: computed tomography features

    Peng; Dong; Jing-Jing; Chen; Xi-Zhen; Wang; Ya-Qin; Wang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the computed tomography(CT) features of intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess(IPTA). METHODS: Eight patients with IPTA confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical symptoms, medical images, and surgical findings were evaluated. Involvement of the intestine, peritoneum, viscera, and lymph nodes was also assessed. RESULTS: All 8 patients had a history of abdominal discomfort for 1 to 6 mo. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in 6 patients. Three patients had no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis(TB). All IPTAs(11 abscesses) were seen as a multiseptated, peripherally enhanced, hypodense mass with enlarged, rim-enhanced lymph nodes. The largest abscess diameter ranged from 4.5 cm to 12.2 cm. CT showed 2 types of IPTA: Lymph node fusion and encapsulation. Of the 8 patients, one had liver tuberculosis and one had splenic and ovarian tuberculosis. Two cases showed involvement of the terminal ileum and ileocecal junction. Ascites were found in 4 cases. Three patients had peritonitis and mesenteritis. Three patients showed involvement of the omentum. Three patients had histological evidence of caseating granuloma, and 5 had histological evidence of acid-fast bacilli. CONCLUSION: CT is crucial in the detection and characterization of IPTA. Certain CT findings are necessary for correct diagnosis.

  11. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy diagnosed with computed tomography

    The rupture of ectopic pregnancy (EP) still remains the primary and direct cause of death in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasonography is known to be a modality of choice in EP diagnostics. We found a severe discrepancy between the frequency of ectopic pregnancies (EP) and the number of available computed tomography (CT) examinations. A 29-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and collapse. Sonographic findings of a suspected EP were unclear. Moreover, not all features of intrauterine pregnancy were present. Due to the patient’s life-threatening condition, an emergency multi-slice CT with MPR and VRT reconstructions was performed, revealing symptoms of a ruptured EP. In the right adnexal area, a well-vascularized, solid-cystic abnormal mass lesion was found. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was confirmed intraoperatively, and the right fallopian tube with a tubal EP was resected. In the surgery in situ, as well as in the pathological examination of the tumor mass, a human embryo of approximately 1.5 cm in length (beginning of the 8th week of gestation) was found. Although ultrasonography still remains the first-line imaging examination in EP diagnostics, sometimes the findings of suspected EPs are unclear and not sufficient. The rupture of EP, with serious bleeding and symptoms of shock, may require an emergent pelvic and abdominal CT inspection. A clear correlation was found between the macroscopic CT images and the intraoperatively sampled material

  12. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Townsend, David W

    2008-05-01

    Accurate anatomical localization of functional abnormalities obtained with the use of positron emission tomography (PET) is known to be problematic. Although tracers such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) visualize certain normal anatomical structures, the spatial resolution is generally inadequate for accurate anatomic localization of pathology. Combining PET with a high-resolution anatomical imaging modality such as computed tomography (CT) can resolve the localization issue as long as the images from the two modalities are accurately coregistered. However, software-based registration techniques have difficulty accounting for differences in patient positioning and involuntary movement of internal organs, often necessitating labor-intensive nonlinear mapping that may not converge to a satisfactory result. Acquiring both CT and PET images in the same scanner obviates the need for software registration and routinely provides accurately aligned images of anatomy and function in a single scan. A CT scanner positioned in line with a PET scanner and with a common patient couch and operating console has provided a practical solution to anatomical and functional image registration. Axial translation of the couch between the 2 modalities enables both CT and PET data to be acquired during a single imaging session. In addition, the CT images can be used to generate essentially noiseless attenuation correction factors for the PET emission data. By minimizing patient movement between the CT and PET scans and accounting for the axial separation of the two modalities, accurately registered anatomical and functional images can be obtained. Since the introduction of the first PET/CT prototype more than 6 years ago, numerous patients with cancer have been scanned on commercial PET/CT devices worldwide. The commercial designs feature multidetector spiral CT and high-performance PET components. Experience has demonstrated an increased level of accuracy and confidence in the

