WorldWideScience

Sample records for abcc-jnih adult health

  1. Adult health checkup

    Ridley, Jane; Ischayek, Amanda; Dubey, Vinita; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe updates to the Preventive Care Checklist Form© to help family physicians stay up to date with current preventive health care recommendations. Quality of evidence The Ovid MEDLINE database was searched using specified key words and other terms relevant to the periodic health examination. Secondary sources, such as the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Trip database, and the Canadian Medical Association Infobase, were also searched. Recommendations for preventive health care for average-risk adults were reviewed. Strong and weak recommendations are presented on the form in bold and italic text, respectively. Main message Updates were made to the form based on the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations on screening for obesity (2015), cervical cancer (2013), depression (2013), osteoporosis (2013), hypertension (2012), diabetes (2012, 2013), and breast cancer (2011). Updates were made based on recommendations from other Canadian organizations on screening for HIV (2013), screening for sexually transmitted infections (2013), immunizations (2012 to 2014), screening for dyslipidemia (2012), fertility counseling for women (2011, 2012), and screening for colorectal cancer (2010). Some previous recommendations were removed and others lacking evidence were not included. Conclusion The Preventive Care Checklist Form has been updated with current recommendations to enable family physicians to provide comprehensive, evidence-based care to patients during periodic health examinations. PMID:27076540

  2. Oral Health and Older Adults

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  3. Health Literacy in Older Adults

    2011-09-20

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynda Anderson, former Director of CDC’s Healthy Aging Program, discusses the importance of improving health literacy among older adults.  Created: 9/20/2011 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/20/2011.

  4. Health Literacy Education within Adult Literacy Instruction

    Diehl, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    Building health literacy skills among adult learners has the potential to contribute to efforts to eliminate health disparities and improve health outcomes. Adults with limited literacy skills are more likely to be underserved by health services and at risk for poorer health. Recognition of the need for stronger health literacy skills and a desire…

  5. Interactive Influences on Health and Adult Education

    Hill, Lilian H.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines multiple convergent forces affecting health, relates these to social determinants of health and critical adult health learning, and closes with discussion of opportunities for adult educators to contribute to human health at the individual, community, health provider, policy/regulatory agency, and international levels.

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs. (auth.)

  7. Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology

    ... Medical Director Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology Volume 15 · Issue 6 · November/December 2005 Text ... adults who struggle to stand and walk. New technology includes knee units, shock-absorbing pylons, and other ...

  8. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  9. Medicaid Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act (Section 1139B) requires the Secretary of HHS to identify and publish a core set of health care quality measures for adult Medicaid...

  10. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  11. Health Issues for Adults with Developmental Disability.

    Sutherland, Georgina; Couch, Murray A.; Iacono, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on health issues for adults with developmental disabilities, reflecting on how it informs service provision, future research, and social and health policy. Results suggest future research should focus on interactions among biology, pathology, and behavioral and environmental determinants. More use of…

  12. Health Tips for Older Adults

    ... income, eating too little, living alone, and certain diseases. Review the checklist Determine Your Nutritional Health to see if any of the warning ... income, eating too little, living alone, and certain diseases. Review the checklist Determine Your Nutritional Health to see if any of the warning ...

  13. Health Sciences Librarian as an Adult Trainer

    Τσαλαπατάνη, Ειρήνη; Καλογεράκη, Ελένη

    2011-01-01

    The role of the health sciences librarian as it is shaped by the socio-economic conditions, technological developments and specific information needs of health professionals requires knowledge, skills and attitudes combined with communication skills, management and leadership abilities. The modern health sciences librarian seems to be “borrowing" features from the adult qualified instructor who constantly has to adopt roles in a dynamic learning process, and depending on the circumstances...

  14. Investigating Adult Health Literacy in Tuyserkan City

    Maryam Afshari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health literacy is the capacity of individuals to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make healthy decisions. Therefore, this study was designed to determine health literacy of adults Tuyserkan district. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was performed on 285 subjects aged 20-60 years attending Tuyserkan health centers through convenience sampling method in 2014. Iranian health literacy questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Stata-11 by Independent T-test and one way ANOVA. Results: Most participants aged 20 to 30 years (52.3% and 53.7 % were males. Most participants had postgraduate diploma level (55.8 % and were students (31.9 %. Participants had a weak level to access information (42.1%, weak level to perceive data (54.4%, moderate in judgment and assessment (64.9% and moderate in use of information (88.8%. Conclusion: Overall, there was a poor health literacy in adults. This indicates the need for more attention to health education and health promotion programs. It seems necessary to design and implement comprehensive plans using media and simple training methods for adults with a low level of health literacy.

  15. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD, teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.

  16. Oral Health of Irish Adults 2000 - 2002

    Department of Health

    2007-01-01

    Oral Health of Irish Adults 2000 Р2002 Publication of the strategy document - Shaping a Healthier Future̢?T1 marked a major milestone in the development of the health care delivery system in Ireland. The strategy was underpinned by three key principles: equity, quality of service and accountability. It was emphasised that the benefit to be derived from the health services should be measured in terms of health gain and social gain. Click here to download PDF 5.6mb

  17. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults. PMID:27142205

  18. SAME-SEX PARTNERSHIPS AND THE HEALTH OF OLDER ADULTS

    Williams, Mark Edward; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    While extensive research has examined associations between marriage, cohabitation, and the health of heterosexual adults, it remains unclear whether similar patterns of health are associated with same-sex partnerships for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. This article examines whether having a same-sex partner is associated with general self-reported health and depressive symptoms for LGB older adults. Based on survey data collected from LGB adults 50 years of age and older, havi...

  19. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  20. Health literacy, health status, and healthcare utilization of taiwanese adults: results from a national survey

    Kuo Ken N; Tsai Yi-Wen; Tsai Tzu-I; Lee Shoou-Yih D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low health literacy is considered a worldwide health threat. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic covariates of low health literacy in Taiwanese adults and to investigate the relationships between health literacy and health status and health care utilization. Methods A national survey of 1493 adults was conducted in 2008. Health literacy was measured using the Mandarin Health Literacy Scale. Health status was measured based on self-ra...

  1. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  2. Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    ... Finance Peer Search Education Finance Statistics Center Compare Academic Libraries IPEDS Data Center State Education Data Profiles ... box Title: The Health Literacy of America’s Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy ...

  3. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  4. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    Flávia Silva Arbex Borim; Anita Liberalesso Neri; Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco; Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, ...

  5. Adult Learning, Health and Well-Being--Changing Lives

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…

  6. The relationship between functional health literacy and health promoting behaviors among older adults

    Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Mostafavi, Firouzeh; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is a measure of individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Older adults are one of the most important at risk groups affected by the impact of inadequate health literacy. Health promoting behaviors in older adults have potential impact on their health and quality of life and reduce the costs incurred to health care. Given the paucity of information health literacy and health promoting behavior, the purpose of this study was to examin...

  7. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health care provider - adult ... Questions you should ask: Can I eat dairy foods? What foods can make my problem worse? Can I have greasy or spicy foods? ...

  8. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  9. The Affordable Care Act and implications for young adult health

    Monaghan, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, young adults are most likely to be uninsured and least likely to report a usual source of medical care than any age group. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) recognizes the critical need for expanded insurance coverage for this age group, and multiple provisions of the ACA address insurance coverage and health care utilization in young adults. This paper presents a brief overview of the challenges of maintaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care...

  10. QUESTIONS HEALTH SAVING IN ADULT EDUCATION

    Tarkhanova, Irina; Pavlova, Oksana; Arnis, Voldemārs

    2016-01-01

    The article actualizes the problem of decreasing of the physical activity of a modern man, describes the results of the research of the adult population with application of the International questionnaire for assessing physical activity (IPAQ). Based on the analysis of the obtained results a model of the education of adults to healthcare issues. Possible ways of socialization and recreation of the adult population through the implementation of educational programs are discussed.

  11. Health Literacy among Adults: A Study from Turkey

    Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…

  12. Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

  13. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  14. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  15. Health in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Cuypers, Judith A A E; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2016-09-01

    Since the introduction of cardiac surgery, the prospects for children born with a cardiac defect have improved spectacularly. Many reach adulthood and the population of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing and ageing. However, repair of congenital heart disease does not mean cure. Many adults with congenital heart disease encounter late complications. Late morbidity can be related to the congenital heart defect itself, but may also be the consequence of the surgical or medical treatment or longstanding alterations in hemodynamics, neurodevelopment and psychosocial development. This narrative review describes the cardiac and non-cardiac long-term morbidity in the adult population with congenital heart disease. PMID:27451323

  16. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    van de Mheen, Dike; Stronks, Karien; Looman, Caspar; Mackenbach, Johan

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands (13 854 respondents, aged between 25 and 74). Childhood socioeconomic group was indicated by occupation of the father, and adult health was ind...

  17. Attendance patterns of older adults in a health promotion program.

    Watkins, A. J.; Kligman, E W

    1993-01-01

    A group of 224 participants in a health promotion program for older adults had complete baseline data, including demographic information, self-perceived mental and physical health ratings, and measures of socialization and health limitations. Participants were offered exercise sessions 3 times a week, weekly health education classes, and a weekly stress management group. Their attendance at these classes varied from no classes to approximately 750 classes. Initially, participants were divided...

  18. Oral health-related quality of life in Norwegian adults

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The general aim of this thesis was to describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in adults in the county of Nord-Trøndelag and in a national representative sample of Norwegian adults. A further goal was to study whether oral-health related quality of life is associated with clinical dental health, use of dental services, oral hygiene behaviours and demographic variables. The use of clinical measures only to assess the oral status of individuals has been criticized...

  19. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    Flávia Silva Arbex Borim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age.

  20. [Transition in health care, from pediatrics to adult care].

    De Cunto, Carmen L

    2012-08-01

    The number of adolescent patients with chronic diseases and special heath needs are increasing, and they are reaching adulthood. Sometimes the passage to the adult health care is abrupt, depending upon the chronological age reached or because of an acute health problem that requires hospitalization. In order to facilitate the transition process, preparation of the child, the family and the health professionals involved is needed, as well as the coordination between the pediatric group and the adult team that will be incharge of the patient. This review shows the obstacles to this process and the recommended implementation steps required to a successful transition. It also describes the main aspects of a program that we implemented at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in conjunction with some departments of adult health care high lighting the main steps to follow before and during program´s implementation. PMID:22859330

  1. Health insurance status of young adults in the United States.

    McManus, M A; Greaney, A M; Newacheck, P W

    1989-10-01

    Sociodemographic and health characteristics of young adults who are uninsured, publicly insured, and privately insured were examined using the 1984 National Health Interview Survey. The results indicated that 26% of 19 to 24-year-old persons had no health insurance protection, 65% were privately insured, 7% were publicly insured, and 1% had both private and public coverage. Young adults at greatest risk for being uninsured were male, Hispanic and black, poor and near-poor, unemployed, high school dropouts, living with others, and residing in the South and West. All young adults predictably lose or change health insurance as they move from dependence to independence. It was concluded that greater use of new and existing transitional insurance options should be offered as well as targeted educational and communication strategies to assure that all young persons enter adulthood with some basic insurance protection. PMID:2780134

  2. Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults

    Ahmet Reşit Ersay; Gülbu Tortumluoğlu

    2006-01-01

                   In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD), teenage pregnancy, abo...

  3. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric dis...

  4. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    Grudzen, Corita R.; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male pe...

  5. The Health of Aging Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adults in California

    Wallace, Steven P; Cochran, Susan D.; Durazo, Eva M.; Ford, Chandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults generally overlooks the chronic conditions that are the most common health concerns of older adults. This brief presents unique population-level data on aging LGB adults (ages 50–70) documenting that they have higher rates of several serious chronic physical and mental health conditions compared to similar heterosexual adults. Although access to care appears similar for aging LGB and heterosexual adults, aging LGB adults general...

  6. The Health of Aging Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adults in California

    Wallace, Steven P; Cochran, Susan D.; Durazo, Eva M.; Ford, Chandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults generally overlooks the chronic conditions that are the most common health concerns of older adults. This brief presents unique population-level data on aging LGB adults (ages 50-70) documenting that they have higher rates of several serious chronic physical and mental health conditions compared to similar heterosexual adults. Although access to care appears similar for aging LGB and heterosexual adults, aging LGB adults general...

  7. Alcohol Consumption, Medical Conditions, and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    Satre, Derek; Nancy P. Gordon; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between drinking patterns, medical conditions and behavioral health risks among older adults. Methods: Analyses compared survey participants (health plan members ages 65 to 90, N = 6,662) who drank moderately to those who drank over recommended limits or did not drink. Results: Over-limit drinking was associated with smoking; not trying to eat low fat foods (in men), and lower BMI (in women). Predictors of not drinking during the prior 12 months included...

  8. Mental ill-health in contemporary young adults

    Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    Young adulthood is the peak age for the onset of most mental disorders and is a period of crucial importance for the establishment of emotional well-being in adult life. Mental health problems, including psychological distress and depressive symptoms, as well as suicide attempts, are reported to be increasing among young people, especially females, in many Western countries. Thus, the overall purpose of this thesis is to examine trends and causes of mental ill-health in contemp...

  9. Accessibility of mental health care for adults with cerebral palsy

    Pihlaja, Kimmo; Päivärinta, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the accessibility in mental health care from the point of view of an adult with cerebral palsy. The theoretical framework of this thesis is constructed from the related literature and previous studies closely linked to the topic. Research was done to clarify the concepts of disability, cerebral palsy, and mental health. The research showed cerebral palsy as a multidimensional physical disability which may include different types of accompanying im...

  10. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  11. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  12. Trauma, stress, health, and mental health issues among ethnically diverse older adult prisoners.

    Haugebrook, Sabrina; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Brown, Derek

    2010-07-01

    The United States' older adult prison population is growing rapidly. This study identifies and describes important psychosocial characteristics, particularly trauma, life-event stressors, health, mental health, and substance abuse, among older adults in prison. Data were collected using case record reviews of 114 prisoners aged 55 or older in the New Jersey Department of Corrections. Findings revealed that the study participants are a diverse group with varied psychosocial issues and needs, including trauma and stress histories, substance use, and health and mental health issues. Most had childhood or adult trauma, such as physical or sexual abuse. Family problems were common in childhood and adulthood. Understanding the problems and needs of older adult prisoners may help improve practice, promote advocacy, and prompt research that can enhance the quality of life of this population. PMID:20472867

  13. Disclosing personal health information relating to adults who lack capacity.

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The need to share information about patients is vital to effective care and protection, especially where it relates to adults who lack decision-making capacity but it has to be balanced against the right to confidentiality. Like other health professionals, district nurses have a duty to maintain the confidentiality of patient information, and incapable adults have the right to expect their personal health information to be kept private. This right is guaranteed by the common-law duty of confidence, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the NHS Care Record Guarantee and confidentiality policy. This article discusses the district nurse's legal obligations when considering sharing information in relation to an incapable adult PMID:24897837

  14. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  15. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  16. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Da

  17. Diabetes Literacy: Health and Adult Literacy Practitioners in Partnership

    Black, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes pedagogy in a series of "diabetes literacy" programs involving culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. The programs were jointly delivered in local community sites, including neighbourhood centres and public housing halls, by qualified nutritionists from a public health service and adult literacy teachers…

  18. Examining Reports of Mental Health in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…

  19. In Sickness and in Health: Health Care Experiences of Korean Immigrant Older Adults

    Juhn, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the health care experiences of Korean immigrant older adults, 65 years of age or older, living in Los Angeles County, who have health care access through Medicare and/or Medi-Cal, access to a large Korean ethnic enclave, and a diverse social support network. Twelve Korean immigrant older adults were recruited through word-of-mouth via community contacts. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with individual seniors, with the help of ...

