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Sample records for abdominal clutter reduction

  1. Cluttering

    ... they do have a significant speech problem. Also, motivation is a key element; they have good reason ... entirely to cluttering containing an annotated bibliography, case studies, research investigations, and commentaries by several well-known ...

  2. Mine detection using SF-GPR: A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction

    Karlsen, Brian; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Larsen, Jan; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    Proper clutter reduction is essential for Ground Penetrating Radar data since low signal-to-clutter ratio prevent correct detection of mine objects. A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction used on Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) data is...... presented, and the effects of combining clutter reduction with resolution enhancement are examined using simulated SF-GPR data examples. The resolution enhancement method is based on methods from optical signal processing and is largely carried out in the frequency domain to reduce the computational burden...

  3. Clutter Reduction Based on Principal Component Analysis Technique for Hidden Objects Detection

    V. Kabourek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a brief overview of the statistical method called Principal Component Analysis (PCA. It is used for clutter reduction in detection of hidden objects, targets hidden behind walls, buried landmines, etc. Since the measured data, imaged in time domain, suffer from the hyperbolic character of objects’ reflections, utilization of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR method is briefly described. Besides, the mathematical basics of PCA as well as its comparison with Singular Value Decomposition are presented. The principles of ground and clutter subtraction from image are then demonstrated using training data set and SAR processed measured data.

  4. Demonstration of clutter reduction and aircraft detection in multispectral data

    Hoff, Lawrence E.; Winter, Edwin M.

    1992-08-01

    The DARPA multi-spectral infrared camera (MUSIC) was used for a series of experiments in Australia and Maui, Hawaii in 1991. The Maui experiments, conducted from a high mountain, concentrated on the detection of aircraft. The detection of air vehicles without the use of temporal motion (such as the case of a head-on approaching air vehicle) is a challenging problem when background clutter is present. The technique investigated was not dependent upon either the angular motion or the spectral signature of the aircraft. This approach exploits the differential transmission of the atmosphere in neighboring long wave infrared bands. This differential transmission between the target and background `colors' the background relative to the target and allows its removal. This technique was demonstrated on many examples of MUSIC data collected in Maui, Hawaii. Targets approaching the sensor head-on were successfully detected against clouds and other backgrounds using spectral along with spatial techniques. Several different algorithms were investigated and results are compared.

  5. Clutter Reduction Based on Principal Component Analysis Technique for Hidden Objects Detection

    V. Kabourek; P. Cerny; Mazanek, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings a brief overview of the statistical method called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It is used for clutter reduction in detection of hidden objects, targets hidden behind walls, buried landmines, etc. Since the measured data, imaged in time domain, suffer from the hyperbolic character of objects’ reflections, utilization of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) method is briefly described. Besides, the mathematical basics of PCA as well as its comparison with Singular Value D...

  6. Dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography

    The broad availability and use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in recent years has increased the radiation dose for patients. Multiphase MDCT protocols are used in abdominal imaging for various indications. Dose reduction though novel technologies, such as dual energy CT or adapted contrast injection protocols (split bolus etc.) for reduction of scans. An optimized dose reduction can be achieved by using strict protocols which are adapted to the clinical situation of the patient. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of PCA and ICA based clutter reduction in GPR systems for anti-personal landmine detection

    Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing;

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents statistical signal processing approaches for clutter reduction in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data. In particular, we suggest clutter/signal separation techniques based on principal and independent component analysis (PCA/ICA). The approaches are succes...... successfully evaluated and compared on a real SF-GPR time-series. Field-test data are acquired using a monostatic S-band rectangular waveguide antenna.......This paper presents statistical signal processing approaches for clutter reduction in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data. In particular, we suggest clutter/signal separation techniques based on principal and independent component analysis (PCA/ICA). The approaches are...

  8. Photoacoustic clutter reduction by inversion of a linear scatter model using plane wave ultrasound measurements

    Schwab, Hans-Martin; Beckmann, Martin F.; Schmitz, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging aims to visualize light absorption properties of biological tissue by receiving a sound wave that is generated inside the observed object as a result of the photoacoustic effect. In clinical applications, the strong light absorption in human skin is a major problem. When high amplitude photoacoustic waves that originate from skin absorption propagate into the tissue, they are reflected back by acoustical scatterers and the reflections contribute to the received signal. The artifacts associated with these reflected waves are referred to as clutter or skin echo and limit the applicability of photoacoustic imaging for medical applications severely. This study seeks to exploit the acoustic tissue information gained by plane wave ultrasound measurements with a linear array in order to correct for reflections in the photoacoustic image. By deriving a theory for clutter waves in k-space and a matching inversion approach, photoacoustic measurements compensated for clutter are shown to be recovered. PMID:27446669

  9. Negative pressure device for intra-abdominal pressure reduction

    David, M; Geido, D; Pracca, F; Sanchez, G; Simini, F; Zoppolo, C [Nucleo de Ingenierfa Biomedica, Universidad de la Republica O. del Uruguay, Hospital de ClInicas, Av. Italia S/N, 11600, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2007-11-15

    A device that generates negative extra-abdominal pressure (ABDOPRE) for treatment of patients with high intra-abdominal pressure was developed. It includes pressure sensors for transducing intra-abdominal pressure through an intra-vesical catheter and negative pressure in the vacuum bell which is placed over the abdomen. By means of a control system, a pattern for reducing IAP is set, according to a clinical protocol. The external negative pressure is generated using a vacuum pump connected to the bell. The system registers the values of interest for the medical history. The system is being tested over ICU patients, registering a satisfactory IAP reduction.

  10. Wind Turbine Clutter

    Gallardo-Hernando, Beatriz; Pérez-Martínez, Félix; Aguado-Encabo, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the main effects of wind turbines on the performance of radar systems have been explained. The radar signature of wind turbine clutter is unique and then, it requires a special treatment when developing mitigation techniques. WTC clutter remains spatially static, but it fluctuates continuously in time. In surveillance radars the return from wind turbines can be completely different from one scan to the following. In addition, apart from the powerful tower return, the movement ...

  11. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  12. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  13. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality. Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving...

  14. Effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose reduction and diagnostic accuracy of pediatric abdominal CT

    Since children are more radio-sensitive than adults, there is a need to minimize radiation exposure during CT exams. To evaluate the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal CT examinations of 41 children (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age: 10 years) with a low-dose radiation protocol and reconstructed with ASIR (the ASIR group). We also reviewed routine-dose abdominal CT examinations of 41 age- and sex-matched controls reconstructed with filtered-back projection (control group). Image quality was assessed objectively as noise measured in the liver, spleen and aorta, as well as subjectively by three pediatric radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. Radiation dose and objective image qualities of each group were compared with the paired t-test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by reviewing follow-up imaging studies and medical records in 2012 and 2013. There was 46.3% dose reduction of size-specific dose estimates in ASIR group (from 13.4 to 7.2 mGy) compared with the control group. Objective noise was higher in the liver, spleen and aorta of the ASIR group (P < 0.001). However, the subjective image quality was average or superior in 84-100% of studies. Only one image was subjectively rated as unacceptable by one reviewer. There was only one case with interpretational error in the control group and none in the ASIR group. Use of the ASIR technique resulted in greater than a 45% reduction in radiation dose without impairing subjective image quality or diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT, despite increased objective image noise. (orig.)

  15. Effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose reduction and diagnostic accuracy of pediatric abdominal CT

    Bae, Sohi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook; Hong, Jung Hwa [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Since children are more radio-sensitive than adults, there is a need to minimize radiation exposure during CT exams. To evaluate the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal CT examinations of 41 children (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age: 10 years) with a low-dose radiation protocol and reconstructed with ASIR (the ASIR group). We also reviewed routine-dose abdominal CT examinations of 41 age- and sex-matched controls reconstructed with filtered-back projection (control group). Image quality was assessed objectively as noise measured in the liver, spleen and aorta, as well as subjectively by three pediatric radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale. Radiation dose and objective image qualities of each group were compared with the paired t-test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by reviewing follow-up imaging studies and medical records in 2012 and 2013. There was 46.3% dose reduction of size-specific dose estimates in ASIR group (from 13.4 to 7.2 mGy) compared with the control group. Objective noise was higher in the liver, spleen and aorta of the ASIR group (P < 0.001). However, the subjective image quality was average or superior in 84-100% of studies. Only one image was subjectively rated as unacceptable by one reviewer. There was only one case with interpretational error in the control group and none in the ASIR group. Use of the ASIR technique resulted in greater than a 45% reduction in radiation dose without impairing subjective image quality or diagnostic accuracy in pediatric abdominal CT, despite increased objective image noise. (orig.)

  16. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion of clutter moves as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of cluttered entities in old age homecare ecologies. In particular it is concerned with older people and their cluttered technologies. It is based on empirical data...... cites general household clutter as a hazard in the domestic environment. In such reports moving around with cluttered things tends to threaten a dangerous outcome for older people. But what other feasible vistas emerge when the analytical attention is focused explicitly on relational movements between...... older people and their cluttered collections of homely things? To provide an adequate answer, the chapter suggests that the moves between collecting and distributing clutter must be considered. It then will highlight how home clutter may enable people with reduced mobility additional movements not...

  17. Respiratory motion reduction in PET/CT using abdominal compression for lung cancer patients.

    Tzung-Chi Huang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Respiratory motion causes substantial artifacts in reconstructed PET images when using helical CT as the attenuation map in PET/CT imaging. In this study, we aimed to reduce the respiratory artifacts in PET/CT images of patients with lung tumors using an abdominal compression device. METHODS: Twelve patients with lung cancer located in the middle or lower lobe of the lung were recruited. The patients were injected with 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. During PET, the patients assumed two bed positions for 1.5 min/bed. After conducting free-breathing imaging, we obtained images of the patients with abdominal compression by applying the same setup used in the free-breathing scan. The differences in the standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean, tumor volume, and the centroid of the tumors between PET and various CT schemes were measured. RESULTS: The SUVmax and SUVmean derived from PET/CT imaging using an abdominal compression device increased for all the lesions, compared with those obtained using the conventional approach. The percentage increases were 18.1% ±14% and 17% ±16.8% for SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively. PET/CT imaging combined with abdominal compression generally reduced the tumor mismatch between CT and the corresponding attenuation corrected PET images, with an average decrease of 1.9±1.7 mm over all the cases. CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT imaging combined with abdominal compression reduces respiratory artifacts and PET/CT misregistration, and enhances quantitative SUV in tumor. Abdominal compression is easy to set up and is an effective method used in PET/CT imaging for clinical oncology, especially in the thoracic region.

  18. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p hyperinflating VRC,a (p hyperinflation was delayed and associated with 15% increased performance and reduced dyspnea at high workloads (p hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea. PMID:27175804

  19. Contrast medium usage reduction in abdominal computed tomography by using high-iodinated concentration contrast medium

    Suwannasri, A.; Kaewlai, R.; Asavaphatiboon, S.

    2016-03-01

    This study was to determine if administration of a low volume high-concentration iodinated contrast medium can preserve image quality in comparison with regular-concentration intravenous contrast medium in patient undergoing contrast-enhancement abdominal computed tomography (CT). Eighty-four patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of similar iodine delivery rate; A: 1.2 cc/kg of iomeprol-400, B: 1.0 cc/kg of iomeprol-400 and C: 1.5 cc/kg of ioversol-350. Contrast enhancement of the liver parenchyma, pancreas and aorta was quantitatively measured in Hounsfield units and qualitative assessed by a radiologist. T-test was used to evaluate contrast enhancement, and Chi-square test was used to evaluate qualitative image assessment, at significance level of 0.05 with 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant differences in contrast enhancement of liver parenchyma and pancreas between group A and group C in both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Group C showed superior vascular enhancement to group A and B on quantitative analysis.

  20. Subaperture clutter filter with CFAR signal detection

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Naething, Richard M.

    2016-08-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of whether a received signal comprising radar clutter further comprises a communication signal. The communication signal can comprise of a preamble, a data symbol, communication data, etc. A first portion of the radar clutter is analyzed to determine a radar signature of the first portion of the radar clutter. A second portion of the radar clutter can be extracted based on the radar signature of the first portion. Following extraction, any residual signal can be analyzed to retrieve preamble data, etc. The received signal can be based upon a linear frequency modulation (e.g., a chirp modulation) whereby the chirp frequency can be determined and the frequency of transmission of the communication signal can be based accordingly thereon. The duration and/or bandwidth of the communication signal can be a portion of the duration and/or the bandwidth of the radar clutter.

  1. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    Ward, Keith; Watts, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter. Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in sea clutter, imaging ocean surface features, radar detection performance calculations, CFAR detection, and the specification and measurement of radar performance. The calculation of the performance of pract

  2. HF radar sea clutter rejection by nonlinear projections

    Zhou Gongjian; Jin Yonggao; Dong Huachun; Quan Taifan

    2005-01-01

    In the background of signal detection for high frequency (HF) radar, the sea clutter is quite significant and can mask some weak target signals. A new clutter rejection method named "nonlinear projection" is given to improve the SNR of the target. This approach is based on the recent observation that HF sea clutter may be modeled as a nonlinear deterministic dynamical system. After approximating the multidimensional reconstruction of the clutter by a low-dimensional attractor, projections onto this attractor can separate the clutter from other components. Real sea clutter, simulated target data and real target data are used to show that a nonlinear clutter rejection method is a promising technique to suppress sea clutter and enhances target detection.

  3. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  4. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Kyong [Yonsei University, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. (orig.)

  5. Abdominal Adhesions

    ... adhesions? Abdominal adhesions can cause intestinal obstruction and female infertility—the inability to become pregnant after a year of trying. Abdominal adhesions can lead to female infertility by preventing fertilized eggs from reaching the uterus, ...

  6. Abdominal Ultrasound

    ... It is used to help diagnose pain or distention and evaluate the kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen ... variety of conditions, such as: abdominal pain or distention. abnormal liver function. enlarged abdominal organ. stones in ...

  7. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  8. EFFECT OF HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING PROTOCOL ON ABDOMINAL FAT REDUCTION IN OVERWEIGHT CHINESE WOMEN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Zhang, Haifeng; K. Tong, Tom; Qiu, Weifeng; Wang, Jingjing; Nie, Jinlei; He, Yuxiu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the whole-body and abdominal fat loss resulting from high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with that from moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) with equivalent oxygen cost in overweight women. Forty-three overweight women with matched anthropometric characteristics were randomly assigned to participate in: (1) HIIT [4 x 4-minute running at 85–95% HRpeak, 10-minute recovery], (2) MICT [33-minute running at 60–70% HRpeak] with oxygen cost e...

  9. Clutter discrimination algorithm simulation in pulse laser radar imaging

    Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; Su, Xuan; Zhu, Fule

    2015-10-01

    Pulse laser radar imaging performance is greatly influenced by different kinds of clutter. Various algorithms are developed to mitigate clutter. However, estimating performance of a new algorithm is difficult. Here, a simulation model for estimating clutter discrimination algorithms is presented. This model consists of laser pulse emission, clutter jamming, laser pulse reception and target image producing. Additionally, a hardware platform is set up gathering clutter data reflected by ground and trees. The data logging is as clutter jamming input in the simulation model. The hardware platform includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. The laser diode transmits short laser pulses (40ns FWHM) at 12.5 kilohertz pulse rate and at 905nm wavelength. An analog-to-digital converter chip integrated in the sample circuit works at 250 mega samples per second. The simulation model and the hardware platform contribute to a clutter discrimination algorithm simulation system. Using this system, after analyzing clutter data logging, a new compound pulse detection algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines matched filter algorithm and constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. Firstly, laser echo pulse signal is processed by matched filter algorithm. After the first step, CFD algorithm comes next. Finally, clutter jamming from ground and trees is discriminated and target image is produced. Laser radar images are simulated using CFD algorithm, matched filter algorithm and the new algorithm respectively. Simulation result demonstrates that the new algorithm achieves the best target imaging effect of mitigating clutter reflected by ground and trees.

  10. Wideband Radar Target Detection Theory in Coherent K Distributed Clutter

    Xiandong Meng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of neglecting K distributed clutter texture on wideband radar distributed targets detection. At first, the texture and the speckle of K clutter are researched and the Probability Density Function (PDF of K clutter and its texture are derived, then the optimal detector by Neyman-Pearson (NP is proposed, by contrast, another detector-Suboptimum Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT neglecting the clutter texture is given. Next, the estimation of covariance matrix is introduced. Finally, the numerical results are presented by means of Monte Carlo simulation strategy and the simulation results highlight that the performance loss of the 2 detectors in different shaping parameter, the result shows that the performance loss of the detector in K distributed clutter less than 1 db due to the texture is neglected and adaptively estimating the covariance matrix and the K clutter texture can be neglected on wideband radar targets detection.

  11. Airborne Radar STAP using Sparse Recovery of Clutter Spectrum

    Sun, Ke; Li, Gang; Meng, Huadong; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is an effective tool for detecting a moving target in spaceborne or airborne radar systems. Statistical-based STAP methods generally need sufficient statistically independent and identically distributed (IID) training data to estimate the clutter characteristics. However, most actual clutter scenarios appear only locally stationary and lack sufficient IID training data. In this paper, by exploiting the intrinsic sparsity of the clutter distribution in the angle-Doppler domain, a new STAP algorithm called SR-STAP is proposed, which uses the technique of sparse recovery to estimate the clutter space-time spectrum. Joint sparse recovery with several training samples is also used to improve the estimation performance. Finally, an effective clutter covariance matrix (CCM) estimate and the corresponding STAP filter are designed based on the estimated clutter spectrum. Both the Mountaintop data and simulated experiments have illustrated the fast convergence rate of this approach...

  12. Application of phase coherent transform to cloud clutter suppression

    Ng, L.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    This paper describes a tracking algorithm using frame-to-frame correlation with frequency domain clutter suppression. Clutter suppression was mechanized via a `Phase Coherent Transform` (PCT) approach. This approach was applied to explore the feasibility of tracking a post-boost rocket from a low earth orbit satellite with real cloud background data. Simulation results show that the PCT/correlation tracking algorithm can perform satisfactorily at signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as low as 5 or 7 dB.

  13. Abdominal Assessment.

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care. PMID:26925941

  14. Effect of subcutaneous butylscopolamine administration in the reduction of peristaltic artifacts in 1.5-T MR fast abdominal examinations

    In abdominal MR imaging, ghost artifacts from noncyclic bowel movements can reduce the quality of the images. Although pharmacologic suppression of motion is effective, no study has being conducted to analyze the influence of drug motion suppression on fast breath-hold 1.5-T examinations of the upper abdomen. A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 50 patients. Patients were randomly distributed into two groups: The control group received only an oral solution, whereas the other group received the oral solution plus a subcutaneous injection of 20 mg of butylscopolamine 10 min before the MR examination. Breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) MR images were obtained in a 1.5-T superconductive unit. Quantitative image analysis was performed with region-of-interest (ROI) measurements of the signal intensity of the liver and in background air anterior and lateral to the patient. A qualitative analysis of the subjective quality of the T1-weighted images was also done, and the adverse reactions were registered. The groups were homogeneous regarding age, gender, and weight distribution. No significant differences in the signal intensity of the liver and in the incoherent noise measurements were found between the two groups. Gastrointestinal noise showed significant differences between groups, with lower values for the butylscopolamine group compared with the control group. There was also a statistically significant difference in the image quality between groups, and optimal studies were only found in the butylscopolamine group, where most patients had a good-quality evaluation. Regarding adverse events, there were non-significant differences between groups. In conclusion, administration of an antiperistaltic agent to reduce the movements of the gastrointestinal tract diminishes the motion artifacts generated on MR imaging of the abdomen, even at high field strength and with fast imaging sequences. Images of the upper abdomen obtained

  15. Effect of subcutaneous butylscopolamine administration in the reduction of peristaltic artifacts in 1.5-T MR fast abdominal examinations

    Dosda, Rosa; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Molla, Enrique; Arana, Estanislao [Department of Radiology, Clinica Quiron, Avda. Blasco Ibanez, 14, 46017 Valencia (Spain); Ronchera-Oms, Crisanto L. [Pharmacy University College, Fundacion Universitaria San Pablo CEU, Moncada, 46017 Valencia (Spain)

    2003-02-01

    In abdominal MR imaging, ghost artifacts from noncyclic bowel movements can reduce the quality of the images. Although pharmacologic suppression of motion is effective, no study has being conducted to analyze the influence of drug motion suppression on fast breath-hold 1.5-T examinations of the upper abdomen. A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 50 patients. Patients were randomly distributed into two groups: The control group received only an oral solution, whereas the other group received the oral solution plus a subcutaneous injection of 20 mg of butylscopolamine 10 min before the MR examination. Breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) MR images were obtained in a 1.5-T superconductive unit. Quantitative image analysis was performed with region-of-interest (ROI) measurements of the signal intensity of the liver and in background air anterior and lateral to the patient. A qualitative analysis of the subjective quality of the T1-weighted images was also done, and the adverse reactions were registered. The groups were homogeneous regarding age, gender, and weight distribution. No significant differences in the signal intensity of the liver and in the incoherent noise measurements were found between the two groups. Gastrointestinal noise showed significant differences between groups, with lower values for the butylscopolamine group compared with the control group. There was also a statistically significant difference in the image quality between groups, and optimal studies were only found in the butylscopolamine group, where most patients had a good-quality evaluation. Regarding adverse events, there were non-significant differences between groups. In conclusion, administration of an antiperistaltic agent to reduce the movements of the gastrointestinal tract diminishes the motion artifacts generated on MR imaging of the abdomen, even at high field strength and with fast imaging sequences. Images of the upper abdomen obtained

  16. Abdominal trauma

    The potential for multiple intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal organ injuries often makes accurate clinical evaluation of abdominal trauma patients difficult. Additionally, patients may be unresponsive, have unreliable abdominal physical examinations, or have concurrent serious head and cervical spine injuries which delay diagnosis of and attention to abdominal problems. In these situations radiologic abdominal imaging is often requested. To expedite patient evaluation, close cooperation between the emergency physician and the radiologist is essential. It is the clinical stability of the traumatized patient that dictates the extent of radiologic imaging. Life-threatening hypotension, positive peritoneal signs, or clear evidence of penetrating abdominal injury are indications for immediate surgery. Stable patients with signs suggesting intra-abdominal injury will benefit by further radiologic evaluation with appropriate imaging modalities. The selection of an appropriate modality in any one clinical situation depends upon many criteria including accessibility to diagnostic equipment, the sensitivity and specificity of each technique, and the expertise and preference of the attending radiologist. A suggested scheme for evaluating abdominal trauma patients is presented. Most aspects of this evaluation scheme will be discussed in depth

  17. Abdominal trauma

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  18. Wideband Radar Spread Targets Detection in Compound Gaussian Clutter

    Shiqi Cao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of neglecting compound Gaussian clutter texture on wideband radar targets detection. The texture of compound-Gaussian clutter is researched, the Probability Density Function (PDF expression of G0 distributed clutter is proposed. The optimal detection statistics treats the texture of G0 distributed clutter as a certain function is derived. As contrast, another detector neglects the clutter texture is derived. The numerical results are presented by means of Monte Carlo simulation strategy. Assume that cells of signal components are available. Those secondary data are supposed to possess either the same covariance matrix or the same structure of the covariance matrix of the cells under test. The simulation results highlight that the performance loss of the two detectors in different roughness parameter, the result shows the loss less than 2dB due to the texture is neglected and adaptively estimating the covariance matrix.

  19. Effect of the dose and route of administration of butylscopolamine on the reduction of the artifacts associated with intestinal peristalsis in abdominal magnetic resonance

    To compare the effect of the route of administration (intravenous and oral) and the dose (40 mg and 80 mg) of butylscopolamine, determining its efficacy in reducing the noise associated with gastrointestinal movement in magnetic resonance (MR) images and the incidence and severity of associated adverse reactions. The present prospective, controlled, double-blind study included 80 patients who underwent abdominal MR. All the patients were given oral, high-density barium sulfate and were divided randomly into 4 groups of 20 patients each: a control group and 3 groups treated with 40 mg or 80 mg of oral butylscopolamine or 40 mg of intravenous butylscopolamine. Both the barium and the oral solutions were administered 25 to 30 minutes before the examination. the MR images were obtained with a STIR sequence (1487/100/44), and qualitative analysis of the noise was carried out using regions of interest situated in the background. The gastrointestinal noise was defined both by the mean and the standard deviation of the signal intensity of the air front of an behind the patient. The standard deviation of the air beside the patient was determined to confirm the absence of variations in noise inherent to MR. The adverse reactions to MR after 2 hours (immediate) and one day (late) were recorded. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to sex, age or time interval between administration of the oral solution and the start of the sequence. The noise inherent to MR was not significantly different from one group to another (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p=0.71). Both the mean and the standard deviation of the intensity of the air situated in anteroposterior phase-encoding direction were significantly lower in the butylscopolamine groups than in the control group (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p=0.008). The most marked reduction was observed after the oral dose of 80 mg, followed by intravenous injection of 40 mg and the oral dose of 40 mg. Adverse reaction

  20. Contrast agent and radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT by a combination of low tube voltage and advanced image reconstruction algorithms

    Buls, Nico; Gompel, Gert van; Nieboer, Koenraad; Willekens, Inneke; Mey, Johan de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Research group LABO, Brussel (Belgium); Cauteren, Toon van [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Research group LABO, Brussel (Belgium); Verfaillie, Guy [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Evans, Paul; Macholl, Sven; Newton, Ben [GE Healthcare, Department of Medical Diagnostics, Amersham, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    To assess image quality in abdominal CT at low tube voltage combined with two types of iterative reconstruction (IR) at four reduced contrast agent dose levels. Minipigs were scanned with standard 320 mg I/mL contrast concentration at 120 kVp, and with reduced formulations of 120, 170, 220 and 270 mg I/mL at 80 kVp with IR. Image quality was assessed by CT value, dose normalized contrast and signal to noise ratio (CNRD and SNRD) in the arterial and venous phases. Qualitative analysis was included by expert reading. Protocols with 170 mg I/mL or higher showed equal or superior CT values: aorta (278-468 HU versus 314 HU); portal vein (205-273 HU versus 208 HU); liver parenchyma (122-146 HU versus 115 HU). In the aorta, all 170 mg I/mL protocols or higher yielded equal or superior CNRD (15.0-28.0 versus 13.7). In liver parenchyma, all study protocols resulted in higher SNRDs. Radiation dose could be reduced from standard CTDI{sub vol} = 7.8 mGy (6.2 mSv) to 7.6 mGy (5.2 mSv) with 170 mg I/mL. Combining 80 kVp with IR allows at least a 47 % contrast agent dose reduction and 16 % radiation dose reduction for images of comparable quality. (orig.)

  1. Abdominal sounds

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  2. Development of Abdominal Compression Belt and Evaluation of the Efficiency for the Reduction of Respiratory Motion in SBRT

    It's essential to minimize the tumor motion and identify the exact location of the lesions to achieve the improvement in radiation therapy efficiency during SBRT. In this study, we made the established compression belt to reduce respiratory motion and evaluated the usefulness of clinical application in SBRT. We analyzed the merits and demerits of the established compression belt to reduce the respiratory motion and improved the reproducibility and precision in use. To evaluate the usefulness of improved compression belt for respiratory motion reduction in SBRT, firstly, we reviewed the spiral CT images acquired in inspiration and expiration states of 8 lung cancer cases, respectively, and analyzed the three dimensional tumor motion related to respiration. To evaluate isodose distribution, secondly, we also made the special phantom using EBT2 film (Gafchronic, ISP, USA) and we prepared the robot (Cartesian Robot-2 Axis, FARARCM4H, Samsung Mechatronics, Korea) to reproduce three dimensional tumor motion. And analysis was made for isodose curves and two dimensional isodose profiles with reproducibility of respiratory motion on the basis of CT images. A respiratory motion reduction compression belt (Velcro type) that has convenient use and good reproducibility was developed. The moving differences of three dimensional tumor motion of lung cancer cases analyzed by CT images were mean 3.2 mm, 4.3 mm and 13 mm each in LR, AP and CC directions. The result of characteristic change in dose distribution using the phantom and rectangular coordinates robot showed that the distortion of isodose has great differences, mean length was 4.2 mm; the differences were 8.0% and 16.8% each for cranio-caudal and 8.1% and 10.9% each for left-right directions in underdose below the prescribed dose. In this study, we could develop the convenient and efficient compression belt that can make the organs' motion minimize. With this compression belt, we confirmed that underdose due to respiration

  3. Clutter in the GMTI range-velocity map.

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-04-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar maps echo data to range and range-rate, which is a function of a moving target's velocity and its position within the antenna beam footprint. Even stationary clutter will exhibit an apparent motion spectrum and can interfere with moving vehicle detections. Consequently it is very important for a radar to understand how stationary clutter maps into radar measurements of range and velocity. This mapping depends on a wide variety of factors, including details of the radar motion, orientation, and the 3-D topography of the clutter.

  4. Abdominal Sepsis.

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  5. Endurance training-induced increase in circulating irisin levels is associated with reduction of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

    Eri Miyamoto-Mikami

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of endurance training on circulating irisin levels in young and middle-aged/older adults, and to determine the association between endurance training-induced alteration of irisin and reduction in body fat. Twenty-five healthy young (age 21 ± 1 years; 16 men, 9 women and 28 healthy middle-aged/older adults (age 67 ± 8 years; 12 men, 16 women participated in the study. Each age cohort was divided into two groups: the endurance-training group (14 young, 14 middle-aged/older and the control group. Subjects in the training groups completed an 8-week endurance-training program (cycling at 60-70% peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] for 45 min, 3 days/week. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level, V̇O2peak, and body composition. The increase in V̇O2peak in the young and middle-aged/older training groups after the intervention period was significantly greater than those in the young and middle-aged/older control groups (P < 0.05. Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the middle-aged/older training group after the intervention period (P < 0.01, but not in the young training group. Furthermore, in the middle-aged/older training group, the endurance training-induced reduction in visceral adipose tissue area was negatively correlated with the change in serum irisin level (r = -0.54, P < 0.05. These results suggest a possible role for secreted irisin in the exercise-induced alteration of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

  6. Desk Congest Desktop Congesting Software for Desktop Clutter Congestion

    Solomon A. Adepoju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The computer desktop environment is a working environment which can be likened unto a users desk in homes and offices. Often times the computer desktop get cluttered with files either as shortcuts used for quick links files stored temporarily to be accessed later or just being dumped there for no vivid reasons. However previous researches have shown that cluttered desktop affects users productivity and getting these files organized is a laborious task for most users. To be able to conveniently alleviate the effect clutters have on users performances and productivity there is need for third party software that will help get the desktop environment organized in a logical and efficient manner. It is to this end that desktop decongesting software is being designed and implemented to help curb clutter problems which existing tools have only partially addressed. The system is designed using Visual Basic .Net and it proves to be effective in tackling desktop congestion problem.

  7. Novel clutter map CFAR algorithm with amplitude limiter

    单涛; 陶然; 王越; 周思永

    2004-01-01

    The traditional clutter map constant false alarm rate (CM-CFAR) detector is affected by interference and selfmasking[1] which will cause the low probability of detection. To solve these problems, a novel algorithm named clutter map CFAR with amplitude limiter (ALCM-CFAR) is proposed, in which the amplitude of the input signal is limited by a filter. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of ALCM-CFAR algorithm.

  8. Limits to Clutter Cancellation in Multi-Aperture GMTI Data

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Multi-aperture or multi-subaperture antennas are fundamental to Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar systems in order to detect slow-moving targets with Doppler characteristics similar to clutter. Herein we examine the performance of several subaperture architectures for their clutter cancelling performance. Significantly, more antenna phase centers isn’t always better, and in fact is sometimes worse, for detecting targets.

  9. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    Jensen, Thomas B. S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren; Hansen, Lars Kai; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expect...

  10. Abdominal Pain

    ... relaxation. Guided imagery for abdominal pain About self-hypnosis and kids See YourChild : Pain and Your Child or Teen for more detail ... how to help your baby cope with the pain of medical procedures, circumcision, and teething. ... Helping Kids YourChild : A Look at Biofeedback YourChild : ...

  11. Calibrated and geocoded clutter from an airborne multispectral scanner

    Heuer, Markus; Bruehlmann, Ralph; John, Marc-Andre; Schmid, Konrad J.; Hueppi, Rudolph; Koenig, Reto

    1999-07-01

    Robustness of automatic target recognition (ATR) to varying observation conditions and countermeasures is substantially increased by use of multispectral sensors. Assessment of such ATR systems is performed by captive flight tests and simulations (HWIL or complete modeling). Although the clutter components of a scene can be generated with specified statistics, clutter maps directly obtained from measurement are required for validation of a simulation. In addition, urban scenes have non-stationary characteristics and are difficult to simulate. The present paper describes a scanner, data acquisition and processing system used for the generation of realistic clutter maps incorporating infrared, passive and active millimeter wave channels. The sensors are mounted on a helicopter with coincident line-of-sight, enabling us to measure consistent clutter signatures under varying observation conditions. Position and attitude data from GPS and an inertial measurement unit, respectively, are used to geometrically correct the raw scanner data. After sensor calibration the original voltage signals are converted to physical units, i.e. temperatures and reflectivities, describing the clutter independently of the scanning sensor, thus allowing us the use of the clutter maps in tests of a priori unknown multispectral sensors. The data correction procedures are described and results are presented.

  12. Fractal-based weak target detection within sea clutter

    LI Yang; LV Xiaowen; LIU Kuisheng; ZHAO Shangzhuo

    2014-01-01

    The target on the sea surface is complex and difficult to detect due to the interference of backscattered returns from the sea surface illuminated by the radar pulse. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been used successfully to extract the time-domain Hurst exponent of sea-clutter series. Since the frequency of the sea clutter mainly concentrates around Doppler center so that we consider to extract frequency-do-main fractal characterization and then detect a weak target within sea clutter by using the difference of frequency-domain fractal characterization. The generalized detrended fluctuation analysis (GDFA) is more flexible than traditional DFA owing to its smoothing action for the clutters. In this paper, we apply the GDFA to evaluate the generalized Hurst exponent of sea-clutter series in the frequency domain. The difference of generalized Hurst exponents between different sea-clutter range bins would be used to determine whether the target exists. Moreover, some simulations with the real IPIX radar data have also been demonstrated in order to support this conclusion.

  13. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  14. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  15. Opdic (optimized Peak, Distortion and Clutter) Detection Filter.

    House, Gregory Philip

    1995-01-01

    Detection is considered. This involves determining regions of interest (ROIs) in a scene: the locations of multiple object classes in a scene in clutter when object distortions and contrast differences are present. High probability of detection P_{D} is essential and low P_{FA } is desirable since subsequent stages in the full system will only decrease P_{FA } and cannot increase P_{D }. Low resolution blob objects and objects with more internal detail are considered with both 3-D aspect view and depression angle distortions present. Extensive tests were conducted on 56 scenes with object classes not present in the training set. A modified MINACE (Minimum Noise and Correlation Energy) distortion-invariant filter was used. This minimizes correlation plane energy due to distortions and clutter while satisfying correlation peak constraint values for various object-aspect views. The filter was modified with a new object model (to give predictable output peak values) and a new correlated noise clutter model; a white Gaussian noise model of distortion was used; and a new techniques to increase the number of training set images (N _{T}) included in the filter were developed. Excellent results were obtained. However, the correlation plane distortion and clutter energy functions were found to become worse as N_{T } was increased and no rigorous method exists to select the best N_{T} (when to stop filter synthesis). A new OPDIC (Optimized Peak, Distortion, and Clutter) filter was thus devised. This filter retained the new object, clutter and distortion models noted. It minimizes the variance of the correlation peak values for all training set images (not just the N_{T} images). As N _{T} increases, the peak variance and the objective functions (correlation plane distortion and clutter energy) are all minimized. Thus, this new filter optimizes the desired functions and provides an easy way to stop filter synthesis (when the objective function is minimized). Tests show

  16. Adaptive polarimetric processing for ground clutter suppression in FM-CW radars

    Ligthart, L. P.; van Sinttruijen, J. S.

    Polarimetric radar signal processing is used in the Delft FM-CW radar to suppress coherent nonmoving radar targets. A single co-polar receiver still suffices to determine the full-polarimetric characteristics of targets under the condition that successive measurements are performed with calibrated multistate (0 - 45 - 90 degrees) polarizers which are used in a fast-switching linear polarization mode. Clutter reduction results are shown, based on dedicated polarimetry processing, in order to get optimum suppression per range cell at - per range cell - selected elliptical polarizations in the receiver channel and fixed linear polarization in the transmitter.

  17. Waveform design for cognitive radar: target detection in heavy clutter

    Kirk, Benjamin H.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Martone, Anthony F.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.

    2016-05-01

    In many applications of radar systems, detection of targets in environments with heavy clutter and interference can be difficult. It is desired that a radar system should detect targets at a further range as well as be able to detect these targets with very few false positive or negative readings. In a cognitive radar system, there are ways that these negative effects can be mitigated and target detection can be significantly improved. An important metric to focus on for increasing target detectability is the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). Cognitive radar offers solutions to issues such as this with the use of a priori knowledge of targets and environments as well as real time adaptations. A feature of cognitive radar that is of interest is the ability to adapt and optimize transmitted waveforms to a given situation. A database is used to hold a priori and dynamic knowledge of the operational environment and targets to be detected, such as clutter characteristics and target radar cross-section (RCS) estimations. Assuming this knowledge is available or can be estimated in real-time, the transmitted waveform can be tailored using methods such as transmission of a spectrum corresponding to the target-to-clutter ratio (TCR). These methods provide significant improvement in distinguishing targets from clutter or interference.

  18. Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992

    Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

    1993-06-01

    The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

  19. Reflectivity Model of Low Grazing Angle Radar Sea Clutter

    FENG Sheng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; TU Xu-yan

    2005-01-01

    The commonly used reflectivity models of radar sea clutter are summarized. Among these models, the adjusted Barton model and the adjusted Morchin model are compared. From the analysis result, the γ-p reflectivity model is presented for low grazing angle radar sea clutter by the adjustment of the original Barton reflectivity model. The model takes into account radar frequency, grazing angle, sea condition, and polarization property. The influences of these factors on the proposed model are analyzed. The model absorbs the merits from commonly used reflectivity models for sea clutter. It introduces several researchers' opinions, and extends them. And it accounts for the reflectivity at arbitrary radar frequency from VHF to X-band, arbitrary low grazing angle, arbitrary sea condition and different polarization property. One of the main results is the proposed γ-p reflectivity model can reflect the influence of polarization on sea clutter reflectivity to some extent. The proposed γ-p reflectivity model of low-angle radar-sea clutter is validated by comparing the simulated and statistically experimental data.

  20. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  1. Entropy-Based Clutter Rejection for Intrawall Diagnostics

    Raffaele Solimene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrawall diagnostic problem of detecting localized inhomogeneities possibly present within the wall is addressed. As well known, clutter arising from masonry structure can impair detection of embedded scatterers due to high amplitude reflections that wall front face introduces. Moreover, internal multiple reflections also can make it difficult ground penetrating radar images (radargramms interpretation. To counteract these drawbacks, a clutter rejection method, properly tailored on the wall features, is mandatory. To this end, here we employ a windowing strategy based on entropy measures of temporal traces “similarity.” Accordingly, instants of time for which radargramms exhibit entropy values greater than a prescribed threshold are “silenced.” Numerical results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the entropy-based clutter rejection algorithm. Moreover, a comparison with the standard average trace subtraction is also included.