  13. Hermaphroditism demonstrated by computed tomography

    The categorization of disorders of gender differentiation is based on chromosome analysis, physical examination, gonadal histology, and endocrine evaluation. In most cases of hermaphroditism, radiologic studies have been limited to assessment of associated urinary tract anomalies before surgical revconstruction. Noninvasive evaluation with computed tomography (CT) or sonography is potentially useful for investigation of internal pelvic anatomy in these cases. A case report of a 65-year-old man is reported

  14. Hermaphroditism demonstrated by computed tomography

    Gale, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    The categorization of disorders of gender differentiation is based on chromosome analysis, physical examination, gonadal histology, and endocrine evaluation. In most cases of hermaphroditism, radiologic studies have been limited to assessment of associated urinary tract anomalies before surgical revconstruction. Noninvasive evaluation with computed tomography (CT) or sonography is potentially useful for investigation of internal pelvic anatomy in these cases. A case report of a 65-year-old man is reported. (KRM)

  15. Computed tomography of gynecologic diseases

    Although computed tomography (CT) provides superb images of all areas of the body, sonography, because of its lack of ionizing radiation and its real-time and multiplanar capacities, has become the preferred initial method of evaluating the female pelvis. This has resulted in a relative paucity of information in the literature concerning CT features of benign pelvic disorders in particular and prompted the authors to review our experience with third-generation CT scanning of the uterus and ovaries

  16. Cranial computed tomography in paediatrics

    This paper deals mainly with methodical aspects (such as sedation, intravenous and intrathecal application of contrast media) and with common difficulties in interpretation of computed tomography images. The indications for cranial CT are discussed in respect probable therapeutic consequences and expected diagnostic yield. In view of the author CT is, as a rule, not required in assessing chronic headache, generalised epileptic convulsions, non-specific mental retardation and cerebral palsy. (Author)

  17. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Updated:Sep 11,2015 What is a ... Heart Attack Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Radionuclide Ventriculography, Radionuclide Angiography, MUGA Scan Heart ...

  18. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 3,2015 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  19. The history of computed tomography

    New scientific discoveries are often made by the synthetising of other discoveries. Computed tomography is such an example. The three necessary elements were: 1/ the fact that certain simple crystals scintillate when exposed to X-rays, 2/ the advent of electronics and 3/ that of computers. The fact that X-rays cause crystals to scintillate was learnt very shortly after Roentgen's discovery, electronics and computers coming very much later. To put all these together and apply them to diagnostic radiology, and at the same time dismiss the concept so firmly ingrained in everyone's mind that an X-ray picture must be produced on photographic film, required a genius. (orig./VJ)

  20. Window manipulation in diagnosis of body packing using computed tomography.

    Sengupta, Anshuman; Page, Patrick

    2008-05-01

    Body packing refers to the internal concealment of narcotics, usually within the gastrointestinal tract. This is important to recognise for clinical and forensic reasons. Imaging is often helpful, particularly because an accurate history is unusual. Furthermore, clinical examination and urine screens are often unreliable. Plain abdominal radiography and ultrasonography have been used with limited success. Thus, the use of alternative modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), is becoming more widespread. Although there have been no large trials, one false-negative has been reported. We report the case of a body packer whose CT appeared normal with standard abdominal windowing (level 40/width 400). However, on manipulation of the windowing (level -175/width 600), paraffin and heroin packages became conspicuous within the colon. We suggest that the simple step of reviewing images on wider than standard abdominal windows may be helpful in the detection of ingested illicit packages of fatty density within the bowel. PMID:17713799

  1. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic. (orig.)

  2. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...

  3. Facility for positron computed tomography

    For positron computed tomography two or more rings of scintillation detectors are used by which three or more sections of the object may be determined at a time. The rings are placed in parallel planes having got some distance from each other, axially movable collimator rings being provided for. Each collimator can be moved towards the opposite collimator and towards a central collimator which also is ring-shaped and is placed between the rows of detectors. The external and internal collimator are used for data selection and image-forming. (DG)

  4. Utility of screening computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis in patients after heart transplantation