  20. Maternal Age and Offspring Adult Health: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study

    Mikko Myrskylä; Andrew T. Fenelon

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maternal age is associated with negative offspring health outcomes. This interpretation often relies on physiological processes related to aging, such as decreasing oocyte quality. We use a large, population-based sample of American adults to analyze how selection and lifespan overlap between generations influence the maternal age–offspring adult health association. We find that offspring born to mothers younger than age 25 or older than 35 have worse outcomes with respect to mortali...

  1. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981179

  2. UTILIZATION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES AMONG ADULTS ATTENDING A HEALTH FAIR IN SOUTH LOS ANGELES COUNTY

    Macias, Eduardo P.; Morales, Leo S.

    2000-01-01

    A bilingual survey was developed to collect information regarding socio-demographics, access to medical and dental care, health insurance coverage, perceived health status, and use of folk medicine providers from 70 adults presenting to a health fair in South Los Angeles County. Ninety-seven percent of respondents were foreign-born. Seventy-nine percent reported having no health insurance during the year prior to survey. Of the uninsured, 61 percent lacked a doctor visit and 76 percent lacked...

  3. Adopting a Clinical Assessment Framework in Older Adult Mental Health.

    Hung, Lillian; Lee, Patience Anne; Au-Yeung, Andy T; Kucherova, Irina; Harrigan, MaryLou

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining new knowledge accepted and used by practitioners remains a slow process. A dearth of knowledge translation research exists that explores how to effectively move knowledge to practice in the field of older adult mental health. The current article reports findings of a knowledge translation study that examined what factors enabled the adoption of a new clinical assessment framework, P.I.E.C.E.S.™, into practice in an older adult tertiary mental health unit. Theoretical insights of appreciative inquiry were used to guide the study. Qualitative methods were used, including focus groups with 20 staff and individual interviews with three leaders. The appreciative inquiry approach helped researchers successfully facilitate knowledge translation. Enabling factors included: (a) fostering positive energy to make continuous improvement, (b) working with team members across disciplines at all levels, and (c) using knowledge translation tools to enable and sustain the new practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (7), 26-31.]. PMID:27362382

  4. [Baseline- and health enhancing physical activity in adults with obesity].

    Haider, Sandra; Lamprecht, Thomas; Dick, Daniel; Lackinger, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for people to become overweight or obese. To achieve a substantial health benefit, adults should do at least 150 min of moderate or 75 min of high intensity aerobic activity per week and additionally they should do muscle strengthening exercises. This recommendation represents the lower limit and not the optimum. To loose body weight a significantly higher level of physical activity is required. Exercise programs can play an important part to reach the required level of health-enhancing physical activity. The Austrian pilot projects "Aktiv Bewegt" and "GEHE-Adipositas" showed that obese adults were interested in structured exercise programs and that they were also willing to use them. Clear defined quality criteria, the differentiation from conventional programs for already active and fit people and a recommendation from a doctor or other health professionals were important motivation reasons. PMID:26847443

  5. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  6. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  7. Self-rated health: Importance of use in elderly adults

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concept of self-rated health (SRH was conceived during the first half of the twentieth century. Since then, numerous studies have documented the validity of its measurement and it has been widely accepted as a reliable measurement of overall health. SRH is considered a subjective measurement integrating the biological, mental, social, and functional aspects of an individual.Objective: To review the literature to determine theoretical determinants, related outcomes, and utility of SRH in elderly adults (EAs.Methods: The databases reviewed were Medline, SciELO, EMBASE, Science Direct, Proquest, and Ovid, along with information available in websites from international health agencies.Results: SRH is considered a sensitive measurement of overall health in EAs. It is influenced by physical function, the presence of disease, the existence of disabilities, functional limitations, and by the rate of aging. Many studies suggest it may be modified by demographics, as well as by social and mental factors. Thus, the perception of health is the result of multiple and complex interactions of variables determining it at any given time. SRH is based on systems theory and the bio-psychosocial health model. It has proven to be a significant independent predictor for development of morbidity, mortality, and disability in basic physical and instrumental daily life activities among elderly adults.Conclusion: In addition to reflecting the overall health status of EAs, SRH can provide information to aid health personnel and decision makers in the development and implementation of health promotion and disease prevention programs, as well as the adequacy and planning of different levels of care for this population.

  8. Do Sedentary Behaviors Modify the Health Status of Older Adults?

    Elizabeth K. Lenz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB negatively impacts the health of adults but less is known about SB impact on older adult (OA health.  Seventy OA (73.4±6years living in the southeast region of Wisconsin, United States of America (USA completed three SB diaries and had risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD assessed. Sedentary behaviors were quantified as time spent in sitting/lying activities. Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-tests, and one-way ANOVA were performed to explore the relationship between SB and health. Older adults engaged in 620.3±91.2mins/d of SB with television watching (144.3±99.8mins/d being the most prominent. Total SB and television watching were correlated to multiple risk factors for CVD (r=-.241-.415, p=.009-.027 and these variables worsened as OA spent more time in those activities. Television watching was the only SB that increased across risk categories of CVD [F (2,67 =4.158, p=.020, eta squared=.11]. These results suggest SB, especially television watching to be related to risk factors of CVD in OA.

  9. The Health Status and Unique Health Challenges or Rural Older Adults in California

    Durazo, Eva; Jones, Melissa; Wallace, Steven; Van Arsdale, Jessica; Aydin, May; Stewart, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Despite living in the countryside where open space is plentiful and there is often significant agricultural production, rural older adults have higher rates of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and food insecurity than older adults living in suburban areas. All three conditions are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and repeated falls. This policy brief examines the health of rural elders and, by contrast, their urban counterparts, and finds that both groups lmost one in five Cali...

  10. Use of Mobile Health Applications for Health-Seeking Behavior Among US Adults.

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Lu, Ning; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Hyunmin; Wyant, David; Bhatt, Jay; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the use of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) on smartphones or tablets for health-seeking behavior among US adults. Data was obtained from cycle 4 of the 4th edition of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4). Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of 1) having mHealth apps, 2) usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 3) helpfulness in medical care decision-making, and 4) asking a physician new questions or seeking a second opinion. Using the Andersen Model of health services utilization, independent variables of interest were grouped under predisposing factors (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and marital status), enabling factors (education, employment, income, regular provider, health insurance, and rural/urban location of residence), and need factors (general health, confidence in their ability to take care of health, Body Mass Index, smoking status, and number of comorbidities). In a national sample of adults who had smartphones or tablets, 36 % had mHealth apps on their devices. Among those with apps, 60 % reported the usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 35 % reported their helpfulness for medical care decision-making, and 38 % reported their usefulness in asking their physicians new questions or seeking a second opinion. The multivariate models revealed that respondents were more likely to have mHealth apps if they had more education, health insurance, were confident in their ability to take good care of themselves, or had comorbidities, and were less likely to have them if they were older, had higher income, or lived in rural areas. In terms of usefulness of mHealth apps, those who were older and had higher income were less likely to report their usefulness in achieving health behavior goals. Those who were older, African American, and had confidence in their ability to take care of their health were more likely to respond that the mHealth

  11. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users

    Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy—having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet—has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. Methods The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. Results We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis

  12. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults

    Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent...

  13. A computerized program to educate adults about environmental health risks

    A computerized program called Environmental Risk Appraisal (ERA) has been developed to educate adults about environmental health risks and to motivate positive behavior change. A questionnaire addresses issues such as radon, environmental tobacco smoke, pesticides, lead, air and water pollution, and work-site risks. Responses are computer processed in seconds to produce an individualized computer printout containing a score, educational messages, and phone numbers to call for more information. A variety of audiences including environmental groups, worksites, women's organizations and health professionals were represented in this study of 269 participants. Many respondents indicated they were exposed to important environmental hazards and nearly 40 percent reported they had, or might have had, an environmental related illness at some time. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program is effective as an educational tool in raising awareness of environmental health risks

  14. Elder Mistreatment and Health Status of Rural Older Adults.

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2015-11-01

    There is limited information on the nature of and health factors associated with elder mistreatment in rural areas. To address this gap in the literature, the current study described the nature of such mistreatment and investigated the association between different types of mistreatment and health factors among 897 randomly selected elderly persons in rural India. The results show that elder mistreatment was widely prevalent (21%). Furthermore, the higher frequency of and simultaneous occurrence of multiple types of mistreatment (83.4%) suggest that mistreatment was a continuous stressor. The presence of overall mistreatment was positively associated with depression symptoms and subjective health status. The higher levels of chronicity and multiple mistreatments further increased depression symptoms and lowered the health status of those who were mistreated. Although women, more than men, were more likely to experience mistreatment, chronic mistreatment, and multiple mistreatments, there were no significant gender differences in the mistreatment-health relationship. These findings suggest that older adults with depression symptoms and poor health should be screened for mistreatment. PMID:25381286

  15. Type 1 diabetes: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    Monaghan M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maureen Monaghan,1,2 Katherine Baumann2 1Center for Translational Science, Children's National Health System, 2George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor health outcomes, including poor glycemic control, acute and chronic complications, and emergency department admissions. During this developmental period, adolescent and young adult patients also experience significant changes in living situation, education, and/or health care delivery, including transferring from pediatric to adult health care. In recent years, professional and advocacy organizations have proposed expert guidelines to improve the process of preparation for and transition to adult-oriented health care. However, challenges remain and evidence-based practices for preparing youth for adult health care are still emerging. Qualitative research suggests that adolescent and young adult patients rely on health care providers to guide them through the transition process and appreciate a gradual approach to preparing for adult-oriented health care, keeping parents in supportive roles into young adulthood. Patients also benefit from specific referrals and contact information for adult care providers. Promising models of transition care include provision of transition navigators, attendance at a young adult bridge clinic, or joint visits with pediatric and adult care providers. However, much of this research is in its early stages, and more rigorous trials need to be conducted to evaluate health outcomes during transition into adult health care. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the transition process, patient and health care provider perceptions of transition care, and emerging evidence of successful models of care for engagement in adult-oriented health care. Recommendations and resources for health care providers are also presented. Keywords: type 1 diabetes

  16. Self-rated oral health status, oral health service utilization, and oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians

    Olusile, Adeyemi Oluniyi; Adeniyi, Abiola Adetokunbo; Orebanjo, Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Background There is scarce information available on oral health service utilization patterns and common oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians. We conducted the 2010–2011 national oral health survey before the introduction of the national oral health policy to determine the prevalence of oral health service utilization, patterns of oral hygiene practices, and self reported oral health status, among adults in various social classes, educational strata, ethnic groups and geopolitical zone...

  17. Factors Influencing Adult Physical Health after Controlling for Current Health Conditions: Evidence from a British Cohort

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs), personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs), after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness). Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality t...

  18. Memory for allergies and health foods: how younger and older adults strategically remember critical health information

    Middlebrooks, C. D.; McGillivray, S.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. While older adults often display memory deficits, with practice they can sometimes selectively remember valuable information at the expense of less value information. We examined age-related differences and similarities in memory for health-related information under conditions where some information was critical to remember. Method. In Experiment 1, participants studied three lists of allergens, ranging in severity from 0 (not a health risk) to 10 (potentially fatal), with the...

  19. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults" found on pages 21-29, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until December 31, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Explain familism and its potential effect on health care provision to Hispanic older adults. 2. Describe cultural

  20. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups. PMID:26606170

  1. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  3. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  4. Elder Mistreatment and Physical Health among Older Adults: The South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study

    Cisler, Josh M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Begle, Angela M.; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including interpersonal violence, is associated with poorer physical health in young adults. This relation has not been well-investigated among older adults in specific populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to PTEs and elder mistreatment are associated with physical health status among older adults residing in South Carolina. 902 older adults aged 60 and above participated in a structured interview assessin...

  5. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

  6. Incorporating health literacy in education for socially disadvantaged adults: an Australian feasibility study

    Muscat, Danielle M.; Smith, Sian; Dhillon, Haryana M; Morony, Suzanne; Davis, Esther L.; Luxford, Karen; Shepherd, Heather L; Hayen, Andrew; Comings, John; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background Adult education institutions have been identified as potential settings to improve health literacy and address the health inequalities that stem from limited health literacy. However, few health literacy interventions have been tested in this setting. Methods Feasibility study for an RCT of the UK Skilled for Health Program adapted for implementation in Australian adult education settings. Implementation at two sites with mixed methods evaluation to examine feasibility, test for ch...

  7. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  8. Comparing Information Needs of Health Care Providers and Older Adults: Findings from a Wellness Study

    Reeder, Blaine; Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Consumer health informatics technologies have the potential to enhance shared decision-making and communication between older adults, health care providers, and other stakeholders. The objective of this study was to characterize the information needs of these stakeholders to inform the design of informatics tools that support wellness in older adults. We conducted four focus groups with 31 older adults and three focus groups with 10 health care providers to explore information needs, goals, a...

  9. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Arlesia Mathis; Ronica Rooks; Daniel Kruger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using r...

  10. Health Consequences of Uninsurance among Adults in the United States: Recent Evidence and Implications

    McWilliams, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context: Uninsured adults have less access to recommended care, receive poorer quality of care, and experience worse health outcomes than insured adults do. The potential health benefits of expanding insurance coverage for these adults may provide a strong rationale for reform. However, evidence of the adverse health effects of uninsurance has been largely based on observational studies with designs that do not support causal conclusions. Although recent research using more rigorous methods m...

  11. The physical health of British adults with intellectual disability: cross sectional study

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris; Baines, Susannah; Robertson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Adults with intellectual disability have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. However, little is known about the health of the ‘hidden majority’ of adults with primarily mild intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. The aims of the present study were: to estimate the physical health status of a population-based sample of British adults with and without mild intellectual disability while controlling for any potentially confounding effects resu...