  2. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    Biggers, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an inference-based surface reconstruction algorithm that is capable of identifying objects of interest among a cluttered scene, and reconstructing solid model representations even in the presence of occluded surfaces. Our proposed approach incorporates a predictive modeling framework that uses a set of user-provided models for prior knowledge, and applies this knowledge to the iterative identification and construction process. Our approach uses a local to global construction process guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Terradynamically streamlined shapes in animals and robots enhance traversability through densely cluttered terrain.

    Li, Chen; Pullin, Andrew O; Haldane, Duncan W; Lam, Han K; Fearing, Ronald S; Full, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Many animals, modern aircraft, and underwater vehicles use fusiform, streamlined body shapes that reduce fluid dynamic drag to achieve fast and effective locomotion in air and water. Similarly, numerous small terrestrial animals move through cluttered terrain where three-dimensional, multi-component obstacles like grass, shrubs, vines, and leaf litter also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role in traversal. Few ground vehicles or terrestrial robots have used body shape to more effectively traverse environments such as cluttered terrain. Here, we challenged forest-floor-dwelling discoid cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) possessing a thin, rounded body to traverse tall, narrowly spaced, vertical, grass-like compliant beams. Animals displayed high traversal performance (79 ± 12% probability and 3.4 ± 0.7 s time). Although we observed diverse obstacle traversal strategies, cockroaches primarily (48 ± 9% probability) used a novel roll maneuver, a form of natural parkour, allowing them to rapidly traverse obstacle gaps narrower than half their body width (2.0 ± 0.5 s traversal time). Reduction of body roundness by addition of artificial shells nearly inhibited roll maneuvers and decreased traversal performance. Inspired by this discovery, we added a thin, rounded exoskeletal shell to a legged robot with a nearly cuboidal body, common to many existing terrestrial robots. Without adding sensory feedback or changing the open-loop control, the rounded shell enabled the robot to traverse beam obstacles with gaps narrower than shell width via body roll. Such terradynamically 'streamlined' shapes can reduce terrain resistance and enhance traversability by assisting effective body reorientation via distributed mechanical feedback. Our findings highlight the need to consider body shape to improve robot mobility in real-world terrain often filled with clutter, and to develop better locomotor-ground contact models to understand

  4. Statistical Analysis of SAR Sea Clutter for Classification Purposes

    Jaime Martín-de-Nicolás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statistical analysis of radar clutter has always been one of the topics, where more effort has been put in the last few decades. These studies were usually focused on finding the statistical models that better fitted the clutter distribution; however, the goal of this work is not the modeling of the clutter, but the study of the suitability of the statistical parameters to carry out a sea state classification. In order to achieve this objective and provide some relevance to this study, an important set of maritime and coastal Synthetic Aperture Radar data is considered. Due to the nature of the acquisition of data by SAR sensors, speckle noise is inherent to these data, and a specific study of how this noise affects the clutter distribution is also performed in this work. In pursuit of a sense of wholeness, a thorough study of the most suitable statistical parameters, as well as the most adequate classifier is carried out, achieving excellent results in terms of classification success rates. These concluding results confirm that a sea state classification is not only viable, but also successful using statistical parameters different from those of the best modeling distribution and applying a speckle filter, which allows a better characterization of the parameters used to distinguish between different sea states.

  5. Spectral polarimetric radar clutter suppression to enhance atmospheric echoes

    Unal, C.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The clutter present in the Doppler spectra of atmospheric targets can be removed by using polarimetry. The purpose is to suppress the Doppler velocity bins where spectral polarimetric parameters have atypical values. This procedure largely improves profiles of moments and polarimetric parameters of

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    ... access catheters Vertebroplasty Women and vascular disease Women's health Social Media Facebook Twitter ... Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists are vascular ...

  7. Abdominal trauma

    Radiologic evaluation of abdominal trauma must provide a quick and accurate assessment of the lesions in order to improve the management of the patient. The technique used varies depending on the mechanism of the trauma (blunt trauma or stab wounds) and the hemodynamic status. Radiologic evaluation is usually performed in blunt trauma whereas stab wound trauma is usually explored surgically. The various techniques available are standard radiographs, ultrasonography, computed tomography and arteriography. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the immediate evaluation is still not well defined. It appears to be useful method in the delayed evaluation of diaphragmatic trauma. Computed tomography is the method most commonly performed in trauma patients. This technique is accurate and allows correct assessment of the lesions. The disadvantages are the radiation induced and the need for a hemo-dynamically stable patient. The aim of the radiologic evaluation is to provide the clinicians with an accurate description of the lesions. It can help in the management of the patient usually in association with clinical and laboratory data. It can also guide interventional procedures (drainage, embolization...). Finally, it allows radiographic follow-up when conservative treatment is performed. (authors). 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  8. Motion Geometric Active Contours: Tracking Nonrigid Objects in Clutter Background

    Cen Feng (岑峰); Qi Feihu

    2003-01-01

    MGAC (Motion Geometric Active Contours), a new variational framework of geometric active contours to track multiple nonrigid moving objects in the clutter background in image sequences is presented. This framework, incorporating with the motion edge information, consists of motion detection and tracking stages. At the motion detection stage, the motion edge map provides an approximate edge map of the moving objects. Then, a tracking stage, merely using the static edge information, is considered to improve the motion detection result. Force field regularization method is used to extend the capture range of the edge attraction force field in both stages. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework is valid for tracking multiple nonrigid objects in the clutter background.

  9. Detecting weather radar clutter using satellite-based nowcasting products

    Jensen, Thomas B.S.; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the initial results from experiments with detection of weather radar clutter by information fusion with satellite based nowcasting products. Previous studies using information fusion of weather radar data and first generation Meteosat imagery have shown promising results...... for the detecting and removal of clutter. Naturally, the improved spatio-temporal resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation sensors, coupled with its increased number of spectral bands, is expected to yield even better detection accuracies. Weather radar data from three C-band Doppler weather radars...... Application Facility' of EUMETSAT and is based on multispectral images from the SEVIRI sensor of the Meteosat-8 platform. Of special interest is the 'Precipitating Clouds' product, which uses the spectral information coupled with surface temperatures from Numerical Weather Predictions to assign probabilities...

  10. Modelling of microwave propagation and clutter in a maritime environment

    Vogel, M. H.

    1994-07-01

    For a radar system in a maritime environment, the probability of detection of a target at a low altitude is strongly dependent on the conditions of the atmosphere and the sea surface. In order to determine the detection probability of a target at low altitude, these conditions should be taken into account. This paper presents numerical methods to calculate electromagnetic propagation in an evaporation duct and to calculate sea clutter returns.

  11. Statistical estimation and tracking of refractivity from radar clutter

    Yardim, Caglar

    2007-01-01

    In many maritime regions of the world, such as the Mediterranean, Persian Gulf, East China Sea, and the Californian Coast, atmospheric ducts are common occurrences. They result in various anomalies such as significant variations in the maximum operational radar range, creation of regions where the radar is practically blind (radar holes) and increased sea clutter. Therefore, it is important to predict the real-time 3-D environment in which the radar is operating so that the radar operator wil...

  12. Looking for shapes in two-dimensional, cluttered point clouds.

    Srivastava, A.; Jermyn, I. H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying shape classes in point clouds. These clouds contain sampled points along contours and are corrupted by clutter and observation noise. Taking an analysis-by-synthesis approach, we simulate high-probability configurations of sampled contours using models learned from training data to evaluate the given test data. To facilitate simulations, we develop statistical models for sources of (nuisance) variability: 1) shape variations within classes, 2) variability i...

  13. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    Ward, Keith D; Watts, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This book examines the statistics of radar scattering from the sea surface in terms of their relevance to radar operating in a maritime environment; including remote sensing , surveillance and targeting appliances. A lot of the work in the book iss based on the compound K-distribution model for the amplitude statistics of sea clutter. In addition, the book addresses the specification of performance required by customers and the measurement of performance of systems supplied to customers.

  14. Sensitivity analysis and performance estimation of refractivity from clutter techniques

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

    2009-02-01

    Refractivity from clutter (RFC) refers to techniques that estimate the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter returns. A RFC algorithm works by finding the environment whose simulated clutter pattern matches the radar measured one. This paper introduces a procedure to compute RFC estimator performance. It addresses the major factors such as the radar parameters, the sea surface characteristics, and the environment (region, time of the day, season) that affect the estimator performance and formalizes an error metric combining all of these. This is important for applications such as calculating the optimal radar parameters, selecting the best RFC inversion algorithm under a set of conditions, and creating a regional performance map of a RFC system. The performance metric is used to compute the RFC performance of a non-Bayesian evaporation duct estimator. A Bayesian estimator that incorporates meteorological statistics in the inversion is introduced and compared to the non-Bayesian estimator. The performance metric is used to determine the optimal radar parameters of the evaporation duct estimator for six scenarios. An evaporation duct inversion performance map for a S band radar is created for the larger Mediterranean/Arabian Sea region.

  15. Adaptive Robust Waveform Selection for Unknown Target Detection in Clutter

    Lu-Lu Wang; Hong-Qiang Wang; Yu-Liang Qin; Yong-Qiang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    @@@A basic assumption of most recently proposed waveform design algorithms is that the target impulse response is a known deterministic function or a stochastic process with a known power spectral density (PSD). However, it is well-known that a target impulse response is neither easily nor accurately obtained; besides it changes sharply with attitude angles. Both of the aforementioned cases complicate the waveform design process. In this paper, an adaptive robust waveform selection method for unknown target detection in clutter is proposed. The target impulse response is considered to be unknown but belongs to a known uncertainty set. An adaptive waveform library is devised by using a signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratio (SCNR)- based optimal waveform design method. By applying the minimax robust waveform selection method, the optimal robust waveform is selected to ensure the lowest performance bound of the unknown target detection in clutter. Results show that the adaptive waveform library outperforms the predefined linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveform library on the SCNR bound.

  16. Polarimetric synthetic-aperture inversion for extended targets in clutter

    This paper presents an analytic inversion method for a polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) in the case of an extended target embedded in clutter. The measurements are also contaminated by thermal noise. We use microlocal analysis in a statistical setting to develop a filtered-backprojection-type reconstruction method. The inversion method accommodates arbitrary waveforms and arbitrary flight paths. We model the antennas and scatterers as dipoles; scatterers are thus characterized by a spatially varying scattering matrix. We include directional scattering assumptions to distinguish a curve-like extended target from clutter, which is assumed to scatter isotropically. For the inversion we choose the backprojection filter which minimizes the mean-square error between the reconstructed image and the actual target scattering matrix. Our work differs from standard polarimetric SAR imaging in that we do not perform channel-by-channel image reconstruction. We find that it is preferable to use a coupled reconstruction scheme in which we use all sets of collected data to form each element of the scattering matrix. We show in our numerical experiments that the coupled reconstruction not only minimizes the mean-square error but also improves the image target-to-clutter ratio in certain scenarios. (paper)

  17. Clutter and signatures from near infrared testbed sensor

    Sanderson, R. B.; McCalmont, J. F.; Montgomery, J. B.; Johnson, R. S.; McDermott, D. J.

    2008-04-01

    A new tactical airborne multicolor missile warning testbed was developed as part of an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiative focusing on the development of sensors operating in the near infrared where commercially available silicon detectors can be used. At these wavelengths, the rejection of solar induced false alarms is a critical issue. Multicolor discrimination provides one of the most promising techniques for improving the performance of missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. This, in turn, requires that multicolor clutter data be collected for both analysis and algorithm development. The developed sensor test bed, as described in previous papers1, is a two-camera system with 1004x1004 FPA coupled with optimized filters integrated with the optics. The collection portion includes a high speed processor coupled with a high capacity disk array capable of collecting up to 48 full frames per second. This configuration allows the collection of temporally correlated, radiometrically calibrated data in two spectral bands that provide a basis for evaluating the performance of spectral discrimination algorithms. The presentation will describe background and clutter data collected from ground and flight locations in both detection and guard bands and the statistical analysis to provide a basis for evaluation of sensor performance. In addition, measurements have been made of discrete targets, both threats and false alarms. The results of these measurements have shown the capability of these sensors to provide a useful discrimination capability to distinguish threats from false alarms.

  18. The depth of distractor processing in search with clutter.

    Bravo, Mary J; Farid, Hany

    2007-01-01

    Some search tasks involve looking for a category target in clutter. This is the task faced, for example, by a baggage screener looking for weapons in a suitcase. Such tasks presumably involve the segmentation and recognition of the target object, but it is unknown whether they also involve the segmentation and recognition of the distractor objects. To examine the depth of distractor processing in this task, we had observers search through cluttered displays composed of normal and chimerical distractors. The normal distractors were photographs of recognizable objects, while the chimerical distractors were created by interchanging parts between the normal objects. The obsever's task was to identify the display quadrant that contained an animal or a vehicle target. We varied the difficulty of the search task by varying target and distractor discriminability, target uncertainty, and target occlusion. Only when the target was partially occluded did we find an effect of distractor type. In this case, observers may have found the target through a process of mentally eliminating whole distractor objects. When the target was unoccluded, we found no evidence that observers selected and rejected whole distractors during search. This second result supports our previous claim that often the items for search in clutter are not whole objects. PMID:17718361

  19. Ultra-low dose abdominal MDCT: Using a knowledge-based Iterative Model Reconstruction technique for substantial dose reduction in a prospective clinical study

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali, E-mail: rkhawaja@mgh.harvard.edu [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Singh, Sarabjeet; Blake, Michael; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Choy, Gary; Karosmangulu, Ali; Padole, Atul; Do, Synho [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brown, Kevin; Thompson, Richard; Morton, Thomas; Raihani, Nilgoun [CT Research and Advanced Development, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Koehler, Thomas [Philips Technologie GmbH, Innovative Technologies, Hamburg (Germany); Kalra, Mannudeep K. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Limited abdominal CT indications can be performed at a size specific dose estimate of (SSDE) 1.5 mGy (∼0.9 mSv) in smaller patients (BMI less than or equal to 25 kg/m{sup 2}) using a knowledge based Iterative Model Reconstruction (IMR) technique. • Evaluation of liver tumors and pathologies is unacceptable at this reduced dose with IMR technique especially in patients with a BMI greater than 25 kg/m{sup 2}. • IMR body soft tissue and routine settings perform substantially better than IMR sharp plus setting in reduced dose CT images. • At SSDE of 1.5 mGy, objective image noise in reduced dose IMR images is 8–56% less than compared to standard dose FBP images, with lowest image noise in IMR body-soft tissue images. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess lesion detection and image quality parameters of a knowledge-based Iterative Model Reconstruction (IMR) in reduced dose (RD) abdominal CT examinations. Materials and methods: This IRB-approved prospective study included 82 abdominal CT examinations performed for 41 consecutive patients (mean age, 62 ± 12 years; F:M 28:13) who underwent a RD CT (SSDE, 1.5 mGy ± 0.4 [∼0.9 mSv] at 120 kV with 17–20 mAs/slice) immediately after their standard dose (SD) CT exam (10 mGy ± 3 [∼6 mSv] at 120 kV with automatic exposure control) on 256 MDCT (iCT, Philips Healthcare). SD data were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP). RD data were reconstructed with FBP and IMR. Four radiologists used a five-point scale (1 = image quality better than SD CT to 5 = image quality unacceptable) to assess both subjective image quality and artifacts. Lesions were first detected on RD FBP images. RD IMR and RD FBP images were then compared side-by-side to SD-FBP images in an independent, randomized and blinded fashion. Friedman's test and intraclass correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Objective measurements included image noise and attenuation as well as noise spectral density (NSD) curves

  20. Ray tracing/correlation approach to estimation of surface-based duct parameters from radar clutter

    This paper describes a technique to estimate surface-based duct parameters by using a simple ray tracing/correlation method. The approach is novel in that it incorporates the Spearman rank-order correlation scheme between the observed surface clutter and the surface ray density for a given propagation path. The simulation results and the real data results both demonstrate the ability of this method to estimate surface-based duct parameters. Compared with the results obtained by a modified genetic algorithm combined with the parabolic wave equation, the results retrieved from the ray tracing/correlation scheme show a minor reduction in accuracy but a great improvement on computation time. Therefore the ray tracing/correlation method might be used as a precursor to more sophisticated and slower techniques, such as genetic algorithm and particle filters, by narrowing the parameter search space and providing a comprehensive and more efficient estimation algorithm. (geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics)

  1. A structural difference based image clutter metric with brain cognitive model constraints

    Xu, Dejiang; Shi, Zelin; Luo, Haibo

    2013-03-01

    Previous clutter metrics have less than the desired accuracy in predicting targeting performance, in this paper, a structural difference based image clutter metric is proposed based on the given definition of image clutter metric. According to the sensitivity of human visual perception to image structural information, a structural similarity measure between the target and clutter images is firstly established. Previous clutter metrics not considering brain cognitive characteristics, we define an information content weight measure by introducing the widely accepted brain cognitive information extracting model in the field of image quality assessment (IQA), and then, pool the structural similarity measure to be a clutter metric, which can be entitled BSD metric. Comparative field tests show that BSD metric makes a more significant improvement than previously proposed metrics in predicting target acquisition performance including detection probability and search time.

  2. Robust ionospheric clutter mitigation method for high frequency surface wave radar

    LI Lei; XU RongQing; LI GaoPeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of ionospheric clutter, which has proven to be the greatest impediment in high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR). Ionospheric clutter influences most range bins, all Doppler binsand beams, and exhibits a high directivity. A robust adaptive side-lobe cancellation algorithm based on orthogonal auxiliary beams, which use the difference beams to estimate the ionospheric clutter information, is introduced to suppress the ionospheric clutter. Training data was selected by excluding the sea clutter and probable target unit; and diagonal loading was added to enhance the robustness of the algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm is able to suppress the ionospheric clutter whilst preserving the desired characteristics of the target echoes and is suitable for practical implementation.

  3. Comparative Study of Four Different Types of MTI Filters for Radar Clutter Rejection

    Priyabrata Karmakar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper MTI filter based clutter rejection technique is presented. How clutter rejection ability increases with the increase in Delay line canceleres in the MTI filter structure is shown here. Feedback path increases the response of a MTI filter and using feedback path four different types of MTI recursive filters are designed and tested for Radar clutter rejection. Matlab (7.9 is used as the simulation platform.

  4. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  5. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest

    Rodrigo Marciente; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assem...

  6. MIMO RADAR DETECTION IN COMPOUND GAUSSIAN CLUTTER USING ORTHOGONAL DISCRETE FREQUENCY CODING SPACE TIME WAVEFORM

    B. Roja Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes orthogonal Discrete Frequency Coding Space Time Waveforms (DFCSTW for Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO radar detection in compound Gaussian clutter. The proposed orthogonal waveforms are designed considering the position and angle of the transmitting antenna when viewed from origin. These orthogonally optimized show good resolution in spikier clutter with Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT detector. The simulation results show that this waveform provides better detection performance in spikier Clutter.

  7. Mimo Radar Detection in Compound Gaussian Clutter Using Orthogonal Discrete Frequency Coding Space Time Waveform

    B. Roja Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes orthogonal Discrete Frequency Coding Space Time Waveforms (DFCSTW for Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO radar detection in compound Gaussian clutter. The proposed orthogonal waveforms are designed considering the position and angle of the transmitting antenna when viewed from origin. These orthogonally optimized show good resolution in spikier clutter with Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT detector. The simulation results show that this waveform provides better detection performance in spikier Clutter

  8. ORTHOGONAL DISCRETE FREQUENCY CODING SPACE TIME WAVEFORM FOR MIMO RADAR DETECTION IN COMPOUND GAUSSIAN CLUTTER

    B. Roja Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes orthogonal Discrete Frequency Coding Space Time Waveforms (DFCSTW for Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO radar detection in compound Gaussian clutter. The proposed orthogonal waveforms are designed considering the position and angle of the transmitting antenna when viewed from origin. These orthogonally optimized show good resolution in spikier clutter with Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT detector. The simulation results show that this waveform provides better detection performance in spikier Clutter.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of the Magnitude, Impact and Spatial Extent of Ultrasonic Clutter

    Lediju, Muyinatu A.; Pihl, Michael J.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2008-01-01

    Clutter is a noise artifact in ultrasound images that appears as diffuse echoes overlying signals of interest. It is most easily observed in anechoic or hypoechoic regions, such as in cysts, blood vessels, amniotic fluid, and urine-filled bladders. Clutter often obscures targets of interest and complicates anatomical measurements. An analytical expression that characterizes the extent to which clutter degrades lesion contrast was derived and compared to the measured contrast loss due to clutt...

  10. Abdominal Pain or Cramping

    ... Body & lifestyle changes > Abdominal pain or cramping Abdominal pain or cramping E-mail to a friend Please ... signs of severe pain. What causes mild belly pain in pregnancy? There are different causes for mild ...

  11. Improved Multistage Wiener Filters in Nonhomogeneous Clutter Environments

    Bin Tang; Xue-Gang Wang; Ke-Song Chen

    2008-01-01

    A new method combining space-time preprocessing with multistage Wiener filters (STPMWF) is proposed to improve the performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in nonhomogeneous clutter scenario. The new scheme only requires the data from the primary range bin, thus it can suppress discrete interferers efficiently, without calculating the inverse of covariance matrix. Comparing to the original MWF approach, the proposed scheme can be regarded as practical solutions for robust and effective STAP of nonhomogeneous radar data. The theoretical analysis shows that our STPMWF is simple in implementation and fast in convergence. The numeric results by using simulated data exhibit a good agreement with the proposed theory.

  12. Random neural network recognition of shaped objects in strong clutter

    Bakircioglu, Hakan; Gelenbe, Erol

    1998-04-01

    Detecting objects in images containing strong clutter is an important issue in a variety of applications such as medical imaging and automatic target recognition. Artificial neural networks are used as non-parametric pattern recognizers to cope with different problems due to their inherent ability to learn from training data. In this paper we propose a neural approach based on the Random Neural Network model (Gelenbe 1989, 1990, 1991, 1993), to detect shaped targets with the help of multiple neural networks whose outputs are combined for making decisions.

  13. Effect of the dose and route of administration of butylscopolamine on the reduction of the artifacts associated with intestinal peristalsis in abdominal magnetic resonance; Efecto de la dosis y la via de administracion de butilescopolamina en la disminucion de los artefactors asociados al peristaltismo intestinal en la RM abdominal

    Dosda, R.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario Dr Peset. Valencia. Clinica Quiron. Valencia (Spain); Ronchera-Oms, C. [Hospital San Pablo-CEU. Moncada Valencia (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To compare the effect of the route of administration (intravenous and oral) and the dose (40 mg and 80 mg) of butylscopolamine, determining its efficacy in reducing the noise associated with gastrointestinal movement in magnetic resonance (MR) images and the incidence and severity of associated adverse reactions. The present prospective, controlled, double-blind study included 80 patients who underwent abdominal MR. All the patients were given oral, high-density barium sulfate and were divided randomly into 4 groups of 20 patients each: a control group and 3 groups treated with 40 mg or 80 mg of oral butylscopolamine or 40 mg of intravenous butylscopolamine. Both the barium and the oral solutions were administered 25 to 30 minutes before the examination. the MR images were obtained with a STIR sequence (1487/100/44), and qualitative analysis of the noise was carried out using regions of interest situated in the background. The gastrointestinal noise was defined both by the mean and the standard deviation of the signal intensity of the air front of an behind the patient. The standard deviation of the air beside the patient was determined to confirm the absence of variations in noise inherent to MR. The adverse reactions to MR after 2 hours (immediate) and one day (late) were recorded. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to sex, age or time interval between administration of the oral solution and the start of the sequence. The noise inherent to MR was not significantly different from one group to another (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p=0.71). Both the mean and the standard deviation of the intensity of the air situated in anteroposterior phase-encoding direction were significantly lower in the butylscopolamine groups than in the control group (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p=0.008). The most marked reduction was observed after the oral dose of 80 mg, followed by intravenous injection of 40 mg and the oral dose of 40 mg. Adverse reaction

  14. Looking for shapes in two-dimensional cluttered point clouds.

    Srivastava, Anuj; Jermyn, Ian H

    2009-09-01

    We study the problem of identifying shape classes in point clouds. These clouds contain sampled points along contours and are corrupted by clutter and observation noise. Taking an analysis-by-synthesis approach, we simulate high-probability configurations of sampled contours using models learned from training data to evaluate the given test data. To facilitate simulations, we develop statistical models for sources of (nuisance) variability: 1) shape variations within classes, 2) variability in sampling continuous curves, 3) pose and scale variability, 4) observation noise, and 5) points introduced by clutter. The variability in sampling closed curves into finite points is represented by positive diffeomorphisms of a unit circle. We derive probability models on these functions using their square-root forms and the Fisher-Rao metric. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we simulate configurations from a joint prior on the shape-sample space and compare them to the data using a likelihood function. Average likelihoods of simulated configurations lead to estimates of posterior probabilities of different classes and, hence, Bayesian classification. PMID:19574622

  15. Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications. The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters. The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models. An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field. Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function. A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms. The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island, Virginia (SPANDAR). Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles, (ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated. This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  16. Direct Data Domain STAP using Sparse Representation of Clutter Spectrum

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Yongliang; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is an effective tool for detecting a moving target in the airborne radar system. Due to the fast-changing clutter scenario and/or non side-looking configuration, the stationarity of the training data is destroyed such that the statistical-based methods suffer performance degradation. Direct data domain (D3) methods avoid non-stationary training data and can effectively suppress the clutter within the test cell. However, this benefit comes at the cost of a reduced system degree of freedom (DOF), which results in performance loss. In this paper, by exploiting the intrinsic sparsity of the spectral distribution, a new direct data domain approach using sparse representation (D3SR) is proposed, which seeks to estimate the high-resolution space-time spectrum with only the test cell. The simulation of both side-looking and non side-looking cases has illustrated the effectiveness of the D3SR spectrum estimation using focal underdetermined system solution (FOCUSS) and norm minimiz...

  17. Mitigating ground clutter effects with lightweight artificial dielectrics

    Rappaport, Carey M.; Beihold, Fred; Linnehan, Robert

    2001-10-01

    The problem of scattered and transmitted electromagnetic wave distortion by random rough ground surfaces can be reduced by using a lightweight dielectric matching layer. For mine detection applications, it is essential for this layer to be lightweight, low loss, readily conformable, and adaptable to different soil types. Arrays of metal-coated plastic spheres act as lossless artificial dielectrics with impedance determined by the volume packing fraction. By controlling the thickness of insulator surrounding each sphere, a close-packed array with the dielectric properties of soil can be created inside a compliant rolling bag that will conform to the rough surface of the ground. Since this artificial dielectric is matched to the soil, the ground surface interface is 'softened', without an abrupt transition from soil to air. Signals transmitted and received by GPR antennas immersed in the artificial dielectric within the bag will not be corrupted by ground surface clutter. Alternatively, an artificial dielectric layer on the ground with a planar air interface could be used to ensure that the surface reflection is a constant, well-calibrated signal. Computational models indicate complete removal of the ground clutter, even with occasional gaps between the artificial dielectric and the ground. Experimental studies with swept-frequency measurements and impulse GPR indicate that using this dielectric layer matching to a rough loamy soil ground surface is results in signals that are practically indistinguishable from those of an equivalent layer of the same type of soil.

  18. Inversion for atmosphere duct parameters using real radar sea clutter

    Sheng Zheng; Fang Han-Xian

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the lower atmospheric refractivity (M profile) under nonstandard propagation conditions frequently encountered in low altitude maritime radar applications.The vertical structure of the refractive environment is modeled using five parameters and the horizontal structure is modeled using five parameters.The refractivity model is implemented with and without a priori constraint on the duct strength as might be derived from soundings or numerical weather-prediction models.An electromagnetic propagation model maps the refractivity structure into a replica field.Replica fields are compared with the observed clutter using a squared-error objective function.A global search for the 10 environmental parameters is performed using genetic algorithms.The inversion algorithm is implemented on the basis of S-band radar sea-clutter data from Wallops Island,Virginia (SPANDAR).Reference data are from range-dependent refractivity profiles obtained with a helicopter. The inversion is assessed (i) by comparing the propagation predicted from the radar-inferred refractivity profiles with that from the helicopter profiles,(ii) by comparing the refractivity parameters from the helicopter soundings with those estimated.This technique could provide near-real-time estimation of ducting effects.

  19. Research on Gaussian distribution preprocess method of infrared multispectral image background clutter

    张伟; 武春风; 邓盼; 范宁

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a sliding-window mean removal high pass filter by which background clutter of infrared multispectral image is obtained. The method of selecting the optimum size of the sliding-window is based on the skewness-kurtosis test. In the end, a multivariate Gaussian distribution mathematical expression of background clutter image is given.

  20. Optimal waveform-based clutter suppression algorithm for recursive synthetic aperture radar imaging systems

    Zhu, Binqi; Gao, Yesheng; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao

    2016-04-01

    A computational method for suppressing clutter and generating clear microwave images of targets is proposed in this paper, which combines synthetic aperture radar (SAR) principles with recursive method and waveform design theory, and it is suitable for SAR for special applications. The nonlinear recursive model is introduced into the SAR operation principle, and the cubature Kalman filter algorithm is used to estimate target and clutter responses in each azimuth position based on their previous states, which are both assumed to be Gaussian distributions. NP criteria-based optimal waveforms are designed repeatedly as the sensor flies along its azimuth path and are used as the transmitting signals. A clutter suppression filter is then designed and added to suppress the clutter response while maintaining most of the target response. Thus, with fewer disturbances from the clutter response, we can generate the SAR image with traditional azimuth matched filters. Our simulations show that the clutter suppression filter significantly reduces the clutter response, and our algorithm greatly improves the SINR of the SAR image based on different clutter suppression filter parameters. As such, this algorithm may be preferable for special target imaging when prior information on the target is available.

  1. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  2. Object Recognition in Clutter: Cortical Responses Depend on the Type of Learning

    Jay eHegdé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that the visual system uses prior knowledge of visual objects to recognize them in visual clutter, and posit that the strategies for recognizing objects in clutter may differ depending on whether or not the object was learned in clutter to begin with. We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of human subjects. We trained subjects to recognize naturalistic, yet novel objects in strong or weak clutter. We then tested subjects’ recognition performance for both sets of objects in strong clutter. We found many brain regions that were differentially responsive to objects during object recognition depending on whether they were learned in strong or weak clutter. In particular, the responses of the left fusiform gyrus reliably reflected, on a trial-to-trial basis, subjects’ object recognition performance for objects learned in the presence of strong clutter. These results indicate that the visual system does not use a single, general-purpose mechanism to cope with clutter. Instead, there are two distinct spatial patterns of activation whose responses are attributable not to the visual context in which the objects were seen, but to the context in which the objects were learned.

  3. Nonuniform Three-dimensional Configuration Distributed SAR Signal Reconstruction Clutter Suppression

    LIU Mei; ZHANG Lei; LI Chenlei

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of clutter suppression in spaceborne distributed synthetic aperture radar (D-SAR) with nonuniform three-dimensional (3D) configuration geometry.In order to make a breakthrough of the configuration limitation of the traditional space time adaptive processing (STAP) based on uniform array and improve the inhomogeneous clutter suppression performance,this paper considers signal reconstruction technique using array interpolation to process the D-SAR signal.An array interpolation signal reconstruction method based on pitching-partition is derived then a signal reconstruction 3D-STAP clutter suppression method applied to nonuniform 3D configuration is proposed.In particular,the proposed method is compared with conventional methods and the performance analysis is carried out based on simulations.The improvement factor (IF) for clutter suppression is imported and reported as a benchmark on the clutter suppression effect.

  4. Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear

    Keel, Byron M.

    1989-01-01

    An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

  5. Abdominal MRI in childhood

    MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)

  6. A Hand Finding and Segmenting in a Partially Cluttered Scene

    R. M. Farouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a system for finding and segmenting a human hand, which is holding an object. This is a difficult computer vision problem, because of the many degrees of freedom, the flexibility, and the clutter problem of the hand. In order to find the correspondences, we have used a lateral similarity function. In the lateral excitation we have not only compare-ed different features at one point but also the features at that point and its neighbors ( e.g. Gobar feature, and skin color feature. The system is an extension of the Elastic Graph Matching (EGM algorithm. EGM has been shown to be successful in numerous object vision tasks, its best performance being in face recognition.

  7. Study of clutter origin in in-vivo epi-optoacoustic imaging of human forearms

    Preisser, Stefan; Held, Gerrit; Akarçay, Hidayet G.; Jaeger, Michael; Frenz, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Epi-optoacoustic (OA) imaging offers flexible clinical diagnostics of the human body when the irradiation optic is attached to or directly integrated into the acoustic probe. Epi-OA images, however, encounter clutter that deteriorates contrast and significantly limits imaging depth. This study elaborates clutter origin in clinical epi-optoacoustic imaging using a linear array probe for scanning the human forearm. We demonstrate that the clutter strength strongly varies with the imaging location but stays stable over time, indicating that clutter is caused by anatomical structures. OA transients which are generated by strong optical absorbers located at the irradiation spot were identified to be the main source of clutter. These transients obscure deep in-plane OA signals when detected by the transducer either directly or after being acoustically scattered in the imaging plane. In addition, OA transients generated in the skin below the probe result in acoustic reverberations, which cause problems in image interpretation and limit imaging depth. Understanding clutter origin allows a better interpretation of clinical OA imaging, helps to design clutter compensation techniques and raises the prospect of contrast optimization via the design of the irradiation geometry.

  8. Modern Approaches to the Computation of the Probability of Target Detection in Cluttered Environments

    Meitzler, Thomas J.

    The field of computer vision interacts with fields such as psychology, vision research, machine vision, psychophysics, mathematics, physics, and computer science. The focus of this thesis is new algorithms and methods for the computation of the probability of detection (Pd) of a target in a cluttered scene. The scene can be either a natural visual scene such as one sees with the naked eye (visual), or, a scene displayed on a monitor with the help of infrared sensors. The relative clutter and the temperature difference between the target and background (DeltaT) are defined and then used to calculate a relative signal -to-clutter ratio (SCR) from which the Pd is calculated for a target in a cluttered scene. It is shown how this definition can include many previous definitions of clutter and (DeltaT). Next, fuzzy and neural -fuzzy techniques are used to calculate the Pd and it is shown how these methods can give results that have a good correlation with experiment. The experimental design for actually measuring the Pd of a target by observers is described. Finally, wavelets are applied to the calculation of clutter and it is shown how this new definition of clutter based on wavelets can be used to compute the Pd of a target.

  9. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  10. Imaging in abdominal trauma

    Imaging in abdominal trauma with special regard to the value of abdominal X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography is described. The introduction to each organ focusses on the clinical situation, special mechanism of trauma, symptoms and the pathological staging of trauma. (orig.)

  11. Pulmonary complications of upper abdominal surgery.

    Deodhar S

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications encountered in 67 patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery in our unit in one year period are analysed. Pulmonary function tests and their post-operative reduction, as also the risk factors are discussed. Pathophysiology responsible for pulmonary complications is outlined.

  12. Improved resolution and reduced clutter in ultra-wideband microwave imaging using cross-correlated back projection: experimental and numerical results.

    Jacobsen, S; Birkelund, Y

    2010-01-01

    Microwave breast cancer detection is based on the dielectric contrast between healthy and malignant tissue. This radar-based imaging method involves illumination of the breast with an ultra-wideband pulse. Detection of tumors within the breast is achieved by some selected focusing technique. Image formation algorithms are tailored to enhance tumor responses and reduce early-time and late-time clutter associated with skin reflections and heterogeneity of breast tissue. In this contribution, we evaluate the performance of the so-called cross-correlated back projection imaging scheme by using a scanning system in phantom experiments. Supplementary numerical modeling based on commercial software is also presented. The phantom is synthetically scanned with a broadband elliptical antenna in a mono-static configuration. The respective signals are pre-processed by a data-adaptive RLS algorithm in order to remove artifacts caused by antenna reverberations and signal clutter. Successful detection of a 7 mm diameter cylindrical tumor immersed in a low permittivity medium was achieved in all cases. Selecting the widely used delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming algorithm as a benchmark, we show that correlation based imaging methods improve the signal-to-clutter ratio by at least 10 dB and improves spatial resolution through a reduction of the imaged peak full-width half maximum (FWHM) of about 40-50%. PMID:21331362

  13. A capon beamforming method for clutter suppression in colocated compressive sensing based MIMO radars

    Yu, Yao; Sun, Shunqiao; Petropulu, Athina P.

    2013-05-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar systems that explore the sparsity of targets in the target space enable either the same localization performance as traditional methods but with significantly fewer measurements, or significantly improved performance with the same number of measurements. However, the enabling assumption, i.e., the target sparsity, diminishes in the presence of clutter, since clutters is highly correlated with the desire target echoes. This paper proposes an approach to suppress clutter in the context of CS MIMO radars. Assuming that the clutter covariance is known, Capon beamforming is applied at the fusion center on compressively obtained data, which are forwarded by the receive antennas. Subsequently, the target is estimated using CS theory, by exploiting the sparsity of the beamformed signals.

  14. Estimation of the Bandpass Clutter Rank for Space-Time Adaptive Processing

    XIE Junhao; YUAN Yeshu; LIU Yongtan

    2001-01-01

    A simple formula for estimating thebandpass clutter rank in the case of linear array isderived. Differences between the definition of clutterrank for theoretical analysis and practical applicationare also pointed out, which are verified by calculations.

  15. An Adaptive Clutter Suppression Technique for Moving Target Detector in Pulse Doppler Radar

    A. Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive system performs the processing by using an architecture having time-varying parameters on the received signals which accompanies with clutters. In this paper, an adaptive moving target detector has been designed to meet the challenges of target detection amidst various levels of clutter environments. The approach has been used that is able to overcome the inherent limitations of conventional systems (e.g. Moving Target Indicator, Fast Fourier Transform etc. having predefined coefficients. In this purpose an optimal design of transversal filter is being proposed along with various weight selection Maps to improve probability of detection in ground based surveillance radar. A modified LMS algorithm based adaptive FIR filter has been implemented utilizing modular CORDIC unit as a main processing element for filtering as well as weight updatation to suppress clutter of various intensity. Extensive MATLAB simulations have been done using various levels of clutter input to show the effectiveness of adaptive moving target detector (AMTD.

  16. Ground clutter effects in an X-Band Solid State FM-CW weather radar

    Ligthart, L. P.; Nieuwkerk, L. R.

    A new X-Band Solid State FM-CW weather radar, developed at the Delft University, has been operational since 1989. Attention is given to ground clutter effects in the near range of this radar up to 15 km radar range. Two different types of cluttermaps are used for overall and detailed analysis of ground echoes in absence of rain. Clutter suppression techniques are elucidated. Improvement factors for weather/ground clutter ratios have to be interpreted with care in cases where coherent subtraction techniques are involved, since weather echoes in some areas can be nearly as much correlated as ground targets. Most of the cluttermap data handling and clutter suppression is done in real time by using general purpose computing equipment.

  17. Clutter attenuation using the Doppler effect in standoff electromagnetic quantum sensing

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In the context of traditional radar systems, the Doppler effect is crucial to detect and track moving targets in the presence of clutter. In the quantum radar context, however, most theoretical performance analyses to date have assumed static targets. In this paper we consider the Doppler effect at the single photon level. In particular, we describe how the Doppler effect produced by clutter and moving targets modifies the quantum distinguishability and the quantum radar error detection probability equations. Furthermore, we show that Doppler-based delayline cancelers can reduce the effects of clutter in the context of quantum radar, but only in the low-brightness regime. Thus, quantum radar may prove to be an important technology if the electronic battlefield requires stealthy tracking and detection of moving targets in the presence of clutter.

  18. Ground-based SAR imaging basics and land clutter effects on the focused image

    Lort Cuenca, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation. SAR is a form of radar whose defining characteristic is the use of the relative motion between its antenna and the target region. The basic principles of radar imaging are recalled and the effects of some specific land clutter (such as windblown radar ground clutter...