    Introduction: Malignancy is a late cause of mortality in heart transplant recipients. It is unknown if screening computed tomography scan would lead to early detection of such malignancies or serious vascular anomalies post heart transplantation. Methods: This is a single center observational study of patients undergoing surveillance computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis atleast 5 years after transplantation. Abnormal findings, included pulmonary nodules, lymphadenopathy and intra-thoracic and intra-abdominal masses and vascular anomalies such as abdominal aortic aneurysm. The clinical follow up of each of these major abnormal findings is summarized. Results: A total of 63 patients underwent computed tomography scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis at least 5 years after transplantation. Of these, 54 (86%) were male and 9 (14%) were female. Mean age was 52 ± 9.2 years. Computed tomography revealed 1 lung cancer (squamous cell) only. Non specific pulmonary nodules were seen in 6 patients (9.5%). The most common incidental finding was abdominal aortic aneurysms (N = 6 (9.5%)), which necessitated follow up computed tomography (N = 5) or surgery (N = 1). Mean time to detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms from transplantation was 14.6 ± 4.2 years. Mean age at the time of detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms was 74.5 ± 3.2 years. Conclusion: Screening computed tomography scan in patients 5 years from transplantation revealed only one malignancy but lead to increased detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Thus the utility is low in terms of detection of malignancy. Based on this study we do not recommend routine computed tomography post heart transplantation.

  5. Computed tomography of the spine

    Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

  6. Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can...

  7. Noninvasive coronary angioscopy using electron beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography

    van Ooijen, PMA; Nieman, K; de Feyter, PJ; Oudkerk, M

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of noninvasive coronary imaging techniques like multidetector computed tomography and electron beam computed tomography, new representation methods such as intracoronary visualization. have been introduced. We explore the possibilities of these novel visualization techniques and comp

  8. Computed tomographic findings of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease - pictorial essay

    Zissin, R. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Hertz, M. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Novis, B. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Gastroenterology, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harode Medical Center, Zrifin, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-02-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract (CIT) most often affecting the terminal ileum and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and weight loss are the most common clinical symptoms. Abdominal complications of CD, both intestinal and extraintestinal, are frequent and variable. The most common intestinal complications include ileocolitis with external or internal fistulas and abscess formation, strictures, and bowel obstruction. Less common are free perforation, intussusception, and malignancy. The extraintestinal complications include nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, portal vein gas, and thromboembolic events. Nowadays, computed tomography (CT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy of various intra-abdominal pathological processes, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of patients wit known CD for the assessment of bowel wall involvement, the mesenteric extent of the disease, and inn-abdominal complications. In addition, as CT is frequently performed to evaluate patients with acute abdomen, it may encounter clinically unsuspected complications in patients with CD. This article reviews the CT features of various intra-abdominal complications of CD. (author)

  9. Computed tomographic findings of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease - pictorial essay

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract (CIT) most often affecting the terminal ileum and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and weight loss are the most common clinical symptoms. Abdominal complications of CD, both intestinal and extraintestinal, are frequent and variable. The most common intestinal complications include ileocolitis with external or internal fistulas and abscess formation, strictures, and bowel obstruction. Less common are free perforation, intussusception, and malignancy. The extraintestinal complications include nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, portal vein gas, and thromboembolic events. Nowadays, computed tomography (CT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy of various intra-abdominal pathological processes, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of patients wit known CD for the assessment of bowel wall involvement, the mesenteric extent of the disease, and inn-abdominal complications. In addition, as CT is frequently performed to evaluate patients with acute abdomen, it may encounter clinically unsuspected complications in patients with CD. This article reviews the CT features of various intra-abdominal complications of CD. (author)

  10. Abdominal CT scan

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  11. 急性肾绞痛患者B超联合腹部X线平片与平扫CT诊断尿路结石的比较研究%Comparison between ultrasonography with plain abdominal radiography and unenhanced computed tomography in the diagnosis of urinary calculi with renal colic