  12. Internet Usage by Low-Literacy Adults Seeking Health Information: An Observational Analysis

    Birru, Mehret S; Monaco, Valerie M; Charles, Lonelyss; Drew, Hadiya; Njie, Valerie; Bierria, Timothy; Detlefsen, Ellen; Steinman, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    Background Adults with low literacy may encounter informational obstacles on the Internet when searching for health information, in part because most health Web sites require at least a high-school reading proficiency for optimal access. Objective The purpose of this study was to 1) determine how low-literacy adults independently access and evaluate health information on the Internet, 2) identify challenges and areas of proficiency in the Internet-searching skills of low-literacy adults. Meth...

  13. The Effects of Childhood, Adult, and Community Socioeconomic Conditions on Health and Mortality among Older Adults in China

    Wen, Ming; Gu, Danan

    2011-01-01

    Using a large, nationally representative longitudinal sample of Chinese aged 65 and older, this study examines the effects of childhood, adult, and community socioeconomic conditions on mortality and several major health outcomes. The role of social mobility is also tested. We find that childhood socioeconomic conditions exert long-term effects on functional limitations, cognitive impairment, self-rated health, and mortality independent of adult and community socioeconomic conditions. Achieve...

  14. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  15. The relationship between health, education, and health literacy: results from the Dutch adult literacy and life skills survey.

    Heide, I. van der; J. Wang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing); Droomers, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Rademakers, J.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the well-documented relationship between education and health. However, little empirical research has been undertaken to explore this hypothesis. The present study aims to study whether health literacy could be a pathway by which level of education affects health status. Health literacy was measured by the Health Activities and Literacy Scale, using data from a subsample of 5,136 adults between the ages of 25 and 65 year...

  16. The Relationship Between Health, Education, and Health Literacy: Results From the Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    Heide, I. van der; Wang, J.; Droomers, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P; Rademakers, J.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the well-documented relationship between education and health. However, little empirical research has been undertaken to explore this hypothesis. The present study aims to study whether health literacy could be a pathway by which level of education affects health status. Health literacy was measured by the Health Activities and Literacy Scale, using data from a subsample of 5,136 adults between the ages of 25 and 65 year...

  17. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  18. Dental health education: training of homecarers of mentally handicapped adults.

    Davies, K W; Whittle, J G

    1990-06-01

    A seven week induction course for homecarers of mentally handicapped adults, organised by the Social Services Department in Salford, UK, includes a dental health education session of one and a half hours. The session is divided into three parts; an illustrated discussion, a demonstration of tooth-brushing and a practical component session where carers are divided into pairs and carry out oral hygiene measures for each other. The effectiveness of the session has been assessed using a questionnaire. This was completed by 33 carers who attended the session and 31 carers who had not. Many members of both groups knew about the shape and colour of healthy gums and what plaque was. However significantly fewer of the control group knew that gum disease resulted from a lack of toothbrushing, what to do with bleeding gums and the amount of toothpaste to use on the toothbrush. PMID:2379095

  19. Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey

    Pavao Joanne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively California Women's Health Survey (CWHS, a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mental health (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress, were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted. When adult mental health and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mental health status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mental health symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.

  20. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    ... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young ...

  1. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-bas...

  2. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  3. Health-related quality of life in adult survivors of childhood sarcoidosis

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Hoffmann, Anne Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes......AIM: To describe health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in adult subjects who had sarcoidosis in childhood. METHODS: Forty-six children (24 boys), all ethnic Danes...

  4. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  5. Multigenerational Perceptions of Mental Health Services of Deaf Adults in Florida

    Feldman, David M.; Gum, Amber

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to better understand the perceptions and needs of multigenerational Deaf adults related to mental health services. A survey sampled participants who were between 20 and 85 years old and Deaf. Questions were developed to identify the perspectives of Deaf adults related to the availability of mental health services,…

  6. Adult Basic Education and Health Literacy: Program Efforts and Perceived Student Needs

    Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…

  7. Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review

    Bouaziz, Walid; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to increase worldwide, more attention is being paid to geriatric health care needs, and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in the medical literature. A preventive approach to the care of older adults is thus a priority in our aging societies. The purpose of this study was to update evidence for the health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original...

  8. Correlates of health and financial literacy in older adults without dementia

    Bennett Jarred S; Boyle Patricia A; James Bryan D; Bennett David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent research has begun to recognize the important influence of literacy levels and how they affect health and wellbeing, especially in older adults. Our study focuses on health and financial literacy, two domains of literacy which previous research has suggested may be significantly related to health and wellbeing. Our study examines the relation of health and financial literacy with health promoting behaviors and health status among community-based older persons. Metho...

  9. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  10. Self-harm in trafficked adults accessing secondary mental health services in England

    Borschmann, Rohan; Oram, Sian; Howard, Louise Michele; Kinner, Stuart; Dutta, Rina; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study estimated the prevalence, correlates and mental health service responses to self-harm among trafficked adults accessing secondary mental health services in England. Methods: A clinical records database was searched to identify trafficked adults who accessed secondary mental health services in South London from 2006-2012. A matched cohort of non-trafficked patients was selected. Data were extracted on self-harm, socio-demographic, clinical and service use characteristics....

  11. Understanding the Health Literacy of America Results of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Bennett, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy refers to an individual’s ability to understand healthcare information to make appropriate decisions (S. C Ratzen & R. M. Parker, 2000). Healthcare professionals are obligated to make sure that patients understand information to maximize the benefits of healthcare. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) provides information on the literacy/health literacy levels of the U.S. adult population. The NAAL is the only large-scale survey of health literacy. The results of t...

  12. Association of micronutrient status with subclinical health complaints in lactovegetarian adults

    Chiplonkar, Shashi Ajit; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Background Micronutrient malnutrition has many adverse effects on human health, not all of which may be clinically evident. Objective To explore linkages between subclinical health complaints and micronutrient status in lactovegetarian Indian adults. Design Health was assessed in 502 lactovegetarian adults (275 men, 227 women, aged 30.6±9 years) using a structured questionnaire for existing complaints with severity of symptoms on a four-point scale and morbidity over the preceding month. Subj...

  13. Association of micronutrient status with subclinical health complaints in lactovegetarian adults

    Ajit Chiplonkar, Shashi; Vilas Agte, Vaishali

    2007-01-01

    Background: Micronutrient malnutrition has many adverse effects on human health, not all of which may be clinically evident. Objective: To explore linkages between subclinical health complaints and micronutrient status in lactovegetarian Indian adults. Design: Health was assessed in 502 lactovegetarian adults (275 men, 227 women, aged 30.6±9 years) using a structured questionnaire for existing complaints with severity of symptoms on a four-point scale and morbidity over the preceding m...

  14. e-Health technologies for adult hearing screening

    S. Stenfelt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hearing diagnosis methods and hearing screening methods are not isolated phenomena: they are intimately related to changes in the cultural background and to advances in fields of medicine and engineering. In the recent years, there has been a rapid evolution in the development of fast, easy and reliable techniques for lowcost hearing screening initiatives. Since adults and elderly people typically experience a reduced hearing ability in challenging listening situations [e.g., in background noise, in reverberation, or with competing speech (Pichora‑Fuller & Souza, 2003], these newly developed screening tests mainly rely on the recognition of speech stimuli in noise, so that the real experienced listening difficulties can be effectively targeted (Killion & Niquette, 2000. New tests based on the recognition of speech in noise are being developed on portable, battery- operated devices (see, for example, Paglialonga et al., 2011, or distributed diffusely using information and communication technologies. The evolutions of e-Health and telemedicine have shifted focus from patients coming to the hearing clinic for hearing health evaluation towards the possibility of evaluating the hearing status remotely at home. So far, two ways of distributing the hearing test have primarily been used: ordinary telephone networks (excluding mobile networks and the internet. When using the telephone network for hearing screening, the predominantly test is a speech-in-noise test often referred to as the digit triplet test where the subjects hearing status is evaluated as the speech-to-noise threshold for spoken digits. This test is today available in some ten countries in Europe, North America and Australia. The use of internet as testing platform allows several different types of hearing assessment tests such as questionnaires, different types of speech in noise tests, temporal gap detection, sound localization (minimum audible angle, and spectral

  15. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    Gunvi Johansson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  16. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  17. Abdominal ultrasonographic screening of adult health study participants

    To assess ultrasonography's capabilities in the detection of cancer and other diseases, abdominal ultrasonographic screening was performed for 3,707 Hiroshima and 2,294 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors and comparison subjects who participated in the Adult Health Study from 1 November 1981 to 31 October 1985 in Hiroshima and from 1 August 1984 to 31 July 1986 in Nagasaki. A total of 20 cancers was detected, consisting of 7 hepatomas, 3 gastric cancers, 3 renal cancers, 2 cancers of the urinary bladder, and 1 cancer each of the ovary, pancreas, colon, ureter and liver (metastatic). The cancer detection rate was 0.33 %. The diagnoses of seven cancer subjects in each city were subsequently confirmed at autopsy or surgery; diagnoses of four cancer subjects in Hiroshima and two in Nagasaki were obtained from death certificates. Among the 20 cancer patients, 13 were asymptomatic. After the ultrasonographic detection and diagnosis of these 20 cancers, the medical records of each of the 20 cancer patients were reviewed for any evidence of cancer detection by other examining techniques, and the records of only 3 patients revealed such recent detection. The tumor and tissue registries were similarly checked, but no evidence of earlier diagnosis of their disease was found. Ten of the cancer patients had received ionizing radiation doses from the A-bombs ranging up to 3,421 mGy (DS86), but no correlation was established between cancer prevalence and the A-bomb doses. A variety of tumors, 259 in number and most probably benign, were also detected with ultrasonography. In addition, numerous other abnormalities were diagnosed, with prevalences of 7.7 % for cholelithiasis, 5.7 % for renal cysts, and 3.8 % for liver cysts. No statistical analysis was performed concerning the prevalence of the diseases detected. (author)

  18. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  19. Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis, management, and health services development

    Murphy, Clodagh M; Wilson, C Ellie; Robertson, Dene M; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen M; Hammond, Neil; Galanopoulos, Anastasios; Dud, Iulia; Murphy, Declan G; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive difficulties since early childhood across reciprocal social communication and restricted, repetitive interests and behaviors. Although early ASD research focused primarily on children, there is increasing recognition that ASD is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. However, although health and education services for children with ASD are relatively well established, service provision for adults with ASD is in its infancy. There is a lack of health services research for adults with ASD, including identification of comorbid health difficulties, rigorous treatment trials (pharmacological and psychological), development of new pharmacotherapies, investigation of transition and aging across the lifespan, and consideration of sex differences and the views of people with ASD. This article reviews available evidence regarding the etiology, legislation, diagnosis, management, and service provision for adults with ASD and considers what is needed to support adults with ASD as they age. We conclude that health services research for adults with ASD is urgently warranted. In particular, research is required to better understand the needs of adults with ASD, including health, aging, service development, transition, treatment options across the lifespan, sex, and the views of people with ASD. Additionally, the outcomes of recent international legislative efforts to raise awareness of ASD and service provision for adults with ASD are to be determined. Future research is required to identify high-quality, evidence-based, and cost-effective models of care. Furthermore, future health services research is also required at the beginning and end of adulthood, including improved transition from youth to adult health care and increased understanding of aging and health in older adults with ASD.

  20. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  1. Future Directions in the Study of Health Behavior among Older Adults.

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128

  2. Health literacy among young adults: a short survey tool for public health and health promotion research.

    Abel, Thomas; Hofmann, Karen; Ackermann, Sabine; Bucher, Sabine; Sakarya, Sibel

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is context-specific. In public health and health promotion, HL in the private realm refers to individuals' knowledge and skills to prevent disease and to promote health in everyday life. However, there is a scarcity of measurement tools explicitly geared to private realm contexts. Our aim was to develop and test a short survey tool that captures different dimensions of HL in the context of family and friends. We used cross-sectional data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents from 2010 to 2011, comprising 7983 males and 366 females between 18 and 25 years. HL was assessed through a set of eight items (self-reports). We used principal component analysis to explore the underlying factor structure among these items in the male sample and confirmatory factor analysis to verify the factor structure in the female sample. The results showed that the tested item set represented dimensions of functional, interactive and critical HL. Two sub-dimensions, understanding versus finding health-relevant information, denoted functional HL. Interactive and critical HL were each represented with two items. A sum score based on all eight items (Cronbach's α: 0.64) showed expected positive associations with own and parental education among males and females (p < 0.05). The short item set appears to be a feasible measurement tool to assess HL in the private realm. Its broader application in survey studies may help to improve our understanding of how this form of HL is distributed in the general population. PMID:24482542

  3. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk. PMID:26689218

  4. Health Insurance: The Facts You Need. Student Workbook. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This workbook was developed to help adult literacy students learn about health insurance. It contains information sheets, student worksheets, and answers to the worksheets. The information sheets are coordinated with an available audiotape. Some of the topics covered in the workbook are the following: understanding health insurance choices;…

  5. Perceived barriers to mental health care and goal setting among depressed, community-dwelling older adults

    Mark I Weinberger

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark I Weinberger1, Camila Mateo2, Jo Anne Sirey11Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAObjective: Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of depression and tend to underutilize mental health services. The current study aims to characterize the perceived barriers to care and goal setting in a sample of depressed, community-dwelling older adults. Methods: We report on the association among perceived barriers to care, goal setting and accepting a mental health referral using a subset of data from a larger study. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 was used to assess depressive symptoms. Results: Forty-seven participants completed the study (Mean age = 82, SD = 7.8, 85% female. Accessing and paying for mental health treatment were the barriers most frequently cited by participants. Clinical improvement and improved socialization were most cited goals. In bivariate associations, participants who set goals (χ2 = 5.41, p = 0.02 and reported a logistic barrier (χ2 = 5.30, p = 0.02 were more likely to accept a mental health referral.Conclusion: Perceived barriers to care and goal setting appear to be central to accepting a mental health referral among community dwelling older, depressed adults. Developing interventions that can be used to increase mental health service utilization of older adults is necessary. Keywords: depression, older adults, community, perceived barriers to care

  6. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities. PMID:24580636

  7. A Holistic Approach to Assess Older Adults' Wellness Using e-Health Technologies

    Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George; Rue, Tessa; Shatil, Evelyn; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Reeder, Blaine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To date, methodologies are lacking that address a holistic assessment of wellness in older adults. Technology applications may provide a platform for such an assessment, but have not been validated. We set out to demonstrate whether e-health applications could support the assessment of older adults' wellness in community-dwelling older adults. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven residents of independent retirement community were followed over 8 weeks. Subjects engaged in the use o...

  8. The prevalence and incidence of mental ill-health in adults with autism and intellectual disabilities

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S.-A.; Morrison, J.; Smiley, E; Allan, L; Jackson, A; Finlayson, J; Mantry, D.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem behaviours compared with the whole adult population with intellectual disabilities, compared with individually matched controls there was no difference in pr...

  9. Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults

    ... Asian-Americans in Better Health Than Other U.S. Adults Lifestyle might account for the finding, expert says ... a culture of fast food, soda, stress and insomnia," said Dr. David Katz. Director of the Yale ...