  19. Simulation Analysis and Model of Current Retrieval Based on Marine Radar Sea Clutter Images

    Liqiang Liu; Yuntao Dai; Jinyu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Using the sea clutter image from X-Band radar for current retrieval is an effective way of obtaining information on ocean currents. Traditional methods used for current retrieval have been based on the least squares algorithm, which is not only simple and efficient but also generally speaking accurate. In order to improve the precision of current retrieval, this paper has, as its goal, the study of the used radar connected with sea clutter imaging for current retrieval, with the particle swar...

  20. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  1. Abdominal CT scan

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  2. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    ... inspection of a drop of urine), and urine culture for bacterial infection. Stools can be analyzed for ... Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity Digestive Health Topics Abdominal Pain Syndrome Belching, Bloating, ...

  3. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  4. Clutter-adaptive infrared small target detection in infrared maritime scenarios

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Tianxu

    2011-06-01

    A clutter-adaptive target-detection method is proposed to detect small moving targets in midwave infrared maritime scenarios. In particular, we focus our attention on the sea-sky background and targets of interest are ships along the horizontal sea-sky line. In the distant sea-sky background infrared imagery, small targets frequently appear as weak intensity and do not have enough structure information in the vicinity of horizontal sea-sky-line, that is sea-sky region, and the complexity of background clutters has direct impact on the target detection performance. Thus, a fuzzy system constructed by the extracted image-based features is designed for the clutter classification. And then, based on the determined clutter type, low clutter or high clutter, the horizontal sea-sky line can be detected successfully. In the target detection stage, under the guidance of the sea-sky line, a modified multilevel filter method is applied to enhance the target in the sea-sky region. Finally, the recursive segmentation method and the target validation technique are adopted for the target extraction and validation. In the experiments, the target detection performance of proposed method is validated by extensive experiments on infrared images taken in different imaging conditions. It achieves high accuracy with a low false alarm rate.

  5. Subspace Compressive GLRT Detector for MIMO Radar in the Presence of Clutter

    Siva Karteek Bolisetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimising the target detection performance of MIMO radar in the presence of clutter is considered. The increased false alarm rate which is a consequence of the presence of clutter returns is known to seriously degrade the target detection performance of the radar target detector, especially under low SNR conditions. In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed to optimise the target detection performance of a MIMO radar detector in the presence of clutter. The number of samples that are required to be processed by a radar target detector regulates the amount of processing burden while achieving a given detection reliability. While Subspace Compressive GLRT (SSC-GLRT detector is known to give optimised radar target detection performance with reduced computational complexity, it however suffers a significant deterioration in target detection performance in the presence of clutter. In this paper we provide evidence that the proposed mathematical model for SSC-GLRT detector outperforms the existing detectors in the presence of clutter. The performance analysis of the existing detectors and the proposed SSC-GLRT detector for MIMO radar in the presence of clutter are provided in this paper.

  6. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  7. Clutter effects on airborne tracking resolution requirements for urban vehicles

    Robinson, Aaron L.; Miller, Brian; Richardson, Phillip; Ra, Chun

    2010-04-01

    This paper details the development, experimentation, collected data and the results of research designed to gain an understanding of the effects of clutter on the temporal and spatial image collection guidelines for tracking urban vehicles. More specifically, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between human observer performance and the spatial and temporal resolution is sought. Performance is measured as a function of the number of video frames per second, imager spatial resolution and the ability of the observer to accurately determine the destination of a moving vehicle target as it encounters vehicles with similar infrared signatures. The research is restricted to data and imagery collected from altitudes typical of modern low to mid altitude persistent surveillance platforms using a wide field of view. The ability of the human observer to perform an unaided track of the vehicle was determined by their completion of carefully designed perception experiments. In these experiments, the observers were presented with simulated imagery from Night Vision's EOSim urban terrain simulator. The details of the simulated targets and backgrounds, the design of the experiments and their associated results are included in this treatment.

  8. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone. PMID:26066654

  9. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    Rodrigo Marciente

    Full Text Available Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  10. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  11. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  12. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two. Conclusions: US

  13. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  14. Main sea clutter characteristics impacting small slow moving targets detection by marine radars

    O. D. Mrachkovskiy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Searching of the sea clutter mathematical model is carried out in this paper. It is suitable to create based on it algorithm for small slow moving targets detection by marine radars. The compound Gaussian model for modeling sea clutter amplitude stochastic distribution is selected as a result of the sources analysis, because it was confirmed by most of researches. The discussed in the literature model based on chaos theory is choosen as perspective alternative for stochastic model; its advantage of using it for such problems solution must be definitively proved or denied. It was proposed many different distributions for high resolution sea clutter amplitude data modeling. The most frequently reported in the literature are K, Log-Normal and Weibull distributions. K distribution belonging to a compound-Gaussian model has the most significant theoretical and experimental background. This distribution choice is physically explained basing on the processes taking place when electromagnetic waves scattered from capillarity and gravity sea waves create a composed echo. Signal representing this echo is the product of two random components, called texture and speckle. Texture is the result of scattering from gravity waves, has a Gamma pdf (in case of K distribution and corresponds to slow-varying large-scale structure. Speckle is the result of scattering from isolated scatterers (capillarity waves, has a Rayleigh pdf and corresponds to rapid varying small-scale structure. So, K distribution envelope is a compound distribution consisting of a locally Rayleigh distribution speckle whose mean is modulated by a gamma distribution texture. All researches consider Rayleigh pdf for speckle. The lognormal, generalized Gaussian, inverse gamma and some other distributions were proposed for the texture. Due to literature analyses it is seen that texture distribution depends on radar range resolution, but strong dependence is not proved. Some scientists modified K

  15. Radar cross sections of ground clutter at 95 GHz for summer and fall conditions

    Wellman, R. J.; Hutchins, D. R.; Silvious, J. L.; Dropkin, H.; Goldman, G.; Nemarich, J.; Wikner, D. A.; Dahlstrom, R. K.

    1993-11-01

    Radar cross section (RCS) measurements were made on an extensively instrumented ground-clutter patch over a period of one month from late summer to early fall. The instrumentation allowed collection of a full set of data on meteorological conditions, solar flux, and soil moisture content. The RCS measurements were made using a 95-GHz, polarimetric, monopulse instrumentation radar. The radar is all solid-state, coherent, frequency steppable over a 640-MHz bandwidth, and completely polarimetric for linearly or circularly polarized radiation. The clutter area measured was located in Grayling, Michigan, and consisted of a rectangular patch of ground, 50 by 100 m in area, at a range of about 100 to 250 m from the radar. The clutter patch included areas of bare sandy ground, short grass, low shrubs, evergreen trees, and deciduous trees and was similar to a NATO European environment. A wide range of atmospheric conditions were observed over the measurement period, including a few days of measurable snowfall. The paper describes analysis of the effects of different clutter types and different atmospheric conditions on the measured RCS of the clutter patch.

  16. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A MODIFIED CFAR BASED RADAR DETECTOR UNDER PEARSON DISTRIBUTED CLUTTER

    Amritakar Mandal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive target detector in radar system is used to extract targets from background in noisy environment of unknown statistics. The constant false alarm rate (CFAR is well known detection algorithm that is being used in almost every modern radar. The cell averaging CFAR is the optimum detector in homogeneous clutter environment when the refence cells have identically independent and exponentially distributed signals. The performance of CA CFAR degrades seriously when clutter power substantially varies in non-homogeneous background. To overcome the performance degradation, a non-linear compression technique based CFAR has been introduced for adaptive thresholding to meet the challenges of target detection from various degrees of Pearson distributed non-homogeneous clutter. Extensive MATLAB simulations have been done using various levels of clutter input to show the effectiveness of the proposed design. Improvement in Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR has been achieved using Swerling I model for Rayleigh fluctuating target in the backdrop of heavy clutter.

  17. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  18. Adult abdominal hernias.

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  20. Facial expression, size, and clutter: Inferences from movie structure to emotion judgments and back.

    Cutting, James E; Armstrong, Kacie L

    2016-04-01

    The perception of facial expressions and objects at a distance are entrenched psychological research venues, but their intersection is not. We were motivated to study them together because of their joint importance in the physical composition of popular movies-shots that show a larger image of a face typically have shorter durations than those in which the face is smaller. For static images, we explore the time it takes viewers to categorize the valence of different facial expressions as a function of their visual size. In two studies, we find that smaller faces take longer to categorize than those that are larger, and this pattern interacts with local background clutter. More clutter creates crowding and impedes the interpretation of expressions for more distant faces but not proximal ones. Filmmakers at least tacitly know this. In two other studies, we show that contemporary movies lengthen shots that show smaller faces, and even more so with increased clutter. PMID:26728045

  1. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Radar Ice Sounding Surface Clutter Suppression

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    recent surface clutter suppression techniques are based on multi-phase-center systems combined with sophisticated coherent postprocessing. The performance of the techniques can be improved by accurate direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimates of the surface clutter. This paper deals with data-driven DOA...... estimation for surface clutter signals, which includes a formulation of the mathematical foundation of spatial aliasing. DOA estimation is applied to data acquired with the P-band POLarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder at the Jutulstraumen Glacier, Antarctica. The effects of spatial aliasing related to a...... large phase center spacing are analyzed, and an unwrapping procedure is presented and applied to the data. Finally, DOA estimation of full-scene data is analyzed and used to show an along-track and incidence (off-nadir) angle dependent variation of the effective scattering center of the surface return...

  2. Simulation and Prediction of Weather Radar Clutter Using a Wave Propagator on High Resolution NWP Data

    Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars are essential sensors for observation of precipitation in the troposphere and play a major part in weather forecasting and hydrological modelling. Clutter caused by non-standard wave propagation is a common problem in weather radar applications, and in this paper a method...... for prediction of this type of weather radar clutter is presented. The method uses a wave propagator to identify areas of potential non-standard propagation. The wave propagator uses a three dimensional refractivity field derived from the geophysical parameters: temperature, humidity, and pressure obtained from...... a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used...

  3. Spatiotemporal Clutter Filtering of Ultrafast Ultrasound Data Highly Increases Doppler and fUltrasound Sensitivity.

    Demené, Charlie; Deffieux, Thomas; Pernot, Mathieu; Osmanski, Bruno-Félix; Biran, Valérie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Franqui, Stéphanie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Cohen, Ivan; Baud, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-01

    Ultrafast ultrasonic imaging is a rapidly developing field based on the unfocused transmission of plane or diverging ultrasound waves. This recent approach to ultrasound imaging leads to a large increase in raw ultrasound data available per acquisition. Bigger synchronous ultrasound imaging datasets can be exploited in order to strongly improve the discrimination between tissue and blood motion in the field of Doppler imaging. Here we propose a spatiotemporal singular value decomposition clutter rejection of ultrasonic data acquired at ultrafast frame rate. The singular value decomposition (SVD) takes benefits of the different features of tissue and blood motion in terms of spatiotemporal coherence and strongly outperforms conventional clutter rejection filters based on high pass temporal filtering. Whereas classical clutter filters operate on the temporal dimension only, SVD clutter filtering provides up to a four-dimensional approach (3D in space and 1D in time). We demonstrate the performance of SVD clutter filtering with a flow phantom study that showed an increased performance compared to other classical filters (better contrast to noise ratio with tissue motion between 1 and 10mm/s and axial blood flow as low as 2.6 mm/s). SVD clutter filtering revealed previously undetected blood flows such as microvascular networks or blood flows corrupted by significant tissue or probe motion artifacts. We report in vivo applications including small animal fUltrasound brain imaging (blood flow detection limit of 0.5 mm/s) and several clinical imaging cases, such as neonate brain imaging, liver or kidney Doppler imaging. PMID:25955583

  4. Adaptive MIMO radar detection algorithm in a spatially correlated clutter environment

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radar systems have captured the attention of many researchers. At the very beginning, these works focused on increasing the signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) by transmitting coherent signals. In 2004, a new concept called spatial diversity was introduced for MIMO radar, which achieved the same objective using widely separated transmitters and/or receivers and independent transmitted signals. This technology dramatically enhances the detection probability and accuracy in estimating direction of arrival (DOA) by efficiently constraining target scintillations and collecting more information carried in distinguishable signals. Moreover, since the transmitted signals are independent in MIMO radar, considerable mechanisms such as beamforming technologies and coherent processing, can be developed and applied to improve its performance. However, MIMO radar detection performance in a spatially correlated clutter environment does not get adequate attention that it deserves. Therefore, in this paper, received signals considered include reflections from the target, K-distributed clutter, and thermal noise. Moreover, beamforming technology and coherent processing are applied to estimate the reflectivity of and distinguish between target and clutter reflections. As a result, when echoes from target and clutter are unresolvable, the detection problem can be formulated as a two hypotheses test. According to the Bayesian approach, we develop the ratio test for this situation. In addition, we observe that if highly correlated information is utilized by adaptively modifying clutter local mean power probability density function (PDF), the uncertainty of clutter local mean power decreases and detection performance can be further improved. Last, we also compare the power based detection algorithm with the ratio test. Even though the power based detection algorithm has advantage in simple computation, its comparable performance is

  5. Visual Multi-Object Tracking in the Presence of Cluttered Scenes

    Xu-Sheng Gan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the visual multi-object tracking in the presence of cluttered scenes. A improved algorithm of fusing multi-source information including location and color evidences were introduced based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT and Particle Filters (PF. Results showed that the conflict strategy and DSmT combination model were available and the proposed approach exhibited a significantly better performance for dealing with high conflict between evidences than a conventional PF. The suggested approach can easily be generalized to deal with larger number of visual multi-object and additional cues in the presence of cluttered scenes.

  6. Lexical Access, Story Re-Telling and Sequencing Skills in Adults Who Clutter and Those Who Do Not

    Bretherton-Furness, Jessica; Ward, David

    2012-01-01

    Cluttering is a rate-based disorder of fluency, the scope of whose diagnostic criteria currently remains unclear. This paper reports preliminary findings from a larger study which aims to determine whether cluttering can be associated with language disturbances as well as motor and rate based ones. Subtests from the Mt Wilga High Level Language…

  7. Multichannel surface clutter suppression: East Antarctica P-band SAR ice sounding in the presence of grating lobes

    Bekaert, David; Gebert, Nicolas; Lin, Chung-Chi;

    2014-01-01

    of the receive channels were used to suppress the surface 'clutter'. However, with a channel spacing of 1.4 times the wavelength, the grating lobe imposes a limitation to the off-nadir angular range in which clutter can be effectively attenuated. Results of ice sounding over Jutulstraumen glacier are...

  8. Modified GIT model for predicting wind-speed behavior of low-grazing-angle radar sea clutter

    Zhang, Yu-Shi; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Li, Xin; Wu, Zhen-Sen

    2014-10-01

    A modified GIT model for describing the variational trend of mean clutter reflectivity as a function of wind speed is proposed. It uses two slope adjustment factors and two critical wind-speed factors to define and adjust the increasing slope of reflectivity with respect to wind speed. In addition, it uses a constant factor to compensate the overall amplitude of clutter reflectivity. The performance of the modified GIT model has been verified on the basis of the L-band low-grazing-angle radar sea clutter data. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the model is more effective in predicting the wind-speed behavior of clutter reflectivity than the conventional GIT model, especially for lower and higher wind speeds. We believe that the proposed model can provide deeper insights into the relationship between radar sea clutter reflectivity and sea state conditions.

  9. Modified GIT model for predicting wind-speed behavior of low-grazing-angle radar sea clutter

    A modified GIT model for describing the variational trend of mean clutter reflectivity as a function of wind speed is proposed. It uses two slope adjustment factors and two critical wind-speed factors to define and adjust the increasing slope of reflectivity with respect to wind speed. In addition, it uses a constant factor to compensate the overall amplitude of clutter reflectivity. The performance of the modified GIT model has been verified on the basis of the L-band low-grazing-angle radar sea clutter data. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the model is more effective in predicting the wind-speed behavior of clutter reflectivity than the conventional GIT model, especially for lower and higher wind speeds. We believe that the proposed model can provide deeper insights into the relationship between radar sea clutter reflectivity and sea state conditions. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  11. CT of abdominal trauma

    Soon after it became available for clinical use, cranial CT became the method of choice for evaluating head trauma. Only relatively recently have newer generation full-body scanners been installed at major trauma centers, but experience is rapidly being gained in the utilization of CT for abdominal trauma. CT has proved highly accurate in diagnosing a wide variety of injuries to both intra- and retroperitoneal organs in pediatric and adult patient populations. The impact has been evident not only in decreasing utilization of other diagnostic tests, such as angiography, but also in practical management decisions, such as whether to perform exploratory laparotomy. This chapter details the authors' approach to evaluation of abdominal trauma by CT

  12. The blunt abdominal trauma

    Up to 1970 the number of patients suffering from blunt abdominal trauma showed a substantial increase. In more than 50% of all cases there are additional injuries. The most important factor influencing the prognosis of these patients is the early and correct indication for operation and the avoidance of unnecessary laparotomies. As a primary aim in diagnosis one should consider the recognition of an intraperitoneal bleeding without risk for the patient. Peritoneal lavage as an invasive method with low complication rates has proved good. First reports also show good results using the sonography of the abdomen. The recognition of the injured organ allows a carefully directed operation. Concerning the prognosis it is of minor importance. The diagnosis in patients with blunt abdominal trauma at the university clinic of Freiburg consists of: sonography, followed in positive cases by laparotomy or angiography and laparotomy. In cases with questionable results a lavage is done. (orig.)

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B; Olsen, P S; Perko, M J; Agerskov, Kim; Røder, O; Lorentzen, Jørgen Ewald

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 55......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems.......The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553...

  14. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    Andrea Aliverti

    Full Text Available Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart.

  15. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    Andrea Aliverti; Dario Bovio; Irene Fullin; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Antonella Lo Mauro; Antonio Pedotti; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk ...

  16. Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis

    Ritesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

  17. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  18. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  19. Detection of dim point targets in cluttered maritime backgrounds through multisensor image fusion

    Toet, A.

    2002-01-01

    Multispectral IR imaging techniques are frequently deployed in maritime operations, for instance to detect floating mines or to find small dinghies and swimmers during search and rescue operations. However, maritime backgrounds usually contain a large amount of clutter that severely hampers the dete

  20. Measuring Search Efficiency in Complex Visual Search Tasks: Global and Local Clutter

    Beck, Melissa R.; Lohrenz, Maura C.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Set size and crowding affect search efficiency by limiting attention for recognition and attention against competition; however, these factors can be difficult to quantify in complex search tasks. The current experiments use a quantitative measure of the amount and variability of visual information (i.e., clutter) in highly complex stimuli (i.e.,…

  1. Breaking through the Advertising Clutter: A Qualitative Analysis of Broken Stereotypes in Print and Television Advertisements.

    Larson, Charles U.

    As a result of the overwhelming amount of print and electronic advertisements which compete for consumer attention, advertisers must find effective methods to get through the ad clutter and capture their audience's interest. Several tactics can accomplish this strategy, including the tactic of breaking or reversing audience expectations or…

  2. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a...... varying penetration depth influences the DOA....

  3. Breaking through the clutter : Benefits of advertisement originality and familiarity for brand attention and memory

    Pieters, R; Warlop, L; Wedel, M

    2002-01-01

    Rising levels of advertising competition have made it increasingly difficult to attract and hold consumers' attention and to establish strong memory traces for the advertised brand. A common communication strategy to break through this competitive clutter is to increase ad originality However, ad or

  4. Fixed target clutter suppression by using a polarimetric FM-CW radar

    Ligthart, L. P.; Nieuwkerk, L. R.; van Sinttruijen, J. S.

    The Delft FM-CW polarimetric radar is used to demonstrate capabilities of FM-CW radar systems to suppress coherent non-moving radar targets. The approach is based on measurements with multi-state polarizers. Good improvements in clutter suppression can be obtained by using fast switching polarizers for optimum elliptical polarization and dedicated polarimetry processing.

  5. Estimation of the rain signal in the presence of large surface clutter

    Ahamad, Atiq; Moore, Richard K.

    1994-01-01

    The principal limitation for the use of a spaceborne imaging SAR as a rain radar is the surface-clutter problem. Signals may be estimated in the presence of noise by averaging large numbers of independent samples. This method was applied to obtain an estimate of the rain echo by averaging a set of N(sub c) samples of the clutter in a separate measurement and subtracting the clutter estimate from the combined estimate. The number of samples required for successful estimation (within 10-20%) for off-vertical angles of incidence appears to be prohibitively large. However, by appropriately degrading the resolution in both range and azimuth, the required number of samples can be obtained. For vertical incidence, the number of samples required for successful estimation is reasonable. In estimating the clutter it was assumed that the surface echo is the same outside the rain volume as it is within the rain volume. This may be true for the forest echo, but for convective storms over the ocean the surface echo outside the rain volume is very different from that within. It is suggested that the experiment be performed with vertical incidence over forest to overcome this limitation.

  6. Human factors of target detection tasks within heavily cluttered video scenes

    Huber, Samuel; Wellig, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Background: Algorithms show difficulties in distinguishing weak signals of a target from a cluttered background, a task that humans tend to master relatively easily. We conducted two studies to identify how various degrees of clutter influence operator performance and search patterns in a visual target detection task. Methods: First, 8 male subjects had to look for specific female targets within a heavily cluttered public area. Subjects were supported by differing amounts of markings that helped them to identify females in general. We presented video clips and analyzed the search patterns. Second, 18 subject matter experts had to identify targets on a heavily frequented motorway intersection. We presented them with video material from a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveillance mission. The video image was subdivided in three zones: The central zone (CZ), a circle area of 10°. The peripheral zone (PZ) corresponding to a 4:3 format and the hyper peripheral zone (HPZ) which represented the lateral region specific to the 16:9 format. We analyzed fixation densities and task performance. Results: We found an approximately U-shaped correlation between the number of markings in a video and the degree of structure in search patterns as well as performance. For the motorway surveillance task we found a difference in mean detection time for CZ vs. HPZ (p=0.01) and PZ vs. HPZ (p=0.003) but no difference for CZ vs. PZ (p=0.491). There were no differences in detection rate for the respective zones. We found the highest fixation density in CZ decreasing towards HPZ. Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate that markings could increase surveillance operator performance in a cluttered environment as long as their number is kept in an optimal range. When performing a search task within a heavily cluttered environment, humans tend to show rather erratic search patterns and spend more time watching central picture areas.

  7. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  8. Dolor abdominal recurrente .

    Rodrigo De Vivero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El dolor abdominal recurrente (DAR es un problema frecuente en la consulta médica y en la subespecialidad médica y quirúrgica. El DAR es frecuentemente funcional, es decir, sin una causa orgánica aparente. El diagnóstico diferencial debe incluir pérdida de peso, sangrado gastrointestinal, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica y vómito importante. En este artículo se revisa el diagnóstico y tratamiento, pruebas diagnósticas y manejo farmacológico y ambiental.

  9. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  11. Practical pediatric abdominal CT

    This course is designed to help the radiologist in a hospital setting successfully approach abdominal CT in the infant and child. Emphasis is placed on techniques necessary for a high-quality examination of the upper abdomen, as applied to common pediatric problems such as trauma, tumor, and infection. Material is presented on technical considerations, including patient sedation, preparation, and potential pitfalls and helpful hints for imaging. An emphasis is placed on dynamic scanning with table incrementation. The section on trauma focuses on an approach to imaging the abdomen in the injured child, typical injuries, patterns of injury in the upper abdomen, and why CT is the best imaging modality for blunt upper abdominal trauma. The discussion of tumor imaging reviews the appearance of typical childhood neoplasia including Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin and Burkitt lymphoma, and disseminated solid tumors such as rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors emphasize what to look for and where, both on initial and on later (for recurrences) examinations. The discussion of infection addresses detection of abscesses and occult infections in children, as well as imaging of abscesses prior to intervention

  12. Novel Molecular Imaging Approaches to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Risk Stratification.

    Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L; Sadeghi, Mehran M

    2016-01-01

    Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate, and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, for example, inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in abdominal aortic aneurysm morbidity and mortality. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide magnetic resonance imaging are 2 novel approaches to abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (eg, integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm and show great potential for clinical translation. PMID:26763279

  13. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  14. Detection of Ground Clutter from Weather Radar Using a Dual-Polarization and Dual-Scan Method

    Mohammad-Hossein Golbon-Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-polarization and dual-scan (DPDS classification algorithm is developed for clutter detection in weather radar observations. Two consecutive scans of dual-polarization radar echoes are jointly processed to estimate auto- and cross-correlation functions. Discriminants are then defined and estimated in order to separate clutter from weather based on their physical and statistical properties. An optimal Bayesian classifier is used to make a decision on clutter presence from the estimated discriminant functions. The DPDS algorithm is applied to the data collected with the KOUN polarimetric radar and compared with the existing detection methods. It is shown that the DPDS algorithm yields a higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rate in clutter detection.

  15. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma

    Purpose: As scarce information is available, in this research we have tried to describe the imaging findings of the Burkitt's lymphoma. Retrospective analysis of the clinical and imaging presentation of a 4 years old boy, is given. Biopsy confirmed the BL. Different imaging techniques were combined. The X-rays were negative. The US revealed a moderate hepatomegaly with multiple hypoechoic nodules and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. The CT showed the hepatomegaly as well as solid nodules in great number and different sizes(due to the densitometric behaviour and to post contrast enhancement), a scarce amount of ascites and a density increase of the mesentery fat. The MRI characterized and revealed in detail the US and the CT findings. The Burkitt's lymphoma is a rare entity; several methods are needed to approach the diagnosis. It represents a great clinical and imaging challenge. (author)

  16. Persymmetric Adaptive Detectors of Subspace Signals in Homogeneous and Partially Homogeneous Clutter

    Ding Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of adaptive radar detection, an effective strategy to improve the detection performance is to exploit the structural information of the covariance matrix, especially in the case of insufficient reference cells. Thus, in this study, the problem of detecting multidimensional subspace signals is discussed by considering the persymmetric structure of the clutter covariance matrix, which implies that the covariance matrix is persymmetric about its cross diagonal. Persymmetric adaptive detectors are derived on the basis of the one-step principle as well as the two-step Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT in homogeneous and partially homogeneous clutter. The proposed detectors consider the structural information of the covariance matrix at the design stage. Simulation results suggest performance improvement compared with existing detectors when reference cells are insufficient. Moreover, the detection performance is assessed with respect to the effects of the covariance matrix, signal subspace dimension, and mismatched performance of signal subspace as well as signal fluctuations.

  17. Capturing dynamics on multiple timescales: a hybrid approach for cluttered electromagnetic data

    Pawley, Norma H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Myers, Kary L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Galbraith, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Many problems in electromagnetic signal analysis exhibit dynamics on a wide range of time scales against nonstationary clutter and noise. We consider a problem in which the relevant time scales can range from nanoseconds to hours or days (12 or 13 orders of magnitude). We present a hybrid algorithm currently designed to capture the dynamic behavior at scales from nanoseconds to milliseconds (6 orders of magnitude) while remaining robust to clutter and noise. We draw from techniques of adaptive feature extraction, statistical machine learning, and discrete process modeling and present results on a simulated multimode problem. Our goals are to find a representation of the signal that allows us to identify which pulses were produced by a target emitter and to determine the operational mode of the target.

  18. Demonstration of radar reflector detection and ground clutter suppression using airborne weather and mapping radar

    Anderson, D. J.; Bull, J. S.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A navigation system which utilizes minimum ground-based equipment is especially advantageous to helicopters, which can make off-airport landings. Research has been conducted in the use of weather and mapping radar to detect large radar reflectors overland for navigation purposes. As initial studies have not been successful, investigations were conducted regarding a new concept for the detection of ground-based radar reflectors and eliminating ground clutter, using a device called an echo processor (EP). A description is presented of the problems associated with detecting radar reflectors overland, taking into account the EP concept and the results of ground- and flight-test investigations. The echo processor concept was successfully demonstrated in detecting radar reflectors overland in a high-clutter environment. A radar reflector target size of 55 dBsm was found to be adequate for detection in an urban environment.

  19. An Improved Sequential Initiation Method for Multitarget Track in Clutter with Large Noise Measurement

    Daxiong Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved sequential method for underwater multiple objects tracks initiation in clutter, estimating the initial position for the trajectory. The underwater environment is complex and changeable, and the sonar data are not very ideal. When the detection distance is far, the error of measured data is also great. Besides that, the clutter has a grave effect on the tracks initiation. So it is hard to initialize a track and estimate the initial position. The new tracks initiation is that when at least six of ten points meet the requirements, then we determine that there is a new track and the initial states of the parameters are estimated by the linear least square method. Compared to the conventional tracks initiation methods, our method not only considers the kinematics information of targets, but also regards the error of the sonar sensors as an important element. Computer simulations confirm that the performance of our method is very nice.

  20. Techniques for Clutter Suppression in the Presence of Body Movements during the Detection of Respiratory Activity through UWB Radars

    Antonio Lazaro; David Girbau; Ramon Villarino

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR) ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a movi...

  1. Clutter filtering issues in speckle tracking for two-dimensional blood velocity estimation: a potential solution based on compounded imaging

    Søvik Alnes, Solveig; Swillens, Abigaïl; Segers, Patrick; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    Clutter filtering issues remains a major limitation in multi-dimensional blood velocity estimation. In this work we investigate how compounded plane wave imaging can be used to minimize clutter filtering issues when using speckle tracking for two-dimensional velocity estimation. By using a dual scan angle approach one can ensure a sufficient beam-to-flow angle for most imaging scenarios. Segmentation algorithms based on the estimated power and mean axial velocity were used to determine whethe...

  2. Breaking Through the Clutter: Benefits of Advertisement Originality and Familiarity for Brand Attention and Memory

    Rik Pieters; Luk Warlop; Michel Wedel

    2002-01-01

    Rising levels of advertising competition have made it increasingly difficult to attract and hold consumers' attention and to establish strong memory traces for the advertised brand. A common communication strategy to break through this competitive clutter is to increase ad originality. However, ad originality may have detrimental effects when consumers pay more attention to the ad at the expense of the advertised brand. Moreover, the positive effects of originality may quickly wane when the a...

  3. NUMERICAL PERFORMANCES OF LOW RANK STAP BASED ON DIFFERENT HETEROGENEOUS CLUTTER SUBSPACE ESTIMATORS

    Breloy, A; Ginolhac, G; Pascal, F; Forster, P.

    2014-01-01

    Space time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for airborne RADAR fits the context of a disturbance composed of a Low Rank (LR) clutter, here modeled by a Compound Gaussian (CG) process, plus a white Gaussian noise (WGN). In such context, the corresponding LR adaptive filters used to detect a target require less training vectors than classical methods to reach equivalent performance. Unlike the classical filter which is based on the Covariance Matrix (CM) of the noise, the LR filter is based on the cl...

  4. MIMO Radar Waveform Optimization With Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter

    Chen, Chun-Yang; Vaidyanathan, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar allows each transmitting antenna element to transmit an arbitrary waveform. This provides extra degrees of freedom compared to the traditional transmit beamforming approach. It has been shown in the recent literature that MIMO radar systems have many advantages. In this paper, we consider the joint optimization of waveforms and receiving filters in the MIMO radar for the case of extended target in clutter. A novel iterative algorithm ...

  5. Remote retuning of X-band mini weather radar using ground clutter echoes

    Rorato, Oscar; Bertoldo, Silvano; Lucianaz, Claudio; Perona, Giovanni Emilio; Allegretti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The magnetron of a X-band mini weather radar could drift mainly due to external factors such as temperatures, humidity etc. The central frequency of the radar receiver filter must remain perfectly aligned with the magnetron generated frequency in order to receive the maximum power and avoid rain underestimation problems. This work describe a simple and cheap technique developed to remote retuning a X-band weather radar using ground clutter echoes acquired during clear sky days. By statistical...

  6. Rainfall estimation and ground clutter rejection with dual polarization weather radar

    F Lombardo; F. Napolitano; Russo, F.; Scialanga, G.; Baldini, L.; E. Gorgucci

    2006-01-01

    Conventional radars, used for atmospheric remote sensing, usually operate at a single polarization and frequency to estimate storm parameters such as rainfallrate and water content. Because of the high variability of the drop size distribution conventional radars do not succeed in obtaining detailed information because they just use horizontal reflectivity. The potentiality of the dual-polarized weather radar is investigated, in order to reject the ground-clutter, using differential reflect...

  7. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai; Gill, Rashpal S.; Overgaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an opera...

  8. The estimation of lower refractivity uncertainty from radar sea clutter using the Bayesian—MCMC method

    The estimation of lower atmospheric refractivity from radar sea clutter (RFC) is a complicated nonlinear optimization problem. This paper deals with the RFC problem in a Bayesian framework. It uses the unbiased Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling technique, which can provide accurate posterior probability distributions of the estimated refractivity parameters by using an electromagnetic split-step fast Fourier transform terrain parabolic equation propagation model within a Bayesian inversion framework. In contrast to the global optimization algorithm, the Bayesian—MCMC can obtain not only the approximate solutions, but also the probability distributions of the solutions, that is, uncertainty analyses of solutions. The Bayesian—MCMC algorithm is implemented on the simulation radar sea-clutter data and the real radar sea-clutter data. Reference data are assumed to be simulation data and refractivity profiles are obtained using a helicopter. The inversion algorithm is assessed (i) by comparing the estimated refractivity profiles from the assumed simulation and the helicopter sounding data; (ii) the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) posterior probability distribution of solutions. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  9. SAR Imagery Simulation of Ship Based on Electromagnetic Calculations and Sea Clutter Modelling for Classification Applications

    Ship detection and classification with space-borne SAR has many potential applications within the maritime surveillance, fishery activity management, monitoring ship traffic, and military security. While ship detection techniques with SAR imagery are well established, ship classification is still an open issue. One of the main reasons may be ascribed to the difficulties on acquiring the required quantities of real data of vessels under different observation and environmental conditions with precise ground truth. Therefore, simulation of SAR images with high scenario flexibility and reasonable computation costs is compulsory for ship classification algorithms development. However, the simulation of SAR imagery of ship over sea surface is challenging. Though great efforts have been devoted to tackle this difficult problem, it is far from being conquered. This paper proposes a novel scheme for SAR imagery simulation of ship over sea surface. The simulation is implemented based on high frequency electromagnetic calculations methods of PO, MEC, PTD and GO. SAR imagery of sea clutter is modelled by the representative K-distribution clutter model. Then, the simulated SAR imagery of ship can be produced by inserting the simulated SAR imagery chips of ship into the SAR imagery of sea clutter. The proposed scheme has been validated with canonical and complex ship targets over a typical sea scene

  10. High Speed Dim Air Target Detection Using Airborne Radar under Clutter and Jamming Effects

    A. E. Almslmany

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenging potential problems associated with using airborne radar in detection of high Speed Maneuvering Dim Target (HSMDT are the highly noise, jamming and clutter effects. The problem is not only how to remove clutter and jamming as well as the range migration and Doppler ambiguity estimation problems due to high relative speed between the targets and airborne radar. Some of the recently published works ignored the range migration problems, while the others ignored the Doppler ambiguity estimation. In this paper a new hybrid technique using Optimum Space Time Adaptive Processing (OSTAP, Second Order Keystone Transform (SOKT, and the Improved Fractional Radon Transform (IFrRT was proposed. The OSTAP was applied as anti-jamming and clutter rejection method, the SOKT corrects the range curvature and part of the range walk, then the IFrRT estimates the target’ radial acceleration and corrects the residual range walk. The simulation demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique, and its advantages over the previous researches by comparing its probability of detection with the traditional methods. The new approach increases the probability of detection, and also overcomes the limitation of Doppler frequency ambiguity.

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm demonstrated on renal scintigraphy.

    Phisitkul, Sorot; Brian, Susan; Rakvit, Ariwan; Jenkins, Leigh A; Bohannon, W Todd; Harris, Jennifer; Tsikouris, James; Silva, Michael B; Meyerrose, Gary E

    2003-08-01

    A 74-year-old hypertensive woman presented with abdominal discomfort and a pulsatile abdominal mass. Anterior abdominal angiography during cardiac blood pool, and renal scintigraphic imaging demonstrated a large abdominal aortic aneurysm. 1, 2 Before endovascular repair with an aortoiliac endograft, the abdominal aneurysm measured 7.5 x 7.0 cm on abdominal computed tomography. This study demonstrates that a suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm can be confirmed using the addition of anterior abdominal imaging with normal posterior imaging at the time of renal scintigraphy. PMID:12897671

  12. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  13. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  14. Abdominal irradiation modulates 5-Fluorouracil pharmacokinetics

    Shueng Pei-Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is widely accepted for treatment of abdominal malignancy. Nonetheless, the interactions between radiation and 5-FU remain unclear. We evaluated the influence of abdominal irradiation on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in rats. Methods The radiation dose distributions of cholangiocarcinoma patients were determined for the low dose areas, which are generously deposited around the intrahepatic target volume. Then, corresponding single-fraction radiation was delivered to the whole abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats from a linear accelerator after computerized tomography-based planning. 5-FU at 100 mg/kg was intravenously infused 24 hours after radiation. A high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a UV detector was used to measure 5-FU in the blood. Ultrafiltration was used to measure protein-unbound 5-FU. Results Radiation at 2 Gy, simulating the daily human treatment dose, reduced the area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve (AUC of 5-FU by 31.7% compared to non-irradiated controls. This was accompanied by a reduction in mean residence time and incremental total plasma clearance values, and volume of distribution at steady state. Intriguingly, low dose radiation at 0.5 Gy, representing a dose deposited in the generous, off-target area in clinical practice, resulted in a similar pharmacokinetic profile, with a 21.4% reduction in the AUC. This effect was independent of protein binding capacity. Conclusions Abdominal irradiation appears to significantly modulate the systemic pharmacokinetics of 5-FU at both the dose level for target treatment and off-target areas. This unexpected and unwanted influence is worthy of further investigation and might need to be considered in clinical practice.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  16. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    ... an operation. Umbilical hernia Abdominal wall Intestinal loop Peritoneum Skin Peritoneum Umbilical annulus SYMPTOMS The first symptom of a ... vomiting, or constipation. Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Peritoneum Deep inguinal ring Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate blood flow through arteries and veins in the ... the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas ...

  18. Component separation in abdominal trauma

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J.; Fallis, Simon A.; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and t...

  19. Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors

    2007-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequentiy after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management.

  20. Abdominal muscle training in sport.

    Norris, C M

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and h...

  1. Computer tomography following blunt abdominal trauma

    The computer tomographic appearances of lesions of parenchymatous organs following blunt abdominal trauma are described in 13 patients (five liver, four renal, two splenic and two pancreatic injuries). The value of abdominal computer tomography is discussed in relation to the interval between injury and time of abdominal examination and compared with the diagnostic value of abdominal angiography. (orig.)