    曾筱江; 刘丽华; 涂响安

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect between ultrasonography and plain abdominal radiography with unenhanced computed tomography ( CT) for the diagnosis of urinary calculi in patients with renal colic . Methods; Sixty-iiine patients with renal colic were diagnosed with ultrasonography ; plain abdominal radiography and unenhanced computed tomography. The findings of two methods were compared. Results: 59 of 69 patients were confirmed to have urinary calculi by follow -up. Ultrasonography with plain abdominal radiography detected 44 of the 59 patients with calculi (sensitivity 74. 6% and specificity 100% ). Unenhanced CT detected 55 of 59 patients, (sensitivity 93. 2% and specificity 100% ). Sensitivity of the two methods is of statistical differences in the diagnosis of acute renal colic urolithiasis patients. Conclusion: Unenhanced CT is more sensitive for detecting urolithiasis than ultrasonography with plain abdominal radiography.%目的:比较B超联合腹部X线平片(KUB)和平扫CT在诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的效能.方法:对69例因急性肾绞痛在我院泌尿外科门诊或者急诊的患者进行B超联合KUB和平扫CT检查,并对两种诊断方法的诊断效能进行对比研究.结果:经过3个月的随访,69例中确诊患有尿路结石59例.B超联合KUB诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度为74.6%(44/59),特异度为100%(10/10).CT平扫诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度为93.2%(55/59),特异度为100%(10/10).两种影像学方法诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:平扫CT用于诊断急性肾绞痛患者尿路结石的敏感度优于B超联合KUB.

  12. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic usefulness of computed tomography

    Suzuki, K.; Tsugawa, R.; Yamakawa, Y. (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used as a diagnostic technique in various urological diseases. Here demonstrated is a case of ureteral incontinence with double renal pelvis whose upper one has ectopic ureteral orifice. Also a case of ureteral stricture in transplanted kidney and three cases of uric acid calculi are demonstrated. CT provides accurate information in each diagnostic procedure. The use of CT in the diagnosis of urinary stones is estimated. CT number of 75 stones with single component shows specific distribution in relation to the component; ex. calcium stones: 900 - 1000, cystine: 700 - 800, struvite: 600 - 700, uric acid: 400 - 500. Structure and component of the stone is easily demonstrated by CT, especially about nonopaque calculi, whose image is positively displayed only by CT.

  14. Diagnostic usefulness of computed tomography

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used as a diagnostic technique in various urological diseases. Here demonstrated is a case of ureteral incontinence with double renal pelvis whose upper one has ectopic ureteral orifice. Also a case of ureteral stricture in transplanted kidney and three cases of uric acid calculi are demonstrated. CT provides the accurate information in each diagnostic procedure. The use of CT in the diagnosis of urinary stones is estimated. CT number of 75 stones with single component shows specific distribution in relation to the component; ex. calcium stones: 900 - 1000, cystine: 700 - 800, struvite: 600 - 700, uric acid: 400 - 500. Structure and component of the stone is easily demonstrated by CT, especially about nonopaque calculi, whose image is positively displayed only by CT. (author)

  15. Computed tomography findings in pancreas divisum

    In 29 patients with abdominal pain the diagnosis of pancreas divisum (PD) was verified by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (EPR) via both the major and the minor papilla. Computed tomography (CT) was done in all patients to evaluate contour, volume, antero-posterior diameters and attenuation values of the gland in comparison with a normal reference series. Also, the validity of the CT grading of pancreatitis was assessed in comparison with ERP grading. Patients with PD had an increased cranio-caudal diameter of the pancreatic head (p<0.001). Further, the main pancreatic duct was visualized more often in patients with PD (p<0.01), who also had an increasing frequency of pancreatic calcifications (p<0.05). Otherwise there were no differences compared with the normal series. The observed reduction in the volume of the gland in patients with marked pancreatitis at ERP seemingly reflected the severity of inflammation. No cleavage between the dorsal and ventral anlage was identified. CT was found to be too unspecific to be of any use in grading of pancreatitis. In conclusion, CT findings in patients with PD are sparse, unspecific and preferably a reflection of pancreatitis, if present. ERP remains the ''gold standard'' for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels. It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain ... evaluate blood vessels throughout the body. With CT, it is possible to obtain very detailed pictures of ...