  10. The changes of plasma adrenomedullin level in Han and tibetan health adult men in plateau area

    To investigate the changes and clinical significance of plasma adrenomedullin in Han and Tibetan health adult men at the state of chronic hypoxia. The Han health adult who migrated and lived above sea level 4200 meter for 1∼3 years and the native Tibetan were involved in this study. The plasma adrenomedullin levels in both Han and Tibetan health adult men were measured by RIA. The results showed that the plasma adrenomedullin levels of native Tibetan were significantly higher than that of migrated Han worker (P<0.05). The plasma adrenomedullin might play a regulatory role on the physiological function in the health adult men who live in high altitude hypoxic state. (authors)

  11. Oral health changes in an adult Norwegian population : a cohort analytical approach

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to study temporal variation in oral health in an adult population. The cohort analysis comprised 1) estimation of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and time-lag differences in caries and treatment experience of the adult population in Trøndelag from 1973 to

  12. Better oral health, more inequality--empirical analysis among young adults

    Schuller, A A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the development of the distribution of oral health according to socio-economic status in young adults from 1983 to 1994. PARTICIPANTS: Study material consisted of 23-24 year old adults randomly selected from municipalities in Trøndelag in 1983 and 1

  13. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  14. Health Literacy and Social Capital: What Role for Adult Literacy Partnerships and Pedagogy?

    Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…

  15. Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Service Use in Dutch Young Adults

    K. Vanheusden (Kathleen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnly up to one-third of young adults with a mental disorder seek professional help. The reasons for this low help-seeking rate are largely unclear. The first aim of this thesis is to explain why young adults are unlikely to seek professional help when facing mental health problems. The s

  16. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  17. Psychological Distress and Health Insurance Coverage among Formerly Incarcerated Young Adults in the United States

    Larrell L. Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation. Studies have consistently demonstrated higher prevalence of serious mental illness among the incarcerated. Although health care may be available to individuals while incarcerated, research is needed to understand the context of health care coverage and mental health after incarceration. The purpose of this study is to estimate the point prevalence of psychological distress (PD among young adults with incarceration experience, while comparing the prevalence to that of young adults in the general population. Additionally, this study characterizes the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, while also examining this association given an individual's health insurance coverage status among young adults. Lastly, we examine if other individual, contextual, and behavioral factors influences the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, in addition to their health insurance coverage status. This study utilizes data from the 2008 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97, a population based survey dataset from the U.S. Department of Labor. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use provided the conceptual framework for the study. The Mental Health Index 5 (MHI-5 was used to determine PD or normal mental health. Chi-square testing and multivariate logistic regression were performed to examine incarceration experience in association to PD. The sample with incarceration experience reported almost double the proportion of PD (21% compared to those without an incarceration experience (11%. Young adults who have been incarcerated reported greater odds of PD than those with no incarceration experience (COR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.68-2.83 and the association was diminished in the presence of health insurance status and model covariates. Future health prevention and health management efforts should consider the impact of health insurance coverage

  18. Health of adults caring for orphaned children in an HIV endemic community in South Africa

    Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, an estimated 2.5 million children have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes of adult mortality. Although there is a growing body of research on the well-being of South African orphaned children, few research studies have examined the health of adult individuals caring for children in HIV endemic communities. The cross-sectional survey assessed prevalence of general health and functioning (based on Short-Form 36 version 2 scale), depression (based on Center for Epidemiologic...

  19. Type 1 diabetes: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care

    Monaghan M; Baumann K

    2016-01-01

    Maureen Monaghan,1,2 Katherine Baumann2 1Center for Translational Science, Children's National Health System, 2George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor health outcomes, including poor glycemic control, acute and chronic complications, and emergency department admissions. During this developmental period, adolescent and young adult patients also experience significant changes in li...

  20. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Whyne, Erum

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of sel...

  1. Meditation for older adults: a new look at an ancient intervention for mental health.

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2015-05-01

    New research is providing health care professionals with evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation as an intervention for older adults. Recent studies have provided evidence that meditation results in observable changes in brain structure related to memory, sense of self, empathy, and stress. Health care professionals should consider mindfulness training as a helpful intervention for older adults with problems such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, loneliness, and caregiver burden. PMID:25876613

  2. Modeling Mental Health Information Preferences During the Early Adult Years: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    Charles E. Cunningham; Walker, John R; Eastwood, John D.; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P.; Bracken, Keyna; ,

    2013-01-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtua...

  3. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client ...

  4. Model Minority at Risk: Expressed Needs of Mental Health by Asian American Young Adults

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E.; Robinson, E. Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery ...

  5. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared...

  6. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    ... other tip sheets. More than half of all adults 65 and older have three or more chronic (ongoing) medical problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, or arthritis. Caring for older patients with multiple ...

  7. Juvenile Mental Health Histories of Adults with Anxiety Disorders

    Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Koenen, K.; Eley, Thalia C.; Poulton, Richie

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Information about the psychiatric histories of adults with anxiety disorders was examined to further inform nosology and etiological/ preventive efforts. METHOD: The authors used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort (N=1,037) from ages 11 to 32 years, making psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria. For adults with anxiety disorders at 32 years, follow-back analyses ascertained first diagnosis of anxiety and other juvenile dis...

  8. Immunizing Adults (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    2013-02-21

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.  Created: 2/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/21/2013.

  9. Comprehensibility of Health-Related Documents for Older Adults with Different Levels of Health Literacy: A Systematic Review.

    Koops van 't Jagt, Ruth; Hoeks, John C J; Jansen, Carel J M; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the available evidence for the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve the comprehensibility of health-related documents in older adults (≥50) with different levels of health literacy. Seven databases were searched (2005 forward), and references in relevant reviews were checked. The selection procedure was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Data extraction and assessment of the quality of the resulting studies were conducted by 1 reviewer and checked for accuracy by a 2nd reviewer. A total of 38 intervention studies had a study population of older adults (n = 35) or made an explicit comparison between age groups, including older adults (n = 3). Inconsistent evidence was found for the importance of design features to enhance the comprehensibility of health-related documents. Only for narratives and multiple-feature revisions (e.g., combining revisions in textual and visual characteristics) did the included studies provide evidence that they may be effective for older adults. Using narrative formats and/or multiple-feature revisions of health-related documents seem to be promising strategies for enhancing the comprehensibility of health-related documents for older adults. The lack of consistent evidence for effective interventions stresses the importance of (a) replication and (b) the use of standardized research methodologies. PMID:26594852

  10. Cognitive Function and Health Literacy Decline in a Cohort of Aging English Adults.

    Kobayashi, L. C.; Wardle, J; Wolf, M. S.; von Wagner, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low health literacy is common among aging patients and is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We aimed to describe health literacy decline during aging and to investigate the roles of cognitive function and decline in determining health literacy decline. METHODS Data were from 5,256 non-cognitively impaired adults aged ≥ 52 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Health literacy was assessed using a four-item reading comprehension assessment of a fictitious medici...

  11. Incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 complications among Saudi adult patients at primary health care center

    Alsenany, Samira; Al Saif, Amer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed type 2 diabetes and its role in complications among adult Saudi patients. [Subjects] Patients attending four primary health care centers in Jeddah were enrolled. [Methods] A cross-sectional design study among Saudi patients attending Ministry of Health primary health care centers in Jeddah was selected for use by the Primary Health Care administration. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes and risk factors ...

  12. The association between health literacy and self-management abilities in adults aged 75 and older, and its moderators

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Wynia, Klaske; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Low health literacy is an important predictor of poor health outcomes and well-being among older adults. A reason may be that low health literacy decreases older adults' self-management abilities. We therefore assessed the association between health literacy and self-management abilities am

  13. Health literacy of Dutch adults: a cross sectional survey.

    Heide, I. van der; Rademakers, J.; Schipper, M.; Droomers, M.; Sorensen, K.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Relatively little knowledge is available to date about health literacy among the general population in Europe. It is important to gain insights into health literacy competences among the general population, as this might contribute to more effective health promotion and help clarify soci

  14. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-beh...

  15. Evaluation of health care services provided for older adults in primary health care centers and its internal environment. A step towards age-friendly health centers

    Alhamdan , A.A.; Alshammari , S.A.; Al-Amoud, M.M.; Hameed , T.A.; Al-Muammar , M.N.; Bindawas , S.M.; Al-Orf , S.M.; Mohamed , A.G.; Al-Ghamdi , E.A.; P.C. Calder

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Methods: between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by o...

  16. Comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards among Norwegian adults: a cross sectional study

    Åstrøm Anne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identified optimistic biases in health and oral health hazards, and explored whether comparative risk judgements for oral health hazards vary systematically with socio-economic characteristics and self-reported risk experience. Methods A simple random sample of 1,190 residents born in 1972 was drawn from the population resident in three counties of Norway. A total of 735 adults (51% women completed postal questionnaires at home. Results Mean ratings of comparative risk judgements differed significantly (p Conclusion Optimism in comparative judgements for health and oral health hazards was evident in young Norwegian adults. When judging their comparative susceptibility for oral health hazards, they consider personal health situation and risk behaviour experience.

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes in adults.

    Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tarko, Laura; McDermott, Katie; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Whereas the adverse impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on emotional and psychosocial well-being has been well investigated, its impact on physical health has not. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of ADHD on lifestyle behaviors and measures of adverse health risk indicators. Subjects were 100 untreated adults with ADHD and 100 adults without ADHD of similar age and sex. Unhealthy lifestyle indicators included assessments of bad health habits, frequency of visits to healthcare providers, and follow through with recommended prophylactic tests. Assessments of adverse health risk indicators included measurements of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. No differences were identified in health habits between subjects with and without ADHD, but robust differences were found in a wide range of adverse health risk indicators. ADHD is associated with an adverse impact in health risk indicators well known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:25211634

  18. Health Literacy and Its Link to Healthcare Service Utilization Among Older Adults in Korea.

    Kim, Young Sun; Khatiwoda, Parmananda; Park, Byung Hyun; Lee, Hee Yun

    2016-10-01

    Existing studies report a negative association between health literacy and hospital/emergency room use. Despite substantial research on this topic among older Americans, little is known about the link between health literacy and healthcare services use among older Koreans. This study investigates this link, using a sample of 596 adults, 65 and older, from Korea's three largest cities. Andersen's behavior model guided the study. Findings revealed that participants with higher health literacy were significantly less likely to use emergent health services. Enhanced health literacy will likely promote better health outcomes for older Koreans and reduce Korea's healthcare costs. PMID:27175556

  19. Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review.

    Bouaziz, Walid; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to increase worldwide, more attention is being paid to geriatric health care needs, and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in the medical literature. A preventive approach to the care of older adults is thus a priority in our aging societies. The purpose of this study was to update evidence for the health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies on the relationship between cycle ergometer training and health among older patients over 70. Twenty-five studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling for older adults over 70. These studies reported a positive effect on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and a significant improvement in metabolic responses. Improving functional status, muscle strength and cognitive performance are also well established. Overall, this review demonstrates a positive effect of cycle ergometer training with functional benefits and positive health outcomes for older adults over 70. Based on this evidence, clinicians can now encourage older adults to profit from the health benefits of cycle ergometer training to be able to pursue their daily activities independently. PMID:26865872

  20. The Silence of Our Science: Nursing Research on LGBT Older Adult Health.

    Cloyes, Kristin G

    2016-03-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults have been largely invisible within health and aging services research, despite being disproportionately burdened by poor health and aging outcomes. The current study examines the prevalence of LGBT aging and older adult health-related studies in the 2010-2014 nursing literature, and how this topic is being addressed. Systematic CINAHL and PubMed searches were conducted and compared to (a) quantify the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related scholarship in nursing research; (b) document the appearance of relevant publications in top nursing journals; (c) identify the focus of articles with a substantive focus on LGBT older adult health or aging; and (d) compare the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related literature in nursing, gerontology, medicine, and social work. Findings indicate that research explicitly including LGBT older adults is lacking across the health sciences, particularly in nursing (where it has been largely absent). Implications for nursing research, practice, and education are discussed. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(2):92-104.]. PMID:26716654

  1. Incidence of ADHD in adults with severe mental health problems.

    Kennemer, Kordell; Goldstein, Sam

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders in an adult inpatient psychiatric setting. Patient charts were reviewed from a state hospital in the western United States. Of the 292 persons served in 2002, only 6 received a diagnosis of ADHD. Of these patients, 2 received additional diagnoses for Major Depression, 1 for General Anxiety and 1 for Bipolar Disorder. Five of the 6 ADHD participants had a history of substance abuse and 4 were diagnosed with Personality Disorders. None of the 6 diagnosed with ADHD received a diagnosis of Learning Disability. A variety of nonstimulant medications were utilized to treat these patients. Characteristics of adult psychiatric populations are reviewed. Prevalence, comorbidity and implications for future research regarding adult ADHD are discussed. PMID:16083396

  2. The Role of the Adult Educator in Helping Learners Access and Select Quality Health Information on the Internet

    Wright, Melissa; Grabowsky, Adelia

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, 45 percent of American adults had used the Internet to search for health information. However, according to a 2009 report, the number had increased to 71 percent of adults ages thirty to forty-nine and 46 percent of those 50 and older who had sought health information online. While the number of adults using the Internet to search for…

  3. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Mary C Kapella

    Full Text Available Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35 with narcolepsy (N = 122 and without narcolepsy (N = 93 were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, Fife Stigma Scale (FSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01. Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  4. Becoming Old as a "Pharmaceutical Person": Negotiation of Health and Medicines among Ethnoculturally Diverse Older Adults

    Ballantyne, Peri J.; Mirza, Raza M.; Austin, Zubin; Boon, Heather S.; Fisher, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Because medication prescribing and use have become a normative aspect of health care for older adults, we seek to understand how individuals navigate prescribed-medication use within the context of aging. We reasoned that, for those who are ambulatory, medication use is likely influenced by ethnocultural meanings of health and experiences with…

  5. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  6. Attitudes of Overweight and Normal Weight Adults Regarding Exercise at a Health Club

    Miller, Wayne C.; Miller, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare attitudes of overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) adults regarding health club exercise. Design: A 46-item survey (23 pairs of attitude/value statements) measured attitudes toward exercising at a health club 30 minutes, twice a week, for a month. Setting: Survey posted on surveymonkey.com. Respondents (men = 730, women =…

  7. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship. PMID:26527056

  8. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  9. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  10. Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance for the Older Adult: A Modular Approach.