  2. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis

    Vanhoenacker, FM; De Backer, AI; Op de Beeck, B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, AM

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic cha

  3. Utilization of advanced clutter suppression algorithms for improved standoff detection and identification of radionuclide threats

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Shokhirev, Kirill; Mulhall, Phil; Payne, David; Harris, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Technology development efforts seek to increase the capability of detection systems in low Signal-to-Noise regimes encountered in both portal and urban detection applications. We have recently demonstrated significant performance enhancement in existing Advanced Spectroscopic Portals (ASP), Standoff Radiation Detection Systems (SORDS) and handheld isotope identifiers through the use of new advanced detection and identification algorithms. The Poisson Clutter Split (PCS) algorithm is a novel approach for radiological background estimation that improves the detection and discrimination capability of medium resolution detectors. The algorithm processes energy spectra and performs clutter suppression, yielding de-noised gamma-ray spectra that enable significant enhancements in detection and identification of low activity threats with spectral target recognition algorithms. The performance is achievable at the short integration times (0.5 - 1 second) necessary for operation in a high throughput and dynamic environment. PCS has been integrated with ASP, SORDS and RIID units and evaluated in field trials. We present a quantitative analysis of algorithm performance against data collected by a range of systems in several cluttered environments (urban and containerized) with embedded check sources. We show that the algorithm achieves a high probability of detection/identification with low false alarm rates under low SNR regimes. For example, utilizing only 4 out of 12 NaI detectors currently available within an ASP unit, PCS processing demonstrated Pd,ID > 90% at a CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) of 1 in 1000 occupancies against weak activity (7 - 8μCi) and shielded sources traveling through the portal at 30 mph. This vehicle speed is a factor of 6 higher than was previously possible and results in significant increase in system throughput and overall performance.

  4. Enhanced Detection of Small Targets in Ocean Clutter for High Frequency Surface Wave Radar

    Lu, Xiaoli

    2009-10-01

    The small target detection in High Frequency Surface Wave Radar is limited by the presence of various clutter and interference. Several novel signal processing techniques are developed to improve the system detection performance. As an external interference due to local lightning, impulsive noise increases the broadband noise level and then precludes the targets from detection. A new excision approach is proposed with modified linear predictions as the reconstruction solution. The system performance is further improved by de-noising the estimated covariance matrix through signal property mapping method. The existence of non-stationary sea clutter and ionospheric clutter can result in excessive false alarm rate through the high sidelobe level in adaptive beamforming. The optimum threshold discrete quadratic inequality constraints method is proposed to guarantee the sidelobe-controlling problem consistently feasible and optimal. This constrained optimization problem can be formulated into a second order cone problem with efficient mathematical solution. Both simulation and experimental results validate the improved performance and feasibility of our method. Based on the special noise characteristics of High Frequency radar, an adaptive switching Constant False Alarm Rate detector is proposed for targets detection in the beamformed range-Doppler map. The switching rule and adaptive footprint are applied to provide the optimum background noise estimation. For this new method about 14% probability of detection improvement has been verified by experimental data, and meanwhile the false alarm rate is reduced significantly compared to the original CFAR. The conventional Doppler processing has difficulty to recognize a target if its frequency is close to a Bragg line. One detector is proposed to solve this co-located co-channel resolvability problem under the assumption that target/clutter have different phase modulation. Moreover with the pre-whitening processing, the

  5. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  6. Detection of abdominal bleeding in blunt abdominal trauma

    Arterial hemorrhage is the most serious immediate complication of blunt abdominal trauma. This paper discusses the detection and localization of active hemorrhage in nonpenetrating injury, as a modification of the technique using technetium-99m sulfur colloid to localize the site of active bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Any imaging protocol for suspected hepatosplenic injury can be easily modified to search for active intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The timely detection of unsuspected bleeding improves patient management by allowing the surgeon to reorder his or her treatment priorities. The early detection of clinically unsuspected intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal, or pelvic hemorrhage will identify those patients who may need more definitive diagnostic procedures, interventional angiography for control of bleeding, or surgical intervention. The 500,000-count view of the abdomen and pelvis can be easily incorporated into any existing trauma protocol using technetium-99m sulfur colloid, is of proven value, and adds little additional time to the study

  7. Clinical evaluation of image quality and radiation dose reduction in upper abdominal computed tomography using model-based iterative reconstruction; comparison with filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Highlights: • MBIR significantly improves objective image quality. • MBIR reduces the radiation dose by 87.5% without increasing objective image noise. • A half dose will be needed to maintain the subjective image quality. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the image quality of upper abdominal CT images reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in comparison with filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on scans acquired with various radiation exposure dose protocols. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all 90 patients who underwent both control-dose (CD) and reduced-dose (RD) CT of the upper abdomen (unenhanced: n = 45, contrast-enhanced: n = 45). The RD scan protocol was randomly selected from three protocols; Protocol A: 12.5% dose, Protocol B: 25% dose, Protocol C: 50% dose. Objective image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio for the liver parenchyma, visual image score and lesion conspicuity were compared among CD images of FBP and RD images of FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Results: RD images of MBIR yielded significantly lower objective image noise and higher SNR compared with RD images of FBP and ASIR for all protocols (P < .01) and CD images of FBP for Protocol C (P < .05). Although the subjective image quality of RD images of MBIR was almost acceptable for Protocol C, it was inferior to that of CD images of FBP for Protocols A and B (P < .0083). The conspicuity of the small lesions in RD images of MBIR tended to be superior to that in RD images of FBP and ASIR and inferior to that in CD images for Protocols A and B, although the differences were not significant (P > .0083). Conclusion: Although 12.5%-dose MBIR images (mean size-specific dose estimates [SSDE] of 1.13 mGy) yielded objective image noise and SNR comparable to CD-FBP images, at least a 50% dose (mean SSDE of 4.63 mGy) would be needed to

  8. Videolaparoscopia no trauma abdominal Videolaparoscopy in the abdominal trauma

    Átila Varela Velho

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A videolaparoscopia (VL vem contribuindo de forma crescente, para diagnóstico e terapêutica de várias afecções cirúrgicas abdominais, introduzindo profundas mudanças na cirurgia contemporânea. Esse avanço incorporou-se também às urgências traumáticas, fazendo parte da avaliação diagnóstica e, às vezes, da terapêutica do trauma abdominal. Os autores apresentam uma revisão concisa da literatura sobre a VL no trauma, atualizando o tema e discutindo os aspectos mais relevantes das indicações, limitações e complicações do método.Videolaparoscopy has been contributing for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in the abdominal surgical diseases in the last years. Representing real modification in the conventional elective and traumatic abdominal surgery. Its has been recognized as a safe procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal trauma. Diagnostic predictive values, sensibility and specificity are greater than when obtained by the other diagnostic methods such as peritoneal lavage, ultrasonography and computed tomography. Despite their limitations, when indicated for selected patients seems to reduce non terapeutic laparotomies, postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and costs. The authors present a review of the literature regarding videolaparoscopy in the abdominal trauma, its limitations and complications. Based an a complex protocol for the indications of videolaparoscopy for abdominal trauma, the authors sugested their exclusive use by level trauma centers.

  9. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis

    Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; G(u)l Dabak; Resat Dabak

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical, radiological and microbiological properties of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to discuss methods needed to get the diagnosis.METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed as abdominal TB between March 1998 and December 2001 at the Gastroenterology Department of Kartal State Hospital,Istanbul, Turkey were evaluated prospectively. Complete physical examination, medical and family history, blood count erythrocyte sedimentation rate, routine biochemical tests,Mantoux skin test, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all cases, whereas microbiological examination of ascites, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy or barium enema, abdominal tomography, mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy or laparotomy were done when needed.RESULTS: The median age of patients (14 females, 17males) was 34.2 years (range 15-65 years). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain and weight loss.Eleven patients had active pulmonary TB. The most common abdominal USG findings were ascites and hepatomegaly. Ascitic fluid analysis performed in 13 patients was found to be exudative and acid resistant bacilli were present in smear and cultured only in one patient with BacTec (3.2 %). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded nonspecific findings in 16 patients. Colonoscopy performed in 20 patients showed ulcers in 9 (45 %), nodules in 2 (10 %)and, stricture, polypoid lesions, granulomatous findings in terminal ileum and rectal fistula each in one patient (5 %).Laparoscopy on 4 patients showed dilated bowel loops,thickening in the mesentery, multiple ulcers and tubercles on the peritoneum. Patients with abdominal TB were divided into three groups according to the type of involvement.Fifteen patients (48 %) had intestinal TB, L1 patients (35.2 %) had tuberculous peritonitis and 5 (16.8 %)tuberculous lymphadenitis. The diagnosis of abdominal TB was confirmed microbiologically in 5 (16 %) and histopathologically in 19 patients (60.8 %). The

  10. Abdominal tuberculosis and amoebic abscess. Abdominal tuberkulose og amoebeabscess

    Myklebust, G.; Bardstad, J.; Brabrand, K. (Aust-Agder Central Hospital, Arendal (Norway))

    1993-03-01

    A 26-years-old Indian male was admitted to hospital with loss of weight and vague abdominal pain of several weeks duration. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed several expansive lesions near the pancreatic head, probably representing enlarged lymph nodes. A few milliliters of yellowish pus were aspirated by ultrasound guided aspiration. Microscopic examination of the pus showed trophozoits, and mycobacterium tuberculosis subsequently grew from the pus culture. Abdominal tuberculosis is a rare condition, particularly in the pancreas and the peripancreatic region. The report stresses the importance of considering the possible coexistance of more than one infectious disease in patients from endemic areas. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto; Adonai Pinheiro Barreto; Ana Carolina Lisboa Prudente; Allisson Mário dos Santos; Rodrigo Rocha Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, ...

  12. Running barbed suture quilting reduces abdominal drainage in perforator-based breast reconstruction.

    Liang, D G; Dusseldorp, J R; van Schalkwyk, C; Hariswamy, S; Wood, S; Rose, V; Moradi, P

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged abdominal drainage after perforator-based breast reconstruction is a common problem that can result in seroma formation, patient morbidity, and increased duration of hospital stay. Abdominal quilting with progressive tension sutures has been effective in reducing abdominal drainage in abdominoplasty patients prompting a change of practice in our unit. We studied consecutive unilateral mastectomy patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. The initial 27 patients underwent breast reconstruction without any form of abdominal flap plication. The subsequent 26 patients underwent an identical DIEP flap raise procedure after which the abdominal flap was progressively tensioned using a running barbed suture quilting technique. All patients had closed suction drains inserted bilaterally until daily drain output was <40 ml in 2 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were total volume of abdominal drainage and length of hospital stay. Independent statistical analyses were performed using Welch's t-test. There were no demographic differences between the two groups. A statistically significant decrease in the mean total abdominal drainage was found after quilting (238 ml vs. 528 ml; p = 0.0005). Patients in the quilting group also showed a reduction in mean duration of hospital stay. Quilting of the abdominal flap helps to reduce abdominal drainage not only in abdominoplasty patients but also in patients undergoing breast reconstruction with DIEP flap. PMID:26601878

  13. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  14. CT evaluation of abdominal trauma

    Objective: An evaluation of CT diagnosis of abdominal trauma. Methods: CT appearance of abdominal trauma was analyzed retrospectively in 95 cases. thirty-three patients were cured by operation, and the other 59 patients received conservative treatment. Fifty-one patients out of 59 were seen healed or improved by a follow up CT scan after the conservative treatment. Results: The study included: 31 cases of splenic contusion, accompanying with hemoperitoneum in 25 cases; 3 cases of hepatic laceration; 33 cases of liver and spleen compound trauma accompanying with hemoperitoneum; 18 cases of renal contusion, with subcapsular hemorrhage in 12 cases; 4 cases of midriff colic; 3 cases of mesentery breach; 3 cases of digestive tract perforation. Conclusion: CT is sensitive and precise in evaluating abdominal trauma, providing important information for treatment. (author)

  15. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    Sivit, Carlos J. [Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery of......PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub...... incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  17. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  18. Tracking a maneuvering target in clutter with out-of-sequence measurements for airborne radar

    Weihua Wu; Jing Jiang; Yang Wan

    2015-01-01

    There are many proposed optimal or suboptimal al-gorithms to update out-of-sequence measurement(s) (OoSM(s)) for linear-Gaussian systems, but few algorithms are dedicated to track a maneuvering target in clutter by using OoSMs. In order to address the nonlinear OoSMs obtained by the airborne radar located on a moving platform from a maneuvering target in clut-ter, an interacting multiple model probabilistic data association (IMMPDA) algorithm with the OoSM is developed. To be practical, the algorithm is based on the Earth-centered Earth-fixed (ECEF) coordinate system where it considers the effect of the platform’s attitude and the curvature of the Earth. The proposed method is validated through the Monte Carlo test compared with the perfor-mance of the standard IMMPDA algorithm ignoring the OoSM, and the conclusions show that using the OoSM can improve the track-ing performance, and the shorter the lag step is, the greater degree the performance is improved, but when the lag step is large, the performance is not improved any more by using the OoSM, which can provide some references for engineering application.

  19. Simulation Analysis and Model of Current Retrieval Based on Marine Radar Sea Clutter Images

    Liqiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the sea clutter image from X-Band radar for current retrieval is an effective way of obtaining information on ocean currents. Traditional methods used for current retrieval have been based on the least squares algorithm, which is not only simple and efficient but also generally speaking accurate. In order to improve the precision of current retrieval, this paper has, as its goal, the study of the used radar connected with sea clutter imaging for current retrieval, with the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm being proposed. This method is achieved by obtaining a three-dimensional image spectrum, taking the high-order dispersion relation model as the theoretical distribution model of the wave energy points of three-dimensional image spectra, using a forward model within the PSO framework, and considering the requirements of the order of the model, weights and optimal distribution of the energy points, and so on in fitness function. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional ILSM methods, the method provided in this paper is more flexible, with a capacity for a high dispersion relationship order, higher precision, and an increased stability in terms of current inversion.

  20. Target shape perception and clutter rejection use the same mechanism in bat sonar.

    Warnecke, Michaela; Simmons, James A

    2016-05-01

    Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar sounds containing two or more harmonic sweeps. Echoes from frontally located targets arrive with first and second harmonics intact, leading to focused delay images. Echoes from offside or distant objects arrive with the second harmonic relatively weaker (lowpass-filtered), leading to defocused images, which prevents their clutter interference effects (Bates et al. J Exp Biol 214:394-401, 2011). Realistic targets contain several glints at slightly different distances and reflect several echoes at correspondingly different delays. The bat registers the delay of the nearest glint's echoes in the time domain. The delays of echoes from the farther glints are registered in the frequency domain, from interference nulls in the spectrum. Lowpass-filtering of echoes directly affects the image of the nearest glint by defocusing the delay image. However, lowpass-filtering also is superimposed on the interference spectrum used to register the farther glints, which distorts the pattern of interference nulls, defocusing the farther glints inversely, in the spectral domain, before they are perceived as delays. Differences in blurring between time-domain and frequency-domain parts of images identifies separate computational paths to perceptually reconstruct objects and prevent interference from off-side or distant clutter. PMID:27041334

  1. Radiological evaluation of abdominal trauma

    Simple abdomen film has played an important role in decision of emergency operations in patients with the abdominal trauma. Nowadays, it still acts as a primary and inevitable processes in emergency condition. At the Department of Radiology, Hanil Hospital, 70 patients, who were laparotomied due to penetrating or nonpernetraing abdominal trauma, were observed and analyzed with simple abdomen film after comparison with the operative findings. The results are as follows: 1. Most frequent age distribution was 10 to 39 years and marked 70%. Male was in 90% incidence. 2. Penetrating injury largely involved the small bowel and abdominal wall. Non-penetrating injury usually involved the spleen, small bowel, liver, kidney, pancreas, duodenum. 3. Single organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the small bowel and abdominal wall. Multiple organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the spleen, liver, kidney and pancreas. 4. Organ distribution was 26% in spleen, 22% in small bowel, 14% in liver, 11% in abdominal wall. 7% in pancreas, 7% in kidney. 5% in duodenum, 4% in GB and CBD, 2% in diaphragm, 2% in colon, and 1% in stomach. 5. The specific roentgen findings and their frequency which useful in differential diagnosis at abdominal trauma, were as follows: a) flank fluid; Detectable possibility was 71% in liver laceration, 69% in spleen laceration and 57% in pancreas laceration. b) ipsilateral psoas shadow obliteration; Detectable possibility was 57% in liver laceration, 57% in kidney laceration and 46% in spleen laceration. c) free air; Detactable possibility was 60% in duodenal perforation, and 36% in peroration of upper part of small bowel. d) Reflex ileus; Detectable possibility was 64% in small bowel, 50% in liver laceration and 35% in spleen laceration. e) rib fracture; Detactable possibility was 36% in liver laceration and 23% in spleen laceration. f) pleural effusion; Detectable possibility was 29% in liver laceration and 27% in spleen laceration

  2. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model was...... monozygotic compared to dizygotic pairs, suggesting genetic influence. Multivariate biometric analyses showed that additive genetic and unique environmental factors best explained the observed concordance patterns. Heritability estimates for males/females were 0.71/0.87 for childhood speech-language disorders......, this study demonstrates substantial genetic influence on the traits of childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering, and mutual genetic relationship between them....

  3. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  4. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  5. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  6. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  7. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help ... that is being examined to the transducer (the device used to examine the patient), as well ... is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  9. Sequential PTA of abdominal aorta

    A case of sequential dilatation of a subtotal stenosis of the abdominal aorta in a young subject is reported. Initial and long-term success of the procedure is recorded using haemodynamic evaluation and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) follow-up on an outpatient basis. In addition, the significance of biplane aortography with IV-DSA is illustrated. (orig.)

  10. Dehydration related abdominal pain (drap)

    Objective: To describe the frequency of dehydration as a medical cause of acute abdomen. Subjects and Methods: All the patients reporting with abdominal pain to the surgical outpatient department or the emergency department were reviewed in the study. The clinical findings in all these cases were studied along with the mode of their management and outcome. Results: Of all the patients presenting with abdominal pain, 3.3% (n=68) were suffering from dehydration related abdominal pain. They were predominantly males in a ratio of 8.7: 1, mostly in the 2nd and 3rd decades of their lives. All these cases were suffering from acute or chronic dehydration were provisionally diagnosed by general practitioners as 'acute abdomen' and referred for surgical consultation. Associated symptoms included vomiting in 42.6%, backache in 91.2%, headache in 95.6%, and pain in lower limbs in 97.1 % of the cases. 83.8% required indoor management with intravenous fluids. All the patients became asymptomatic with rehydration therapy. Conclusion: Dehydration is a possible cause of severe abdominal pain. There is a need to educate the general public about the benefits of adequate fluid intake. (author)

  11. Computed tomography of abdominal trauma

    Abdominal lesions following an accident or surgical interventions are becoming more frequently indications for investigations by computed tomography. Changes of spleen, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and of the retroperitoneal space are discussed. Advantages of computed tomography compared to other investigative methods are shown. (orig.)

  12. CT diagnosis of abdominal trauma

    Computed tomography (CT) findings from 95 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were evaluated. Among them, there was no false negative case. It can thus be said that if CT is negative the patient can be treated conservatively. The efficacy of CT in diagnosing injuries of various organs was also evaluated. (author)

  13. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases

  14. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  15. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair ...

  16. ADULT ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA IN IBADAN

    Ayandipo, O.O; Afuwape, O.O.; Irabor, D. O.; Abdurrazzaaq, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal wall hernias are very common diseases encountered in surgical practice. Groin hernia is the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias. There are several methods of hernia repair but tension-free repair (usually with mesh) offers the least recurrent rate. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of anterior abdominal wall hernias and our experience in the surgical management of identified hernias Method: The project was a retrospective study of all patients with abdominal wal...

  17. A positioning system with no line-of-sight restrictions for cluttered environments

    Prigge, Eric A.

    Accurate sensing of vehicle location and attitude is a fundamental requirement in many mobile-robot applications, but is a very challenging problem in the cluttered and unstructured environment of the real world. Many existing indoor positioning systems are limited in workspace and robustness because they require clear lines of sight or do not provide absolute, drift-free measurements. Examples include overhead vision systems, where an unobstructed view must be maintained between robot and camera, and inertial systems, where the measurements drift over time. The research presented in this dissertation provides a new location- and attitude-sensing system designed specifically to meet the challenges of operation in a realistic, cluttered indoor environment, such as that of an office building or warehouse. The system is not limited by line-of-sight restrictions and produces drift-free measurements throughout a three-dimensional operating volume that can span a large building. Accuracy of several centimeters and a few degrees is delivered at 10 Hz, and any number of the small sensor units can be in operation, all providing estimates in a common reference frame. This positioning system is based on extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, which have excellent characteristics for penetrating line-of-sight obstructions. Beacons located throughout the workspace create the low-level fields. A sensor unit on the mobile robot samples the local magnetic field and processes the measurements to determine its location and attitude. This research overcomes limitations in existing magnetic-based systems. The design of the signal structure, based on pseudorandom codes, enables the use of multiple, distributed L-beacons and greatly expands coverage volume. The development of real-time identification and correction methods mitigates the impact of distortions caused by materials in the environment. A novel solution algorithm combats both challenges, providing increased coverage volume

  18. Abdominal shotgun trauma: A case report

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Larentzakis, Andreas; Drimousis, Panagiotis; Riga, Maria; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction One of the most lethal mechanisms of injury is shotgun wound and particularly the abdominal one. Case presentation We report a case of a 45 years old male suffering abdominal shotgun trauma, who survived his injuries. Conclusion The management of the abdominal shotgun wounds is mainly dependent on clinical examination and clinical judgment, while requires advanced surgical skills.

  19. Radar Constant-Modulus Waveform Design with Prior Information of the Extended Target and Clutter.

    Yue, Wenzhen; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yimin; Xie, Jingwen

    2016-01-01

    Radar waveform design is of great importance for radar system performances and has drawn considerable attention recently. Constant modulus is an important waveform design consideration, both from the point of view of hardware realization and to allow for full utilization of the transmitter's power. In this paper, we consider the problem of constant-modulus waveform design for extended target detection with prior information about the extended target and clutter. At first, we propose an arbitrary-phase unimodular waveform design method via joint transmitter-receiver optimization. We exploit a semi-definite relaxation technique to transform an intractable non-convex problem into a convex problem, which can then be efficiently solved. Furthermore, quadrature phase shift keying waveform is designed, which is easier to implement than arbitrary-phase waveforms. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:27322275

  20. Door recognition in cluttered building interiors using imagery and lidar data

    Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Lagüela, S.; Armesto, J.; Khoshelham, K.

    2014-06-01

    Building indoors reconstruction is an active research topic due to the importance of the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected, from architecture and furniture design, to movies and video games editing, or even crime scene investigation. Among the constructive elements defining the inside of a building, doors are important entities in applications like routing and navigation, and their automated recognition is advantageous e.g. in case of large multi-storey buildings with many office rooms. The inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process is increased by the presence of clutter and occlusions, difficult to avoid in indoor scenes. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors using information acquired in the form of point clouds and images. The methodology goes in depth with door detection and labelling as either opened, closed or furniture (false positive)

  1. Statistical analysis of the reflectivity of ground clutter in the mm-wave band

    Schimpf, H.

    Data from low-altitude airborne reflectivity measurements obtained at 95 and 35 GHz over different kinds of ground cover are compiled in tables and graphs and investigated statistically. The instrumentation for the flights is described; the reflectivity parameters are defined; and the statistical methods employed are explained. The fit of the observed frequency distributions to log-normal, log-Weibull, and Weibull distributions is assessed by applying a chi-squared test, and it is found that at low and moderate depression angles the clutter at both frequencies (and independent of polarization) from most ground-cover types is well represented by a log-normal distribution. At steep depression angles, however, no simple distribution can be determined. If the analysis is limited to the high reflectivities only (as in false-alarm-rate calculations), a log-Weibull distribution is shown to give superior results.

  2. 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation: Suburban Tree Clutter Attenuation

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was...... examined for the elevation range from +10 to +30 degrees at each of the measurement positions in order to explore the directional characteristics of the channel. The detailed analysis of the spatial multipath components scattered from the trees suggests, in average, the presence of 5 strong tree......-scattered components per location with an azimuthal deviation of approximately 20 degrees between the strongest and the direct transmitter-receiver components. A diversity gain of approximately 7 dB is estimated, plus 2 dB extra in the case of considering multi-beam combining techniques. Tree clutter attenuation was...

  3. Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets Behind Cluttered Environments Using Compressive Sensing

    Dang, Vinh Quang

    Detection and tracking of moving targets (target's motion, vibration, etc.) in cluttered environments have been receiving much attention in numerous applications, such as disaster search-and-rescue, law enforcement, urban warfare, etc. One of the popular techniques is the use of stepped frequency continuous wave radar due to its low cost and complexity. However, the stepped frequency radar suffers from long data acquisition time. This dissertation focuses on detection and tracking of moving targets and vibration rates of stationary targets behind cluttered medium such as wall using stepped frequency radar enhanced by compressive sensing. The application of compressive sensing enables the reconstruction of the target space using fewer random frequencies, which decreases the acquisition time. Hardware-accelerated parallelization on GPU is investigated for the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit reconstruction algorithm. For simulation purpose, two hybrid methods have been developed to calculate the scattered fields from the targets through the wall approaching the antenna system, and to convert the incoming fields into voltage signals at terminals of the receive antenna. The first method is developed based on the plane wave spectrum approach for calculating the scattered fields of targets behind the wall. The method uses Fast Multiple Method (FMM) to calculate scattered fields on a particular source plane, decomposes them into plane wave components, and propagates the plane wave spectrum through the wall by integrating wall transmission coefficients before constructing the fields on a desired observation plane. The second method allows one to calculate the complex output voltage at terminals of a receiving antenna which fully takes into account the antenna effects. This method adopts the concept of complex antenna factor in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) community for its calculation.

  4. Intestinal contrasting in abdominal CT

    In 56 patients undergoing abdominal CT the gastro-intestinal tract was defined by negative contrast instead of the conventional positive contrast from an iodine containing contrast medium. The contrast material was a 2 1/2% mannitol solution and was used for filling the rectum. Filling of the gastro-intestinal tract was of similar quality to that obtained with positve contrast media. The number of artifacts due to high contrast boundaries was slightly greater with the negative contrast than if would have been with positive contrast. Differentiation of the gastro-intestinal tract from other abdominal organs was equally good for both methods. The negative contrast method was poor in diagnosing cystic tumours but proved much better than positive contrast for evaluating the wall of the gastro-intestinal tract. (orig.)

  5. Sonography of blunt abdominal trauma

    Sonographic examination of the abdomen after blunt abdominal trauma represents a rapid and effective diagnostic method without bothering the patient. It has proved its value not only in the confirmation or exclusion of free fluid in the abdomen caused by liver of spleen rupture, but also in such cases actually it replaces peritoneal lavage or exploratory laparotomy. It is also qualified for diagnosis of intraparenchymal or subcapsular hemorrhages, intraperitoneal as well as retroperitoneal and for follow up. In particualr delayed bleedings including the risk of a retarded organ rupture can be detected early. A failure rate of 1.4% in 282 sonographically examined cases of blunt abdominal trauma further confirms the reliability of this method. (orig.)

  6. Acupuncture Treatment of Abdominal Pain

    胡金生

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case History Mr. Li, a university student aged 23 years, paid his first visit on July 16, 2001, with the chief complaint of abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated that one day before when it happened to be the weekend, he got abdominal pain after supper, which went worse gradually and caused him to roll all over in bed. The pain was slightly alleviated half an hour later after he had taken some pain killers. Upon inquiry, the patient said that because of their newly graduation from the university, he and his classmates were so excited that they went to have a sumptuous lunch with alcoholic drinks. And in the evening he ate again a delicious supper cooked for him by his mother, after which he continued to have some fruit and dessert.

  7. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  8. Functional Abdominal Bloating with Distention

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. ...

  9. CT of abdominal blunt trauma

    We studied CT findings and interventional radiology including therapeutic procedures in 43 cases with abdominal blunt trauma, retrospectively. All of parenchymal organ's injuries, and injuries of duodenum and retroperitoneum were correctly diagnosed by CT. In 14 cases with only hemoperitoneum or no positive findings on CT, 4 cases were jejunal perforations, and remaining 10 cases were conservatively treated and relieved. We have to take care that the similar CT findings include the opposite results to need surgery and not. (author)

  10. [A case of abdominal wall actinomycosis].

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Seung Bong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, In Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infectious disease caused by actinomyces species that is characterized by formation of characteristic clumps called as sulfur granules. Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often difficult to diagnose before operation. Abdominal actinomycosis infiltrating into the abdominal wall and adhering to the colon is even rarer. Most abdominal actinomycosis develops after operation, trauma or inflammatory bowel disease, and is also considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patient with underlying malignancy, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, etc. Actinomycosis is diagnosed based on histologic demonstration of sulfur granules in surgically resected specimen or pus, and treatment consists of long-term penicillin based antibiotics therapy with or without surgical resection. Herein, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall actinomycosis which developed in a patient after acupuncture and presented as abdominal wall mass that was first mistaken for abdominal wall invasion of diverticulum perforation. PMID:25896158

  11. Abdominal wound closure: current perspectives

    Williams ZF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary F Williams, William W Hope Department of Surgery, South East Area Health Education Center, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, NC, USA Abstract: This review examines both early and late wound complications following laparotomy closure, with particular emphasis on technical aspects that reduce hernia formation. Abdominal fascial closure is an area of considerable variation within the field of general surgery. The formation of hernias following abdominal wall incisions continues to be a challenging problem. Ventral hernia repairs are among the most common surgeries performed by general surgeons, and despite many technical advances in the field, incisional hernia rates remain high. Much attention and research has been directed to the surgical management of hernias. Less focus has been placed on prevention of hernia formation despite its obvious importance. This review examines the effects of factors such as the type of incision, suture type and size, closure method, patient risk factors, and the use of prophylactic mesh. Keywords: incisional, abdominal, hernia, prevention, wound closure techniques 

  12. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  13. The Effect of Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy on Ovarian Reserve: Serial Changes in Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels

    Miho Muraji, Tamotsu Sudo, Shinichi Iwasaki, Sayaka Ueno, Senn Wakahashi, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi Fujiwara, Ryuichiro Nishimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of abdominal radical trachelectomy on ovarian reserve and compare it with abdominal radical hysterectomy and a control group that did not have surgery.Method: We enrolled eighteen women who had abdominal radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and sixteen patients who had abdominal radical hysterectomy for this study. Ten thousand one hundred eighty-six women were also included as a control group for comparison. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of patient characteristics and comparison of serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels between the three groups.Results: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in patients with abdominal radical trachelectomy were significantly higher than those of patients with abdominal radical hysterectomy (P<0.05. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in the abdominal radical hysterectomy group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P=0.02, with no significant difference between the abdominal radical trachelectomy and control groups. These data indicated that abdominal radical trachelectomy did not affect ovarian function with respect to ovarian reserve and the response to ovarian stimulation.Conclusions: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels could be useful as a marker of ovarian reserve after abdominal radical trachelectomy. It is important to avoid postoperative complications causing a reduction in ovarian function to accomplish fertility-sparing surgery.

  14. Urgent Abdominal Re-Explorations

    Peskersoy Mustafa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of a number of complications that occur after abdominal surgeries may require that Urgent Abdominal Re-explorations (UARs, the life-saving and obligatory operations, are performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reasons for performing UARs, outcomes of relaparotomies (RLs and factors that affect mortality. Methods Demographic characteristics; initial diagnoses; information from and complications of the first surgery received; durations and outcomes of UAR(s performed in patients who received early RLs because of complicated abdominal surgeries in our clinic between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2004 were investigated retrospectively. Statistical analyses were done using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results Early UAR was performed in 81 out of 4410 cases (1.8%. Average patient age was 50.46 (13–81 years with a male-to-female ratio of 60/21. Fifty one (62.96% patients had infection, 41 (50.61% of them had an accompanying serious disease, 24 (29.62% of them had various tumors and 57 (70.37% patients were operated under emergency conditions during first operation. Causes of urgent abdominal re-explorations were as follows: leakage from intestinal repair site or from anostomosis (n:34; 41.97%; hemorrhage (n:15; 18.51%; intestinal perforation (n:8; 9.87%; intraabdominal infection or abscess (n:8; 9.87%; progressive intestinal necrosis (n:7; 8.64%; stomal complications (n:5; 6.17%; and postoperative ileus (n:4; 4.93%. Two or more UARs were performed in 18 (22.22% cases, and overall mortality was 34.97% (n:30. Interval between the first laparotomy and UAR averaged as 6.95 (1–20 days, and average hospitalization period was 27.1 (3–78 days. Mortality rate was found to be higher among the patients who received multiple UARs. The most common (55.5% cause of mortality was sepsis/multiple organ failure (MOF. The rates for common mortality and sepsis/MOF-dependent mortality that occured following UAR were

  15. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in sepsis

    Cross-sectional imaging, in particular CT, has become the main method of detecting abdominal collections. Indium-labelled white-cell scintigraphy and gallium scintigraphy are reserved for patients in whom there is a high clinical suspicion of abdominal sepsis but CT has not revealed a source of sepsis. Scintigraphy is also used in patients with suspected vascular graft infections or suspected infected hip prostheses. Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has revolutionised the treatment of abdominal abscesses over the past 20 years, with repeat laparotomy for postoperative abscesses becoming a rare event. Ultrasound or CT can be used to guide PAD. Choosing an access route that does not cross intervening organs is of crucial importance to the safe performance of PAD. The Trocar or Seldinger techniques can be used with equal success. The cavity should be aspirated until dry and irrigated with saline. Repeat imaging after drainage is helpful to detect any undrained locules. PAD endpoints include patient defervescence, reduction in white blood cell count and catheter drainage of less than 10 ml per day. Details regarding PAD in specific abdominal regions are discussed. Success rates for PAD are high (close to 90%) in most abdominal organs. Slightly lower success rates are seen with PAD of pancreatic abscesses and abscesses associated with fistulas (60-85% success rates). Complication rates lie between 0% and 10%. Complications can be minimised by ensuring that the patient has broad spectrum antibiotic coverage before drainage, by carefully planning the access route and by ensuring diligent post-procedure care by radiology staff. (orig.)

  16. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in sepsis

    Lee, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons Medical, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2002-09-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, in particular CT, has become the main method of detecting abdominal collections. Indium-labelled white-cell scintigraphy and gallium scintigraphy are reserved for patients in whom there is a high clinical suspicion of abdominal sepsis but CT has not revealed a source of sepsis. Scintigraphy is also used in patients with suspected vascular graft infections or suspected infected hip prostheses. Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has revolutionised the treatment of abdominal abscesses over the past 20 years, with repeat laparotomy for postoperative abscesses becoming a rare event. Ultrasound or CT can be used to guide PAD. Choosing an access route that does not cross intervening organs is of crucial importance to the safe performance of PAD. The Trocar or Seldinger techniques can be used with equal success. The cavity should be aspirated until dry and irrigated with saline. Repeat imaging after drainage is helpful to detect any undrained locules. PAD endpoints include patient defervescence, reduction in white blood cell count and catheter drainage of less than 10 ml per day. Details regarding PAD in specific abdominal regions are discussed. Success rates for PAD are high (close to 90%) in most abdominal organs. Slightly lower success rates are seen with PAD of pancreatic abscesses and abscesses associated with fistulas (60-85% success rates). Complication rates lie between 0% and 10%. Complications can be minimised by ensuring that the patient has broad spectrum antibiotic coverage before drainage, by carefully planning the access route and by ensuring diligent post-procedure care by radiology staff. (orig.)

  17. FULL TERM EXTRAUTERINE ABDOMINAL PREGNANCY

    Neetu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine abdominal pregnancy is extremely rare and is frequently missed during antenatal care, despite the routine use of obstetrics ultrasound. A 23 year old primigravida at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to the department on December 2 , 2012, in routine hour with transverse lie with oligohydramnios. On examination her vitals and laboratory investigation were within normal limits . One of the ultrasonographic scanning done by radiologist at 35 wk. 3 days gestation demonstrated a single live intrauterine fetus of CGA 33 wk. 1 day with transverse lie , fundal gr II placenta and AFI - 10 cm. Ultrasonography done at the department on the day of admission demonstrated single live intrauterine fetus with transverse lie and AFI - 3.8 cm and EFW 2.4 Kg and placenta was right anterior.. She was planned for elective caesarean section on account of transverse lie and oligohydramnios at term. At laparotomy the following findings were made: Secondary abdominal pregnancy arising from right tubal ectopic rupture and making pseudogesta tional sac with meconium stained liquor. Omentum , right tube and ovary were adhered to sac. The uterus and left tube and ovary were healthy and normal . Other abdominal organs were normal. A 1.5 Kg live male baby with good Apgar score and incompletely formed mandible extracted from pseudo gestational sac. There was significant bleeding from pseudogestational sac and patient went in shock during intraoperative period. One unit whole blood transfused during intraoperative period. Placenta was adherent to the pseudogestational sac so Psudogestational sac was removed with placenta in situ and right sided salpingo - o ophrectomy was also done due to their adherence. Hemostasis was secured. The patient and baby progressed well and were discharged on the seventh postoperative day

  18. Radiography of the abdominal cavity

    Radiography is a very important part of the diagnostic procedure in many small animal diseases. Technically perfect X-rays are essential for the exact diagnosis. The general appearance of the abdominal cavity should be evaluated at first, e.g. the overall contrast and the definition of the visualized organs. Then particular attention should be paid, if there is any peritoneal effusion or free air in the peritoneal cavity. Subsequently each radiographically visible organ has to be evaluated for its position, size, shape and radiographic density

  19. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Linné, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease with a prevalence of 1.5-2.0% in 65-year old men in Sweden. The risk of having AAA is increased with smoking, high age, family history of AAA and cardiovascular disease. Women have a lower prevalence (0.5%) and develop AAA later in life. An AAA seldom gives any symptom prior to rupture. Untreated rupture is associated with 100% mortality, while surgically treated rupture is associated with 25-70% mortality. Prophylactic sur...

  20. Abdominal manifestations of autoimmune disorders

    Full text: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease was recognized as a systemic disease since various extrapancreatic lesions were observed in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The real etiology and pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is still not clearly understood. Moreover the exact role of IgG4 or IgG4-positive plasma cells in this disease has not yet been elucidated. only some inconsistent biological features such as hypergammaglobulinemia or hypocomplementemia support the autoimmune nature of the disease process. various names have been ascribed to this clinicopathological entity including IgG4-related sclerosing disease, IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease, IgG4-related disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, hyper-IgG4 disease and IgG4-related systemic disease. The extrapancreatic lesions of IgG4-RD also exhibit the same characteristic histologic features including dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, massive storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis as seen in IgG4-related pancreatitis. Abdominal manifestations include the following organs/systems: Bile ducts: Sclerosing cholangitis; Gallbladder and liver: Acalculous sclerosis cholecytitis with diffuse wall thickening; hepatic inflammatory pseudotumorts; Kidneys: round or wedge-shaped renal cortical nodules, peripheral cortical; lesions, mass like lesions or renal pelvic involvement; Prostate, urethra, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, uterine cervix; Autoimmune prostatitis; Retroperitoneum: Retroperitoneal fibrosis. thin or mildly thick homogeneous soft tissue lesion surrounding the abdominal aorta and its branches but also bulky masses causing hydronephroureterosis; Mesentery: Sclerosing mesenteritis usually involving the root of the mesentery; Bowel: Inflammatory bowel diseases mimicking Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. various types of sclerosing nodular lesions of the bowel wall; Stomach: Gastritis, gastric ulcers and focal masses mimicking submucosal tumor; omentum: Infiltration mimicking

  1. Design of a Demonstrator of an Adaptive steerable Antenna system for removal of Interference, clutter, Jammer based on AWG &VSA

    M Chakraborty

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Interfering, clutter and jamming systems are becoming an increasing concern to the military and security industries worldwide. To overcome these problems phase array antennas and adaptive beam forming systems offers a potential solution. STAP is an application of optimum and adaptive array processing algorithms to the radar problem of target detection in ground clutter and interference with pulse-Doppler waveforms.In this paper we have presented our work of designing a MVDR beam former receiver using AWG and VSA. The minimumvariance distortion less response (MVDR approach is very popular technic in array processing that generates some mean square error or values. When these values fed to the phase array antenna system results in electronic steering of antenna beam according to the weight vector generated.