  18. Computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging

    Presented here is a brief introduction to two-, three-, and four-dimensional computed tomography. More detailed descriptions of the mathematics of reconstruction and of CT scanner operation are presented elsewhere. The complementary tomographic imaging methods of single-photon-emission tomography (SPECT) positron-emission tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, ulltrasound sector scanning, and ulltrasound computer-assisted tomography [UCAT] are only named here. Each imaging modality ''probes'' the body with a different energy form, yielding unique and useful information about tomographic sections through the body

  19. Acute appendicitis: computed tomography findings - an iconographic essay

    Acute appendicitis is the most important cause of abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention in the Western world. The early diagnosis of this disease is of paramount relevance for minimizing its morbidity. Imaging methods have represented a huge progress in the diagnosis of this entity, which used to be based essentially on clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests results, considering that 20% to 33% of patients present with atypical symptoms. Diagnostic difficulty is higher in children, the elderly, and women in childbearing age. The main imaging methods for evaluation of acute appendicitis are ultrasound and computed tomography. The present study is aimed at describing the disease physiopathology, commenting main computed tomography technical aspects, demonstrating and illustrating tomographic findings, and describing main differential diagnoses. (author)

  20. Fracture of the orbit: computed tomography appearance

    The main mechanisms of orbital fractures and their clinical symptoms are exposed. The computed tomographic appearance is described and the implication of computed tomography for therapeutic indications is evaluated as a function of clinical symptoms: visual impairment, anomaly of pupillary reaction to light, ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos and associated injuries such as intracranial hematomas. The role of computed tomography for the follow-up of these patients is considered

  1. Computed tomography of obstructive jaundice

    It is well known that the computed tomography (CT) is very useful in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. We have studied 55 cases of obstructive jaundice with whole body scanner from Jun.1980 to Jun. 1981. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution was 36 males and 19 females, and 40 cases of obstructive jaundice were seen in fifth, sixth, and seventh decades. 2. Causes of obstructive jaundice were 25 cases of pancreas cancer, 8 cases of common duct cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 4 cases of ampulla vater cancer, 12 cases of common duct stone, and 2 cases of common duct stricture. 3. Levels of obstruction were 8 cases of hepatic portion, 15 cases of suprapancreatic portion, 28 cases of pancreatic portion, and 4 cases of ampullary portion. 4. In tumorous condition, CT demonstrated metastasis of other organs, 9 cases of the liver, 1 case of the lung, 3 cases of the pancreas, 3 cases of the common bile duct, 1 case of the stomach, and 12 cases of adjacent lymph nodes. 5. Associated diseases were 12 cases of intrahepatic stone, 4 cases of clonorchiasis, 2 cases of pancreas pseudocyst, 1 cases of hydronephrosis, and 1 case of renal cyst

  2. Computed tomography of obstructive jaundice

    Suh, Jung Hek; Lee, Joong Suk; Chun, Beung He; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    It is well known that the computed tomography (CT) is very useful in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. We have studied 55 cases of obstructive jaundice with whole body scanner from Jun.1980 to Jun. 1981. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution was 36 males and 19 females, and 40 cases of obstructive jaundice were seen in fifth, sixth, and seventh decades. 2. Causes of obstructive jaundice were 25 cases of pancreas cancer, 8 cases of common duct cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 4 cases of ampulla vater cancer, 12 cases of common duct stone, and 2 cases of common duct stricture. 3. Levels of obstruction were 8 cases of hepatic portion, 15 cases of suprapancreatic portion, 28 cases of pancreatic portion, and 4 cases of ampullary portion. 4. In tumorous condition, CT demonstrated metastasis of other organs, 9 cases of the liver, 1 case of the lung, 3 cases of the pancreas, 3 cases of the common bile duct, 1 case of the stomach, and 12 cases of adjacent lymph nodes. 5. Associated diseases were 12 cases of intrahepatic stone, 4 cases of clonorchiasis, 2 cases of pancreas pseudocyst, 1 cases of hydronephrosis, and 1 case of renal cyst.

  3. Computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a widely used method of obtaining cross-sectional views of objects. The high intensity, natural collimation, monochromaticity and energy tunability of synchrotron x-ray sources could potentially be used to provide CT images of improved quality. The advantages of these systems would be that images could be produced more rapidly with better spatial resolution and reduced beam artifacts. In addition, images, in some cases, could be acquired with elemental sensitivity. As a demonstration of the capability of such a system, CT images were obtained of four slices of an excised pig heart in which the arteries and the cardiac chambers were filled with an iodinated medium. Images were taken with incident x-rays tuned successively to energies just above and below the iodine K edge. Iodine specific images were obtained by logarithmically subtracting the low energy image data from the high energy data and then reconstructing the image. CT imaging using synchrotron radiation may become a convenient and non-destructive method of imaging samples difficult to study by other methods

  4. Imaging in abdominal trauma

    Imaging in abdominal trauma with special regard to the value of abdominal X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography is described. The introduction to each organ focusses on the clinical situation, special mechanism of trauma, symptoms and the pathological staging of trauma. (orig.)