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This book is addressed to the teacher of health, physical education, recreation, and dance courses for older adults. The first section provides the foundation for understanding gerontology. It includes fundamental concepts within the areas of sociological, physiological, and psychological aspects of aging, health problems, and nutritional status…

  11. Development of a Health Literacy Assessment for Young Adult College Students: A Pilot Study

    Harper, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive health literacy assessment tool for young adult college students. Participants: Participants were 144 undergraduate students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-nine questions were developed, which were based on concepts identified by the US Department of Health and Human Services,…

  12. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  13. Trust in the Health Care System and the Use of Preventive Health Services by Older Black and White Adults

    Schulz, Richard; Harris, Roderick; Silverman, Myrna; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to find racial differences in the effects of trust in the health care system on preventive health service use among older adults. Methods. We conducted a telephone survey with 1681 Black and White older adults. Survey questions explored respondents' trust in physicians, medical research, and health information sources. We used logistic regression and controlled for covariates to assess effects of race and trust on the use of preventive health services. Results. We identified 4 types of trust through factor analysis: trust in one's own personal physician, trust in the competence of physicians' care, and trust in formal and informal health information sources. Blacks had significantly less trust in their own physicians and greater trust in informal health information sources than did Whites. Greater trust in one's own physician was associated with utilization of routine checkups, prostate-specific antigen tests, and mammograms, but not with flu shots. Greater trust in informal information sources was associated with utilization of mammograms. Conclusions. Trust in one's own personal physician is associated with utilization of preventive health services. Blacks' relatively high distrust of their physicians likely contributes to health disparities by causing reduced utilization of preventive services. Health information disseminated to Blacks through informal means is likely to increase Blacks' utilization of preventive health services. PMID:18923129

  14. Mechanisms linking early life stress to adult health outcomes

    Taylor, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating stress to health has progressed from anecdotal evidence in the 1930s and 1940s to complex multivariate models that identify underlying longitudinal mechanisms. Enduring questions that have guided our research are: How does the early life environment affect health outcomes into adulthood? How is the latent damage stored and what processes are set into motion that link early life stress to health disorders in the later years? An emerging perspective focuses on the accumulation...

  15. Adult Neurogenesis, Mental Health, and Mental Illness: Hope or Hype?

    Eisch, Amelia J.; Cameron, Heather A.; Encinas, Juan M.; Meltzer, Leslie A.; Ming, Guo-li; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurologic disorders take an enormous toll on society. Alleviating the devastating symptoms and consequences of neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, epilepsy and schizophrenia is a main force driving clinical and basic researchers alike. By elucidating these disease neuromechanisms, researchers hope to better define treatments and preventive therapies. Research suggests that regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents a promising approach to tr...

  16. Immunizing Adults (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    2013-02-21

    Overall, far too many people 19 and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. This podcast discusses the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.  Created: 2/21/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/21/2013.

  17. Psychosocial Effects of Health Disparities of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults.

    Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha

    2015-07-01

    The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. PMID:26151148

  18. Self-perceived health and clinical characteristics in young adult students from the brazilian northeast

    Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the association between socioeconomic situation, clinical characteristics referred and the family history of cardiovascular disease, with the Self-perceived health of young adults education and their implications for clinical characteristics observed. Method Analytical study conducted with 501 young adults who are students in countryside city in the Brazilian Northeast. We used binary logistic regression. Results The final model explained 83.3% of the self-perceived positive health, confirming the association of Self-perceived health with male, residence in the community, have excellent/very good lifestyle and does not have or do not know that there are cases of stroke in the family. Conclusion Health perception was often optimistic, being important to identify devices to be worked closer to their perception of their actual health condition, increasing the effectiveness of health promotion activities undertaken by professionals.

  19. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world. PMID:20980087

  20. Physical activity and optimal self-rated health of adults with and without diabetes

    Balluz Lina S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity can improve people's overall health and contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of many chronic diseases and conditions including diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between levels of physical activity and optimal self-rated health (SRH of U.S. adults with and without diabetes in all 50 states and territories of the Unites States. Methods We estimated the prevalence of optimal SRH by diabetes status of 430,912 adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2007 state-based survey of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Prevalence ratios were produced with multivariate Cox regression models using levels of physical activity as a predictor and status of optimal SRH as an outcome variable while controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral health risk factors. Results The prevalence of reporting optimal SRH was 53.3%, 52.2%, and 86.2% for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and without diabetes, respectively. Also in the aforementioned order, adults who reported being active had an increased likelihood of 81%, 32%, and 18% for reporting optimal SRH, when compared with adults who reported being inactive. Conclusions Regular physical activity of adults, particularly adults with diabetes, is associated with optimal SRH. The findings of this study underscore the importance of advising and motivating adults with diabetes so that physical activity can be integrated into their lifestyle for diabetes care. Additionally, a population-based effort to promote physical activity in communities may benefit adults in general by improving their overall health and well-being.

  1. Brain Health Knowledge in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Park, Carolyn S.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging and its effects on a person's quality of life are a growing health concern and burden for many Americans. Recently, studies have shown that adopting certain healthy behaviors may help maintain and or prevent age-related health issues such as cognitive decline. However, many people are unaware of these newfound facts. Furthermore, there is…

  2. Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity from a Physician or Other Health ...

    ... Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or Other Health Professional Recommend ... to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity. Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of adults ...

  3. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategi...

  4. The impact of poor adult health on labor supply in the Russian Federation

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We examine the labor supply consequences of poor health in the Russian Federation, a country with exceptionally adverse adult health outcomes. In both baseline OLS models and in models with individual fixed effects, more serious ill-health events, somewhat surprisingly, generally have only weak effects on hours worked. At the same time, their effect on the extensive margin of labor supply is substantial. Moreover, when combining the effects on both the intensive and extensive margins, the eff...

  5. Mental health and cognitive function in adults aged 18 to 92 years

    Bunce, D; Tzur, M; Ramchurn, A; Gain, F; Bond, FW

    2008-01-01

    Mental health and cognitive function were investigated in 195 community-dwelling adults aged 18 to 92 years (M = 46.64). Cognitive domains assessed included psychomotor, executive function, and episodic memory. A significant Age x Mental health interaction was found in relation to within-person (WP) variability (trial-to-trial variability in RT performance) in a 4-choice psychomotor, and a Stroop task, but not in relation to mean RT measures from those tasks. Poorer mental health was associa...

  6. Do adults in contact with Australia's public sector mental health services get better?

    Burgess, Philip; Pirkis, Jane; Coombs, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of episodes of care for adults in public sector mental health services across Australia, with a view to informing the debate on service quality. Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) change scores and effect sizes were calculated for 14,659 acute inpatient episodes and 23,692 community episodes. The results showed that people in contact with public sector mental health services generally do get better, although the magnitude of improvement depends on th...

  7. Psychological Distress and Health Insurance Coverage among Formerly Incarcerated Young Adults in the United States

    Larrell L. Wilkinson; Glover, Saundra H.; Janice C. Probst; Bo Cai; Wigfall, Lisa T.

    2015-01-01

    The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation. Studies have consistently demonstrated higher prevalence of serious mental illness among the incarcerated. Although health care may be available to individuals while incarcerated, research is needed to understand the context of health care coverage and mental health after incarceration. The purpose of this study is to estimate the point prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among young adults with incarceration e...

  8. A study on health literacy and its relationship with vitamin D supplement among Chinese older adults

    Cheung, Kwun-ting.; 張冠庭.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Chinese adults in Hong Kong and ignorance and confusion about vitamin D is common throughout the Hong Kong population. Health literacy is a crucial factor that influences the health actions and outcomes of individuals; however, little is known about the relationship between health literacy and behavior of supplementing vitamin D through sunlight exposure. Objective: The aim of the current study was to identify the factors associated wit...

  9. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

    Mimi M.Y. eTSE; Ka Long eCHAN; Anthony S.W. eWONG; Eric W.C. eTAM; Elaine Y.L. eFAN; Gloria P.C. eYIP

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territ...

  10. Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territ...

  11. Relationship Between Allergic Rhinitis and Mental Health in the General Korean Adult Population

    Kim, Do Hyun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Soo Whan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the association between AR and mental health status in the general Korean adult population and to investigate the relative burden of AR on mental health using the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed by using data from 11,154 individuals, 19 years old or older in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Univariate analysis was conducted in the h...

  12. The Physical and Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay Male, and Bisexual (LGB) Older Adults: The Role of Key Health Indicators and Risk and Protective Factors

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Emlet, Charles A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A.; GOLDSEN, JAYN; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and hea...

  13. Sources of Discrimination and Their Associations With Health in Sexual Minority Adults.

    Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities exist between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. These health disparities may be due to stressful social situations and environments that are created by discrimination. The current study recruited 277 sexual minorities to complete an online survey to examine the effects of discrimination on health. Discrimination from family and friends, compared to non-family and friends, was found to be more strongly associated with poorer health. This effect was partially statistically mediated by perceived stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of distinguishing between different sources of discrimination when examining the effect of discrimination on health in sexual minority adults. PMID:26513583

  14. Ventilatory function test values of health adult Jordanians.

    Sliman, N A; Dajani, B M; Dajani, H M

    1981-01-01

    A sample of 144 male, and 117 female healthy adults was selected to determine the normal ventilatory functions for Jordanians. Forced vital capacity, FEV1, and FMF 25-75% were determined using a dry bellows spirometer. Linear regression curves and nomograms were constructed for predicted values. Jordanian values for FVC and FEV1 were similar to those of Caucasians living in the western hemisphere.

  15. Tracking Healthy Days — A Window on the Health of Older Adults

    David G. Moriarty

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with its partners in the public health and aging services communities, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Health Care and Aging Studies Branch has developed and validated a brief set of health-related quality of life (CDC HRQOL measures for tracking the perceived physical and mental health of adults over time. For the past 12 years, these measures — also called the Healthy Days measures — have been used in an expanding set of population health surveys, surveillance systems, performance report cards, and evaluation studies, and they have provided useful disease and disability burden data to inform decision making and provide new insights for prevention research. Although now used continuously to assess health-related quality of life for Americans aged 12 years and older, the measures and population data have been especially valuable in applications affecting older adults, for which health-related quality of life is an outcome of primary importance. The CDC HRQOL measures are recommended to public health and social service professionals as a feasible way to assess perceived physical and mental health needs of older adults and to document the effects of policies and interventions.

  16. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    Gina Andrade Abdala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults.METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE. The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components. The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve = 0.91.RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.

  17. A systematic review of sexual health interventions for adults: narrative evidence.

    Hogben, Matthew; Ford, Jessie; Becasen, Jeffrey S; Brown, Kathryn F

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has explored the intersection between sexual health (as construed by the World Health Organization and others) and public health domains of action in the United States of America. This article reports the narrative results of a systematic review of sexual health intervention effects on public health-relevant outcomes. To qualify, interventions had to be based on the principles (1) that sexual health is intrinsic to individuals and their overall health and (2) that relationships reflecting sexual health must be positive for all parties concerned. Outcomes were classed in domains: knowledge, attitudes, communication, health care use, sexual behavior, and adverse events. We summarized data from 58 studies (English language, adult populations, 1996-2011) by population (adults, parents, sexual minorities, vulnerable populations) across domains. Interventions were predominantly individual and small-group designs that addressed sexual behaviors (72%) and attitudes/norms (55%). They yielded positive effects in that 98% reported a positive finding in at least one domain; 50% also reported null effects. The most consistently positive effects on behaviors and adverse events were found for sexual minorities, vulnerable populations, and parental communication. Whether via direct action or through partnerships, incorporating principles from existing sexual health definitions in public health efforts may help improve sexual health. PMID:25406027

  18. Healthy(?), Wealthy, and Wise Birth Order and Adult Health.

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2016-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education, IQ scores, and earnings, the evidence for effects on health is more limited. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order on a range of health and health-related behaviors, outcomes not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Interestingly, we find complicated effects of birth order. First-borns are more likely to be ov...

  19. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  20. Relationship between health literacy, health status, and healthy behaviors among older adults in Isfahan, Iran

    Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Radjati, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Reisi, Mahnoosh; Hasanzade, Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is a measure of an individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Limited health literacy can reduce the adults’ ability to comprehend and use basic health-related materials, such as prescription, food labels, health education pamphlets, articles, appointment slips, and health insurance plans, which can affect their ability to take appropriate and timely health care action. Nowadays, low health literacy is considered a worldwide health t...

  1. Experiences of health care transition voiced by young adults with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study

    Garvey KC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Katharine C Garvey,1,5 Margaret G Beste,2 Donna Luff,3,5 Astrid Atakov-Castillo,2 Howard A Wolpert,2,5 Marilyn D Ritholz4–61Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; 3Institute for Professionalism and Ethical Practice, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Behavioral and Mental Health Unit, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care reported by posttransition emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D, with a focus on preparation for the actual transfer in care.Methods: Twenty-six T1D emerging adults (mean age 26.2±2.5 years receiving adult diabetes care at a single center participated in five focus groups stratified by two levels of current glycemic control. A multidisciplinary team coded transcripts and conducted thematic analysis.Results: Four key themes on the process of transfer to adult care emerged from a thematic analysis: 1 nonpurposeful transition (patients reported a lack of transition preparation by pediatric providers for the transfer to adult diabetes care; 2 vulnerability in the college years (patients conveyed periods of loss to follow-up during college and described health risks and diabetes management challenges specific to the college years that were inadequately addressed by pediatric or adult providers; 3 unexpected differences between pediatric and adult health care systems (patients were surprised by the different feel of adult diabetes care, especially with regards to an increased focus on diabetes complications; and 4 patients’ wish list for improving the transition process (patients recommended enhanced pediatric transition counseling, implementation of adult clinic orientation programs, and peer

  2. Happiness, health, and religiosity among Lebanese young adults

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the associations between, and sex-related differences in happiness, health, and religiosity. A sample (N = 476) of Lebanese undergraduates took part in the study (215 men and 261 women). They answered Arabic versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Love of Life Scale, as well as five self-generated rating scales. Men obtained a significantly higher mean score on happiness and mental health than did their female...

  3. The Effect of Parental Divorce on the Health of Adult Children1

    Thomas, Jason R.; Högnäs, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have produced evidence that parental divorce is negatively associated with offspring outcomes from early childhood, through adolescence, and into the adult years. This study adds to the literature on the effects of parental divorce by examining how the timing of a parental divorce influences the total effect on adult health. Furthermore, we look at how this long-term effect of parental divorce depends on mediators such as the family’s socioeconomic status, parental involve...

  4. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-te...

  5. Maintaining Exercise and Healthful Eating in Older Adults: The SENIOR Project II: Study Design and Methodology

    Clark, Phillip G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Lees, Faith D.; Riebe, Deborah A.; Stamm, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1,277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Tran...

  6. Effect of a Home Telecare Program on Oral Health among Adults with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study

    Yuen, Hon K.

    2013-01-01

    Study design one group pre- and post-test design Objective The primary aim was to examine both the short- and long-term effects of an oral home telecare program on improving gingival health among adults with tetraplegia. Methods Eight adults with tetraplegia participated. The oral home telecare program consisted of individualized oral hygiene training in the use of assistive devices (powered toothbrush and adapted flosser and/or oral irrigator) using PC-based videoconferencing between each pa...