  2. On the abdominal pressure volume relationship

    Mulier, Jan Paul; Dillemans, Bruno; Crombach, Mark; Missant, Carlo; Sels, Annabel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: During insufflation of the abdomen to create a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopy, both intra abdominal pressure and insufflated volume can be measured and are used to calculate the abdominal pressure-volume relationship. First, an accurate, linear relationship was identified using a mathematical model with an elastance, E, or its reciprocal the compliance C and with a pressure at zero volume, PV0. This function was stable and could be used to describe the abdominal characteristics of...

  3. TODDLER WITH RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN: MIGRAINE?

    Amit; Vaishali

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal migraine is a migraine variant, causing chronic idiopathic recurrent abdominal pain in 4-15% of children. It is usually seen between the ages of seven to twelve years and is more common in girls, with peak prevalence at the age of ten years. We report a 3 year old girl suffering from recurrent abdominal pain since 1½ years of age, who underwent extensive investigations as well as diagnostic laparotomy with appendectomy, and was ultimately diagnosed to have abdomi...

  4. Image-based ATR utilizing adaptive clutter filter detection, LLRT classification, and Volterra fusion with application to side-looking sonar

    Aridgides, Tom; Fernández, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    An improved automatic target recognition (ATR) processing string has been developed. The overall processing string consists of pre-processing, subimage adaptive clutter filtering, detection, feature extraction, optimal subset feature selection, feature orthogonalization and classification processing blocks. The objects that are classified by three distinct ATR strings are fused using the classification confidence values and their expansions as features, and using "summing" or log-likelihood-ratio-test (LLRT) based fusion rules. These three ATR processing strings were individually developed and tuned by researchers from different companies. The utility of the overall processing strings and their fusion was demonstrated with an extensive side-looking sonar dataset. In this paper we describe a new processing improvement: six additional classification features are extracted, using primarily target shadow information and a feature extraction window whose length is now made variable as a function of range. This new ATR processing improvement resulted in a 3:1 reduction in false alarms. Two advanced fusion algorithms are subsequently applied: First, a nonlinear Volterra expansion (2nd order) feature-LLRT fusion algorithm is employed. Second, a repeated application of a subset Volterra feature selection / feature orthogonalization / LLRT fusion block is utilized. It is shown that cascaded Volterra feature- LLRT fusion of the ATR processing strings outperforms baseline "summing" and single-stage Volterra feature-LLRT fusion algorithms, yielding significant improvements over the best single ATR processing string results, and providing the capability to correctly call the majority of targets while maintaining a very low false alarm rate.

  5. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

    Scicchitano B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome", and "functional gastrointestinal disorder". In the early literature, abdominal migraine is included in the "childhood periodic syndrome", first described by Wyllie and Schlesinger in 1933. Abdominal migraine has emerged over the last century as a diagnostic entity in its own right thanks to the development of well defined diagnostic criteria and its recent inclusion in the International Headache Society's Classification of Headache disorders. Despite this progress, little is known about the pathophysiology of the condition, and the treatment options are poorly defined. Here we summarize the recent literature, with particular focus on establishing the diagnosis of abdominal migraine and its pathophysiology, and suggest an approach to management. Keywords: abdominal migraine, recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal epilepsy, cyclical vomiting

  6. TODDLER WITH RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN: MIGRAINE?

    Amit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal migraine is a migraine variant, causing chronic idiopathic recurrent abdominal pain in 4-15% of children. It is usually seen between the ages of seven to twelve years and is more common in girls, with peak prevalence at the age of ten years. We report a 3 year old girl suffering from recurrent abdominal pain since 1½ years of age, who underwent extensive investigations as well as diagnostic laparotomy with appendectomy, and was ultimately diagnosed to have abdominal migraine. She responded well to the prophylactic drug Flunarizine.

  7. Techniques for Clutter Suppression in the Presence of Body Movements during the Detection of Respiratory Activity through UWB Radars

    Antonio Lazaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a moving averaging filter to dynamically estimate it. The artifacts caused by body movements are removed using a threshold method before analyzing the breathing signal. The motion is detected using the time delay that maximizes the received signal after a clutter removing algorithm is applied. The periods in which the standard deviations of the time delay exceed a threshold are considered macro-movements and they are neglected. The sleep apnea intervals are detected when the breathing signal is below a threshold. The breathing rate is determined from the robust spectrum estimation based on Lomb periodogram algorithm. On the other hand the breathing signal amplitude depends on the body orientation respect to the antennas, and this could be a problem. In this case, in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, multiple sensors are proposed to ensure that the backscattered signal can be detected by at least one sensor, regardless of the direction the human subject is facing. The feasibility of the system is compared with signals recorded by a microphone.

  8. Dynamic EMI sensor platform for digital geophysical mapping and automated clutter rejection for CONUS and OCONUS applications

    Laudato, Stephen J.; Schultz, Gregory; Keranen, Joe; Miller, Jonathan S.

    2016-05-01

    The implementation of new advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor surveys at sites containing unexploded ordnance (UXO) and explosive remnants of war (ERW) is an effective method for accurate mapping and for discriminating clutter from targets of interest. We present development and integration of a next generation advanced EMI sensor onto a cart-based sensing platform to combine the mapping capability of previous digital geophysical survey instruments with the high-resolution discrimination capability of advanced characterization arrays. The EMI sensor employs a multi-axis receiver configuration to produce data sufficient for anomaly discrimination. We discuss platform design and development, data acquisition and post-processing software development, and results from field tests demonstrating the detection and discrimination capability of the cart-based system. Platform development and design focused on navigation and EMI sensor integration onto a custom, low-noise, metal-free platform. Data acquisition is via an Android application with emphasis on ease-of-use and real-time quality control (QC) of collected data. Post-processing methods emphasize QC, inversion-based anomaly location estimation, and automated or supervised polarizability-based discrimination methods to produce a prioritized dig list. Integration of the detection, clutter rejection and QC methods into the post-processing software module reduces the time required between sensor data collection and generation of a prioritized dig list. System concept of operations (CONOPs), data collection, QC, data processing procedures, and performance against various clutter objects and targets of interest will also be discussed.

  9. Parameter estimation of atmospheric refractivity from radar clutter using the particle swarm optimization via Lévy flight

    Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Estimating refractivity profiles from radar sea clutter is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. To deal with the ill-posed difficulties, an inversion algorithm, particle swarm optimization with a Lévy flight (LPSO), was proposed to be applied in the refractivity from clutter (RFC) technique to retrieve atmospheric duct in this paper. PSO has many advantages in solving continuous optimization problems, while in its late period it has slow convergence speed and low precision. Therefore, we integrate the Lévy flights into the standard PSO algorithm to improve the precision and enhance the capability of jumping out of the local optima. To verify the feasibility and validation of the LPSO for estimating atmospheric duct parameters based on the RFC method, the synthetic and Wallops98 experimental data are implemented. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the optimal solutions obtained from the hybrid algorithm are more precise and efficient. Additionally, to test the algorithm inversion performance, the antinoise ability of LPSO is analyzed. The results indicate that the LPSO algorithm has a certain antinoise ability. Finally, according to the experiment results, it can be concluded that the LPSO algorithm can provide a more precise and efficient method for near-real-time inversion of atmospheric refractivity from radar clutter.

  10. Abdominal ultrasound in AIDS patients

    To analyze the ultrasonography findings in abdomen in the AIDS patients in our hospital, as well as the indications for this exploration, assessing the role of abdominal ultrasound (AU). The ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 527 patients who underwent a total of 715 explorations between 1992 and 1996 were studied. Hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, usually homogeneous, were observed in nearly half of the studies (45%); one third of the patients with marked splenomegaly presented visceral leishmaniasis. Focal lesions in liver and/or spleen, corresponding to angiomas, abscesses, lymphomatous lesions and metastasis, were detected in 5.7% of the explorations. Thirty-five percent of the AU revealed the presence of lymphadenopathy; nodes measuring over 2.5 cm were usually related to potential treatable infection or neoplasm. Thickening of the gallbladder wall did not usually indicate the presence of acute cholecystitis unless Murphy''s sign was also detected. Bile duct dilation and wall thickening was related to opportunistic cholangitis, and the increase in the echogenicity of the renal parenchyma was linked to AIDS-related nephropathy. Despite the fact that many of findings with AU are nonspecific, we consider that this approach should be the principal diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with suspected abdominal pathology or fever of unknown origin. (Author) 43 refs,

  11. The Neonate with Abdominal Mass

    M. Bajoghli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal abdominal masses have broad spectrum of pathology, ranging from small lesions found incidentally to large masses occupying the entire of peritoneal cavity. These tumors are benign to malignant, and from unilocular cysts to complex solid lesions. Many of these lesions identified and will treat before delivery. Others are discovered during routine examination. These lesions may be life threatening, or cause persistent morbidity. Some of these have no sequel."nDiagnosis began with history. Characteristic of the mass which must be note include location, size, shape, texture, mobility and tenderness. Other findings should be in mind to find out nature of mass, for example hypoplasia of chest wall with oligohydramnios due to GU tract obstruction (potter sequwnce, a bulging hymen due to hydrometrocolpus, skin metastasis due to neuroblastoma. Radiography is the next step that shows organomegaly and calcification. Next step is US which is an excellent screening tool. CT and MRI are occasionally indicated."nThe purpose of this presentation is to review the diagnosis of abdominal masses in neonates.

  12. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abcess

    Men, Sueleyman E-mail: suleyman.men@deu.edu.tr; Akhan, Okan; Koeroglu, Mert

    2002-09-01

    The mortality in undrained abdominal abscesses is high with a mortality rate ranging between 45 and 100%. The outcome in abdominal abscesses, however, has improved due to advances in image guided percutaneous interventional techniques. The main indications for the catheter drainage include treatment or palliation of sepsis associated with an infected fluid collection, and alleviation of the symptoms that may be caused by fluid collections by virtue of their size, like pancreatic pseudocele or lymphocele. The single liver abscesses may be drained with ultrasound guidance only, whereas the multiple abscesses usually require computed tomography (CT) guidance and placement of multiple catheters. The pancreatic abscesses are generally drained routinely and urgently. Non-infected pancreatic pseudocysts may be simply observed unless they are symptomatic or cause problems such as pain or obstruction of the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous routes that have been described to drain pelvic abscesses include transrectal or transvaginal approach with sonographic guidance, a transgluteal, paracoccygeal-infragluteal, or perineal approach through the greater sciatic foramen with CT guidance. Both the renal and the perirenal abscesses are amenable to percutaneous drainage. Percutaneous drainage provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses as well.

  13. A Low-Complexity Algorithm for Static Background Estimation from Cluttered Image Sequences in Surveillance Contexts

    Reddy Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the purposes of foreground estimation, the true background model is unavailable in many practical circumstances and needs to be estimated from cluttered image sequences. We propose a sequential technique for static background estimation in such conditions, with low computational and memory requirements. Image sequences are analysed on a block-by-block basis. For each block location a representative set is maintained which contains distinct blocks obtained along its temporal line. The background estimation is carried out in a Markov Random Field framework, where the optimal labelling solution is computed using iterated conditional modes. The clique potentials are computed based on the combined frequency response of the candidate block and its neighbourhood. It is assumed that the most appropriate block results in the smoothest response, indirectly enforcing the spatial continuity of structures within a scene. Experiments on real-life surveillance videos demonstrate that the proposed method obtains considerably better background estimates (both qualitatively and quantitatively than median filtering and the recently proposed "intervals of stable intensity" method. Further experiments on the Wallflower dataset suggest that the combination of the proposed method with a foreground segmentation algorithm results in improved foreground segmentation.

  14. A Global Hypothesis Verification Framework for 3D Object Recognition in Clutter.

    Aldoma, Aitor; Tombari, Federico; Stefano, Luigi Di; Vincze, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Pipelines to recognize 3D objects despite clutter and occlusions usually end up with a final verification stage whereby recognition hypotheses are validated or dismissed based on how well they explain sensor measurements. Unlike previous work, we propose a Global Hypothesis Verification (GHV) approach which regards all hypotheses jointly so as to account for mutual interactions. GHV provides a principled framework to tackle the complexity of our visual world by leveraging on a plurality of recognition paradigms and cues. Accordingly, we present a 3D object recognition pipeline deploying both global and local 3D features as well as shape and color. Thereby, and facilitated by the robustness of the verification process, diverse object hypotheses can be gathered and weak hypotheses need not be suppressed too early to trade sensitivity for specificity. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal, which significantly improves over the state-of-art and attains ideal performance (no false negatives, no false positives) on three out of the six most relevant and challenging benchmark datasets. PMID:26485476

  15. Mixture-Tuned, Clutter Matched Filter for Remote Detection of Subpixel Spectral Signals

    Thompson, David R.; Mandrake, Lukas; Green, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Mapping localized spectral features in large images demands sensitive and robust detection algorithms. Two aspects of large images that can harm matched-filter detection performance are addressed simultaneously. First, multimodal backgrounds may thwart the typical Gaussian model. Second, outlier features can trigger false detections from large projections onto the target vector. Two state-of-the-art approaches are combined that independently address outlier false positives and multimodal backgrounds. The background clustering models multimodal backgrounds, and the mixture tuned matched filter (MT-MF) addresses outliers. Combining the two methods captures significant additional performance benefits. The resulting mixture tuned clutter matched filter (MT-CMF) shows effective performance on simulated and airborne datasets. The classical MNF transform was applied, followed by k-means clustering. Then, each cluster s mean, covariance, and the corresponding eigenvalues were estimated. This yields a cluster-specific matched filter estimate as well as a cluster- specific feasibility score to flag outlier false positives. The technology described is a proof of concept that may be employed in future target detection and mapping applications for remote imaging spectrometers. It is of most direct relevance to JPL proposals for airborne and orbital hyperspectral instruments. Applications include subpixel target detection in hyperspectral scenes for military surveillance. Earth science applications include mineralogical mapping, species discrimination for ecosystem health monitoring, and land use classification.

  16. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  17. Audio-visual speech timing sensitivity is enhanced in cluttered conditions.

    Warrick Roseboom

    Full Text Available Events encoded in separate sensory modalities, such as audition and vision, can seem to be synchronous across a relatively broad range of physical timing differences. This may suggest that the precision of audio-visual timing judgments is inherently poor. Here we show that this is not necessarily true. We contrast timing sensitivity for isolated streams of audio and visual speech, and for streams of audio and visual speech accompanied by additional, temporally offset, visual speech streams. We find that the precision with which synchronous streams of audio and visual speech are identified is enhanced by the presence of additional streams of asynchronous visual speech. Our data suggest that timing perception is shaped by selective grouping processes, which can result in enhanced precision in temporally cluttered environments. The imprecision suggested by previous studies might therefore be a consequence of examining isolated pairs of audio and visual events. We argue that when an isolated pair of cross-modal events is presented, they tend to group perceptually and to seem synchronous as a consequence. We have revealed greater precision by providing multiple visual signals, possibly allowing a single auditory speech stream to group selectively with the most synchronous visual candidate. The grouping processes we have identified might be important in daily life, such as when we attempt to follow a conversation in a crowded room.

  18. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, antibioticoterapia, esquema de lavagens, tempo de peritoneostomia, complicações e desfecho. Estudamos 12 pacientes, com idade de 15 a 57, média de 39,3 anos. Diagnóstico primário: abdome agudo inflamatório em 6(50%, abdome agudo obstrutivo em 2(16,7%, abdome agudo perfurativo em 2(16,7%, fístula enterocutânea em 1(8,3% e abscesso intra-cavitário em 1(8,3%. Diagnóstico secundário: perfuração de cólon em 4(33,3%, abscessos intra-cavitários em 3(25%, deiscências de anastomoses em 3(25%, 1(8,3% com tumor perfurado de sigmóide e 1(8,3% com necrose de cólon abaixado. Peritonite fecal em 10(83,3% e purulenta em 2(16,7%. A antibioticoterapia teve duração média de 19 dias. Lavagens de demanda em 6(50%, programadas em 4(33,3% e regime misto em 2(16,7%. O tempo médio de peritoneostomia foi de 10,9 dias (1-36. Como complicações: evisceração em 2(16,7% e fistulização em 1(8,3%. Quatro pacientes evoluíram com óbito.Among the therapeutics approach form of abdominal sepsis, the laparostomy has a decisive role allowing cavity explorations and lavages in an easier way. We study patients with abdominal sepsis diagnoses admitted to our surgical service of Coloproctology form Sergipe´s Federal University Hospital who underwent a Bogotá Bag laparostomy associated or not with polypropylene mesh from January 2004 to January 2006. These patients were assessed as: first and second diagnosis; secondary peritonitis type; antibiotic

  19. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study

    Elissa Epel; Lori Karan; Margaret Kemeny; Lustig, Robert H.; Margaret Kuwata; Jennifer Daubenmier; Nicole Maninger; Hecht, Frederick M.; Kinnari Jhaveri; Jean Kristeller

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat ...

  20. Synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    A case report of synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall is presented. A brief review of the clinical and radiological features of synovial sarcoma is made. Pre-operative diagnosis of an abdominal wall synovial sarcoma is virtually impossible, but should be considered when a soft tissue swelling is found to show amorphous stippled calcification X-ray. (author)

  1. Abdominal Wall Modification for the Difficult Ostomy

    Beck, David E.

    2008-01-01

    A select group of patients with major stomal problems may benefit from operative modification of the abdominal wall. Options may include a modified abdominoplasty (abdominal wall contouring), localized flaps, or liposuction. Although frequently successful, these techniques have the potential for significant morbidity.

  2. Hypoxia inhibits abdominal expiratory nerve activity.

    Fregosi, R F; Knuth, S L; Ward, D K; Bartlett, D

    1987-07-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of steady-state changes in chemical stimuli, as well as discrete peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, on abdominal expiratory motor activity. In decerebrate, paralyzed, vagotomized, and ventilated cats that had bilateral pneumothoraces, we recorded efferent activity from a phrenic nerve and from an abdominal nerve (cranial iliohypogastric nerve, L1). All cats showed phasic expiratory abdominal nerve discharge at normocapnia [end-tidal PCO2 38 +/- 2 Torr], but small doses (2-6 mg/kg) of pentobarbital sodium markedly depressed this activity. Hyperoxic hypercapnia consistently enhanced abdominal expiratory activity and shortened the burst duration. Isocapnic hypoxia caused inhibition of abdominal nerve discharge in 11 of 13 cats. Carotid sinus nerve denervation (3 cats) exacerbated the hypoxic depression of abdominal nerve activity and depressed phrenic motor output. Stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors with NaCN increased abdominal nerve discharge in 7 of 10 cats, although 2 cats exhibited marked inhibition. Four cats with intact neuraxis, but anesthetized with ketamine, yielded qualitatively similar results. We conclude that when cats are subjected to steady-state chemical stimuli in isolation (no interference from proprioceptive inputs), hypercapnia potentiates, but hypoxia attenuates, abdominal expiratory nerve activity. Mechanisms to explain the selective inhibition of expiratory motor activity by hypoxia are proposed, and physiological implications are discussed. PMID:3624126

  3. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Full Text Available COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR COMPLEX ABDOMINAL WALL RECONSTRUCTION ALBANY MEDICAL CENTER ALBANY, NY April 30, 2008 00:00:07 ANNOUNCER: This event is being ... the premiere webcast of a component separation for complex abdominal-wall reconstruction, performed by Dr. Jerome D. ...

  4. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, M

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil...

  5. Live secondary abdominal pregnancy- by chance!!

    Akanksha Sood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pregnancy though rare but is a life threatening situation, if not recognized and managed properly. We are hereby presenting a rare successful outcome in a case of ruptured live Secondary Abdominal pregnancy with placental implants over intestines. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 251-253

  6. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  7. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages.

  8. Effect of abdominal irradiation on growth in boys treated for a Wilms' tumor

    To study the effect of abdominal irradiation on spinal growth in childhood we have measured final height, sitting height, and leg length in 30 male survivors of a Wilms' tumor. Twenty-one patients received whole abdominal irradiation by either megavoltage therapy (MV: n = 11) or orthovoltage therapy (OV: n = 10); the remainder received flank irradiation. To examine the effect of the adolescent growth spurt on the irradiated spine we have followed prospectively seven patients who received whole abdominal irradiation and nine patients who received flank irradiation through puberty. Compared to a normal population there is a modest reduction in median final standing height SDS (H.SDS: -1.15) accompanied by a marked reduction in median final sitting height SDS (S.HT SDS: -2.41) with no apparent effect on median subischial leg length SDS (SILL.SDS: 0.04). This reduction in spinal growth is reflected by a strongly positive disproportion score (DPS; [SILL SDS-S.HT SDS] + 2.81). The incidence of scoliosis after abdominal irradiation has been low (10%). During puberty there is a significant fall in median sitting height SDS after both whole abdominal (median fall: -0.9, P = 0.02) and flank irradiation (median fall: -1.85, P = 0.01), and this is reflected in a significant increase in disproportion (DPS: whole abdominal; median rise +1.4, P = 0.02: flank, median rise +1.34, P = 0.01). After MV irradiation there is a significant correlation between the degree of disproportion and the age at treatment (P less than 0.0005). The younger the patient is at treatment the more severe is the restriction on spinal growth and the shorter and more disproportionate they become as an adult. The estimated eventual loss in potential height from abdominal irradiation at the age of one is 10 cm and at five years is 7 cm

  9. Channel probe measurements for the American sector clutter experiment, January, 1994

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-20

    The ionospheric phenomenon called Equatorial Spread F encompasses a variety of effects associated with plasma irregularities occurring in the post-sunset and nighttime ionosphere near the magnetic equator. These irregularities can seriously degrade the performance of systems which involve either of necessity or inadvertently radio propagation through the equatorial ionosphere. One such system is Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radars which operate in the high-frequency (hf) band and use ionospheric reflection for forward and backscatter propagation to ranges of thousands of kilometers. When such radars are directed towards the equator, Spread F irregularities can cause scintillation effects which may be aliased into the ranges of interest and have the effect of causing, excess clutter in which targets may be hidden. In January, 1994 Los Alamos participated in a campaign to measure Spread F effects on OTH propagation from the United States looking towards South America in conjunction with local diagnostics in Peru. During the campaign Los Alamos fielded a 1600 km bistatic path between Piura, Peru, and Arequipa, Peru-, the one-hop reflection region for this path was near the magnetic equator, We obtained four types of measurements: an oblique ionogram between Piura and Arequipa every three minutes; Doppler spread and spatial correlation for a single frequency cw path between Piura and Arequipa; Doppler spread, time-delay spread, and spatial coherence for a 10 kHz bandwidth path between Piura and Arequipa-, and Doppler spread and time-delay spread for the one-way path between the AVA radar in New York and Arequipa, Peru. This report describes the diagnostic experiments that we carried out and gives a brief description of some of the data we obtained.

  10. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios. PMID:27171096

  11. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments.

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios. PMID:27171096

  12. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments

    Fernando Vanegas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP, so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV, to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  13. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  14. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes

  15. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in children : CT finding

    Song, Jae Uoo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of Burkitt's lymphoma involving the abdomen in children We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT of ten children who presented with abdominal symptom. They were confirmed by operation in two cases and by fine needle aspiration biopsy in eight to be suffering from Burkitt's lymphoma. We also abdominal ultrasonography(USG)(n=10) and carried out small bowel follow-through examination(SBS)(n=5). Analyses focused on features of the abdominal mass : bowel wall thickening, ascites, lymphadenopathy, and the involvement of intra-abdominal solid organ. Abdominal CT at the time of presentation showed a huge conglomerated mass encasing segments of small bowel and also peripherally displacing bowel loops(n=9), bowel wall thickening(n=10), and ascites(n=10). In three of these cases, we were able to see tumor necrosis and cavity formation. Extensive infiltration into mesenteric fat and obliteration of tissue plane made it impossible to identify on CT the margin of the tumor and the presence of mesenteric lymphadenopathy. In four patients, sonography showed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes(15-20mm), and in three, retroperitoneal lymph nodes(5mm, 10mm, 12mm in long dimension) were detected on CT and USG. Abdominal CT can reveal the characteristic imaging features of Burkitt's lymphoma in children. These are a huge conglomerate mass with or without cavity formation, that encases the small bowel and infiltrates the mesentery, ascites, and the relatively spared retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

  16. Abdominal ultrasonographic findings of Yersiniosis in children

    To review abdominal ultrasonography in Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis(YP) infection. From June 1993 through June 1994, abdominal ultrasonograms were reviewed in 36 patients with YP infection. The age of patients was from 4 to 14 years. A diagnosis of YP infection was made on the basis of isolation of YP from stool (n=15/36, 41.7%) and by documenting at least a minimum agglutination antibody titer of 1;160 or greater (n=34/36, 94.4%). Abdominal US findings were identified in 33/36 (91.7%) of patients with YP infection. US abnormalities included right lower quadrant abdominal lymphadenopathy in 28/36 (77.8%) of cases: increased bilateral renal cortical echogenecity with renal enlargement, 11/36 (30.6%) of cases:hepatosplenomegaly, 6/36 (16.7%) of cases: bowel wall thickening in termnal ileum and cecum, 4/36 (11.1%) of cases:and ascites, 2/36 (5.5%) of cases. Three patients revealed no abdominal sonographic finding. We conclude that abdominal US can help in the diagnosis of YP infection when US demonstrates multiple right lower quadrant abdominal lymphadenopathy, increased renal cortical echogenecity with renal enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, intestinal wall thickening or ascites

  17. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer

  18. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  19. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  20. Roentgenologic evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma

    This study comprises 25 cases of blunt abdominal trauma proved by surgery. It is concluded that visceral damage by blunt abdominal trauma may be suspected, but can not be satisfactorily diagnosed upon a single plane abdominal roentgenologic examination with clinical support. Contrary to some reports in the literature, rupture of the hallow, viscus is more susceptible than solid organ and ileum is more than jejunum. It is a useful roentgenologic sign denoting distension and small cresent air shadow in the duodenal sweep of the damaged pancreas

  1. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  2. Active Listening in a Bat Cocktail Party: Adaptive Echolocation and Flight Behaviors of Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Foraging in a Cluttered Acoustic Environment.

    Warnecke, Michaela; Chiu, Chen; Engelberg, Jonathan; Moss, Cynthia F

    2015-09-01

    In their natural environment, big brown bats forage for small insects in open spaces, as well as in vegetation and in the presence of acoustic clutter. While searching and hunting for prey, bats experience sonar interference, not only from densely cluttered environments, but also from calls of conspecifics foraging in close proximity. Previous work has shown that when two bats compete for a single prey item in a relatively open environment, one of the bats may go silent for extended periods of time, which can serve to minimize sonar interference between conspecifics. Additionally, pairs of big brown bats have been shown to adjust frequency characteristics of their vocalizations to avoid acoustic interference in echo processing. In this study, we extended previous work by examining how the presence of conspecifics and environmental clutter influence the bat's echolocation behavior. By recording multichannel audio and video data of bats engaged in insect capture in open and cluttered spaces, we quantified the bats' vocal and flight behaviors. Big brown bats flew individually and in pairs in an open and cluttered room, and the results of this study shed light on the different strategies that this species employs to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:26398707

  3. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the imple...

  4. Staging of pediatric abdominal malignancies

    The scope of this review is the role of CT in the staging of childhood solid abdominal malignancies. Owing to the limitations of space, only the commonest lesions will be discussed in detail: Wilms' tumor, neuroblastoma, and liver tumors. The TNM staging system has been utilized throughout this monograph. It will not be used in this chapter, however, since in this country different staging systems individualized to each pediatric tumor have been developed. These staging systems take into account the different biology of each tumor and have clear correlations with prognosis and therapeutic programs. The discussion centers almost exclusively on the role of CT in the staging and management of neoplastic processes in children. The information required for staging can sometimes be obtained by other imaging modalities (i.e., ultrasound, excretory urography, etc.) The choice of modality will be strongly influenced by techniques and expertise available as well as by the bias of the institution. An additional factor to be taken into consideration will be the economic factor. Prospective reimbursement will strongly encourage the use of tests that are cost-effective and clinically efficacious

  5. Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques Applied to P-band Multi-Channel SAR Ice Sounder Data from East Antarctica

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Bekaert, David; Gebert, Nicolas;

    Radar ice sounding allows for the retrieval of ice depth and provides information on ba-sal topography, basal conditions, flow, and layering. In the prospect of a possible future satellite ice sounding mission, surface clutters are expected to severely hamper measurement of radar ech-oes from......., Lausanne, developed and built the radiator-elements of the enhanced POLARIS. Several datasets were acquired in the multi-channel configuration during the Feb. 2011 campaign over East Antarctica. The POLARIS instrument will be briefly introduced, followed by an overview of the sounding campaign. Finally...

  6. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Full Text Available ... was yes, it did -- right here -- it did cause seromas as well. Another thing was that the ... is two things: one is it's going to cause more adherence of the Veritas to the abdominal ...

  7. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain

    Bobby Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal calyceal rupture is a usual etiology of abdominal pain in the emergency department. We present a case of unexpected renal calyx rupture in a patient with symptomatology of renal colic. A discussion and review are provided.

  8. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157202.html Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm Airway disease ... People 50 and older who have had recent asthma activity appear to be at an increased risk ...

  9. Adhesive intestinal obstruction following blunt abdominal trauma

    Advances in diagnosis and management of multiple trauma patients have lead to adopting a conservative approach for most patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Intestinal obstruction is a rare complication for this approach. Herein, we report a 37-year-old male, who did not have an abdominal operation, and who developed adhesive intestinal obstruction 7 weeks following blunt abdominal trauma. We detected no signs of peritonitis or intra-abdominal bleeding clinically or radiologically on admission. We initially treated the intestinal obstruction conservatively, but the obstruction did not resolve. Finally, we performed laparotomy, which showed that the small bowel was matted together by thick fibrous layers of adhesions. We performed adhesiolysis, and the patient was discharged home 3 weeks later. Histopathological findings of the fibrous layer were consistent with repair due to previous trauma and hemorrhage. We review the literature of this rare condition. (author)

  10. Rotura e Hematoma do Recto Abdominal

    Moura, D.; Lindo, T

    2013-01-01

    A miologia ântero-lateral do abdómen é constituída por dois músculos longos, o recto abdominal e o piramidal e três músculos largos, o oblíquo externo, oblíquo interno e transverso abdominal. A bainha do recto abdominal é formada pelas aponevroses de inserção anteriores dos músculos largos do abdómen em volta do recto abdominal, tendo camada anterior e camada posterior. Estes músculos abdominais são responsáveis por flexão e rotação do tronco, compressão e suporte/estabilidade de vísceras abd...

  11. Component Separation for Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    Full Text Available COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR COMPLEX ABDOMINAL WALL RECONSTRUCTION ALBANY MEDICAL CENTER ALBANY, NY April 30, 2008 00:00: ... Koumanis. The surgery comes to you from Albany Medical Center in Albany, New York. In just moments, ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  13. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  14. Audit of abdominal pain in general practice

    Edwards, M.W.; Forman, W.M.; Walton, J.

    1985-01-01

    An audit of 150 consecutive cases of abdominal pain presenting to an urban teaching practice between October 1983 and May 1984 was performed. The median duration of pain prior to presentation was two days. Females predominated in all age groups.

  15. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  16. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  17. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  18. Efficacy of 'fine' focal spot imaging in CT abdominal angiography

    To assess the efficacy of fine focal spot imaging in calcification beam-hardening artefact reduction and vessel clarity on CT abdominal angiography (CTAA). Adult patients of any age and gender who presented for CTAA were included. Thirty-nine patients were examined with a standard focal spot size (SFSS) of 1 x 1 mm in the first 3 months while 31 consecutive patients were examined with a fine focal spot size (FFSS) of 1 x 0.5 mm in the following 3 months. Vessel clarity and calcification beam-hardening artefacts of the abdominal aorta, celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, and iliac arteries were assessed using a 5-point grading scale by two blinded radiologists randomly. Cohen's Kappa test indicated that on average, there was substantial agreement among reviewers for vessel wall clarity and calcification artefact grading. Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups, with FFSS performing significantly better for vessel clarity (U, 6481.50; p < 0.001; r, 0.73) and calcification artefact reduction (U, 1916; p < 0.001; r, 0.77). Fine focus CT angiography produces images with better vessel wall clarity and less vessel calcification beam-hardening artefact. (orig.)

  19. Using abdominal massage in bowel management.

    Connor, Michelle; Hunt, Catherine; Lindley, Alison; Adams, John

    2014-07-15

    This article describes the introduction of abdominal massage techniques by a community team as part of a total bowel management programme for people with learning disabilities. A trust-wide audit of prescribed laxative use by this client group raised concerns, and led to a more systematic approach to managing constipation in people with learning disabilities. An education programme for carers proved to be successful. Some reported that adopting abdominal massage provided further opportunity to develop the therapeutic relationship. PMID:25005415

  20. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes Melzer; Isabella Mastrangi Magrini; Semíramis Martins Álvares Domene; Paula Andrea Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's wa...

  1. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

    Barchiche, R; Bové, T; Demanet, H; Goldstein, J P; Deuvaert, F E

    1999-08-01

    A traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare entity, occurring as the result of a missed aortic lesion at the time of the initial injury. Therefore, clinical suspicion and careful abdominal exploration at first laparotomy is mandatory to prevent aortic pseudoaneurysm formation and its risk of delayed rupture. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of a suprarenal aortic false aneurysm, presenting 4 weeks after a life-threatening gunshot wound in a 13-year-old child. PMID:10499389

  2. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    Kim, Dong-Ju; Park, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis mu...

  3. Abdominal integument atrophy after operative procedures

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Lubiński, Jan; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze clinical material concerning postoperative atrophy of abdominal integument. Material and methods The evaluated group consisted of 29 patients with sonographically revealed atrophy of the abdominal wall. Those changes were observed after various surgical procedures: mainly after long, anterolateral laparotomies or several classical operations. Ultrasound examinations up to the year 2000 were performed with analog apparatus, in the latter years only with digi...

  4. Anesthetic Considerations for Abdominal Wall Reconstructive Surgery

    Slabach, Rachel; Suyderhoud, Johan P.

    2012-01-01

    Anesthesia considerations for abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) are numerous and depend upon the medical status of the patient and the projected procedure. Obesity, sleep apnea, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease are not uncommon in patients with abdominal wall defects; pulmonary functions and cardiac output can be affected by the surgical procedure. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are also at a higher risk of coughing during the postoperative awakening process, wh...

  5. Asymptomatic torsion of intra-abdominal testis

    M. Amin El-Gohary

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion, of eight years old boy who presented with asymptomatic left impalpable testis. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a twisted small intra-abdominal testis in which the spermatic cord twisted 3 times over a band attached to the internal ring. The cord was long enough to bring the small testis into the scrotal sac. This case highlights the pole of laparoscopy in the management of impalpable testes.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of expanding haematoma of the lateral abdominal wall after blunt abdominal trauma

    We report a rare case of an expanding post-traumatic lateral abdominal wall haematoma. A superselective arteriogram of the deep circumflex iliac artery showed extravasation from the ascending branch, urging emergency therapy. Microcoil and Gelfoam embolisation was successfully performed. Haematomas of the abdominal wall can be divided in the common rectus sheath haematomas and the rare haematomas of the lateral abdominal wall. Differentiating both entities is essential, since there is a strong difference in their vascular supply. The typical vascular supply of the lateral abdominal wall is discussed, with emphasis on the ascending branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery. (orig.)

  7. Abdominal tuberculosis: clinical presentation and outcome

    To study the clinical presentation and outcome of cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis. Fifty four patients of Abdominal Tuberculosis were seen during the study period. Four patients were lost to follow-up, which were excluded. Detailed information of all the patients including age, sex, symptoms, signs, investigations and management was recorded, analyzed and compared with local and international data. Out of the 50 patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis, 31 were females and 19 males. Their ages ranged from 17 to 63 years, with a mean age of 25.1 years. Thirty five cases were admitted through Emergency and 15 through Outpatients departments. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom found in 44 (88%) patients followed by vomiting in 33 (66%). Abdominal tenderness was seen in 22 (44%) patients, while 16 (32%) patients had rigidity and other features of peritonitis. Surgery was performed in all these patients, limited right hemicolectomy in 17 (34%), segmental resection and anastomosis in 12 (24%), ileostomy and strictureplasty in six (12%) each, repair of perforation in five (10%) and adhesiolysis in four (8%) patients. Overall mortality was 8% due to septicaemia and multiorgan failure. Abdominal Tuberculosis is a significant clinical entity with lethal complications in neglected cases. It affects a younger age group and is more common in females. Clinical features are rather non-specific but vague ill health, low grade fever, weight loss and anorexia may help to diagnose the case. (author)

  8. Effect of rectal distension on abdominal girth.

    Marino, B; Ogliari, C; Basilisco, G

    2004-08-01

    It has been postulated that a viscerosomatic reflex activated by gut distension and inhibiting abdominal wall muscle tone may be one of the mechanisms underlying functional abdominal distension. Any demonstration of such a reflex has to take into account the fact that gut distension may increase abdominal girth as a result of volume displacement. As biomechanical and sensory rectal responses vary at different rates of rectal distension, we hypothesized that different rates of rectal distension might reveal different changes in abdominal girth. Abdominal girth was continuously recorded in 14 healthy subjects using a previously validated extensometer. The rectal distensions were made in a randomized order at rates of 100 mL min(-1) or 10 mL min(-1) up to 150 mL, and sham distensions were used as controls. An increase in abdominal girth was observed at the end of both distensions (P

  9. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes Melzer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998 and Taylor et al. (2000 were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3, female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3 and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0 were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children.

  10. Readjustment of abdominal computed tomography protocols in a university hospital: impact on radiation dose

    Romano, Ricardo Francisco Tavares; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Torres, Lucas Rios; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Bekhor, Daniel; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: ricardo.romano@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi [Fleury Medicina e Saude, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Objective: To assess the reduction of estimated radiation dose in abdominal computed tomography following the implementation of new scan protocols on the basis of clinical suspicion and of adjusted images acquisition parameters. Materials and Methods: Retrospective and prospective review of reports on radiation dose from abdominal CT scans performed three months before (group A - 551 studies) and three months after (group B - 788 studies) implementation of new scan protocols proposed as a function of clinical indications. Also, the images acquisition parameters were adjusted to reduce the radiation dose at each scan phase. The groups were compared for mean number of acquisition phases, mean CTDI{sub vol} per phase, mean DLP per phase, and mean DLP per scan. Results: A significant reduction was observed for group B as regards all the analyzed aspects, as follows: 33.9%, 25.0%, 27.0% and 52.5%, respectively for number of acquisition phases, CTDI{sub vol} per phase, DLP per phase and DLP per scan (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The rational use of abdominal computed tomography scan phases based on the clinical suspicion in conjunction with the adjusted images acquisition parameters allows for a 50% reduction in the radiation dose from abdominal computed tomography scans. (author)

  11. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    Farid, Mohammed; Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the ter...

  12. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B; Nieuwenhuijs, V B; Hofker, H.S.; Zijlstra, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS

  13. The therapeutic impact of abdominal ultrasound in patients with acute abdominal symptoms

    AIM: The technical performance of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain has been thoroughly investigated but its therapeutic effects are less well understood. We aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pre- and post-intervention observational study design was used to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic effects of abdominal ultrasound for acute abdominal pain. Referring clinicians completed a pre-ultrasound questionnaire that detailed their leading diagnosis, confidence in this and intended management in 100 consecutive adult patients. Following ultrasound a second questionnaire was completed. This again detailed the leading diagnosis, confidence in this and their intended management. Clinicians quantified the management contribution of ultrasound both for the individual case in question and in their clinical experience generally. RESULTS: The leading diagnosis was either confirmed or rejected in 72 patients and a new diagnosis provided where no prior differential diagnosis existed in 10. Diagnostic confidence increased significantly following ultrasound (mean score 6·5 pre-ultrasound vs 7·6 post-ultrasound, P < 0·001). Intended management changed following ultrasound in 22 patients; 15 intended laparotomies were halted and a further seven patients underwent surgery where this was not originally intended. Ultrasound was rated either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful in 87% of patients, with 99% of clinicians finding it either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful generally. CONCLUSION: Abdominal ultrasound has considerable diagnostic and therapeutic effect in the setting of acute abdominal pain. Dhillon, S. et al. (2002)

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abdominal eventration: a rare congenital abdominal wall defect.