  5. The protocol of dose reduction in liver perfusion computed tomography

    Cerebral perfusion computed tomography (CT) has been widespread, but abdominal perfusion CT has not been very popular because there has been a problem with regard to the limit of irradiation range and respiratory effects. Recently, it became easy to perform perfusion of abdominal organs because the use of multi detector row CT (MDCT) has been extensive. Along with it, the number of hospitals that perform liver perfusion CT has increased. However, patient dose of the liver perfusion CT is very high, making it very important to reduce patient dose. We created the virtual data that reduced the number of irradiation by partly reducing the data obtained on the liver perfusion CT. We compared the analysis results of all data with that of the partly reduced. It is possible to reduce the patient dose by reducing the number of irradiation because there was no significant difference in the analysis results. (author)

  6. Unusual computed tomography findings and complications in acute appendicitis

    The objective of this article is to describe and illustrate unusual computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute appendicitis. We reviewed the charts of 200 patients with clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis who were submitted to abdominal CT before surgery. Patients with unusual presentation or complications were selected for illustrating the main CT findings. Unusual complications of acute appendicitis were related to anomalous position of the appendix, contiguity to intraperitoneal organs such as the liver, gall bladder, annexes and the bladder and continuous use of anti inflammatory or antibiotics during the diagnostic process. We concluded that CT is a useful diagnostic tool in patients with complicated or unusual presentation acute appendicitis. The first step towards diagnosis in these cases i to have in mind the hypothesis of appendicitis in patients with acute abdominal pain. (author)

  7. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography

    Computerized Tomography. has become, during the past few years, one of the mostly used apparatus in X-ray diagnosis. Its clinical applications has penetrated to various fields, like operational guidance, cardiac imaging, computer aided surgery etc. The first second-generation CT scanners consisted of a rotate-rotate system detectors array and an X-ray tube. These scanners were capable of acquiring individual single slices, the duration of each being several seconds. The slow scanning rate, and the then poor computers power, limited the application range of these scanners, to relatively stable organs, short body coverage at given resolutions. Further drawbacks of these machines were weak X-ray sources and low efficiency gas detectors. In the late 80's the first helical scanners were introduced by Siemens. Based on a continuous patient couch movement during gantry rotation, much faster scans could be obtained, increasing significantly the volume coverage at a given time. In 1992 the first dual-slice scanners, equipped with high efficiency solid state detectors were introduced by Elscint. The acquisition of data simultaneously from two detector arrays doubled the efficiency of the scan. Faster computers and stronger X-ray sources further improved the performance, allowing for a new range of clinical applications. Yet, the need for even faster machines and bigger volume coverage led to further R and D efforts by the leading CT manufacturers. In order to accomplish the most demanding clinical needs, innovative 2 dimensional 4-rows solid-state detector arrays were developed, together with faster rotating machines and bigger X-ray tubes, all demanding extremely accurate and robust mechanical constructions. Parallel, multi-processor custom computers were made, in order to allow the on-line reconstruction of the growing amounts of raw data. Four-slice helical scanners, rotating at 0.5 sec per cycle are being tested nowadays in several clinics all over the world. This talk

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate for injury after trauma. Tell your doctor about your child’s medications and ... diagnose a wide range of conditions due to injury or illness. In children, CT is typically used ...

  9. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  10. Computed Tomography For Internal Inspection Of Castings

    Hanna, Timothy L.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography used to detect internal flaws in metal castings before machining and otherwise processing them into finished parts. Saves time and money otherwise wasted on machining and other processing of castings eventually rejected because of internal defects. Knowledge of internal defects gained by use of computed tomography also provides guidance for changes in foundry techniques, procedures, and equipment to minimize defects and reduce costs.