  7. Music and Public Health: Music in the everyday life of adult Danes and its relationship with health

    Ekholm, Ola; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response...... rate: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states/processes and that they...

  8. Swimming without the water: a critical perspective on mental health experience for adult nursing students.

    Barrett, Paul; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Adult nurses and adult field nursing students come into contact with a diverse range of other patient groups in their practice but perhaps none more so than those who have co-existing mental health issues. Consequently adult field student nurses must be equipped with the requisite knowledge and skills to competently care for their patients who also experience mental health problems. Given the pressure on placements many education providers have developed alternatives to direct mental health experiences. The authors review their own experience of some of the modalities that higher education institutes (HEI) use to instruct their students in this field. They argue that, ideally, there is no substitute for the practical experience of placements in the mental health sector, particularly if these include contact with mental health nursing. The paper concludes with some recommendations for nursing education and our professional body that could help equip adult field nursing students with the necessary experience and skills of mental health to support them into their future careers. PMID:23830557

  9. Health Disparities among LGBT Older Adults and the Role of Nonconscious Bias.

    Foglia, Mary Beth; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the significance of key empirical findings from the recent and landmark study Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging and Sexuality Study (with Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen as the principal investigator), on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging and health disparities. We will illustrate these findings with select quotations from study participants and show how nonconscious bias (i.e., activation of negative stereotypes outside conscious awareness) in the clinical encounter and health care setting can threaten shared decision-making and perpetuate health disparities among LGBT older adults. We recognize that clinical ethicists are not immune from nonconscious bias but maintain that they are well situated to recognize bias and resulting injustice by virtue of their training. Further, we discuss how clinical ethicists can influence the organization's ethical culture and environment to improve the quality and acceptability of health care for LGBT older adults. PMID:25231786

  10. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association With Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for nutrition and medical service provision to this population. Design and Methods: In-home interviews and oral examinations were conducted with 635 adults in ...

  11. Wise Choices: Nutrition and Exercise for Older Adults: A Community-Based Health Promotion Intervention.

    Turk, Melanie T; Elci, Okan U; Resick, Lenore K; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interventions for older adults are needed to address lifestyle behaviors linked to chronic illnesses. We implemented a 12-week group behavioral intervention for 118 racially diverse older adults at 6 community-based senior centers to improve eating and physical activity. Assessments were completed pre- and postintervention, with 85.6% retention. We documented increases in fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; pace of walking; number of city blocks walked; daily steps walked; functional mobility; and self-rated general health (P < .05). Findings indicate that a relatively low-intensity lifestyle intervention can effectively be implemented for community-dwelling older adults. Further development of this approach is warranted. PMID:27536931

  12. Happiness, health, and religiosity among Lebanese young adults

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the associations between, and sex-related differences in happiness, health, and religiosity. A sample (N = 476 of Lebanese undergraduates took part in the study (215 men and 261 women. They answered Arabic versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Love of Life Scale, as well as five self-generated rating scales. Men obtained a significantly higher mean score on happiness and mental health than did their female counterparts, whereas women obtained a significantly higher mean score on religiosity. All the Pearson correlations between the study scales were significant and positive but one (between the self-rating scales of physical health and religiosity among men. Principal components analysis yielded one salient component separately in men and women, and labeled “Happiness, health, and religiosity.” The predictors of happiness as assessed with the OHI were love of life and SWLS, and happiness self-rating scale. Based on the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as felt happiness, reported higher mental and physical health, and being more religious.

  13. Transition experiences and health care utilization among young adults with type 1 diabetes

    Garvey KC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharine C Garvey,1 Jonathan A Finkelstein,2,3 Lori M Laffel,1,4 Victoria Ochoa,1 Joseph I Wolfsdorf,1 Erinn T Rhodes1 1Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 4Pediatric, Adolescent and Young Adult Section, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the current status of adult diabetes care in young adults with type 1 diabetes and examine associations between health care transition experiences and care utilization. Methods: We developed a survey to assess transition characteristics and current care in young adults with type 1 diabetes. We mailed the survey to the last known address of young adults who had previously received diabetes care at a tertiary pediatric center. Results: Of 291 surveys sent, 83 (29% were undeliverable and three (1% were ineligible. Of 205 surveys delivered, 65 were returned (response rate 32%. Respondents (mean age 26.6 ± 3.0 years, 54% male, 91% Caucasian transitioned to adult diabetes care at a mean age of 19.2 ± 2.8 years. Although 71% felt mostly/completely prepared for transition, only half received recommendations for a specific adult provider. Twenty-six percent reported gaps exceeding six months between pediatric and adult diabetes care. Respondents who made fewer than three diabetes visits in the year prior to transition (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–16.5 or cited moving/relocation as the most important reason for transition (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.3–31.5 were more likely to report gaps in care exceeding six months. Patients receiving current care from an adult endocrinologist (79% were more likely to report at least two diabetes visits in the past year (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5–24.0 compared with those receiving diabetes care from a general internist/adult primary care doctor (17%. Two

  14. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Arlesia Mathis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001. Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  15. Health supplement consumption behavior in older adults population: An exploratory study

    Mimi M.Y. eTSE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69 and old-old group (age 70 or above. The mean age is 67.93±10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational programme concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young old and old-old groups.

  16. Health supplement consumption behavior in the older adult population: an exploratory study.

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69) and old-old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young-old and old-old groups. PMID:24575397

  17. Sexual Health in Adult Men with Spina Bifida

    Gary W. Bong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical and surgical advances in the treatment of spina bifida (SB have resulted in increasing numbers of patients reaching adulthood. As such, issues related to sexual maturity are being investigated to offer optimal healthcare to men with spina bifida. This report constitutes a review of the current literature relating to adults with spina bifida and issues of sexuality, erectile dysfunction and fertility. In general, adult males with spina bifida have normal sexual desires and an interest in addressing these issues with healthcare providers. Sexual education and access to intimacy are delayed compared to the general population. 75% of men achieve erections, but maintaining erections is a problem and some may be merely reflexive in nature. The many of these men show marked improvement with sildenafil. In SB erectile dysfunction and infertility are related to the level of neurological lesion with the best performance status in those with sacral lesions and intact reflexes. Men with lesions higher than T10 are at risk for azoospermia. There is an increased risk of neural tube defects in the children of men with spina bifida, but the current incidence with modern folic acid therapy is unknown. As the number of males with spina bifida reaching sexual maturity increases, further investigation into sexuality, sex education, intimacy, and treatments for erectile dysfunction and infertility will be needed.

  18. Neurotological Findings at a Health Unit for Adults with Cervicalgia

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Mesti, Juliana Cristina; Gorski, Leslie Palma; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The cervical spine is a flexible link between the sensory platform of the skull and torso. The fundamental principle of its operation is due to the balance between muscle strength and flexibility, and any dysfunction of this balance causes neck pain, known as cervicalgia. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the most prevalent neurotological findings in adults with neck pain. Method A cross-sectional study in which 33 adults from 50 to 83 years of age with neck pain were evaluated and underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, as well as ENT, audiological, and vestibular exams. Results The most evident neurotological symptoms were dizziness (75.7%), tinnitus, neck cracking, tingling in the extremities, and auditory problems (36.3% for each). The most frequently reported clinical symptoms were related to cardiovascular (69.7%), endocrine-metabolic (48.5%), and rheumatic (30.3%) systems. In the audiological assessment, 30 subjects (91.0%) presented hearing impairment in at least one ear, with sensorineural impairment being the most prevalent (88.0%). In the vestibular assessment, there were alterations in 13 subjects (39.0%) found in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alterations in the peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Conclusion Neurotological complaints were frequent in this population, verifying the importance of these tests in the dysfunctions of the cervical region or the craniocervical junction. PMID:27096014

  19. Mental Health Screening of Older Adults in Primary Care

    Davis, Mary J.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to document mental health outreach in our primary care clinic, 316 veterans (mean age 72) not currently in psychiatric treatment were screened for multiple mental health symptoms. Depressed mood was reported by 18% of the sample, insomnia by 26%, and morbid/suicidal ideation by 6.9% for at least several days during the past 2 weeks. Of those who experienced a loss over the past year (43%), 36% remained affected by the loss. Also reported were anxiety symptoms (29%) and PTSD sympt...

  20. The association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in older adults, and its social cognitive mediators

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F.; Luten, Karla A.; Jansen, Carel J. M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the associati

  1. Innovative approaches to using new media and technology in health promotion for adolescents and young adults.

    Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings. PMID:22423462

  2. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1 the experience of psychological benefits, 2 the creation of social support, and 3 the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  3. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    Marjan Hajizadeh; Mojgan Javadnoori; Nahid Javadifar

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years), selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educatio...

  4. Health profile for Danish adults with activity limitation and/or physical disability

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Davidsen, Michael; Juel, Knud

    and women aged 16 years or older were selected randomly from the Central Civil Registration Registry. A total of 14,265 individuals answered a paper version or a web version of the self-administered questionnaire including 100 questions on health-related quality of life, health behavior, morbidity...... disability. People with activity limitation and/or physical disabilities should be prioritized in public health and efforts done to secure availability and flexibility of health care services and primary prevention programs. Main messages (max 200 characters including spaces) Danish adults with activity...

  5. Delivering Flexible Education and Training to Health Professionals: Caring for Older Adults in Disasters.

    Altman, Brian A; Gulley, Kelly H; Rossi, Carlo; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Schor, Kenneth

    2016-08-01

    The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH), in collaboration with over 20 subject matter experts, created a competency-based curriculum titled Caring for Older Adults in Disasters: A Curriculum for Health Professionals. Educators and trainers of health professionals are the target audience for this curriculum. The curriculum was designed to provide breadth of content yet flexibility for trainers to tailor lessons, or select particular lessons, for the needs of their learners and organizations. The curriculum covers conditions present in the older adult population that may affect their disaster preparedness, response, and recovery; issues related to specific types of disasters; considerations for the care of older adults throughout the disaster cycle; topics related to specific settings in which older adults receive care; and ethical and legal considerations. An excerpt of the final capstone lesson is included. These capstone activities can be used in conjunction with the curriculum or as part of stand-alone preparedness training. This article describes the development process, elements of each lesson, the content covered, and options for use of the curriculum in education and training for health professionals. The curriculum is freely available online at the NCDMPH website at http://ncdmph.usuhs.edu (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:633-637). PMID:27109606

  6. Does Health Insurance Continuity Among Low-income Adults Impact Their Children’s Insurance Coverage?

    Yamauchi, Melissa; Carlson, Matthew J.; Wright, Bill J.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Parent’s insurance coverage is associated with children’s insurance status, but little is known about whether a parent’s coverage continuity affects a child’s coverage. This study assesses the association between an adult’s insurance continuity and the coverage status of their children. We used data from a subgroup of participants in the Oregon Health Care Survey, a three-wave, 30-month prospective cohort study (n = 559). We examined the relationship between the length of time an adult had health insurance coverage and whether or not all children in the same household were insured at the end of the study. We used a series of univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify significant associations and the rho correlation coefficient to assess collinearity. A dose response relationship was observed between continuity of adult coverage and the odds that all children in the household were insured. Among adults with continuous coverage, 91.4% reported that all children were insured at the end of the study period, compared to 83.7% of adults insured for 19–27 months, 74.3% of adults insured for 10–18 months, and 70.8% of adults insured for fewer than 9 months. This stepwise pattern persisted in logistic regression models: adults with the fewest months of coverage, as compared to those continuously insured, reported the highest odds of having uninsured children (adjusted odds ratio 7.26, 95% confidence interval 2.75, 19.17). Parental health insurance continuity is integral to maintaining children’s insurance coverage. Policies to promote continuous coverage for adults will indirectly benefit children. PMID:22359243

  7. Talking Health, A pragmatic randomized-controlled health literacy trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults: Rationale, design & methods

    Zoellner, Jamie; Chen, Yvonnes; Davy, Brenda; You, Wen; Hedrick, Valisa; Corsi, Terri; Estabrooks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contributes to a wide range of poor health outcomes. Further, few US adults drink less than the recommended ≤8 ounces per day; and individuals with low socioeconomic, low health literacy status, and in rural areas are even less likely to meet recommendations. Unfortunately, few SSB behavioral interventions exist targeting adults, and none focus on low health literacy in rural areas. Talking Health, a type 1 effectiveness-implementation hybri...

  8. Fatigue, General Health, and Ischemic Heart Disease in Older Adults

    Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina;

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free of...... cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic......-related diagnoses, no use of heart medication, sustained good mobility, and participation at follow-up. IHD was defined as first hospitalization due to IHD (ICD10: I20-I25) or death due to IHD as primary cause. RESULTS: Participants without fatigue had higher chances of a sustained good general health at 2 (odds...

  9. Development of a Multidimensional Functional Health Scale for Older Adults in China.

    Mao, Fanzhen; Han, Yaofeng; Chen, Junze; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Manqiong; Alicia Hong, Y; Fang, Ya

    2016-05-01

    A first step to achieve successful aging is assessing functional wellbeing of older adults. This study reports the development of a culturally appropriate brief scale (the Multidimensional Functional Health Scale for Chinese Elderly, MFHSCE) to assess the functional health of Chinese elderly. Through systematic literature review, Delphi method, cultural adaptation, synthetic statistical item selection, Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis, we conducted development of item pool, two rounds of item selection, and psychometric evaluation. Synthetic statistical item selection and psychometric evaluation was processed among 539 and 2032 older adults, separately. The MFHSCE consists of 30 items, covering activities of daily living, social relationships, physical health, mental health, cognitive function, and economic resources. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, and the comparative fit index was 0.917. The MFHSCE has good internal consistency and construct validity; it is also concise and easy to use in general practice, especially in communities in China. PMID:26537364

  10. Personality and symptoms of psychological ill health among adult male offenders.

    Brewer, Gayle

    2011-05-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. Male offenders (N = 161) housed at two medium-high-risk institutions completed the Ten Item Personality Inventory and the Symptom Checklist Outpatient Rating Scale. Emotional stability emerged as the strongest individual predictor of psychological ill health and predicted each of the subscales measured (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism) and overall symptoms. Although agreeableness predicted depression and anger-hostility only, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience did not predict any aspect of psychological ill health investigated. The findings contribute to the current literature and provide further information about the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. PMID:20798143

  11. Neutrophil Homeostasis and Periodontal Health in Children and Adults

    Hajishengallis, E.; Hajishengallis, G

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on neutrophil basic biology and discusses how the breakdown of neutrophil homeostasis affects periodontal health. The homeostasis of neutrophils is tightly regulated through coordinated bone marrow production, release into the circulation, transmigration to and activation in peripheral tissues, and clearance of senescent neutrophils. Dysregulation of any of these homeostatic mechanisms at any age can cause severe periodontitis in humans an...