    Roth, Philippe; Martin, Alain; Bawab, Fariz; Fellmann, Florence; Aubert, Didier; Maillet, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal eventration associated with cystic fibrosis, diagnosed by mid-trimester ultrasonography. The defect concerned the abdominal muscles and their aponevrotic sheath, but respected the skin. There was no associated malformation. The outcome was favorable after surgery, and the infant is well at the age of 6 months. PMID:18046068

  15. CT diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma

    Objective: To discuss the value of CT in diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma. Methods: CT findings of 5 cases surgically and pathologically proved with ectopic pheochromocytoma were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Soft tissue mass with light asymmetry enhancement was found between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena ca-va in one case. 1 case was completely cystic with light enhancement of the cystwall located in front of the left side of the abdominal aorta. 1 case of large solid mass occurred between the renal hilum and the tail of pancreas, with irregular shape, unclear boundary, central necrosis, calcification and obviously enhancement at the solid part. 2 cases showed as oval soft lump with even density, moderate strengthening located before the abdominal aorta. Paroxysmal hypertension occurred in 3 cases and didn't in 2 cases. Hypertension happened in 1 case during the operation because of stimulation. Blood pressure appeared in 1 case during and after operation. Blood and urinary catecholamine increased significantly in 4 cases. Conclusion: Ectopic pheochromocytoma mainly located surround the abdominal aorta with diverse CT performance. It is helpful for diagnosing when finding a lesion locates at the specified sites combined with typical clinical presentation. CT can not only depict small tumor, but also can show the relationship with surrounding structure, and it provides important information for the operation and prognosis. (authors)

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis, clinical-radiological revision

    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts and diagnostic images of hospitalised patients with histological or bacteriologic demonstration of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) including those with probable abdominal TB, who had pulmonary TB and radiologic findings highly suggestive of abdominal TB with favourable response to treatment. Cases with genitourinary TB were excluded. We found 24 patients with an average age of 25 yrs. In some cases this entity was not suspected on the imaging studies, and diagnosis was made on surgery. The most frequent symptoms were: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, weight loss and abdominal mass. Active pulmonary TB was demonstrated on 8 cases (33%) Peritoneal presentation was the most frequent (54%) with septated or simple ascites, cystic ascites or pseudocysts within bowel loops. Mesenteric involvement (21 %) showed adenopathy or masses identified with CT. Intestinal forms (17%) showed pseudo-polyps on terminal ileum and ulcers on ileum, cecum and colon. We found one case with diffuse ulcerative involvement of the colon. Two cases showed hepatic involvement, one with an abscess and a tuberculosis Cole cystitis, with pyloric syndrome due to fibrosis

  17. Paediatric emergencies: non-traumatic abdominal emergencies

    Presentation with acute abdominal pain or abdominal symptopathology is a very common cause of presentation of children to hospital. The causes are dependent in part on the age of the child, in part on the presence of previous surgery, and can be divided into those that relate to congenital abnormalities at whatever age they present, acquired disease and infection. Children, particularly young children are often poor historians, and therefore the clinical examination and the laboratory investigations are important in helping to come to a diagnosis. Primary imaging of abdominal emergencies in childhood is a radiograph of the abdomen, followed by ultrasound. Further imaging depends on the results of these studies. An ordered review of the abdomen radiograph is important if the salient features on X-ray are not to be missed. Practitioners should be competent with abdominal ultrasound in children and know where to seek the causes of disease, as these are different from those that are obtained in many instances in adults. Familiarity with the likely causes is important. The three commonest causes of acute abdominal pain in childhood are, in young infants, intussusception, appendicitis and mesenteric adenitis. In older children, inflammatory bowel disease and ovarian pathology are also included. This article details the approach to imaging and the salient features of some of the conditions. (orig.)

  18. Abdominal spiral CT in children: which radiation exposure is required?

    We decided to test to what extent dose reduction is possible in abdominal spiral computed tomography (CT) in young children without loss of anatomic diagnostic information. A retrospective study was performed of 30 abdominal CT examinations of children aged 3 months to 7 years. These were divided into two groups: group A with reduced radiation exposure (tube current 50 mA, CT dose index CTDIFDA ≤0.83 mGy) and group B with standard radiation exposure (tube current ≥100 mA, CTDIFDA ≥1.66 mGy). Image quality was assessed using a four-part scale ('excellent', 'good', 'sufficient', 'poor') on visual image impression and visibility of 32 anatomical details. Five experienced radiologists read the CT scans independently who were blinded to the examination parameters. Differences in ranked data were evaluated with Wilcoxon's rank sum test. No difference between groups A and B was observed in visual image impression. Detail visibility was significantly lower in group A, but the differences were limited to right upper quadrant structures (portal vein, common bile duct, pancreatic head, adrenals) and to arterial branches. Significant differences in visibility rated as 'poor' were only found for the hepatic, splenic and renal arteries; all other structures showed no difference between groups A and B. A protocol with reduced radiation exposure (50 mA, CTDIFDA ≤0.83 mGy) allowed the demonstration of most anatomic structures in abdominal spiral CT in young children. For the precise demonstration of small details (e.g. structures of the right upper quadrant), a protocol with standard radiation exposure (≥100 mAs) was superior. (orig.)

  19. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    Matthew C. Bozeman

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  20. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  1. [Pediatric Abdominal Pain – Harmless or Harmful?].

    Furlano, Raoul Ivano

    2016-04-27

    Abdominal pain is a very common pediatric complaint. In the majority of cases there is no life-threatening pathology behind this symptom, but a functional disease. However, all-day activities of children and adolescents are often limited, frequent absences from school, and general physician/ pediatrician office visits with often unnecessary diagnostic and therapies are registered. Once an organic etiology of the abdominal pain is excluded by a thoroughly medical history taking and physical examination, the first steps for a successful alleviation of the pain is the reassurance of the patients and their family that there is no life-threatening pathology. There is evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapy may be useful in improving pain and disability outcome in the short term. There is no evidence for pharmacological, dietetic, or complementary intervention in the treatment of chronic functional abdominal pain. PMID:27120211

  2. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  3. Aggressive malignant abdominal mesothelioma: Clinical report

    A 32-year-old Filipino female, working as an x-ray technician, presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with acute abdominal pain for one day. The pain was mainly on the left side and left hypochondrium. She had recurring abdominal pain before but not significant to worry her. She also complained of abdominal distension, which she noticed one week ago. Abdominal examination revealed fullness in the left hypochondrium with marked tenderness but negative rebound. Abdominal ultrasound (US) showed a huge mass mainly in the left hypochondrium. The origin of the mass cannot be identified by US. A computerized tomography scan showed a mass in the left side of the abdomen crossing the midline with a necrotic centre. The hospital course of the patient runs smoothly, and she was discharged after 7-days and referred to an Oncology Center. Abdominal mesothelioma is a neoplasm arising from the mesothelial surface lining the abdominal cavity. It is less frequent than that of the pleura. It is a rapidly growing and fatal malignancy with a median survival of less than 1-year. The relation between pleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos is well recognized since it was described in 19602 but implication of asbestos exposure in the etiology of the peritoneal type is less obvious. This patient history is giving no obvious exposure to asbestos but as she is working in the Radiology Department as an x-ray technician she is well exposed to x-ray, but the effect of radioactivity on induction of mesothelioma is still disputed.4 There are several reports linking malignant mesothelioma to radioactivity due to radiation therapy.The fibrous mesothelioma (sarcomatous), as in this case, which is difficult to diagnose microscopically, looks like a fibroma, unless helped by tissue culture. The treatment options of malignant mesothelioma include surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and whole abdominal radiation or multimodality therapy, which were suggested that might prolong the survival in

  4. Intra-abdominal manifestations of Recklinghausen's Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausendisease, is a common autosomal dominant condition with an approximateincidence of one per 300 births. NF1 involves multiple systems of the body.Abdominal involvement occurs in the form of neurofibroma and tumor growth inthe liver, mesentery, retroperitoneum, gastric and bowel. Gastrointestinalneoplasms have a reported occurrence of 2-25%. Two cases are reported hereinas well as a review of the literature of the intra-abdominal manifestationsof NF1, including a discussion on the radiological appearance and diagnosis.The article provides an insight into the intriguing variety of clinicalproblems that such patients may present. (author)

  5. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Thomas, Kristen B.; Harned, Roger K.; Wu, Sarah R.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D. [University of California, Davis Health Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Upper abdominal trauma in children: imaging evaluation

    One hundred consecutive children with serious blunt upper-abdominal injury were evaluated prospectively to assess the accuracy and usefulness of emergency computed tomography (CT) compared with liver-spleen scintigraphy and sonography. Ninety-five hemodynamically stable patients were imaged. The results of this 20-month study indicated that CT has fewer false negatives and false positives than scintigraphy or sonography, that CT is useful in abdominal trauma, and that CT provides the most information of any single diagnostic imaging test commonly available

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus : abdominal radiologic findings

    Oh, Jae Cheon; Cho, On Koo; Lee, Yong Joo; Bae, Jae Ik; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Ko, Byung Hee [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE) is a systemic disease of unknown etiology. Its main pathology is vasculitis and serositis, due to deposition of the immune complex or antibodies. Most findings are nonspecific ; abdominal manifestations include enteritis, hepatomegaly, pancreatic enlargement, serositis, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, nephritis, interstitial cystitis, and thrombophlebitis. We described radiologic findings of various organ involvement of SLE; digestive system, serosa, reticuloendothelial system, urinary system, and venous system. Diagnosis of SLE was done according to the criteria of American Rheumatism Association. Understanding of the variable imaging findings in SLE may be helpful for the early detection of abdominal involvement and complications.

  8. Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Preschool Children.

    * Ritu Gupta, **Ravinder K. Gupta

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fifty preschool children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) were studied. Organiccause was observed in 135 (90%) and non-organic in 15 (10%). Giardiasis was the commonestorganic cause in 81 (60%) either alone or with other parasites followed by ascariasis 27 (20%) alone.Other cause of organic pain were urinary tract infection (UTI) 9 (6.7%), abdominal tuberculosis 9(6.7%), eosophagitis/gastritis 4 (2.9%) and gall stones 2 (1.4%). School phobia, sibling rivalry,unpleasant relation...

  9. Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Preschool Children.

    Ritu Gupta, Ravinder K Gupta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty preschool children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP were studied. Organiccause was observed in 135 (90% and non-organic in 15 (10%. Giardiasis was the commonestorganic cause in 81 (60% either alone or with other parasites followed by ascariasis 27 (20% alone.Other cause of organic pain were urinary tract infection (UTI 9 (6.7%, abdominal tuberculosis 9(6.7%, eosophagitis/gastritis 4 (2.9% and gall stones 2 (1.4%. School phobia, sibling rivalry,unpleasant relations among parents and nocturnal enuresis were significant factors associated withnon-organic causes.

  10. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    Terneu, S; Verhelst, D; Thys, F; Ketelslegers, E; Hantson, P; Wittebole, X

    2003-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room because of abdominal pain associated with hematuria and red blood blending to stool. On admission, the physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and diffuse cutaneous hematoma. The laboratory findings showed abnormal clotting tests with high International Normalised Ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Hemoperitoneum and ureteral hematoma were noted on the abdomen computed tomography. The patient confessed she had ingested difenacoum for several weeks. All the symptoms resolved with fresh frozen plasma perfusion and vitamin K. PMID:14635532

  11. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  12. Abdominal syndromes and functional ability in the elderly

    Kay, L; Avlund, K

    1994-01-01

    Data concerning a random cohort of 1,119 70-year-old subjects were analyzed to evaluate the association between Upper Dyspepsia and Irritable Bowel Syndrome and functional ability. Seven hundred and thirty-four subjects were interviewed about abdominal symptoms and were visited at home by an...... occupational therapist who evaluated their functional ability. Among the survivors, 94% participated in a follow-up study five years later. Functional ability was registered on validated scales constructed for its measurement in a normal elderly population. It was found that both syndromes occurred more often...... among subjects with reduced functional ability. A significant association was found between the occurrence of Upper Dyspepsia and a reduction of mobility and lower limb function, and between reduced functional ability and Irritable Bowel Syndrome at the five-year follow-up. It is concluded that...

  13. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  14. Case series of abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Vandana Dhama

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Abdominal sacral colpopexy with polypropylene mesh is a safe, effective treatment in patients having post hysterectomy vaginal vault proplase. When done by experienced gynecologist, major post-operative complications seem to be very few in patients having normal BMI and no major systemic illnesses. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1992-1995

  15. Abdominal cavity exploration with kinetic scintimaging

    Nuclear medicine procedures are being utilized in an increasing variety and number of intra-abdominal clinical problems. These non-invasive intra-abdominal exploratory scintimaging procedures are often dynamic or kinetic in nature, i.e. revealing primarily functional information even to the point of employing adjunctive drugs and multiple simultaneous radiotracers. The advent of correlative non-invasive diagnostic imaging modalities has thus far largely complemented abdominal nuclear medicine procedures. The luminal gastro-intestinal tract has yielded to investigation with radiotracers with procedures now widely employed to study gastric function, gastro-oesophagal reflux and intestinal bleeding. The role of hepatic and splenic reticuloendethelial compartment imaging has been strengthened by increased dependability, and remains as the first line screening test for a variety of suspected intrahepatic lesions, especially neoplasia. The recent introduction of improved hepatobiliary radiotracers, mostly iminodiacetic acid derivatives, has considerably expanded the scope of diagnostic investigations of the liver, especially in problems of jaundice and acute cholecystitis. Pancreatic imaging continues to be a disappointment and at best is only adjunctive to correlative imaging procedures. Some hope may be seen in the recent reports of successful pancreatic imaging with positron emission tomography utilizing labelled amino-acid derivatives. Diffuse abdominal processes, especially abcesses and suspected infection, have been efficaciously approached with 67Ga citrate and also, more recently, 111-In-labelled leucocytes. Many of these advances and applications have also been readily applicable to pediatric problems. (author)

  16. Intra-abdominal tumors in children

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to observe the histopathological pattern of intra-abdominal tumors in children less than 16 years. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Histopathology, Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health and King Edward Medical College, Lahore, over a period of 5 years, from January 1997 to December 2002. Subjects and Methods: The histopathological and demographic data of 264 intra-abdominal tumors of both the sexes under 16 years of age was collected and analyzed to determine the various morphological types of intra- abdominal tumors in relation to age and sex. Results: Neuroblastoma was the most common tumor constituting 29.6% of all cases, followed by Wilms' tumor (25.1%). Others were non-Hodgkins Iymphomas (15.5%), germ cell tumors and hepatoblastoma (9%) each, rhabdomyosarcoma (4.4%), hepatocellular carcinoma (1.4%) and miscellaneous (6%). Majority of the patients (77.2%) were under 5 years of age. The male to female ratio was 1.1 :0.9. Conclusion: Intra-abdominal tumors are more common in males. Most of the tumors were noted in children less than 5 years of age. (author)

  17. [Catheter jejunostomy in elective abdominal surgery].

    Bodoky, A; Heberer, M; Iwatschenko, P; Harder, F

    1985-10-01

    Needle catheter jejunostomy is used to a varying extent today. Therefore, the need for nutritional support was evaluated following elective abdominal surgery and compared to experiences with postoperative enteral feeding. Oesophagectomy, total gastrectomy and the Whipple procedure were identified as good indications for catheter jejunostomy, whereas with other types of operation an individual decision is required. PMID:3935397

  18. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  19. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  20. Natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Perko, M J; Schroeder, T V; Olsen, P S;

    1993-01-01

    During a 10-year period in which 735 patients presented with abdominal aortic aneurysms to our clinic, 63 were not offered operative treatment. The primary reason for choosing conservative treatment was concomitant diseases that increased the risk of operation. After 2 years of followup, half of ...

  1. Abdominal CT in acute arterial pathology

    The abdominal arterial pathology as studied by CT imagings is reviewed. The illustrated morphology of aortic aneurysms complications (arterial embolism, dissection and arteriosclerotic ulcer ) are studied. The signs that lead to diagnosis are assessed and the major points on which to base a correct radiological study are reviewed

  2. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  3. Clinical profile of abdominal tuberculosis in children

    Ira Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A retrospective study was conducted in children, suffering from abdominal TB, attending Pediatric TB clinic from 2007 to 2009. Materials And Methods: Age-wise distribution and type of abdominal TB were analyzed with clinical features. Results : Out of 285 children with TB, 32 (11.2% had abdominal tuberculosis. Male: Female ratio was 2.1:1. 7 (21.9% children were 10 years of age. The most common clinical features were fever in 24 (75%, pain in abdomen in 17 (53.1%, loss of weight in 15 (46.9%, raised ESR in 14 (43.8%, and loss of appetite in 13 (40.6% children. TB contact was present in 10 (31.2%, and 7 (21.9% children had tuberculosis in the past. 28 (87.5% children had received BCG vaccine, and 17 (53.1% had a positive Mantoux test. Extra-abdominal tuberculosis was found in 17 patients (53.1%. Duration of fever was more in children less than 5 years of age (127 ± 66 days than that in children between 5 -10 years (37 ± 30 days and in > 10 years of age (73 ± 66 days, which is statistically significant (P = 0.0228. Lymph node TB (17 patients, 53.1% was found to be the commonest, followed by intestinal (10 patients, 31.2% and peritoneal TB (4 patients, 12.5%. 18 (56.2% of the total patients had recovered, 7 (21.9% of all patients failed first line therapy and had to be started on second line drugs, of which 4 (12.5% were proven to have drug-resistant TB. Conclusion : Abdominal TB is seen in 11.2% of children affected with TB, of which over 53% will have extra-abdominal manifestations. Common clinical and laboratory features include fever, pain in abdomen, loss of weight, loss of appetite, and raised ESR. The duration of fever is more in children of younger age group. Lymph node TB is the most common type of abdominal TB. Drug-resistant TB is seen in at least 12.5% of the patients.

  4. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery.

  5. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  6. Evaluation of abdominal CT in the initial treatment of abdominal trauma

    During the last four years 102 patients with abdominal trauma were examined by CT for preoperative evaluation in our hospital. In 35 patients (34 %), the CT scans revealed no abnormal findings. They were all managed conservatively except for one case of perforated small bowel. In 67 patients (66 %) CT revealed evidences of substantial abdominal or retroperitoneal trauma. In 30 of them CT findings were confirmed by surgery. Hepatic injury is usually easily recognized by CT. CT is also useful for the detection of renal or splenic injuries. The majority of those parenchymatous organ injuries were successfully managed with conservative therapy, despite apparent traumatic lesions revealed by CT. Repeat CT scans is proved to be very useful to follow the changes of these traumatic lesions. In conclusion, application of abdominal CT is extremely useful for the initial decision making in treatment of patients with abdominal trauma and for the follow-up observation of injured lesions. (author)

  7. Isolated duodenal rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Celik Atilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare and it usually seen with other abdominal organ injuries. It represents approximately 2% to 20% of patients with blunt abdominal injury and often occurs after blows to the upper abdomen, or abdominal compression from high-riding seat belts. Two cases of blunt duodenal rupture successfully treated surgically, are presented with their preoperative diagnosis and final out comes.

  8. A case report of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster

    Su-Rong Zhou; Chuan-Yu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal complications caused by herpes zoster are extremely rare. Here, we described a case of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster. The patient was a 59-year-old female who suffered from unexplained paroxysmal and a burning pain on the right part of her waist and abdomen, accompanied by abdominal distention. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Distention of the right abdominal wall was still apparent after one month. In this report, we found...

  9. [Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum in the treatment of giant abdominal hernias].

    Szekeres, Pál; Krémer, Ildikó; Bukovácz, Róbert; Varga, János

    2007-10-01

    Careful preoperative treatment of giant abdominal hernias can prevent severe postoperative complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome and uncontrollable cardiorespiratory failure. Our departments have been studying the various pathological conditions associated with enormous abdominal hernias (eventration disease) and the possibilities of preventing visceral abnormalities caused by the reconstruction of the abdominal wall. Here, we present the indication, technique and the results of using progressive preoperative pneumo-peritoneum based on two cases. PMID:17984016

  10. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    Amin Abid; Wani Rauf A; Sheikh Tariq; Parray Fazal Q; Wani Imtiaz; Gul Imran; Nazir Mir

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for ...

  11. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in cats.

    Bosch, L; Rivera del Álamo, M M; Andaluz, A; Monreal, L; Torrente, C; García-Arnas, F; Fresno, L

    2012-12-15

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) have shown clinical relevance in monitoring critically ill human beings submitted to abdominal surgery. Only a few studies have been performed in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assess how pregnancy and abdominal surgery may affect IAP and APP in healthy cats. For this purpose, pregnant (n=10) and non-pregnant (n=11) queens undergoing elective spaying, and tomcats (n=20, used as controls) presented for neutering by scrotal orchidectomy were included in the study. IAP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), APP, heart rate and rectal temperature (RT) were determined before, immediately after, and four hours after surgery. IAP increased significantly immediately after abdominal surgery in both female groups when compared with baseline (P<0.05) and male (P<0.05) values, and returned to initial perioperative readings four hours after surgery. Tomcats and pregnant females (P<0.05) showed an increase in MAP and APP immediately after surgery decreasing back to initial perioperative values four hours later. A significant decrease in RT was appreciated immediately after laparotomy in both pregnant and non-pregnant queens. IAP was affected by abdominal surgery in this study, due likely to factors, such as postoperative pain and hypothermia. Pregnancy did not seem to affect IAP in this population of cats, possibly due to subjects being in early stages of pregnancy. PMID:23118052

  12. Salmonellosis mimicking abdominal lymphoma in a young boy

    We report on a child with intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly due to salmonellosis, whose initial diagnosis was erroneously based on computed tomography (CT) findings suggestive of abdominal lymphoma. Awareness that salmonellosis can produce large abdominal masses should assist in ruling out neoplastic disease in the differential diagnosis, thus avoiding unnecessary laparotomy. (orig.)

  13. Soft-tissue masses in the abdominal wall

    Masses involving the abdominal wall arise from a large number of aetiologies. This article will describe a diagnostic approach, imaging features of the most common causes of abdominal wall masses, and highly specific characteristics of less common diseases. A diagnostic algorithm for abdominal wall masses combines clinical history and imaging appearances to classify lesions

  14. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    Sartelli Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections.

  15. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section... Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber... decompression chamber that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on or...

  16. Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination

    Sujata Kar

    2011-01-01

    Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge). Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.

  17. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. PMID:24964430

  18. Computer aided diagnosis of acute abdominal pain at Middlesbrough General Hospital.

    Scarlett, P. Y.; Cooke, W M; Clarke, D.; Bates, C.; Chan, M.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation reports the experience of the surgical house staff and registrars at Middlesbrough General Hospital who used a desk-top computer system to support their clinical diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. The results cover a two year period and are compared with a baseline period of one year. Substantial benefits followed the introduction of the computer-aided diagnostic support system; increased diagnostic accuracy of the whole surgical team, reduction in negative laparotomy rates,...

  19. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma

    Objective: To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. Methods: The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonography had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Conclusions: Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be

  20. An abdominal aortic calcification as a RISK FACTOR FOR cardio -cerebral events in patients with peripheral arterial

    V. A. Zelinskiy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patients with abdominal aortic calcification have a high risk of cardiocerebral events, but the pathways of them have not been reported so far. The goal of our study was to assess the structure and function of myocardium and to determine the morphological features of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal aortic calcification.Materials and methods. A total of 167 executive patients with peripheral arterial disease were enrolled in study. The study group included 85 patients with abdominal aortic calcification (men – 95.3 %; age median was – 66.6 ± 12. Control group included 82 patients without objective signs of abdominal aortic calcification. Abdominal aortic calcification was detected by CT imaging. All patients have undergone echocardiography and duplex scanning of carotid arteries.Results. Prevalence and severity of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were statistically significant higher in patients with abdominal aortic calcification (91.7, 65.8 % vs. 67, 37.3 % (р < 0.01. We have found statistically significant differences between groupsin heart structure and function. A high left ventricular wall thickness (р < 0.01, left atrium dilation (р < 0.01 and enhanced of left ventricular mass (р < 0.05, ejection fraction reduction (р < 0.05 and more common diastolic dysfunction (р < 0.05 were determined inpatients with abdominal aortic calcification. An intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery was significantly higher in study group patients (1.38 ± 0.07 mm vs. 1.14 ± 0.06 mm (р < 0.001.Conclusion. Our findings suggested that abdominal aortic calcification is main reason of hypertrophy and dilation in the left heart due to enhanced peripheral resistance. Hypertrophy and dilation in the left heart is provided a high risk of cardiovascular events in patients withabdominal aortic calcification.

  1. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  2. Handlebar Hernia: A Rare Type of Abdominal Wall Hernia

    Rooh-Allah Yegane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernias are a type of acquired hernia secondary to blunt trauma Caused, by direct trauma from handlebar like objects. This rare hernia is named ‘Handlebar hernia'. We report a case of such hernia without any significant intra-abdominal injury. The abdominal wall defect was repaired in layers by Jones technique. Postoperative course was uneventful. The authors recommend clinical suspicion for traumatic hernia in all patients with traumatic abdominal wall injury. Definitive treatment includes surgical exploration with primary repair of all tissue layers of the abdominal wall.

  3. Ejaculate parameters in patients with abdominal obesity

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2015-04-01

    compared with the third group, moreover the indicated decline was more pronounced in men of the 1st group. The content of SHBG in serum was also significantly lower in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the 3rd group. Comparison of ejaculate indicators revealed significant differences in the 1st and 2nd groups of men, differing in the type of fat distribution, in terms of volume of ejaculate, share of progressively motile sperm and DNA fragmentation level. Differences are identified for some indicators of ejaculate between the 1st and 3rd groups, but the differences between the 2nd and 3rd groups on any indicator are not detected. Conclusion. The revealed differences indicate a negative effect on the ejaculate indicators, particularly of upper type of fat distribution, peculiar to the men of the 1st group. The obtained results justify the assumption that abdominal obesity with upper type fat distribution is an independent risk factor of male fertility reduction

  4. Diagnostic imaging of infantile abdominal cystic disease

    Thirty-seven patients with infantile abdominal cystic disorders were studied by ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). US studies are simple to conduct, and commonly show an echo-free mass, but tend to yield hyperechoic images when fat and blood are present in the cystic fluid. CT studies, which distinctly demonstrate water, fat, soft tissue density and calcification, are very helpful in the diagnosis of cystic tumor, especially cystic teratoma. MR imaging, which is capable of distinguishing the nature of the cystic fluid (e.g., serous, chylous, bloody, fatty, etc.), is useful in the diagnosis of lymphangioma, teratoma, and torsion of ovarian cystic tumor. Based on the results of the present study, US may be considered to be the modality of first choice in the examination of infantile abdominal cystic disorders, and MRI and/or CT should be employed additionally as necessary in that order. (author)

  5. Drug Therapy for Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm is often asymptomatic, less recognized, and causes considerable mortalityand morbidity, if missed. The incidence varies from country to country and the occurrence is influencedby modifiable (smoking, coronary heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prolonged steroid therapyand non-modifiable risk factors (increasing age, male gender, and positive family history. Most ofthe patients with such aneurysm do not exhibit symptoms and the diagnosis is made accidentally duringroutine medical investigations, abdominal ultrasonography, or by an astute surgeon during an abdominalprocedure. Sometimes the diagnosis is made in an emergency room, if the attending resident/doctor isaware of it. Despite good diagnosis and effective management, the outcomes of complicated cases arepoor and the treatment cost is prohibitive. Hence, we reviewed the literature to find out the pathogenesisof such aneurysms and the usefulness of available drugs in its prevention.

  6. Evidence-based diagnosis of abdominal trauma

    Abdominal trauma is a common cause of death particularly in patients up to 40 years of age. In order to reduce mortality a rapid radiologic diagnosis is essential. At present, sonography plays a role only in the evaluation of minor trauma and as a ''focused assessment with sonography for trauma'' (FAST) to clarify free intraperitoneal fluid immediately on admittance in severely injured patients. However, computed tomography has proven to be a potent tool for the triage of patients with abdominal trauma, because, based on the results of the CT scan, patients can be referred for laparotomy or safely classified for ''wait and see'' treatment. Therapeutic decisions are largely based on injury severity scores and the radiologist must be familiar with them as well as with the associated therapeutic consequences. (orig.)

  7. Abdominal pregnancy as a cause of hemoperitoneum

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy, the heterotopic pregnancy, is a rare obstetric phenomenon. The preoperative diagnosis of this condition is very difficult; leading to a higher maternal morbidity and fetal loss. We experienced a case of intrauterine pregnancy and ruptured abdominal pregnancy implanted on the illeocaecal region in a 26-year-old primiparous woman. She was clinically misdiagnosed as a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, but ultrasonography showed it to be a case of heterotopic pregnancy. Subsequently, the patient was subjected to laparotomy and the ruptured abdominal pregnancy was evacuated. She continued with the intrauterine pregnancy till term and delivered a healthy female baby. Although this condition is unusual, any general surgeon in the emergency department must be aware of this complication and its management, which is often initially misdiagnosed.

  8. [Surgical criteria for reoperation in abdominal surgery].

    Bricot, R

    1975-07-01

    Analysis of the surgical criteria for reintervention in Abdominal Surgery led to the accentuation of a certain number of pictures of occlusion, general infectious syndromes, postoperative peritonitis, gastro-intestinal fistula and hemorrhagic syndrome. In all cases, the clinical examination can be misleading in particular in the case of peritonitis, and the history and non-surgical criteria must be strongly borne in mind. PMID:2036

  9. Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction

    Al Soub, Hussam; Al-Maslamani, Eman; Al-Maslamani, Mona

    2008-01-01

    We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably r...

  10. Computed tomography of pediatric abdominal masses

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the pediatric abdominal masses, due to faster, cheaper, and no radiation hazard than CT. But CT has more advantages in assessing precise anatomic location, and extent of the pathologic process, and also has particular value in defining the size, relation of the mass to surrounding organs and detection of lymphadenopathy. We analyzed CT features of 35 cases of pathologically proven pediatric abdominal masses for recent 2 years at Ewha Woman's University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1.The most common originating site was kidney (20 cases, 57.1%); followed by gastrointestinal (5 cases, 14.3%), nonrenal retroperitoneal (4 cases, 11.4%), hepatobiliary (3 cases, 8.6%), and genital (3 cases, 8.6%) in order of frequency. 2.The most common mass was hydronephrosis (11 cases, 31.4%), Wilms' tumor (7 cases, 20.0%), neuroblastoma, choledochal cyst, periappendiceal abscess (3 cases, 8.6%, respectively), ovarian cyst (2 cases, 5.7%) were next in order of frequency. 3.Male to female ratio was 4:5 and choledochal cyst and ovarian cyst were found only in females. The most prevalent age group was 1-3 year old (12 cases, 34.3%). 4.With CT, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis was easy in all cases and could evaluate of its severity, renal function and obstruction site with high accuracy. 5.Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma were relatively well differentiated by their characteristic CT features; such as location, shape, margin, middle cross, calyceal appearance and calcification, etc. 6.Ovarian and mensentric cysts had similar CT appearance. 7.In other pediatric abdominal masses, CT provided excellent information about anatomic detail, precise extent of tumor and differential diagnostic findings. So, CT is useful imaging modality for the demonstration and diagnosis of abdominal mass lesions in pediatric patients

  11. Laparoscopic biopsy in patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy

    Bhandarkar D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal lymphadenopathy (AL - a common clinical scenario faced by clinicians - often poses a diagnostic challenge. In the absence of palpable peripheral nodes, tissue has to be obtained from the abdominal nodes by image-guided biopsy or surgery. In this context a laparoscopic biopsy avoids the morbidity of a laparotomy. Aim: This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data represents our experience with laparoscopic biopsy of abdominal lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Between October 2000 and November 2005, 28 patients with AL underwent laparoscopic biopsy. Pre-operative radiological imaging studies had identified a nodal mass in 20, a solitary node in 1, a cold abscess in 1 and a mesenteric cystic lesion in 1 patient. In five patients with chronic right lower abdominal pain and normal ultra-sonographic findings mesenteric nodes were identified and biopsied during diagnostic laparoscopy. Results: The sites of biopsied lymph nodes included para-aortic (10, mesenteric (8, external iliac (3, left gastric (2, obturator (1, aorto-caval (1 and porta hepatis (1. One patient with enlarged peripancreatic nodes mass and another with a mesenteric cystic mass had cold abscesses drained in addition to biopsy. There were no perioperative complications and the median postoperative stay was 2 days (range 1-4 days. Histopathology revealed tuberculosis in 23 patients, reactive adenitis in 2, lymphoma in 1 metastatic carcinoma in 1, and a retroperitoneal sarcoma in 1. Conclusions: In patients with AL, laparoscopy provides a safe and effective means of obtaining biopsy. It is of particular value in patients in whom (a the nodes are small or present in locations unsuitable for image-guided biopsy, (b adequate tissue cannot be obtained by image-guided biopsy or (c previously undiagnosed lymphadenopathy is encountered during diagnostic laparoscopy.

  12. Reconstruction of chest, abdominal walls and perineum

    Vijaykumar D; Vijayaraghavan Sundeep

    2007-01-01

    The structural integrity of the chest and abdominal walls and perineum is frequently altered by cancer extirpation. Advances in reconstructive surgery and the availability of innovative techniques have helped the cancer surgeon to proceed with radical excisions with minimum morbidity. The ability to harvest flaps from distant sites and the availability of good prosthetic materials have now become part of the routine armamentarium of the plastic surgeon engaged in reconstructive surgery of the...

  13. The vanishing giant abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Krivoshei, Lian; Halak, Moshe; Schneiderman, Jacob; Silverberg, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Spontaneous sac size regression of a giant abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a rare event that has not been previously described. We report a case of an 89-year-old woman with a known 9-cm AAA, which was diagnosed in 2003. The patient had refused any kind of treatment at that time. Recent imaging studies obtained 7 years later revealed an AAA of 4 cm diameter. This is the first recorded case of significant spontaneous AAA sac shrinkage. PMID:21444348

  14. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after remote abdominal radiation

    Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references

  15. Abdominal pregnancy as a cause of hemoperitoneum

    Shafi Sheikh; Malla Misbha; Salaam Parvaiz; Kirmani Omer

    2009-01-01

    The coexistence of intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy, the heterotopic pregnancy, is a rare obstetric phenomenon. The preoperative diagnosis of this condition is very difficult; leading to a higher maternal morbidity and fetal loss. We experienced a case of intrauterine pregnancy and ruptured abdominal pregnancy implanted on the illeocaecal region in a 26-year-old primiparous woman. She was clinically misdiagnosed as a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, but ultrasonography showed it to ...

  16. Child abdominal tumour in tropical context: Think about schistosomiasis!

    A. M. Napon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide. The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting.

  17. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  18. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  19. Midgut malrotation with chronic abdominal pain

    Anil K Wanjari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in midgut rotation occur during the physiological herniation of midgut between the 5 th and 10 th week of gestation. The most significant abnormality is narrow small bowel mesentery which is prone to volvulus. This occurs most frequently in the neonatal period, less commonly midgut malrotation presents in adulthood with either acute volvulus or chronic abdominal symptoms. It is the latter group that represents a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a 17-year-old male patient who presented with 10-year history of nonspecific gastro-intestinal symptoms. After extensive investigation the patient was diagnosed with midgut malrotation following computed tomography of abdomen. The patient was treated with a laparoscopic Ladd′s procedure and at 3 months he was gaining weight and had stopped vomiting. A laparoscopic Ladd′s procedure is an acceptable alternative to the open technique in treating symptomatic malrotation in adults. Midgut malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly which may present as chronic abdominal pain. Abdominal CT is helpful for diagnosis.

  20. Intra-abdominal hypertension and acute pancreatitis.

    Mifkovic, A; Skultety, J; Sykora, P; Prochotsky, A; Okolicany, R

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) contributes to organ dysfunction and leads to the development of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). IAH and ACS are relatively frequent findings in patiens with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and are associated with deterioration in organ functions. The most affected are cardiovascular, respiratory and renal functions. The incidence of IAH in patients with SAP is approximately 60-80%. There is an accumulating evidence in human and animal studies that changes of perfusion, particularly to the microvasculature, are crucial events in the progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). The perfusion of the small and large intestine is impaired due to reduced arterial pressure, increased vascular resistence and diminished portal blood flow. Bacterial translocation has been described in patients with ACS, and this may apply to patients with SAP. Approximately 30-40% of SAP patients develop ACS because of pancreatic (retroperitoneal) inflammation, peripancreatic tissue edema, formation of fluid collections or abdominal distension. Surgical debridement was the preferred treatment to control necrotizing pancreatitis in the past. However, the management of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed over the last decade. The main objective of this article is to describe the association between IAH and AP and to emphasize this situation in clinical praxis as well (Fig. 1, Ref. 38). PMID:23406186

  1. CT of hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma

    This article is an appraisal of the use of CT in the management of patients with unstable abdominal trauma. We examined 41 patients with abdominal trauma using noncontrast dynamic CT. In 17 patients a postcontrast dynamic CT was also carried out. On CT, 25 patients had hemoperitoneum. Thirteen patients had splenic, 12 hepatic, 6 pancreatic, 8 bowel and mesenteric, 12 renal and 2 vascular injuries. Seven patients had retroperitoneal and 2 patients adrenal hematomas. All but five lesions (three renal, one pancreatic, and one splenic) were hypodense when CT was performed earlier than 8 h following the injury. Postcontrast studies (n = 17), revealed 4 splenic, 3 hepatic, 1 pancreatic, 3 renal, and 2 bowel and mesenteric injuries beyond what was found on noncontrast CT. Surgical confirmation (n = 21) was obtained in 81.81 % of splenic, 66.66 % of hepatic, 83.33 % of pancreatic, 100 % of renal, 100 % of retroperitoneal, and 85.71 % of bowel and mesenteric injuries. The majority of false diagnoses was obtained with noncontrast studies. Computed tomography is a remarkable method for evaluation and management of patients with hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma, but only if it is revealed in the emergency room. Contrast injection, when it could be done, revealed lesions that were not suspected on initial plain scans. (orig.)