  12. Use of and interest in alternative therapies among adult primary care clinicians and adult members in a large health maintenance organization.

    Gordon, N P; Sobel, D S; Tarazona, E Z

    1998-09-01

    During spring 1996, random samples of adult primary care physicians, obstetrics-gynecology physicians and nurse practitioners, and adult members of a large northern California group practice model health maintenance organization (HMO) were surveyed by mail to assess the use of alternative therapies and the extent of interest in having them incorporated into HMO-delivered care. Sixty-one percent (n = 624) of adult primary care physicians, 70% (n = 157) of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians, and 50% (2 surveys, n = 1,507 and n = 17,735) of adult HMO members responded. During the previous 12 months, 25% of adults reported using and nearly 90% of adult primary care physicians and obstetrics-gynecology clinicians reported recommending at least 1 alternative therapy, primarily for pain management. Chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, and behavioral medicine techniques such as meditation and relaxation training were most often cited. Obstetrics-gynecology clinicians used herbal and homeopathic medicines more often than adult primary care physicians, primarily for menopause and premenstrual syndrome. Two thirds of adult primary care physicians and three fourths of obstetrics-gynecology clinicians were at least moderately interested in using alternative therapies with patients, and nearly 70% of young and middle-aged adult and half of senior adult members were interested in having alternative therapies incorporated into their health care. Adult primary care physicians and members were more interested in having the HMO cover manipulative and behavioral medicine therapies than homeopathic or herbal medicines. PMID:9771154

  13. Cognitive Decline and Oral Health in Middle-aged Adults in the ARIC Study

    Naorungroj, S.; Slade, G.D.; Beck, J D; Mosley, T H; Gottesman, R. F.; A. Alonso; Heiss, G

    2013-01-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). C...

  14. Benefits of Health and Wellness Education in the Adult Population in México, 2006

    Juan Manuel Hernández Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents advances in understanding the influence of Mexican education on the perceptions of the adult population regarding their health. The analysis forms part of the oecd conceptual model for understanding the connections between education and social—but not economic—outcomes. Data from the 2006 National Survey on Health and Nutrition is employed to build a logistic model. The study confirmed the idea that people tend to feel healthier as their educational level rises, regardless...

  15. Gender differences in predictors of self-rated health among older adults in Brazil and Chile

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia; Sánchez, Hugo; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background The determinants of self-rated health (SRH) have been widely investigated to explain social differences and gender differences in health. This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in predictors of SRH among Brazilian and Chilean older adults. Methods We used two samples of older people: 2052 Brazilian community-dwelling participants (1226 women and 862 men) and 1301 Chilean community-dwelling participants (855 women and 446 men). Sequential logistic regression analysis...

  16. Does social status predict adult smoking and obesity? Results from the 2000 Mexican National Health Survey

    Buttenheim, A.M.; Wong, R; Goldman, N.; Pebley, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is generally associated with better health, but recent evidence suggests that this ‘social gradient’ in health is far from universal. This study examines whether social gradients in smoking and obesity in Mexico—a country in the midst of rapid socioeconomic change—conform to or diverge from results for richer countries. Using a nationally-representative sample of 39 129 Mexican adults, we calculate the odds of smoking and of being obese by educational attainment and by ho...

  17. Childhood Violence Exposure: Cumulative and Specific Effects on Adult Mental Health

    Hooven, Carole; Nurius, Paula S.; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to violence and victimization is a significant public health problem, with potentially long-lasting, deleterious effects on adult mental health. Using a longitudinal study design, 123 young adults—identified in adolescence as at-risk for high school dropout—were examined for the effects of multi-domain childhood victimization on emotional distress and suicide risk, net of adolescent risk and protective factors, including family dysfunction. The hypothesis that higher levels...

  18. A comparative study on the periodontal health status of adult populations of Kenya and India.

    Kaimenyi J; Gururaja Rao T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the oral hygiene and periodontal health status of 497 randomly selected Kenyan and Indian adult populations aged between 20 and 35 years. Oral hygiene and periodontal health status were assessed using Silness and Loe plaque Index and Russel′s Periodontal Index respectively. Results revealed that the overall mean plaque and periodontal index scores of Kenyan participants were significantly lower than those of Indians. Increase of mean Periodontal...

  19. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Dake Fidelia AA; Tagoe Henry A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  20. Effect of low intensity exercise on physical and cognitive health in older adults: a systematic review

    Tse, Andy C. Y.; Wong, Thomson W. L.; Lee, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic review aimed to fill this research gap. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the effecti...

  1. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster. 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in adults. Method. A representative sample (N =4395) of the Dutch population aged 12 to 40 (overall response rate 67%), was asked about various health-compromising behaviors, such as alcohol consumption,...

  2. Perceived Need for Mental Health Care Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Garrido, Melissa M; Kane, Robert L; Kaas, Merrie; Kane, Rosalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than h...

  3. Low health literacy predicts decline in physical function among older adults: findings from the LitCog cohort study

    Smith, Samuel G.; O'Conor, Rachel; Curtis, Laura M.; Waite, Katie; Deary, Ian J; Paasche-Orlow, Michael; Wolf, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited health literacy is associated with worse physical function in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to determine if health literacy is a risk factor for decline in physical function among older adults.METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of 529 community-dwelling American adults aged 55-74 years were recruited from an academic general internal medicine clinic and federally qualified health centres in 2008-2011. Health literacy (Newest Vital Sign), age, gender, race, education, chron...

  4. La salud de las personas adultas Adult health

    Lucía Artazcoz

    2004-05-01

    salud sensibles a las desigualdades sociales.The objective of this study is to analyse the social inequalities in health status, health related behaviours and mortality among the 25-64 years Spanish population. Data come from the 1997 Spanish National Health Survey, the 1999 Spanish National Survey on Working Conditions, the 2001 Yearbook of Labour and Social Affairs Statistics and the 1998 Mortality Statistics. Most health-related behaviours are more unfavourable for men (smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight and for less privileged social classes. Among women, entrance into the labour market is associated with more unhealthy behaviours except for overweight. Low weight, however, is more frequent among employed females. Self-perceived health status is better among men, more privileged social class persons and among workers. Whereas classical physical job hazards and work injuries mostly affect men, the impact of psychosocial job hazards and of exposures derived from the domestic work is higher for women. As in other developed countries, the paradox exists that whereas women have a poorer self-perceived health status, mortality is higher among men. The male excess in mortality is related to health-related behaviours that to a great extent are determined by traditional values assigned to masculinity, with higher consumption of tobacco (lung cancer, alcohol (cirrhosis, drugs (HIV and AIDS and risky behaviours related to injuries. Health policies should take into account social inequalities in health determined by gender, social class and employment status. For doing so, it is important to increase the development of research on social inequalities and of health information systems sensitive to social inequalities.

  5. Immigration and the health of U.S. black adults: does country of origin matter?

    Hamilton, Tod G; Hummer, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Previous work suggests that regional variation in pre-migration exposure to racism and discrimination, measured by a region's racial composition, predicts differences in individual-level health among black immigrants to the United States. We exploit data on both region and country of birth for black immigrants in the United States and methodology that allows for the identification of arrival cohorts to test whether there are sending country differences in the health of black adults in the United States that support this proposition. While testing this hypothesis, we also document heterogeneity in health across arrival cohorts and by duration of U.S. residence among black immigrants. Using data on working-age immigrant and U.S.-born blacks taken from the 1996-2010 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that relative to U.S.-born black adults, black immigrants report significantly lower odds of fair/poor health. After controlling for relevant social and demographic characteristics, immigrants' cohort of arrival, and immigrants' duration in the United States, our models show only modest differences in health between African immigrants and black immigrants who migrate from the other major sending countries or regions. Results also show that African immigrants maintain their health advantage over U.S.-born black adults after more than 20 years in the United States. In contrast, black immigrants from the Caribbean who have been in the United States for more than 20 years appear to experience some downward health assimilation. In conclusion, after accounting for relevant factors, we find that there are only modest differences in black immigrant health across countries of origin. Black immigrants appear to be very highly selected in terms of good health, although there are some indications of negative health assimilation for black immigrants from the Caribbean. PMID:21982630

  6. Xanthophylls and eye health of infants and adults.

    Moukarzel, Adib A; Bejjani, Riad A; Fares, Florence N

    2009-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids present in the eye. They cannot be synthesized de novo and are specifically concentrated in the macula. They appear to have at least two major functions: to filter out blue light and thus prevent ensuing damages to the eye and to act as antioxidants. Infants are particularly at risk from both blue light and oxidative damage to eye tissues. Lutein is present in human milk but is not currently added to infant formulas. Fortifying formulae with lutein in order to match more closely human milk might help protect the infant's sensitive eyes. In adults, the exact pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy remains unknown. Light damage, inflammation, and the disruption of cellular processes by oxidative stress may play an important role in the degenerative process. Manipulation of intake of xanthophylls has been shown to augment macular pigment, therefore it is thought that carotenoid dietary supplements could prevent, delay, or modify the course of age-related maculopathy. However, definite evidence of the effect of carotenoids, the optimal doses to use, and the supplementation duration are still under investigation. PMID:20027805

  7. Health state utilities associated with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Matza LS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Louis S Matza,1 Mary K Devine,1 Virginia Sutton Haynes,2 Evan W Davies,3 Jacqueline M Kostelec,1 Foula Televantou,4 Jessica B Jordan11Outcomes Research, Evidera, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Outcomes Research, Evidera, London, UK; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UKObjectives: With growing awareness of the importance of adult attention-deficit/­hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treatment, cost-effectiveness analyses, including utilities, are needed to compare the value of treatment options. Although utilities have been reported for childhood ADHD, little is known about utilities representing adult ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with adult ADHD.Methods: Health-state descriptions of adult ADHD were drafted based on literature review, interviews with four clinicians, and clinical trial data. Health states were revised based on a pilot study with 26 participants. Final health states were rated in time trade-off interviews with general population respondents in London and Edinburgh, UK.Results: A total of 158 participants completed interviews (mean age =47.0 years; 49.4% female; Edinburgh =80 participants. Mean (standard deviation [SD] utilities were 0.82 (0.17, 0.68 (0.28, and 0.67 (0.28 for health states describing treatment responders (health state A, nonresponders (health state B, and untreated patients (health state C, respectively. Most participants rated health state A as preferable to B (n=92; 58.2% and C (n=97; 61.4%. The majority rated B and C as equal (n=125; 79.1%. Paired Student’s t-tests found that A had a significantly greater mean utility than B (t=10.0; P<0.0001 and C (t=10.2; P<0.0001.Conclusion: The current study provides utilities that may be used in cost–utility models of treatment for adult ADHD. Results reflected clear differences between health states ­representing treatment responders and nonresponders

  8. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  9. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    Osler, Merete; Madsen, Mia; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate contribution of social class in early and adult life to differences in health and physical function in middle-aged men. We use data from the Metropolit project which includes men born in 1953 in Copenhagen and a study of middle-aged Danish twins (MADT). In...

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  11. The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients

    Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

  12. Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Latino and Asian American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Alegria, Margarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. The authors report…

  13. Health and Social Care Interventions Which Promote Social Participation for Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Review

    Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…

  14. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  15. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  16. Six-Month Longitudinal Patterns of Mental Health Treatment Utilization by Older Adults With Depressive Symptoms

    A.M. Gum; L. Iser; B.L. King-Kallimanis; A. Petkus; A. Demuth; L. Schonfeld

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of tr

  17. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  18. Health, Quality of Care and Quality of Life: A Case of Frail Older Adults

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…

  19. Responding to the Mental Health and Well-Being Agenda in Adult Community Learning

    Lewis, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, changes in the policy, funding and commissioning landscape for mental health and well-being are posing opportunities and challenges for adult community learning (ACL). Opportunities include increased recognition of, and funding for, the "wider benefits" of learning, whereas challenges include the risks of ACL…

  20. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Health and Nutrition of Older Adults

    Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…

  2. Editorial Commentary: Arthroscopic Hip Preservation Is Critical for Preserving Health and Function in Adolescents and Adults.

    Martin, Hal David

    2016-09-01

    Hip health is a critical factor in preserving daily life activities and wellbeing for both adults and adolescents. There are several potential economic influences in developing arthroscopic hip techniques for the evaluation and treatment of hip pathology in patients of all ages. PMID:27594331

  3. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Jing Shi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  4. Leisure and religious activity participation and mental health: gender analysis of older adults in Nepal

    Kai Ichiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement in activities has been found to be beneficial for improving quality of life and successful aging for older adults. Little is known, however, about the involvement in activities and depression of older adults in Asian developing countries. This study explores whether participation in leisure social and religious activities are related to depression and satisfaction with life in older adults of Nepal. Gender differences are also explored. Methods The study sample was derived from a survey which aimed to determine the intergenerational relationships between older adults and their married sons. A cross-sectional quantitative study of older adults sixty years and over in Nepal was conducted with face-to-face interviews using structured instruments. A convenience sample of 489 community dwelling older adults, 247 men and 242 women, were included in the study. The dependent variables, depression and satisfaction with life, were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS respectively. Age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health, financial satisfaction, social support received and provided by older adults, and social activity were independent variables in the study. Results Saying prayers (B = -2.75; p Conclusion Specific activity participation was a significant correlate of lower levels of depression and higher levels of satisfaction with life among older adults in Nepal. The findings explore the need for further research on activity participation in developing countries so that it can be useful for health care practioners and those involved with the activities of aged populations in developing countries.