  2. Computed tomography in therapy planning: Abdominal region

    The radiotherapy community is continuing to appreciate the significant contribution CBT can make to planning abdominal radiotherapy and is also beginning to appreciate the pitfalls and limitations of the technique. Specific attention should continue to focus on patient registration with the scanner and simulator radiographs, patient position during scanning and treatment, and effects of involuntary patient motion, especially breathing, on organ and tumor localization. Effects of patient positional changes and of involuntary motion during treatment on treatment planning and execution should be quantitated, as should effects of inhomogeneities, especially gut air, on abdominal dose distribution. Radiotherapy planned with CBT data can impact significantly on morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal malignancies. Faster scanners (with a scanning time of 9 sec or less) should be employed where possible to obtain maximum diagnostic information. Multiplanar reconstruction and true three-dimensional treatment planning can enhance significantly the value of CBT in treatment planning. Radiotherapists, radiodiagnosticians, radiation physicists, and oncologists must be continue to meet the challenge of realizing the true potential of CBT for the benefit of the cancer patients entrusted to their care

  3. Multidetector CT of blunt abdominal trauma.

    Soto, Jorge A; Anderson, Stephan W

    2012-12-01

    The morbidity, mortality, and economic costs resulting from trauma in general, and blunt abdominal trauma in particular, are substantial. The "panscan" (computed tomographic [CT] examination of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis) has become an essential element in the early evaluation and decision-making algorithm for hemodynamically stable patients who sustained abdominal trauma. CT has virtually replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for the detection of important injuries. Over the past decade, substantial hardware and software developments in CT technology, especially the introduction and refinement of multidetector scanners, have expanded the versatility of CT for examination of the polytrauma patient in multiple facets: higher spatial resolution, faster image acquisition and reconstruction, and improved patient safety (optimization of radiation delivery methods). In this article, the authors review the elements of multidetector CT technique that are currently relevant for evaluating blunt abdominal trauma and describe the most important CT signs of trauma in the various organs. Because conservative nonsurgical therapy is preferred for all but the most severe injuries affecting the solid viscera, the authors emphasize the CT findings that are indications for direct therapeutic intervention. PMID:23175542

  4. Inter-observer agreement for abdominal CT in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain

    The level of inter-observer agreement of abdominal computed tomography (CT) in unselected patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the Emergency Department (ED) was evaluated. Two hundred consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain were prospectively included. Multi-slice CT was performed in all patients with intravenous contrast medium only. Three radiologists independently read all CT examinations. They recorded specific radiological features and a final diagnosis on a case record form. We calculated the proportion of agreement and kappa values, for overall, urgent and frequently occurring diagnoses. The mean age of the evaluated patients was 46 years (range 19-94), of which 54% were women. Overall agreement on diagnoses was good, with a median kappa of 0.66. Kappa values for specific urgent diagnoses were excellent, with median kappa values of 0.84, 0.90 and 0.81, for appendicitis, diverticulitis and bowel obstruction, respectively. Abdominal CT has good inter-observer agreement in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED, with excellent agreement for specific urgent diagnoses as diverticulitis and appendicitis. (orig.)

  5. Inter-observer agreement for abdominal CT in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain

    Randen, Adrienne van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lameris, Wytze [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nio, C.Y.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Meier, Mark A.; Tutein Nolthenius, Charlotte; Smithuis, Frank; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    The level of inter-observer agreement of abdominal computed tomography (CT) in unselected patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the Emergency Department (ED) was evaluated. Two hundred consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain were prospectively included. Multi-slice CT was performed in all patients with intravenous contrast medium only. Three radiologists independently read all CT examinations. They recorded specific radiological features and a final diagnosis on a case record form. We calculated the proportion of agreement and kappa values, for overall, urgent and frequently occurring diagnoses. The mean age of the evaluated patients was 46 years (range 19-94), of which 54% were women. Overall agreement on diagnoses was good, with a median kappa of 0.66. Kappa values for specific urgent diagnoses were excellent, with median kappa values of 0.84, 0.90 and 0.81, for appendicitis, diverticulitis and bowel obstruction, respectively. Abdominal CT has good inter-observer agreement in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED, with excellent agreement for specific urgent diagnoses as diverticulitis and appendicitis. (orig.)

  6. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal compartment syndrome in acute general surgery.

    Sugrue, Michael

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is a harbinger of intra-abdominal mischief, and its measurement is cheap, simple to perform, and reproducible. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), especially grades 3 and 4 (IAP > 18 mmHg), occurs in over a third of patients and is associated with an increase in intra-abdominal sepsis, bleeding, renal failure, and death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Increased IAP reading may provide an objective bedside stimulus for surgeons to expedite diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of critically ill patients. One of the greatest challenges surgeons and intensivists face worldwide is lack of recognition of the known association between IAH, ACS, and intra-abdominal sepsis. This lack of awareness of IAH and its progression to ACS may delay timely intervention and contribute to excessive patient resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: All patients entering the intensive care unit (ICU) after emergency general surgery or massive fluid resuscitation should have an IAP measurement performed every 6 h. Each ICU should have guidelines relating to techniques of IAP measurement and an algorithm for management of IAH.

  7. Significance of residual abdominal masses in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma

    Karmazyn, B.; Horev, G.; Kornreich, L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah-Tikva (Israel); Ash, S.; Goshen, Y.; Yaniv, I. [Dept. of Hematology and Oncology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah-Tikva (Israel)

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma who had complete clinical remission and residual abdominal mass after treatment. Material and methods: The charts and imaging findings of all children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma treated and followed at our medical center between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed for the presence, management, clinical course, and prognosis of residual mass. Results: Only children who achieved complete clinical remission were included. The study group consisted of 33 children (20 boys and 13 girls) aged 2.6-17.6 years (mean 7.2 years). Of these, seven (20.6 %) were found to have a residual abdominal mass. Two underwent second-look operation with no evidence of viable tumor on histology. The remaining five were followed by imaging studies for 2.2-9.1 years (mean 6.1 years); none relapsed. Conclusion: Residual mass is not uncommon in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma. The presence of residual mass in a child with complete clinical remission does not alter the long-term prognosis. Therefore, in children with Burkitt's lymphoma and residual mass with no other signs of disease activity, expectant watching may be appropriate. (orig.)

  8. Significance of residual abdominal masses in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma who had complete clinical remission and residual abdominal mass after treatment. Material and methods: The charts and imaging findings of all children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma treated and followed at our medical center between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed for the presence, management, clinical course, and prognosis of residual mass. Results: Only children who achieved complete clinical remission were included. The study group consisted of 33 children (20 boys and 13 girls) aged 2.6-17.6 years (mean 7.2 years). Of these, seven (20.6 %) were found to have a residual abdominal mass. Two underwent second-look operation with no evidence of viable tumor on histology. The remaining five were followed by imaging studies for 2.2-9.1 years (mean 6.1 years); none relapsed. Conclusion: Residual mass is not uncommon in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma. The presence of residual mass in a child with complete clinical remission does not alter the long-term prognosis. Therefore, in children with Burkitt's lymphoma and residual mass with no other signs of disease activity, expectant watching may be appropriate. (orig.)

  9. Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments

    Falk, Benjamin; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie;

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we examined the relationship between active sonar sampling and flight motor output as bats changed environments from open space to an artificial forest in a laboratory flight room. Using high-speed video and audio recordings, we reconstructed and analyzed 3D flight trajectories, sonar beam aim...... and acoustic sonar emission patterns as the bats captured prey. We found that big brown bats adjusted their sonar call structure, temporal patterning and flight speed in response to environmental change. The sonar beam aim of the bats predicted the flight turn rate in both the open room and the forest. However......, the relationship between sonar beam aim and turn rate changed in the forest during the final stage of prey pursuit, during which the bat made shallower turns. We found flight stereotypy developed over multiple days in the forest, but did not find evidence for a reduction in active sonar sampling with experience...

  10. Evaluation of Forty-Nine Patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis

    Murat Kilic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Abdominal tuberculosis is an uncommon form of extrapulmonary infection. In this study, we aimed to highlight the nonspecific clinical presentations and diagnostic difficulties of abdominal tuberculosis. Material and Method: Clinical features, diagnostic methods, and the therapeutic outcomes of 49 patients diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis between 2003 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients were classified into four subgroups including peritoneal (28, nodal (14, intestinal (5, and solid organ tuberculosis (2. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain, abdominal distention and fatique. Ascites appeared to be the most frequent clinical finding. Ascites and enlarged abdominal lymph nodes were the most frequent findings on ultrasonography and tomography. Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was mainly depended on histopathology of ascitic fluid and biopsies from peritoneum, abdominal lymph nodes or colonoscopic materials. Forty patients healed with standart 6-month therapy while extended treatment for 9-12 months was needed in 8 whom had discontinued drug therapy and had persistent symptoms and signs. One patient died within the treatment period due to disseminated infection. Discussion: The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis is often difficult due to diverse clinical presentations. The presence of ascites, personal/familial/contact history of tuberculosis, and coexisting active extraabdominal tuberculosis are the most significant marks in diagnosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy and tissue sampling seem to be the best diagnostic approach for abdominal tuberculosis.

  11. 蒸发波导环境中雷达二维海杂波仿真%Simulation of 2-D Radar Sea Clutter in Evaporation Ducts

    曹仲晴; 康士峰; 王红光; 孙方

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a method of simulation of 2-D radar sea clutter in evaporation ducts is proposed. Ray tracing is used to calculate the grazing angle and parabolic equation ( PE) is used to calculate the loss for different ranges, the parameters of the K-dis-tributed sea clutter was then calculated by radar equation and SIRP has been used to generate K-distributed clutter series. One dimension of the series is time, the other is range. The series are simulated within the correlation time with Gauss spectrums and independent between the range bins. It can satisfy the assumption of independent identically distribution as the K-distribution parameters change slowly between the range bins. It can be used in radar signal simulation and can be used as the signal of sea clutter in the refractivity estimation from sea clutter. It can also be used to evaluate the over-the-horizon detecting performance in different duct environments.%提出了一种大气波导环境下的K分布雷达海杂波仿真方法,仿真了二维海杂波序列.该方法采用射线描迹和抛物方程模拟蒸发波导中电磁波的传播过程,结合雷达方程计算K分布参数,利用球不变随机过程仿真产生K分布海杂波.该二维序列一维为时间,另一维为距离,时间为相关时间,频谱为高斯谱;相邻距离单元之间独立,K分布参数在距离上慢变化,可以认为距离上符合独立同分布假设.文中的二维海杂波序列可应用于雷达海杂波信号模拟中,作为海杂波反演大气波导中的杂波信号,亦可用以分析雷达在不同波导环境中的超视距探测性能.

  12. [Intra-abdominal infection and new quinolones].

    Gnocchi, C A

    1999-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infection is defined as the presence of an infectious process within the peritoneal cavity. It may be local or have a systemic consequence generating multiple organic disfunction. Most of the studies report a mortality of 30% in severe intra-abdominal infection. Secondary peritonitis is caused by the loss of integrity of the gastrointestinal apparatus, which contaminates with pathogens the peritoneal cavity. Invariably they are polymicrobial infections, mostly due to facultative anaerobic and anaerobic Gram negative bacilli. Prognosis of peritonitis depends on the struggle between two forces: local and systemic immunity of the host and the volume, nature and length of the contamination. Microorganisms and their products estimulate cellular defenses in the host and activate numerous inflammatory mediators responsible for sepsis. Antibiotic treatment of secondary peritonitis must act mainly against Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. The adequate and early empirical administration of antibiotics against these bacteria is well established. It is necessary to consider if the infection is localized or generalized and if it is accompanied or not by organic disfunction. It also has to be taken into account if peritonitis is community or hospital-acquired when choosing the antibiotic scheme. In community-acquired peritonitis with low to moderate infections a combination of metronidazole-ceftriaxone, metronidazole-gentamycin or a monodrug like ampicillin-sulbactam may be used. In severe hospital-acquired peritonitis imipenem or the combination piperacillin-tazobactam are effective. New quinolones such as trovafloxacin or clinafloxacin, with excellent activity against aerobes and anaerobes producing intra-abdominal infections, may be effective. Future clinical trials are needed to determine their utility. Tertiary peritonitis represent a systemic inflammatory response with multiorganic failure due to the uncontrolled activation of the inflammatory

  13. Late renal function following whole abdominal irradiation

    Sixty patients treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy who had remained disease-free since completion of treatment participated in a study to assess the late clinical and biochemical effects of bilateral renal irradiation. Minimum follow-up was 5 years with a maximum of 20 years and a median of 9 years. Fifty-two patients in the study group were treated for primary ovarian cancer. Seven had non-Hodgkins lymphoma arising in the gastrointestinal tract and one patient had a carcinoid tumour arising in small bowel. None of the patients received chemotherapy. Abdominal radiation was given using an open beam technique to a mean dose of 22.92 Gy (range 6.68-27.54 Gy) in 1.02 to 1.25 Gy fractions treated once daily. Posterior kidney shields were used in order to limit the renal dose to <20 Gy. Mean radiation dose to both kidneys (retrospectively calculated) was 19.28 Gy (range 6.68-22.99 Gy). Patients ranged in age from 32-81 years with a median of 61 years. No patient had clinical evidence of renal impairment. Nine patients were hypertensive prior to radiotherapy and a further five patients became hypertensive after treatment. Serum creatinine values ranged from 44-123 μmol/l, with a mean of 87 μmol/l. Creatinine clearance ranged from 0.61-2.38 ml/s (mean 1.28 ml/s). Tubular function tests revealed one borderline high 24-h protein excretion and normal 24-h phosphorous and uric acid. Using a multiple linear regression analysis with creatinine clearance as the endpoint, age was the only significant variable (P < 0.00001) and renal dose and interval from treatment were not independently significant. There was no evidence of late renal toxicity more than 5 years after whole abdominal radiotherapy delivered with this technique and dose/fractionation schedule, and using the clinical and biochemical endpoints assessed in this study

  14. Late renal function following whole abdominal irradiation.

    Irwin, C; Fyles, A; Wong, C S; Cheung, C M; Zhu, Y

    1996-03-01

    Sixty patients treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy who had remained disease-free since completion of treatment participated in a study to assess the late clinical and biochemical effects of bilateral renal irradiation. Minimum follow-up was 5 years with a maximum of 20 years and a median of 9 years. Fifty-two patients in the study group were treated for primary ovarian cancer. Seven had non-Hodgkins lymphoma arising in the gastrointestinal tract and one patient had a carcinoid tumour arising in small bowel. None of the patients received chemotherapy. Abdominal radiation was given using an open beam technique to a mean dose of 22.92 Gy (range 6.68-27.54 Gy) in 1.02 to 1.25 Gy fractions treated once daily. Posterior kidney shields were used in order to limit the renal dose to creatinine values ranged from 44-123 mumol/l, with a mean of 87 mumol/l. Creatinine clearance ranged from 0.61-2.38 ml/s (mean 1.28 ml/s). Tubular function tests revealed one borderline high 24-h protein excretion and normal 24-h phosphorous and uric acid. Using a multiple linear regression analysis with creatinine clearance as the endpoint, age was the only significant variable (P < 0.00001) and renal dose and interval from treatment were not independently significant. There was no evidence of late renal toxicity more than 5 years after whole abdominal radiotherapy delivered with this technique and dose/fractionation schedule, and using the clinical and biochemical endpoints assessed in this study. PMID:8693108

  15. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood. PMID:26046716

  16. Chylous complications after abdominal aortic surgery.

    Haug, E S; Saether, O D; Odegaard, A; Johnsen, G; Myhre, H O

    1998-12-01

    Two patients developed chylous complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. One patient had chylous ascitis and was successfully treated by a peritoneo-caval shunt. The other patient developed a lymph cyst, which gradually resorbed after puncture. Chylous complications following aortic surgery are rare. Patients in bad a general condition should be treated by initial paracentesis and total parenteral nutrition, supplemented by medium-chain triglyceride and low-fat diet. If no improvement is observed on this regimen, the next step should be implementation of a peritoneo-venous shunt, whereas direct ligation of the leak should be reserved for those who are not responding to this treatment. PMID:10204656

  17. Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction

    Al Soub Hussam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably result in the identification of more cases. Combination antibiotic therapy with surgical drainage in more extensive diseases is essential for cure.

  18. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

    Morton, Darren; Callister, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as 'stitch', is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70% of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours

  19. Should intensivist do routine abdominal ultrasound?

    Sukhen Samanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roundworm infestation is common in tropical climate population with a low socioeconomic status. We describe a case of a young male with polytrauma accident who presented with small bowel dysfunction with a high gastric residual volume during enteral feeding. While searching the etiology, the intensivist performed bedside abdominal ultrasound (USG as a part of whole body USG screening along with clinical examination using different frequency probes to examine bowel movement and ultimately found ascariasis to be the cause. This case report will boost up the wide use of bedside USG by critical care physicians in their patient workup.

  20. Should intensivist do routine abdominal ultrasound?

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Soni, Kapil Dev; Aggarwal, Richa

    2015-09-01

    Roundworm infestation is common in tropical climate population with a low socioeconomic status. We describe a case of a young male with polytrauma accident who presented with small bowel dysfunction with a high gastric residual volume during enteral feeding. While searching the etiology, the intensivist performed bedside abdominal ultrasound (USG) as a part of whole body USG screening along with clinical examination using different frequency probes to examine bowel movement and ultimately found ascariasis to be the cause. This case report will boost up the wide use of bedside USG by critical care physicians in their patient workup. PMID:26430346

  1. Dog with Hydronephrosis Due to Abdominal Trauma

    Talita Mariana Morata Raposo1, Giovanna Rossi Varallo1, Rafael Ricardo Huppes1, Alexandre Martini de Brum2 and Andrigo Barboza De Nardi1*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is a condition that results from complete or partial obstruction of the urinary flow. This paper reports the case of a two-year-old, mixed-breed dog diagnosed with hydronephrosis of the left kidney six months after being kicked in the thoraco-abdominal region. The diagnosis was based on radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations. Percutaneous antegrade pyelography was also performed and allowed the visualization of opacification of the left kidney, which confirmed the diagnosis. Because the exams indicated that the patient had normal renal function, nephrectomy was performed. The patient remained in good health during the postoperative period and in subsequent evaluations.

  2. Melatonin reduces cardiac morbidity and markers of myocardial ischemia after elective abdominal aortic aneurism repair

    Gögenür, Ismail; Kücükakin, Bülent; Panduro Jensen, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effect of perioperative melatonin treatment on clinical cardiac morbidity and markers of myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing elective surgery for abdominal aortic aneurism. Reperfusion injury results in increased cardiac morbidity in patients undergoing surgery for...... abdominal aortic aneurisms (AAA). A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including patients undergoing surgery for AAA was performed. The patients received by infusion over a 2-hr period either, 50 mg melatonin or placebo intra-operatively, and 10 mg melatonin or placebo orally, the first three...... by Holter monitoring. A total of 26 patients received melatonin, while 24 received placebo. A significant reduction in cardiac morbidity was seen in the melatonin-treated patients compared with those given placebo [4% versus 29% (P = 0.02)]. Five patients (19%) who received melatonin had increased Tp...

  3. 基于回声状态网络的 OTHR 海杂波抑制方法%Sea Clutter Suppression Method of Over-the-Horizon Radar Based on Echo State Network

    何漫; 张亚璇; 解洪文; 胡进峰; 李会勇; 谢菊兰

    2015-01-01

    In the case of short coherent integration time(CIT),it is difficult for over-the-horizon radar (OTHR)to detect low speed targets:low speed targets are close to the strong sea clutter spectrum;short CIT leads to low Doppler resolution and make it harder to distinguish the target signal from sea clutter.Tra-ditional methods generally use the different time-frequency characteristics between sea clutter and target sig-nal to suppress sea clutter,it is very effective for high speed target.However,in short CIT and low speed situation,the time-frequency characteristics of target and sea clutter signal have small discrimination;tradi-tional methods cannot effectively suppress sea clutter.In response to these issues,taking into account the sea clutter and target signals with different dynamic characteristics,this paper presents an OTHR sea clutter suppression method based on echo state network.Firstly,the sea clutter reference signal is used to train echo state network,so that the neural network can “remember”the chaotic dynamic characteristic of sea clutter. Then the trained network is used to reconstruct and predict OTHR sea clutter.Subtracting the reconstructed sea clutter from the radar echo can achieve sea clutter suppression.The processing results of the measured data show that the proposed method has better sea clutter suppression performance than the traditional cycle cancellation method and SVD method.%在短相干积累时间(CIT)情况下,天波超视距雷达(OTHR)中低速目标检测很困难:低速目标靠近强大的海杂波频谱;短 CIT 导致多普勒分辨率低,使目标信号与海杂波更难区分。传统方法一般利用海杂波与目标信号的时频特征不同来抑制海杂波,目标速度较高时这些方法很有效,然而在短 CIT、低速目标情况下目标与海杂波信号的时频特征的区分度很小,使得传统方法难以有效抑制海杂波。针对上述问题,考虑到海杂波与目标信号具

  4. Report of a Case of Primary Abdominal Pregnancy

    Sh Beigi

    2006-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the embryo implants outside the uterine endometrial cavity. Abdominal pregnancy is an atypical site wherein the product of conception lies totally outside the reproductive tract. Primary abdominal pregnancy is a very rare condition with a high mortality rate. Diagnosis is often late or misdiagnosed. The aim of introducing this case report is to present a new case of early primary abdominal pregnancy. Despite regular m...

  5. Abdominal Wall Schwannoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Mishra, A.; Hamadto, M.; Azzabi, M.; M. Elfagieh

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical outpatient's department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised, and histopathology confirmed it to be “ancient” schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature.

  6. Abdominal Computed Tomography Findings of Malaria Infection with Plasmodium vivax

    Kim, Eun Mi; Cho, Hyeon Je; Cho, Chong Rae; Kwak, Yee Gyung; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ku

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings of malaria are not well-known even though malaria is a serious infectious disease. To identify abdominal CT findings, we selected 34 of 405 patients who had a positive peripheral blood smear for Plasmodium vivax and had underwent abdominal CT as the malaria group. We also selected 80 patients who had fever and a negative peripheral blood smear as the control group and 120 healthy people as the normal group. We reviewed and analyzed their medical rec...

  7. Transformation of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis to Clear Cell Carcinoma

    Maria Paula Ruiz; Darryl Lewis Wallace; Matthew Thomas Connell

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma is the least common of the malignant transformations reported in nonpelvic sites of endometriosis. Two cases with clear cell carcinoma transformation arising from endometriosis in abdominal wall scars are presented. These patients underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic washings, and abdominal wall lesion resection. The first case had initial treatment with chemotherapy, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy were given for th...

  8. A prospective study on geriatric abdominal surgical emergencies

    Deepak R. Chavan; Shailesh Kannur; B. B. Metan; Girish Kullolli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Geriatric population is a special subgroup of population undergoing emergency abdominal surgeries. Both higher age group and emergency surgical procedure are considered as high risk factors. In this study, we study the most common cause for geriatric population to undergo an emergency abdominal surgery and the therapeutic outcomes. Methods: All the patients aged more than 60 years coming to surgical department, BLDEU's hospital with acute abdominal conditions. Study period was ...

  9. Computed tomography for the assessment of blunt abdominal trauma

    Computed tomography (CT) was carried out on 70 patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Damage to the abdominal organs was clearly demonstrated by CT. The positive rates of CT in traumatic lesions were higher than those of ultrasound (US). Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was well demonstrated by US. Serum GPT levels were significantly elevated in patients with liver damage (p<0.001). CT proved to be useful for detecting damage to organs in patients with abdominal trauma. (author)

  10. Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination

    Sujata Kar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge. Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.

  11. A large abdominal desmoid tumour associated with pregnancy and puerperium

    Setu Rathod; Sunil Kumar Samal; Purna Chandra Mahapatra

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of huge abdominal desmoid tumour first detected during pregnancy. The patient delivered vaginally and the size of the tumour increased during puerperium for which resection was done. Most of these tumours occur in the abdominal muscles particularly right rectus abdominis, perhaps related to trauma from abdominal stretching and movement. These tumours are known to regress spontaneously after delivery which was not in our case. Subsequent pregnancies do not appear to resul...

  12. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis caused by paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Riccioni, G; Bucciarelli, V; Bisceglia, N; Totaro, G; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Martini, F; Gallina, S; Bucciarelli, T; Macarini, L

    2013-01-01

    Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare and potential fatal event, which occurs in adult subjects. We present the case of a 72-year-old-man, who referred to the emergency Department of our hospital because of persistent severe abdominal and perineal pain. Doppler ultrasounds and computerized tomography angiography revealed the acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta. Immediate revascularization through aortic thrombo-endoarterectomy resolved the disease. PMID:23830410

  13. [Influences of chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor on respiratory system impedance during abdominal surgery].

    Oka, T; Ozawa, Y; Sato, J

    1999-02-01

    The present study was carried out to clarify the effects of chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor on respiratory system impedance during abdominal surgery. We measured the impedances of respiratory system (RS), lung, and chest wall (CW) in nine anesthetized paralyzed subjects employing a pseudorandom noise forced volume oscillation technique. These measurements were performed before and after the lifting chest wall by upper abdominal retractor. The effects of chest deformation was significant on the impedances of RS, lung, while no discernible effect was found in CW impedance. Lifting chest wall decreased RS resistance which was totally accounted for by the decrease in lung resistance, whereas the lifting did not affect reactance in either RS or lung. The mathematical modeling showed the significant lifting effect on the resistance of the parenchyma. In conclusion, change in RS mechanics produced by chest deformation by upper abdominal retractor is dominated in lung but not in CW. Among the lung mechanical components, parenchyma is the primary site of the lifting effect. PMID:10087819

  14. Prevalence of abdominal migraine and recurrent abdominal pain in a Japanese clinic.

    Hikita, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence of abdominal migraine (AM) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was evaluated in patients who visited Hikita Pediatric Clinic between May 2010 and April 2015. Patient data were collected prospectively using a questionnaire. Out of a total of 3611 cases, observed prevalence was 2.44% for repeated abdominal pain over a period of ≥3 months, 1.47% for RAP, and 0.19% for AM. Duration of abdominal pain was longer for AM than for non-AM RAP. Certain clinical features were significantly different between AM and non-AM RAP. No correlations were found among age at onset, frequency of attack, and duration of attack for various types of RAP. It was difficult to determine useful diagnostic criteria for distinguishing between AM and non-AM RAP. They did not appear to be separate disease entities but, instead, lie on a disease spectrum. The present prevalence of AM (0.19%) was lower than that in many previous studies from countries other than Japan. PMID:27460403

  15. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  16. Diagnostic problems of abdominal desmoid tumors in various locations

    Kreuzberg, B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kreuzberg@fnplzen.cz; Koudelova, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Treska, V. [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Spidlen, V. [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Mukensnabl, P. [Sikl' s Department of Pathology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Background: Abdominal desmoid tumor is one of the forms of deep (musculoaponeurotic) fibromatosis. It occurs more often as a desmoid tumor in the abdominal wall, less often in various intra-abdominal locations. In this work, we performed retrospective study concerning diagnostic problems of this disease with the use of imaging techniques. Method: Four patients (three females and one male) were examined by postcontrast CT (computed tomography) and one of them also by MR (magnetic resonance). All findings were correlated with the operational findings and histologic examination. Results: The findings were typical only in the case with the lesion located in the abdominal wall, three described cases of the intra-abdominal desmoid provided a broad range of differentially diagnostic possibilities (metastases, GIT tumors, lymphomas, etc.). In particular, the findings in infiltrative processes in intra-abdominal location and retroperitoneal involvement were less typical. Ultimately, the histological findings were decisive. Conclusion: The possibility of the occurrence of intra-abdominal desmoid tumor must be considered particularly in younger individuals with rapidly growing tumorous process, which does not immediately arise from the surrounding organs (digestive tract, internal genitalia, etc.), and is located in the abdominal wall or in the abdominal cavity.

  17. Diagnostic problems of abdominal desmoid tumors in various locations

    Background: Abdominal desmoid tumor is one of the forms of deep (musculoaponeurotic) fibromatosis. It occurs more often as a desmoid tumor in the abdominal wall, less often in various intra-abdominal locations. In this work, we performed retrospective study concerning diagnostic problems of this disease with the use of imaging techniques. Method: Four patients (three females and one male) were examined by postcontrast CT (computed tomography) and one of them also by MR (magnetic resonance). All findings were correlated with the operational findings and histologic examination. Results: The findings were typical only in the case with the lesion located in the abdominal wall, three described cases of the intra-abdominal desmoid provided a broad range of differentially diagnostic possibilities (metastases, GIT tumors, lymphomas, etc.). In particular, the findings in infiltrative processes in intra-abdominal location and retroperitoneal involvement were less typical. Ultimately, the histological findings were decisive. Conclusion: The possibility of the occurrence of intra-abdominal desmoid tumor must be considered particularly in younger individuals with rapidly growing tumorous process, which does not immediately arise from the surrounding organs (digestive tract, internal genitalia, etc.), and is located in the abdominal wall or in the abdominal cavity

  18. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  19. Value of abdominal CT in the emergency department for patients with abdominal pain

    The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain were entered into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b) their level of certainty in their diagnosis; (c) if they thought CT would be normal or abnormal; (d) their treatment plan (prior to knowledge of the CT results); and (e) their role in deciding to order CT. This information was correlated with each patient's post-CT diagnosis and subsequent management. Pre- and post-CT diagnoses were concordant in 200 of 536 (37%) patients. The physicians' certainty in the accuracy of their pre-CT diagnosis was less than high in 88% of patients. Prior to CT, the management plan included hospital admission for 402 patients. Following CT, only 312 patients were actually admitted; thus, the net impact of performing CT was to obviate the need for hospital admission in 90 of 536 (17%) of patients with abdominal pain. Prior to CT, 67 of 536 (13%) of all patients would have undergone immediate surgery; however, following CT only 25 (5%) actually required immediate surgery. Among patients with the four most common pre-CT diagnoses (appendicitis, abscess, diverticulitis, and urinary tract stones) CT had the greatest impact on hospital admission and surgical management for patients with suspected appendicitis. For patients with suspected appendicitis, CT reduced the hospital admission rate in 28% (26 of 91) of patients and changed the surgical management in 40% (39 of 91) of patients. Our study demonstrates the advantage of performing abdominal CT in the ED for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  20. [Endometriosis in the abdominal wall (author's transl)].

    Caligaris, P; Masselot, R; Ducassou, M J; Le Treut, Y; Bricot, R

    1981-01-01

    The authors give 9 case histories of endometriosis localised to the abdominal wall : 3 of them in the umbilicus, 3 in laparotomy incisions (2 of those were Caesareans), 2 of them in the round ligaments at the external opening of the inguinal canal and 1 of them in the right rectus muscle sheath in the abdomen. The functional symptomatology is rhythmical according to menstruation; it is associated with a burning type of pain, a tumour and blood loss. Over and above the theories of aetiology that are now classical, namely tubal retrograde spill, and lymphatic or venous spread, it would seem that prostaglandins and in particular the ratio of P.G.E. divided by P.D.F2 alpha can play a big role. Although Danazol is an effective treatment for endometriosis, the treatment of choice is, in these lesions that are superficial in localisation and easily accessible, to cut them out surgically. This makes it possible on the one hand to look for other intra-abdominal lesions and also on the other hand to confirm the anatomy and pathology (this was done in 7 out of 9 of our cases). PMID:6459361

  1. Imaging modalities of abdominal tumors in children

    Further technological progress in cross-sectional imaging modalities, accumuting experience with increasingly refined hardware and software and accumulating specific contrast media allow new algorithms for the assessment of abdominal tumors in children. However, ultrasound remains the diagnostic method of choice: Conventional roentgenology with or without contrast media is decreasing, but often reveals further differential diagnostic details. MRI is becoming more prominent and is often performed immediately after ultrasound. The inauguration of gradient echo sequences and consequent shorter examination times combined with the elimination of pulsation and motion artefacts extends the diagnostic spectrum of the upper and middle abdomen. The application of oral or rectal contrast agents for imaging of the GI tract ameliorates the differentiation of pathologic processes. Recently volumetric CT/ultrafast CT has been gaining in importance for abdominal examinations in the pediatric age group. CT especially is helpful if there are bony structures in the region being examined. CT, however, involves ionizing radiation and timely administration of oral and intravenous contrast material. Moreover, as pediatric radiologists, we must strongly withstand tendencies to perform CT more often because it is less expensive, rather than avoiding ionizing radiation by using MRI. (orig.)

  2. Abdominal lymphadenopathy detection using random forest

    Cherry, Kevin M.; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new method for detecting abdominal lymphadenopathy by utilizing a random forest statistical classifier to create voxel-level lymph node predictions, i.e. initial detection of enlarged lymph nodes. The framework permits the combination of multiple statistical lymph node descriptors and appropriate feature selection in order to improve lesion detection beyond traditional enhancement filters. We show that Hessian blobness measurements alone are inadequate for detecting lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity. Of the features tested here, intensity proved to be the most important predictor for lymph node classification. For initial detection, candidate lesions were extracted from the 3D prediction map generated by random forest. Statistical features describing intensity distribution, shape, and texture were calculated from each enlarged lymph node candidate. In the last step, a support vector machine (SVM) was trained and tested based on the calculated features from candidates and labels determined by two experienced radiologists. The computer-aided detection (CAD) system was tested on a dataset containing 30 patients with 119 enlarged lymph nodes. Our method achieved an AUC of 0.762+/-0.022 and a sensitivity of 79.8% with 15 false positives suggesting it can aid radiologists in finding enlarged lymph nodes.

  3. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in children

    Pulmonary complications remain the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis, but the presenting symptoms in children are often related to gastrointestinal or pancreaticobiliary disease. Furthermore, abdominal manifestations are now seen throughout childhood, from infancy to adolescence. The child might present in the neonatal period with meconium ileus or its attendant complications. The older child might present with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome or colonic stricture secondary to high doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement. Less-common gastrointestinal manifestations include intussusception, duodenitis and fecal impaction of the appendix. Most children also show evidence of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. Radiologically, the combination of fat deposition and pancreatic fibrosis leads to varying CT and MR appearances. A higher than normal incidence of pancreatic cysts and calcification is also seen. Decreased transport of water and chloride also increases the viscosity of bile, with subsequent obstruction of the biliary ductules. If extensive, this can progress to obstructive cirrhosis, portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Diffuse fatty infiltration, hypersplenism and gallstones are also commonly seen in these patients. We present a pictorial review of the radiological appearance of these abdominal manifestations. The conditions are dealt with individually, together with typical appearances in various imaging modalities. (orig.)

  4. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in children

    Chaudry, Gulraiz; Navarro, Oscar M.; Levine, Daniel S.; Oudjhane, Kamaldine [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Pulmonary complications remain the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis, but the presenting symptoms in children are often related to gastrointestinal or pancreaticobiliary disease. Furthermore, abdominal manifestations are now seen throughout childhood, from infancy to adolescence. The child might present in the neonatal period with meconium ileus or its attendant complications. The older child might present with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome or colonic stricture secondary to high doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement. Less-common gastrointestinal manifestations include intussusception, duodenitis and fecal impaction of the appendix. Most children also show evidence of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. Radiologically, the combination of fat deposition and pancreatic fibrosis leads to varying CT and MR appearances. A higher than normal incidence of pancreatic cysts and calcification is also seen. Decreased transport of water and chloride also increases the viscosity of bile, with subsequent obstruction of the biliary ductules. If extensive, this can progress to obstructive cirrhosis, portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Diffuse fatty infiltration, hypersplenism and gallstones are also commonly seen in these patients. We present a pictorial review of the radiological appearance of these abdominal manifestations. The conditions are dealt with individually, together with typical appearances in various imaging modalities. (orig.)

  5. Abdominal computed tomography in malignant lymphoma

    The computed tomographic findings of malignant lymphoma in the pelvis and abdomen is described. Characteristic symptoms are lymph node enlargement in the diameter greater than 1,0 cm, obliteration of the contour of the surrounding structures and displacement of the neighbouring organs. In contrast to the conventional lymphography, CT gives information about mesenterial and retrocrural lymph nodes. In patients with involvement of liver and spleen, CT defines only the size of the organs, because of differences in density to normal patients are seldom observed and focal lesions are rare. 71 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically proved and untreated malignant lymphoma are investigated by CT. In 27 patients CT detected pathological findings, the sensitivity was 72%, the specifity 100%. False-negative results has been attributed to the failure to identify not enlarged, but involved lymph nodes and involved liver and spleen without focal lesions or enlargement. CT replaces lymphography in diagnosis and staging of patients with abdominal malignant lymphoma, lymphography is indicated only in patients with expected abdominal disease and normal CT to identify involved, not enlarged lymph nodes. (orig.)

  6. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  7. Denoising and Back Ground Clutter of Video Sequence using Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model Based Segmentation for Human Action Recognition

    Shanmugapriya. K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human action recognition system first gathers images by simply querying the name of the action on a web image search engine like Google or Yahoo. Based on the assumption that the set of retrieved images contains relevant images of the queried action, we construct a dataset of action images in an incremental manner. This yields a large image set, which includes images of actions taken from multiple viewpoints in a range of environments, performed by people who have varying body proportions and different clothing. The images mostly present the “key poses” since these images try to convey the action with a single pose. In existing system to support this they first used an incremental image retrieval procedure to collect and clean up the necessary training set for building the human pose classifiers. There are challenges that come at the expense of this broad and representative data. First, the retrieved images are very noisy, since the Web is very diverse. Second, detecting and estimating the pose of humans in still images is more difficult than in videos, partly due to the background clutter and the lack of a foreground mask. In videos, foreground segmentation can exploit motion cues to great benefit. In still images, the only cue at hand is the appearance information and therefore, our model must address various challenges associated with different forms of appearance. Therefore for robust separation, in proposed work a segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Models is proposed which is adaptive to light illuminations, shadow and white balance is proposed here. This segmentation algorithm processes the video with or without noise and sets up adaptive background models based on the characteristics also this method is a very effective technique for background modeling which classifies the pixels of a video frame either background or foreground based on probability distribution.

  8. Poverty Reduction

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  9. PET/CT Interpretation: Abdominal Anatomy

    Detail knowledge of abdominal anatomy is essential for accurate interpretation of oncologic PET/CT. The objective of this lecture is to provide the core knowledge and guidance about, peritoneal cavity, vessels, nodal, internal organ, especially liver segmental anatomy, and retroperitoneal spaces to nuclear medicine physicians in their interpretation of oncologic PET/CT. Peritoneal Cavity: The peritoneal spaces are easiest to recognize when there is ascites. The right subphrenic space communicates with anterior and posterior subhepatic (Morrison's) space. The left subphrenic space freely communicate with the left subhepatic space. The right and left subphrenic spaces are separated by falciform ligament and do not communicate directly. The lesser sac is the isolated peritoneal compartment between the stomach and pancreas. It communicates with the rest of the peritoneal cavity (greater sac) through the Foramen of Winslow. The right subphrenic and subhepatic spaces communicate freely with the pelvic peritoneal cavity thru the right paracolic gutter. The phrenicocolic ligament prevents free communication between the left subphrenic / subhepatic space and left paracolic gutter. Free fluid and peritoneal metastases commonly settles in pelvis as the most dependent portion of the peritoneal cavity. The small mesentery suspends the jejunum and ileum and extends obliquely from the left upper quadrant to right lower quadrant. Disease originating above the ligament is directed towards the right lower quadrant and below the ligament can spread to pelvis. The greater omentum hangs from the greater curvature of the stomach and descends in front of the abdominal viscera and serves as a fertile ground for peritoneal metastases. Vessels: The abdominal aorta descends anterior to the left side of the spine to its bifurcation at the level of the iliac crest. The normal aorta does not exceed 3 cm diameter and tapers progressively as it descends distally. The common iliac arteries

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of pediatric abdominal masses

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Gyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Hyun De [Chonnam University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of clinically suspicious abdominal masses in infants and children, especially in assessing their existence, size, location, origin and internal consistency. Authors analyzed and present ultrasonographic findings of 92 pathologically and/or clinically proven pediatric abdominal masses that were studied and treated in Chonnam University Hospital during recent 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. The most common originating site was kidney (26 cases: 28.3%), followed by gastrointestinal tract (21 cases: 22.8%), genital organ (17 cases: 18.5%), non-renal retroperitoneum (13 cases: 18.5%), hepatobiliary tract (12 cases: 13.0%), and anterior abdominal wall (3 cases: 3.3%) in order to frequency. 2. The most common mass was hydronephrosis (18 cases: 19.6%). Neuroblastoma (7 cases: 7.6%), hepatoblatoma, ovarian teratoma, periappendiceal abscess and abdominal tuberculosis (6 cases: 6.5%, respectively), Wilms tumor (5 cases: 5.4%) were next in order of frequency. 3. The sex distribution is rather similar, that is, male 42 (45.7%) and female 50 (54.3%), but characteristically choledochal cyst (2 cases) and genital mass (17 cases) were found only in females. Considering age distribution, 78 cases (84.8%) were found within the range of one to 15 years of age. The rest, 14 cases (15.2%), were under the age of one year. 4. With ultrasonography, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis could be made easily in every case and we could evaluate its severity and level of obstruction with high accuracy. 5. All Wilms tumor were large, round or oval, sharply marinated and relatively homogeneous solid masses. 6. All neuroblastomas were irregular shaped, poorly defined, heterogeneous solid masses. Tumor calcification and extension across the midline were noted in 6 cases (85.7%) and 5 cases (71.4%), respectively. 7. All periappendiceal abscess had irregular thickened wall and posterior acoustic enhancement; 4 cases (66

  11. Abdominal wall protrusion following herpes zoster Protrusão de parede abdominal secundária a herpes zoster

    Facundo Burgos Ruiz Junior; Jullyanna Sabrysna Morais Shinosaki; Wilson Marques Junior; Marcelo Simão Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with abdominal segmental paresis consequent to radiculopathy caused by zoster, which was confirmed by electroneuromyography. The paresis resolved completely within three months. Recognition of this complication caused by zoster, which is easily misdiagnosed as abdominal herniation, is important for diagnosing this self-limited condition and avoiding unnecessary procedures.Apresenta-se caso de uma paciente de 62 anos com paresia abdominal segmentar, c...

  12. Abdominal tuberculosis. On-going challenge to gastroenterologists

    The aim of this study is to record the observations and experience on the diagnosis and management of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to highlight the difficulties in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Two hundred consecutive patients attending the Gastroenterology Department of the King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between May 1991 and May 2001, suspected with abdominal TB were investigated. A detailed clinical history and physical examination were obtained. Data of 75 confirmed cases of abdominal TB were analyzed. The most common presenting symptoms were anorexia (84%), abdominal pain (84%) and weight loss (72%). Abdominal tenderness was the most common clinical finding, followed by ascites and abdominal mass (42%). The chest radiograph suggestive of pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 24 patients (32%). Computed tomographic (CT) scanning revealed abnormalities in all 51 patients who underwent the procedure, while positive findings were observed by abdominal ultrasound in 66% of the tested patients. Histopathological examination of patients showed tuberculosis granuloma, while acid fast bacilli were seen in 34%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by microbiological methods in 60% of patients. The most common presenting symptoms were anorexia (84%), abdominal pain (84%) and weight loss (72%). Abdominal tenderness was the most common clinical finding, followed by ascites and abdominal mass (42%). The chest radiograph suggestive of pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 24 patients (32%). Computed tomographic (CT) scanning revealed abnormalities in all 51 patients who underwent the procedure, while positive findings were observed by abdominal ultrasound in 66% of the tested patients. Histopathological examination of patients showed tuberculous granuloma, while acid fast bacilli were seen in 34%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by microbiological methods in 60% of patients. A high index of clinical suspicion is

  13. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms Rastreamento de aneurismas da aorta abdominal

    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms may be useful to decrease mortality related to rupture. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in southern Brazil and to define risk factors associated with high prevalence of this disorder. The screening was conducted using abdominal ultrasound. Three groups were studied: Group 1 - cardiology clinic patients; Group 2 - individuals with severe ischemic disease and previous coronary surgery, or important lesions on cardiac catheterism; Group 3 - individuals without cardiac disease selected from the general population. All individuals were male and older than 54 years of age. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior abdominal aorta diameter of 3 cm, or on an abdominal aorta diameter 0.5 cm greater than that of the supra-renal aorta. RESULTS: A total of 2.281 people were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms in all groups: Group 1 - 768 individuals, Group 2 - 501 individuals, and Group 3 - 1012 individuals. The prevalence of aneurysms was 4.3%, 6.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Age and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aneurysms, as was the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. DISCUSSION: We concluded that screening may be an important tool to prevent the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms surgery. Additionally, the cost of screening can be decreased if only individuals presenting significant risk factors, such as coronary and peripheral artery disease, smokers and relatives of aneurysm patients, are examined.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal é importante pois pode diminuir a mortalidade relacionada à ruptura. Realizamos um estudo para definir a prevalência desses aneurismas em diversos segmentos da população em nossa região do Brasil. O rastreamento foi realizado utilizando-se a ecografia de abdômen. Tr

  14. Increased Auditory Startle Reflex in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Study design Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal pain

  15. Small Bowel Injury in Peritoneal Encapsulation following Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

    Naidoo, K.; Mewa Kinoo, S.; Singh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Small bowel encapsulation is a rare entity which is usually found incidentally at autopsy. We report the first case of peritoneal encapsulation encountered serendipitously at laparotomy undertaken for penetrating abdominal trauma and review the literature on peritoneal encapsulation. We also compare this phenomenon to abdominal cocoon and sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

  16. Small Bowel Injury in Peritoneal Encapsulation following Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

    K. Naidoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel encapsulation is a rare entity which is usually found incidentally at autopsy. We report the first case of peritoneal encapsulation encountered serendipitously at laparotomy undertaken for penetrating abdominal trauma and review the literature on peritoneal encapsulation. We also compare this phenomenon to abdominal cocoon and sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

  17. Tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap for abdominal wall reconstruction

    We report a case of abdominal wall reconstruction following excision of irradiated skin and a ventral hernia. A very large tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap was used with good results. The anatomical features of this flap make it an excellent method of abdominal wall reconstruction

  18. Practical Approaches to Definitive Reconstruction of Complex Abdominal Wall Defects.

    Latifi, Rifat

    2016-04-01

    With advances in abdominal surgery and the management of major trauma, complex abdominal wall defects have become the new surgical disease, and the need for abdominal wall reconstruction has increased dramatically. Subsequently, how to reconstruct these large defects has become a new surgical question. While most surgeons use native abdominal wall whenever possible, evidence suggests that synthetic or biologic mesh needs to be added to large ventral hernia repairs. One particular group of patients who exemplify "complex" are those with contaminated wounds, enterocutaneous fistulas, enteroatmospheric fistulas, and/or stoma(s), where synthetic mesh is to be avoided if at all possible. Most recently, biologic mesh has become the new standard in high-risk patients with contaminated and dirty-infected wounds. While biologic mesh is the most common tissue engineered used in this field of surgery, level I evidence is needed on its indication and long-term outcomes. Various techniques for reconstructing the abdominal wall have been described, however the long-term outcomes for most of these studies, are rarely reported. In this article, I outline current practical approaches to perioperative management and definitive abdominal reconstruction in patients with complex abdominal wall defects, with or without fistulas, as well as those who have lost abdominal domain. PMID:26585951

  19. Computed tomography and nonoperative treatment for blunt abdominal trauma

    Studies were undertaken to determine if computed tomography (CT) could reliably assist physical examination in the initial assessment of blunt abdominal trauma, and also to examine how various abdominal injuries were managed with the guidance of CT. A total of 255 patients underwent emergency abdominal CT following blunt abdominal trauma over a period of seven years. One hundred and fifty two patients had abnormal CT scans, including 58 hepatic, 36 renal, 25 splenic and 9 pancreatic injuries as well as 67 patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage and 21 patients with free abdominal air. A comparative study on the detection of pneumoperitoneum revealed CT to be far superior to plain radiography. One hundred and three patients had normal CT scans, all of whom were managed nonoperatively, except for three false-negative cases and two nontherapeutic cases. The patients with injury to the parenchymal organs were given nonoperative treatment if they had stable vital signs and no evidence of associated injuries demanding immediate surgery and the majority of these patients were managed well nonoperatively. CT was thus found to be a useful adjunct in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, since in a rapid and noninvasive fashion, CT accurately defined the extent of parenchymal organ injury and also disclosed any other abdominal injuries. (author)

  20. The clinical picture of duodenal rupture after blunt abdominal trauma

    The case of a 30 years old woman who suffered a pneumoretroperitoneum due to a blunt abdominal trauma is reported. The characteristic roentgen signs showing the source of the retroperitoneal air trappings are discussed. The exact analysis of simple abdominal plain films allows early references to an often life-threatening disease without expensive additional examinations. (orig.)

  1. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    Mc Cabe, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with abdominal pain, diarrhoea, anorexia and haematemesis. The patient was previously diagnosed with latent tuberculosis (TB). On examination, his abdomen was diffusely tender, with localised guarding in the right iliac fossa. CT imaging of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a low volume of ascites, diffuse studding of the peritoneum, omental caking and several bulky low-density lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum. A laparoscopy was performed to obtain a peritoneal biopsy. Histology demonstrated fragments of peritoneum with necrotising granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate in keeping with an infectious process, favouring TB. He was commenced on rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and pyridoxine under the direct observed therapy by the infectious diseases team. In view of his extensive peritoneal involvement, he was empirically started on high-dose prednisolone for symptomatic control and to reduce complications related to peritoneal adhesions.

  2. Simulation-Based Abdominal Ultrasound Training

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ewertsen, C; Konge, L;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim is to provide a complete overview of the different simulation-based training options for abdominal ultrasound and to explore the evidence of their effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines and Medline, Embase, Web of...... evidence, and 14 had the lowest level. Bias was high for 11 studies, low for four, and unclear for two. No studies used a test with established evidence of validity or examined the correlation between obtained skills on the simulators and real-life clinical skills. Only one study used blinded assessors....... CONCLUSION: The included studies were heterogeneous in the choice of simulator, study design, participants, and outcome measures, and the level of evidence for effect was inadequate. In all studies simulation training was equally or more beneficial than other instructions or no instructions. Study designs...

  3. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality...... of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. RESULTS: A total of seven...... studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. CONCLUSION: Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients...

  4. Changing spleen size after blunt abdominal trauma

    The authors studied the incidence and significance of splenic enlargement on serial CT after abdominal trauma. Spleen size and density in 44 trauma patients were studied with serial, contrast-enhanced Ct. In 58% of the patients, ≥ 10% enlargement of the spleen was seen on follow-up scans. Ten patients had >50% enlargement. In several, the initial density of the spleen was less than that of the liver. Spleen density returned to normal on subsequent scans. Correlations between splenic changes and clinical parameters (such as blood replacement, hypotension, and various trauma indexes) were weak. The author's study indicated that serial splenic enlargement was a physiologic return to normal after major trauma, not a pathologic condition requiring splenectomy

  5. Intra-Abdominal Hematoma Following Enoxaparin Injection.

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient, who was being treated for therapeutic enoxaparin for a couple of days due to suspected deep vein thrombosis, was admitted to hospital following a collapse and severe abdominal pain. She was in hypovolemic shock and was fluid resuscitated. Ultrasound scan and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large pelvic hematoma. Radiologists also suspected a possibility of bleeding from inferior epigastric artery following a CT angiogram. The patient was stabilized and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for further hemodynamic supports and close monitoring. The patient was then transferred back to the general ward when she was stable. She was managed conservatively as there were no more signs of active bleeding. Unfortunately, she died of recurrent bleeding three days after ICU discharge. PMID:27158226

  6. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  7. Ocean clutter suppression for a bistatic HF ground wave radar%双基地高频地波雷达海杂波抑制

    仇永斌; 张宁; 张树春

    2012-01-01

    由于地貌、双基角和洋流等因素的影响,双基地海杂波形成的目标检测盲区会导致杂波被当作目标来检测和跟踪,形成大量的虚假目标.针对这一问题,提出一种快速抑制杂波方法:利用双基地海杂波频率特征的先验知识,结合海面的平稳特性,在距离多普勒(RD)谱上获取海杂波抑制的频率范围;应用Clean算法,先对通道时域数据进行海杂波抑制,之后进行数字波束形成,得到能够正常进行目标检测的谱数据.实际处理结果表明,该方法快速有效,能够实时进行数据处理.%For a bistatic HF radar,the bistatic angle,ocean current and physiognomy of receiver location will bring about the Bragg lines' spreading,peak split and peak shift,so that the first order ocean clutter will be detected and tracked as a false target in some cases.To solve this problem,a fast method is proposed to suppress the ocean clutter.Based on some priori knowledge and stationary properties of the ocean surface,the ocean clutter frequency range to be suppressed was obtained on the Range-Doppler(RD) spectra.Then the Clean algorithm was applied to suppress the ocean clutter on the un-beam-formed channel data,after that the digital beam forming was performed and the obtained data were more helpful for target detection.The results show that this method is valid and can be implemented for real-time operation.

  8. Tratamento cirúrgico das distrofias da parede abdominal no adulto Dystrophies of the abdominal wall in adults

    Fortunato Jayme Athias

    1998-04-01

    operações sem dermolipectomia (2,5%; uma necrose de linha média+embolia pulmonar (1,26%; e um óbito por embolia pulmonar (1,26%.The authors present a retrospective study of 79 patients with abdominal dystrophies, both with and without hernias, operated on from June 1st, 1994 to December,31,1996. Their average age was 47 years. The incisional hernia it self and the dystrophic abdomen were principal objects of the study. The authors show the importance of abdominal dermolipectomy for the complete recovery of the patient as well as demonstrate how it facilitates the technical manipulation of hernias. The technique of bilateral, longitudinal peritonio-aponeurotic transposition (the technique of Alcino Lázaro da Silva was used for large incisional hernias. This technique has been approved by its good results (5% of relapses in five years of follow up according the author. In this technique we use three levels of suture without superposing each other. The great advantage of the technique is that we use the herniary sac itself to close the ring and to strengthen. It avoids the use of meshes and the its complications (rejections, fistulas, etc.. A variation of this technique, for hernias with a hernial ring up to 10cm, is proposed by the authors, which consists in the closure of the ring and the reinforcement of the suture with the hernial sac overlapping its edge. The advantage is the facility of performing, reductions in the operative time and to avoid large dissections of the aponeurotic layer. When the herniary ring is 10cm or bigger it is possible to slack the tension by making a relaxing incision over on the anterior rectum abdominal aponeurosis and covering the wide area with the hernial sac. A review is made of the results of these procedures done associated with abdominal dermolipectomy isolated. The results are: 63 patients recovered without complications (81.66%, three relapsed (3.8%, one of extensive hematoma (1.26%, one necrosis of the midline with respiratory

  9. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  10. Massive Intra-abdominal Mass: A Surgical Challenge

    Dnyanesh M. Belekar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Serous Ovarian Cystadenomas usually present as bilateral small to medium size intra-abdominal mass. Massive intra-abdominal masses are commonly mucinous cystadenomas or mesenteric cysts. Patients with massive intra-abdominal masses present with pain in abdomen and symptoms of discomfort due to the huge swelling. Postural hypotension, intestinal obstruction, cardio respiratory embarrassment is few other presenting symptoms. Asymptomatic intraabdominal massive tumors are unusual. We report a case of a female with a massive intra-abdominal mass with clinical suspicion of mesenteric cyst or ovarian mass. Huge intra-abdominal mass with no symptoms of cardiovascular compromise and difficulty in pinpointing the organ of origin preoperatively make this case interesting.

  11. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot

    Christos Stefanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically.

  12. Temporary abdominal closure with zipper-mesh device for management of intra-abdominal sepsis

    Edivaldo Massazo Utiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to present our experience with scheduled reoperations in 15 patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. METHODS: we have applied a more effective technique consisting of temporary abdominal closure with a nylon mesh sheet containing a zipper. We performed reoperations in the operating room under general anesthesia at an average interval of 84 hours. The revision consisted of debridement of necrotic material and vigorous lavage of the involved peritoneal area. The mean age of patients was 38.7 years (range, 15 to 72 years; 11 patients were male, and four were female. RESULTS: forty percent of infections were due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Sixty percent were due to perforation of the intestinal viscus secondary to inflammation, vascular occlusion or trauma. We performed a total of 48 reoperations, an average of 3.2 surgeries per patient. The mesh-zipper device was left in place for an average of 13 days. An intestinal ostomy was present adjacent to the zipper in four patients and did not present a problem for patient management. Mortality was 26.6%. No fistulas resulted from this technique. When intra-abdominal disease was under control, the mesh-zipper device was removed, and the fascia was closed in all patients. In three patients, the wound was closed primarily, and in 12 it was allowed to close by secondary intent. Two patients developed hernia; one was incisional and one was in the drain incision. CONCLUSION: the planned reoperation for manual lavage and debridement of the abdomen through a nylon mesh-zipper combination was rapid, simple, and well-tolerated. It permitted effective management of severe septic peritonitis, easy wound care and primary closure of the abdominal wall.

  13. Long-term abdominal adiposity activates several parameters of cardiac energy function.

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal obesity increases the incidence of cardiac events but reduces mortality when one of these events occurs. The phenomenon called obesity paradox might be related to myocardial energetics. This study was aimed at determining whether long-term abdominal adiposity alters cardiac energy function. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a Western-type (WD) diet for 8 months. The ex vivo coronary reactivity and mechanical function as well as the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and hydrogen peroxide release (mH2O2r) were determined. Abdominal adiposity was augmented by the WD. This was also the case for the coronary reactivity to acetylcholine, but the rate pressure product remained roughly stable despite a reduction of the left ventricle-developed pressure partly compensated by a slight increase in heart rate. The prolonged WD administration resulted in an improvement of mOxPhos, but the mH2O2r was exaggerated which was confirmed in the whole cell by a reduced aconitase to fumarase ratio. This did not modify the plasma oxidative stress due to an increased plasma antioxidant status. In conclusion, long-term WD administration improved the cardiac fitness and might predispose the organism to the obesity paradox. Conversely, the increased mitochondrial mH2O2r can precipitate the heart toward cardiomyopathy if the WD is maintained for a longer duration. PMID:26255304

  14. Reduced contrast medium in abdominal aorta CTA using a multiphasic injection technique

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: v.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Stegehuis, Paulien L., E-mail: p.l.stegehuis@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine P.O. Box 21 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: m.rutten@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if with a multiphasic injection technique the administered amount of contrast medium for abdominal computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) can be decreased, whilst improving CT image quality. Materials and methods: In 30 patients a multiphasic injection method was compared to the standard uniphasic contrast medium injection protocol. Fifteen patients underwent abdominal CTA with a standard uniphasic injection protocol (protocol I) receiving 100 mL of a non-ionic radiopaque contrast agent (Ioversol). The second group of 15 patients underwent CTA with a multiphasic injection protocol (protocol II) receiving a total of 89 mL Ioversol. Vascular contrast enhancement and difference in enhancement uniformity were assessed quantitatively and image quality was assessed by three independent radiologists. Results: Quantitative assessment of the vascular contrast enhancement showed that there was no significant difference in enhancement uniformity for patients between the protocols. The image quality was rated as being good to excellent in 81.8% and 88.0% of the scans, for protocol I and protocol II, respectively. However these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: By using a multiphasic injection technique with CTA of the abdominal aorta a reduction of 11 percent of contrast medium can be realized. Enhancement patterns are quantitatively as well as qualitatively comparable to the standard contrast medium injection protocol.

  15. Comparison between plain abdominal radiographs and CT in patients with blunt abdominal trauma

    Plain abdominal radiographs (PAR) and CT in 186 cases of blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. In the group of normal PAR, CT was normal in 56 cases (30%) and CT was abnormal in 9 (5%). They were all treated conservatively and had on uneventful course. It can be said that possibility of missing significant injury in cases of normal PAR is minimal. Both PAR and CT were abnormal in 88 cases (47%). All patients treated surgically were included in this group. CT is indicated in this group. False negative CT results were seen in 13 cases (7%). It consisted of minor fractures and had no clinical significance. False positive PAR findings were seen in 32 cases (18%). PAR is suitable as the first modality of choice. Among various findings on PAR, obliteration of organs and intraperitoneal fluid collection suggested abdominal injury most frequently. Thorough work-up is necessary when such findings were recognized on PAR. There was no relationship between abnormal injury and specific fractures as has been described in previous reports. (author)

  16. Measurement of abdominal wall compliance in normal subjects and tetraplegic patients.

    Goldman, J M; Rose, L S; Morgan, M D; Denison, D M

    1986-01-01

    On inspiration descent of the diaphragm is opposed by the passive properties of the abdominal wall, the tone of its muscles, and the inertia of the abdominal contents. As a result, intra-abdominal pressure rises and promotes rib cage expansion. In patients with high spinal injury the diaphragm is the most important muscle of inspiration and abdominal wall displacement is more evident than in normal subjects. Abdominal wall compliance has been measured by relating gastric pressure to abdominal...

  17. [Evaluation of the blood coagulation system after surgeries on abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Liksunov, O V; Ratushniuk, A V; Lugovs'koĭ, E V; Kolesnikova, I M; Lytvynova, L M; Kostiuchenko, O P; Chernyshenko, T M; Hornyts'ka, O V; Platonova, T M

    2012-09-01

    Basing on data of analysis of the hemostasis system state in the patients, suffering abdominal aorta aneurysm, a tendency for raising of postoperative soluble fibrin and D-dimer content in the blood plasm and reduction of these indices on the third day was noted. The abovementioned markers content depends on the aneurysm size, the fibrin deposits presence, the terms from clinical signs beginning to the certain therapy administration and anticoagulants application. Information about correlation between content of D-dimer and soluble fibrin in the treatment dynamics is important for determination of activation degree in the patients blood coagulation system and the thrombotic complications prognosis. PMID:23285650

  18. Advanced modelled iterative reconstruction for abdominal CT: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation

    Aim: To determine qualitative and quantitative image-quality parameters in abdominal imaging using advanced modelled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) with third-generation dual-source 192 section CT. Materials and methods: Forty patients undergoing abdominal portal-venous CT at different tube voltage levels (90, 100, 110, and 120 kVp, n = 10 each) and 10 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal non-enhanced low-dose CT (100 kVp, 60 mAs) using a third-generation dual-source 192 section CT machine in the single-source mode were included. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and ADMIRE (strength levels 1–5). Two blinded, independent readers subjectively determined image noise, artefacts, visibility of small structures, and image contrast, and measured attenuation in the liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, fat, and urinary bladder, and objective image noise. Results: Subjective noise was significantly lower and image contrast significantly higher for each increasing ADMIRE strength level and also for ADMIRE 1 compared to FBP (all, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found for artefact and visibility ratings among image sets (all, p > 0.05). Attenuation was similar across tube voltage-image datasets in all anatomical regions (all, p > 0.05). Objective noise was significantly lower for each increasing ADMIRE strength level, and for ADMIRE 1 compared to FBP (all, p < 0.001, maximal reduction 53%). Independent predictors of noise were tube voltage (p < 0.05) and current (p < 0.001), diameter (p < 0.05), and reconstruction algorithm (p<0.001); the amount of noise reduction was related only to the reconstruction algorithm (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abdominal CT using ADMIRE results in an improved image quality with lower image noise as compared with FBP, while the attenuation of various anatomical regions remains constant among reconstruction algorithms. - Highlights: • Advanced modeled iterative reconstruction results in an

  19. Improved clutter rejection in automatic target recognition and tracking using eigen-extended maximum average correlation height (EEMACH) filter and polynomial distance classifier correlation filter (PDCCF)

    Islam, M. F.; Alam, M. S.

    2006-04-01

    Various correlation based techniques for detection and classification of targets in forward looking infrared (FLIR) imagery have been developed in last two decades. Correlation filters are attractive for automatic target recognition (ATR) because of their distortion tolerance and shift invariance capabilities. The extended maximum average correlation height (EMACH) filter was developed to detect a target with low false alarm rate while providing good distortion tolerance using a trade off parameter (beta). By decomposing the EMACH filter using the eigen-analysis, another generalized filter, called the eigen-EMACH (EEMACH) filter was developed. The EEMACH filter exhibits consistent performance over a wide range which controls the trade-off between distortion tolerance and clutter rejection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to combine the EEMACH and polynomial distance classifier correlation filter (PDCCF) for detecting and tracking both single and multiple targets in real life FLIR sequences. At first, EEMACH filter was used to select regions of interest (ROI) from input images and then PDCCF is applied to identify targets using thresholds and distance measures. Both the EEMACH and PDCCF filters are trained with different sizes and orientations corresponding to the target to be detected. This method provides improved clutter rejection capability by exploiting the eigen vectors of the desired class. Both single and multiple targets were identified in each frame by independently using EEMACH-PDCCF algorithm to avoid target disappearance problems under complicated scenarios.

  20. Abdominal CT features and survival in acquired immunodeficiency

    Purpose: HIV-infected patients show a high incidence of abdominal disease. This investigation was made to determine whether abdominal CT provided prognostically relevant information in these patients. Material and Methods: Images from 533 abdominal CT examinations in 339 HIV-infected patients were retrospectively reviewed for signs of abdominal disease, and correlated with clinical data and survival rates. The Kaplan-Meier analysis and rank testing of survival, and proportional hazards regression were used to define prognostic clinical and imaging findings. Results: Of the 339 patients, 278 (82%) showed abnormal abdominal findings on CT. Median survival was 29 months. Of the imaging findings, hepatic masses (n=11), pathologically enlarged lymph nodes (n=48), and ascites (n=7) were associated with poor survival, giving a median survival of respectively 13 months, 15 months, and less than 1 month. These three features showed no association with CD4+-T-lymphocyte count or CDC category. Main determinants of survival were a low CD4+-T-lymphocyte count, and certain abnormal CT findings. Splenomegaly (n=147), hepatomegaly (n=144), and lymphadenopathy (n=111) were the most common abdominal findings on CT but lacked prognostic relevance. Conclusion: Abdominal CT offered prognostic implications in HIV-infected patients and might serve in risk stratification in selected patients. CT features such as hepatic masses, grossly enlarged lymph nodes, or ascites indicate advanced immunosuppression. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of abdominal trauma by computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Out of 75 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of abdominal trauma and were undergone the procedures such as ultrasonography and/or CT scan within 24 hours of abdominal trauma due to suspected abdominal organ injury. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. 1. In the abdominal organ injury, solid organ injury consists of 8 cases of spleen laceration, 1 of splenic subcapsular hematoma, 7 of hepatic laceration, 7 of pancreas laceration, 3 of renal laceration, and 3 of subcapsular hematoma of kidney. 2. In addition, there were 7 bowel and/or mesenteric laceration, 2 diaphragmatic hernia, and 1 urethral rupture. 3. 2 cases of retroperitoneal hematoma and 1 case in which hemo peritoneum occurred without abdominal organ injury were confirmed by follow-up CT or ultrasonography. 4. In all of the 4 patients with multiple organ injury, pancreatic laceration was associated. 5. In abdominal trauma patients, ultrasonography or CT can be used to survey rapidly the entire abdomen for possible associated injury, and be of great help to clinicians in identifying the patients who need immediate surgery or in minimizing the incidence of unnecessary emergency abdominal exploration.

  2. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    Amin Abid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1% followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06% had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%. Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%. Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24% whereas 3 (1.94% had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%. Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis.

  3. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    Emmanuel Olorundare Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7% males and 20 (18.3% females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years. The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%, colon 48 (44%, and liver 41 (37.6%. Forty-four (40.4% patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%, musculoskeletal 12 (11%, and the head in 9 (8.3%. The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%, explosives 12 (11%, stab injuries 11 (10.1%, and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%. The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8 with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1% and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%. Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems.

  4. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic and abdominal malformations

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fetal thoracic and abdominal malformations. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In cases of suspected pathologies based on fetal ultrasound MRI can be used for more detailed examinations and can be of assistance in the differential diagnostic process. Improved imaging of anatomical structures and of the composition of different tissues by the use of different MRI sequences. Fetal MRI has become a part of clinical routine in thoracic and abdominal malformations and is the basis for scientific research in this field. In cases of thoracic or abdominal malformations fetal MRI provides important information additional to ultrasound to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic evaluation and surgical planning. (orig.)

  5. Synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall: An unusual presentation

    Parag J Karkera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm which commonly occurs in the extremities in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, joint capsules, and fascial structures. Rarely, SS may be present in unexpected location such as the abdominal wall. Surgical resection with wide margins is the initial standard treatment; however, a multimodal approach including radiotherapy and chemotherapy is often favored. Here, we present a case of SS of the anterior abdominal wall in a 14-year-old patient with a right upper abdominal lump. He underwent wide surgical excision and has received adjuvant chemotherapy. He is doing well on follow-up of six months.

  6. Bullhorn hernia: A rare traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    Bimaljot Singh; Ashwani Kumar; Adarshpal Kaur; Rachan Lal Singla

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is rare despite the high prevalence of blunt abdominal trauma. Bullhorn hernia occurs as a result of a direct blow to the abdominal wall by the horn of a bull, which disrupts the muscles and fascia and leads to hernia formation. We report a rare case of bullhorn TAWH in a 70-year-old patient who presented with swelling at the left lumbar region. The patient was managed by immediate surgical intervention. A surgeon must have high index of suspicion for th...

  7. Bullhorn hernia: A rare traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    Bimaljot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH is rare despite the high prevalence of blunt abdominal trauma. Bullhorn hernia occurs as a result of a direct blow to the abdominal wall by the horn of a bull, which disrupts the muscles and fascia and leads to hernia formation. We report a rare case of bullhorn TAWH in a 70-year-old patient who presented with swelling at the left lumbar region. The patient was managed by immediate surgical intervention. A surgeon must have high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this condition as missed hernias in this setting pose a high risk of strangulation and gangrene.

  8. Transluminar catheter angioplasty of abdominal aorta in Takayasu's arteritis

    Nine patients with Takayasu's arteritis and a long stenotic segment of the abdominal aorta were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Intermittent claudication dissappeared in six of seven cases, the femoral pulse reappeared in all five; ankle/arm indices increased in seven cases; elevated blood pressure normalized in seven of eight cases. Seven patients were followed for 3 to 28 months. They were all free of symptoms from the lower extremities. In three patients with or without renal artery stenosis and with hypertension, the blood pressure decreased after PTA of the abdominal aorta only. PTA may be a valuable treatment in Takayasu's arteritis and stenosis of the abdominal aorta. (orig.)

  9. Actinomicosis abdominal. Presentación de tres casos

    Adolfo Olvera-Reynada; Marco Antonio Calzada-Ramos; Xavier Espinoza-Guerrero; Cuauhtémoc Molotla-Xolalpa; Pedro de Jesús Cervantes-Miramontes

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: informar tres casos de actinomicosis abdominal, uno que se presenta como tumor abdominal y dos que se intervienen de urgencia por abdomen agudo con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda complicada. Casos clínicos: Caso 1. Mujer de 36 años con masa abdominal en fosa iliaca izquierda dependiente de colon, observada en la tomografía axial computarizada de abdomen. Se llevó a cabo resección del tumor. Casos 2 y 3. Mujeres de 37 y 39 años, respectivamente, que acudieron a urgencias por dolor ...

  10. Abdominal muscle paralysis associated with herpes zoster.

    Gottschau, P; Trojaborg, W

    1991-10-01

    We describe a 77-year-old women with cutaneous herpes zoster in the area of the right T9-T11 dermatomes complicated by abdominal muscle paralysis. Four months after onset of paralysis, stimulation of appropriate intercostal nerves failed to evoke responses from the corresponding segments of the rectus abdominis muscle. Three months later EMG of these muscle segments revealed profuse denervation activity and spontaneous long-lasting burst of high frequency discharges. Magnetic stimulation applied transcranially and peripherally at T10 evoked responses from the left, but not from the right paralytic rectus abdominis muscle. Electric stimulation of right T10 elicited a markedly delayed, prolonged and polyphasic response in the transverse abdominis muscle and EMG revealed polyphasia and increased motor unit potential duration in muscle segments underlying herpes zoster eruption. One and a half years after onset, the paralysis of the rectus abdominis muscle was still present. A survey of the literature concerning this rare type of zoster paralysis is presented. PMID:1837649

  11. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Buck, Dominique B; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Moll, Frans L

    2014-02-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are usually treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which has become the standard of care in many hospitals for patients with suitable anatomy. Clinical evidence indicates that EVAR is associated with superior perioperative outcomes and similar long-term survival compared with open repair. Since the randomized, controlled trials that provided this evidence were conducted, however, the stent graft technology for infrarenal AAA has been further developed. Improvements include profile downsizing, optimization of sealing and fixation, and the use of low porosity fabrics. In addition, imaging techniques have improved, enabling better preoperative planning, stent graft placement, and postoperative surveillance. Also in the past few years, fenestrated and branched stent grafts have increasingly been used to manage anatomically challenging aneurysms, and experiments with off-label use of stent grafts have been performed to treat patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for other treatment strategies. Overall, the indications for endovascular management of AAA are expanding to include increasingly complex and anatomically challenging aneurysms. Ongoing studies and optimization of imaging, in addition to technological refinement of stent grafts, will hopefully continue to broaden the utilization of EVAR. PMID:24343568

  12. Diode laser for abdominal tissue cauterization

    Durville, Frederic M.; Rediker, Robert H.; Connolly, Raymond J.; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.; Lantis, John

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a new device to effectively and quickly stop bleeding. The new device uses a small, 5 W diode laser to heat-up the tip of a modified medical forceps. The laser beam is totally contained within a protective enclosure, satisfying the requirements for a Class I laser system, which eliminates the need to protective eyewear. The new device is used in a manner similar to that of a bipolar electrocautery device. After visual location, the bleeding site or local vessel(s) is grabbed and clamped with the tips of the forceps-like instrument. The laser is then activated for a duration of typically 5 sec or until traditional visual or auditory clues such as local blubbling and popping indicate that the targeted site is effectively cauterized. When the laser is activated, the tip of the instrument, thus providing hemostasis. The new device was evaluated in animal models and compared with the monopolar and bipolar electrocautery, and also with the recently developed ultrasound technology. It has new been in clinical trials for abdominal surgery since September 1997.

  13. Experience with irrigation analgesia after abdominal hysterectomy

    R. V. Garyaev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed in 100 patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomy under endotracheal anesthesia based on sevoflurane and fentanyl. Intraoperatively, ketorolac 30 mg was administered intramuscularly after induction of anesthesia and paracetamol 1 g was injected intravenously 30–40 minutes prior to surgical termination in a control group (n = 25. For postoperative anal- gesia, promedol, tramadol, and ketorolac were used intramuscularly and paracetamol was given intravenously. Three study groups (n = 2 in each differed from the control group in that during wound suturing a multiperforated catheter was placed above the peritoneum over a length of 15 cm, through which a 10-ml bolus of 0.75 % ropivacaine was first administered, followed by continuous infusion of 0.2 % ropivacaine at a rate of 8 ml/hour for 36 hours. In one irrigation group, ketorolac 30 mg was injected intramuscularly t.i.d. for 2 days; in another group, the agent was added to a ropivacaine solution calculated with reference to 180 mg for 2 days; in the third group, ketoprofen 100 mg instead of ketorolac was used b.i.d. for 2 days. Pain level (by digital rating scale, 0–10 and the need for analgesics were measured. There was no sta- tistical significant difference in the level of pain and the need for analgesics between the wound irrigation and control groups.

  14. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  15. Diabetes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth.

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We performed a systematic literature search and a meta-analysis to assess the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth. Databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through June 2015 using PubMed and OVID. For each study, data regarding AAA growth rates in both the DM and the non-DM groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our search identified 19 relevant studies including data on 9777 patients with AAA. Pooled analyses demonstrated a statistically significant slower growth rates in DM patients than in non-DM patients (unadjusted SMD, -0.32; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.24; P plot asymmetry, even adjustment of the asymmetry did not alter the beneficial effect of DM. In conclusion, on the basis of a meta-analysis of data on a total of 9777 patients (19 studies) identified through a systematic literature search, we confirmed the association of DM with slower growth rates of AAA. PMID:26311742

  16. Early Feeding After a Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Mary Flesher

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral fluids and food are traditionally introduced slowly after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH. This descriptive study examined the effect and tolerance of early oral intake following this surgery. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 164 patients who had been on a clinical pathway following TAH. Comparisons in initiation of fluids and foods, and gastrointestinal effects were made between the early fed group (n=82 and the traditionally fed group (n=82. Results: Both groups had the similar gastrointestinal symptoms postoperatively, but the early fed group had an earlier bowel movement. The early fed group had a statistically significant shorter length of stay. Similar usage of anti-nausea medication and pain medication usage was noted between the two groups, except for a lower usage of Tylenol #3 (acetaminophen with codeine in the early fed group. Conclusions: This study found that early feeding could be tolerated well in TAH patients, with statistically significant improvements in usage of some pain medication and length of stay were noted in the early fed group.

  17. Trauma abdominal em grávidas Abdominal trauma in pregnant women

    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores indicativos (parâmetros clínicos e índices de gravidade fisiológicos e anatômicos da evolução materna e fetal entre gestantes vítimas de trauma abdominal submetidas à laparotomia e discutir as particularidades do atendimento nesta situação. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 245 mulheres com trauma abdominal e tratamento operatório, atendidas entre 1990 e 2002. Foram identificadas 13 gestantes com lesão abdominal submetidas à laparotomia. Para registro e análise estatística dos dados foram utilizados o protocolo Epi-Info 6.04 e o teste exato de Fisher, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foram relacionados com a mortalidade fetal: escore na escala de coma de Glasgow, pressão arterial sistólica, índices de trauma (RTS, ATI, ISS e lesão uterina. RESULTADOS: a idade variou de 13 a 34 anos (média de 22,5. Seis mulheres (46,2% estavam no terceiro trimestre de gestação. O trauma penetrante correspondeu a 53,8% das lesões e em seis dessas pacientes o mecanismo de trauma foi ferimento por projétil de arma de fogo. Três pacientes tiveram lesões uterinas, associadas com óbito fetal. Não houve óbito materno e a mortalidade fetal foi de 30,7%. Não houve associação entre os índices de trauma e a mortalidade materna e fetal. A lesão uterina foi o único fator preditivo de risco para perda fetal (p=0,014. CONCLUSÕES: apesar da casuística pequena e de se tratar de estudo retrospectivo de gestantes com trauma grave, os achados deste estudo mostram que não há indicadores com boa acurácia para indicação da evolução materna e fetal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the predictors (clinical findings and physiological and anatomical scores of the maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women victims of abdominal trauma who were submitted to laparotomy and to discuss particularities of assessment in this situation. METHODS: retrospective analysis of the medical records of 245 women with

  18. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from ...

  19. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture is...... able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol in...... real acupuncture, although the difference was marginally significant (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Our results show that abdominal acupuncture reduces LEP amplitude in healthy subjects. Significance: Our results provide a theoretical background for the use of abdominal acupuncture as a therapeutic approach...

  20. The diagnostics of postoperative abscesses of abdominal cavity in children

    Shukhrat Yusupov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 85 patients with abscesses of abdominal cavity (AAC at the age from 5 to 15 years old were observed. 37 (43.5% patients had unformed and 48 (56.5% patients had formed intra-abdominal abscesses. Devised methods of complex investigation were used to diagnose postoperative abscesses of the abdominal cavity; they included the index of blood toxicity (IBT and the index of spontaneous agglomeration leukocytes (ISAL in combination with dynamic purposeful using of searching ultrasound sonography and clinical signs. The complex diagnostics including ultrasound sonography, indexes of blood toxicity, spontaneous agglomeration of leucocytes and clinical signs can allow us significantly improve the effectiveness of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscesses in the early stages after surgical operation regarding to appendicular peritonitis (AP in children and to choose the optimal method of surgical treatment.