  5. Modeling indoor TV/screen viewing and adult physical and mental health: Health Survey for England, 2012.

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to model indoor TV/screen viewing and a series of adult health conditions and cognitive performance in a country-wide, population-based setting in recent years. Data was retrieved from Health Survey for England, 2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions, and TV and/or screen watching hours in adults was collected by household interviews. Chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal modeling were performed. Of 8114 English adults aged 18-98, 4138 people (51.1 %) watched TV and/or screen daily for 2 h or more on average. Two thousand five-hundred people (30.9 %) watched for 3 h or more. TV and/or screening watching for 2+ hours was associated with endocrine or metabolic disorders, diabetes, mental disorders (including poor scores in General Health Questionnaire and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), nervous system disorders, eye complaints, circulatory system disorders, respiratory system disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders, and self-rated health. TV and/or screen watching for 3+ hours was associated with digestive disorders and clotting disorder. TV and/or screen watching for 5+ hours was associated with cancer. TV and/or screen watching for 6+, 8+, or 11+ hours was associated with bladder disease, genito-urinary system disorders or bowel disease, respectively. There were no risk associations (within 20 h) found with ear complaints, infectious disease, and blood system disorders. Future educational and public health programs minimizing TV and/or screen viewing in order to protect from physical inactivity and X-radiation might be needed while research on the combined effect of physical inactivity and X-radiation should be explored. PMID:26944424

  6. An oral health literacy intervention for Indigenous adults in a rural setting in Australia

    Parker Eleanor J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians suffer substantially poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts and new approaches are needed to address these disparities. Previous work in Port Augusta, South Australia, a regional town with a large Indigenous community, revealed associations between low oral health literacy scores and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study aims to determine if implementation of a functional, context-specific oral health literacy intervention improves oral health literacy-related outcomes measured by use of dental services, and assessment of oral health knowledge, oral health self-care and oral health- related self-efficacy. Methods/design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT that utilises a delayed intervention design. Participants are Indigenous adults, aged 18 years and older, who plan to reside in Port Augusta or a nearby community for the next two years. The intervention group will receive the intervention from the outset of the study while the control group will be offered the intervention 12 months following their enrolment in the study. The intervention consists of a series of five culturally sensitive, oral health education workshops delivered over a 12 month period by Indigenous project officers. Workshops consist of presentations, hands-on activities, interactive displays, group discussions and role plays. The themes addressed in the workshops are underpinned by oral health literacy concepts, and incorporate oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related fatalism, oral health knowledge, access to dental care and rights and entitlements as a patient. Data will be collected through a self-report questionnaire at baseline, at 12 months and at 24 months. The primary outcome measure is oral health literacy. Secondary outcome measures include oral health knowledge, oral health self-care, use of dental services, oral health-related self-efficacy and oral health-related fatalism

  7. Reclaiming Joy: Pilot Evaluation of a Mental Health Peer Support Program for Older Adults Who Receive Medicaid

    Chapin, Rosemary K.; Sergeant, Julie F.; Landry, Sarah; Leedahl, Skye N.; Rachlin, Roxanne; Koenig, Terry; Graham, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stigma and lack of access to providers create barriers to mental health treatment for older adults living in the community. In order to address these barriers, we developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for older adults receiving Medicaid services. Design and Methods: Reclaiming Joy is a mental health intervention that pairs…

  8. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...... between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and...... bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and...

  9. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p < 0.01) and mental (β = 1.663, p < 0.01) components. For men, intrinsic religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870

  10. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    Christine McKibbin; Aaron Lee; Bernard A. Steinman; Catherine Carrico; Katelynn Bourassa; Andrea Slosser

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. ...

  11. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives: To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design: GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc. and knowledge on health risks. Results: General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS was good (90% and 83%, respectively. However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer appeared to be lower (51.5%. Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6 and SHS (OR 1.7 than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively. Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively. Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions: It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to

  12. Health-related quality of life in French adolescents and adults: norms for the DUKE Health Profile

    Collin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continual monitoring of population health-related quality of life (HRQoL with validated instruments helps public health agencies assess, protect, and promote population health. This study aimed to determine norms for the French adolescent and adult general population for the Duke Health Profile (DUKE questionnaire in a large representative community sample. Methods We randomly selected 17,733 French people aged 12 to 75 years old in 2 steps, by households and individuals, from the National Health Barometer 2005, a periodic population study by the French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education. Quality of life and other data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interview. Results Normative data for the French population were analyzed by age, gender and self-reported chronic disease. Globally, function scores (best HRQoL=100 for physical, mental, social, and general health, as well as perceived health and self-esteem, were 72.3 (SEM 0.2, 74.6 (0.2, 66.8 (0.1, 71.3 (0.1, 71.3 (0.3, 76.5 (0.1, respectively. Dysfunction scores (worst HRQoL=100 for anxiety, depression, pain and disability domains were 30.9 (0.1, 27.6 (0.2, 34.3 (0.3, 3.1 (0.1, respectively. Conclusion The French norms for adolescents and adults for the DUKE could be used as a reference for other studies assessing HRQoL, for specific illnesses, in France and for international comparisons.

  13. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  14. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  15. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of Adults With Down Syndrome.

    Graves, Rebecca Jermyn; Graff, J Carolyn; Esbensen, Anna J; Hathaway, Donna K; Wan, Jim Y; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2016-07-01

    This study examined self- and caregiver-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 60 adults with Down syndrome (DS) using the QualityMetric Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2). All HRQOL scores exceeded means and fell within one standard deviation of the SF-12v2 normative sample. Similarities between eight self- and caregiver-reported HRQOL scales were found with the exception of role physical scores (impact of health problems on typical accomplishments), which were lower when obtained by caregiver-report. A positive association was found between self- and caregiver-reported physical functioning scores (impact of health problems on physical activity). The SF-12v2 had high construct validity in this study. These findings support the feasibility of measuring HRQOL of adults with DS using self-report rather than reliance on caregiver-report. PMID:27351699

  16. Transition from paediatric to adult health services in Scotland for young people with cerebral palsy.

    Wright, Alice E; Robb, James; Shearer, Morven C

    2016-06-01

    Transition from paediatric to adult health-care services has been characterized as being poorly planned and coordinated, resulting in a reduction in services and may be distressing for families. This study aimed to establish what provisions are currently available in Scotland for transition of young people with cerebral palsy and what some clinicians believe future provisions should involve. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 community paediatricians (or equivalents in health boards without community paediatricians) from 12 different Scottish health boards. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using framework analysis. Both current transition provision and the areas that the clinicians felt needed improvement varied greatly between health boards. Key areas in need of improvement were coordination and communication within health services and also between health services and educational, social services and adult health services to which young people were transitioning. Transition remains problematic and variable. For transition to be improved, further research is needed to explore the effect this variation is having on young people and their families. PMID:25593215

  17. Self-perceived health status in older adults: regional and sociodemographic inequalities in Spain

    Beatriz Fernandez-Martinez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess regional and sociodemographic differences in self-perceived health status among older adults. METHODS: A face-to-face quality of life survey was conducted in a representative sample of the Spanish population comprising 1,106 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 or more in 2008. Logistic regression models were used to explain self-perceived health status according to the EuroQol Group Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS. Independent variables included sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 1 (NUTS1: group of autonomous regions and level 2 (NUTS 2: autonomous regions. RESULTS: Younger and better off respondents were more likely to have a positive self-perceived health status. Having no chronic conditions, independence in performing daily living activities and lower level of depression were also associated with positive self-perceived health status. People living in the south of Spain showed a more negative self-perceived health status than those living in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study results point to health inequality among Spanish older adults of lower socioeconomic condition and living in the south of Spain. The analysis by geographic units allows for international cross-regional comparisons.

  18. "I'll look after my health, later": A replication and extension of the procrastination-health model with community-dwelling adults

    Sirois, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Initial investigations into the links between procrastination and health in student samples implicated stress-related and behavioural pathways. However, it is unknown if these relations are the same for community-dwelling adults, or if alternative measures of procrastination and health behaviors will yield the same results. To replicate and extend previous findings 254 adults recruited from the community and the Internet completed self-report measures of procrastination, health, stress, welln...

  19. Rural-to-Urban Migration and Changes in Health Among Young Adults in Thailand.

    Nauman, Elizabeth; VanLandingham, Mark; Anglewicz, Philip; Patthavanit, Umaporn; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the impacts of rural-to-urban migration on the health of young adult migrants. A key methodological challenge involves the potentially confounding effects of selection on the relationship between migration and health. Our study addresses this challenge in two ways. To control for potential effects of prior health status on post-migration health outcomes, we employ a longitudinal approach. To control for static unobserved characteristics that can affect migration propensity as well as health outcomes, we use fixed-effects analyses. Data were collected in 2005 and 2007 for a cohort of young adults in rural Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand. The migrant sample includes individuals who subsequently moved to urban destinations where they were reinterviewed in 2007. Return migrants were interviewed in rural Kanchanaburi in both years but moved to an urban area and returned in the meantime. A rural comparison group comprises respondents who remained in the origin villages. An urban comparison sample includes longer-term residents of the urban destination communities. Physical and mental health measures are based on the SF-36 health survey. Findings support the "healthy migrant hypothesis." Migrants are physically healthier than their nonmigrant counterparts both before and after moving to the city. We did not find an effect of migration on physical health. Rural-to-urban migrants who stayed at destination experienced a significant improvement in mental health status. Fixed-effects analyses indicate that rural-to-urban migration positively affects mental health. Return migrants do not fare as well as migrants who stayed at destination on both physical and mental health status--evidence of selective return migration. PMID:25604845

  20. Variation in quality of preventive care for well adults in Indigenous community health centres in Australia

    Hains Jenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset and high prevalence of chronic disease among Indigenous Australians call for action on prevention. However, there is deficiency of information on the extent to which preventive services are delivered in Indigenous communities. This study examined the variation in quality of preventive care for well adults attending Indigenous community health centres in Australia. Methods During 2005-2009, clinical audits were conducted on a random sample (stratified by age and sex of records of adults with no known chronic disease in 62 Indigenous community health centres in four Australian States/Territories (sample size 1839. Main outcome measures: i adherence to delivery of guideline-scheduled services within the previous 24 months, including basic measurements, laboratory investigations, oral health checks, and brief intervention on lifestyle modification; and ii follow-up of abnormal findings. Results Overall delivery of guideline-scheduled preventive services varied widely between health centres (range 5-74%. Documentation of abnormal blood pressure reading ([greater than or equal to]140/90 mmHg, proteinuria and abnormal blood glucose ([greater than or equal to]5.5 mmol/L was found to range between 0 and > 90% at the health centre level. A similarly wide range was found between health centres for documented follow up check/test or management plan for people documented to have an abnormal clinical finding. Health centre level characteristics explained 13-47% of variation in documented preventive care, and the remaining variation was explained by client level characteristics. Conclusions There is substantial room to improve preventive care for well adults in Indigenous primary care settings. Understanding of health centre and client level factors affecting variation in the care should assist clinicians, managers and policy makers to develop strategies to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous communities.

  1. What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?

    Balfe, Myles

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt young adults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why young adults (18-29 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported\\/undermined their decisions to seek STI testing; and any factors that led to delay in seeking STI testing. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men). Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services for men who have sex with men (MSM). Interview questions examined why respondents decided to go for STI testing, whether they acted upon this desire immediately or decided to wait, and what they felt were important barriers\\/enablers to their health-seeking attempts. Interviews were thematically analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. RESULTS: Respondents sought STI testing for one of four reasons: they had reached a transitional moment in their lives (they were either about to stop using condoms with their sexual partner or were emerging from a period of their lives where they had a series of risky sexual relationships); they had had unprotected sex with a casual partner; they had symptoms of infection; and\\/or they were required to do so by their employer. Catalytic factors included media and government health promotion campaigns and knowing someone with an STI. However, many respondents delayed seeking testing. Reasons included respondents\\' concerns about stigma and that they would be judged by healthcare professionals, and feelings of invulnerability. Importantly, several respondents who waited up to four weeks to make an appointment after their initial decision to seek STI testing did not view this as delay. CONCLUSION: Sexual

  2. The Prevalence of Obesity in Adults who Applied to Gaziantep İstasyon Family Health Center

    Erkan Gürkaş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important public health problem that has an increasing prevalence in our country and also in the world. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of obesity in adults aged 20 and older who applied to Gaziantep İstasyon Family Health Center between December 2011 and June 2012.The population of the study was 2568 adults.58% (1494 of them were female and the rest 42% (1074 were male. The measurement of height and weight was done. Body mass index (BMI was calculated for each individual. People whose body mass indexes were 30 kg/m 2 and higher were accepted as obese. The prevalence of obesity in overall population was 27.5%. This prevalence was 24% in adult men and 29.7% in adult women. As a result; obesity, which has an increasing prevalence in our country and causes serious social, psychological and economical problems should be accepted as an important disease. For prevention of obesity, efficient health policies should be applied.

  3. The Relationship between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

    David Buchner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.

  4. Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults. II. Intervention studies.

    Buchner, D M; Beresford, S A; Larson, E B; LaCroix, A Z; Wagner, E H

    1992-01-01

    This review has focused on a specific part of the relationship of exercise to health. The overall evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is substantial and has been critically reviewed recently (18, 94). Thus, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults exercise regularly (94). The conclusions summarized below regarding older adults do not affect this basic recommendation. There is solid evidence that exercise can improve measures of fitness in older adults, particularly strength and aerobic capacity. These exercise effects occur in chronically ill adults, as well as in healthy adults. Because physical fitness is a determinant of functional status, it is logical to ask whether exercise can prevent or improve impairments in functional status in older adults. The evidence that exercise improves functional status is promising, but inconclusive. Problems with existing studies include a lack of randomized controlled trials, a lack of evidence that effects of exercise can be sustained over long periods of time, inadequate statistical power, and failure to target physically unfit individuals. Existing studies suggest that exercise may produce improvements in gait and balance. Arthritis patients may experience long-term functional status benefits from exercise, including improved mobility and decreased pain symptoms. Nonrandomized trials suggest exercise promotes bone mineral density and thereby decreases fracture risk. Recent studies have generally concluded that short-term exercise does not improve cognitive function. Yet the limited statistical power of these studies does not preclude what may be a modest, but functionally meaningful, effect of exercise on cognition. Future research, beyond correcting methodologic deficiencies in existing studies, should systematically study how functional status effects of exercise vary with the type, intensity, and duration of exercise. It should address issues in recruiting functionally

  5. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults.

    Das, S K; Ma, L; Sharma, N K

    2015-05-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardiometabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ⩾40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (group 2). Subjects in group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.006), 2-h insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (P=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, P=0.029) compared with group 1. We identified significant upregulation of 141 genes (for example, MMP9 and SPP1) and downregulation of 17 genes (for example, NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (P=2.81 × 10(-11)-3.74 × 10(-02)) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (P=8.32 × 10(-5)-0.04). Two downregulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  6. Covering young adults under the Affordable Care Act: the importance of outreach and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2013.

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that many young adults (ages 19--29) will remain without health insurance in 2014 despite the Affordable Care Act's reforms, including subsidized private coverage offered in new state marketplaces and expanded Medicaid eligibility. How things turn out will likely depend on outreach efforts and states' decisions on expanding Medicaid. Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey data from 2011 and 2013 show increasing awareness among young adults of the 2010 requirement that health plans cover children under age 26. Of the estimated 15 million young adults enrolled in a parent's plan in the prior 12 months, 7.8 million would not likely have been eligible to enroll prior to the law. Still, only 27 percent of 19-to-29-year-olds are aware of the marketplaces. Meanwhile, most uninsured young adults living below poverty will not have access to subsidized public or private insurance in states opting out of the Medicaid expansion. PMID:24044138

  7. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health. PMID:26479896

  8. Assessment of mental health in adults of the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica

    Mirković Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health disorders lead to disorder of effective functioning of people and deterioration of quality of life. Early detection of individuals at risk of mental health disorders is extremely important from the aspect of mental health disorders prevention. The aim of the research was to determine the frequency of mental health problems among adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica and to examine the association between frequency of mental health problems and socio-demographic and other characteristics of the population obtained by the questionnaire. Methods. The cross-sectional study on the representative sample of adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica was performed in October 2009. To obtain information about the characteristics of mental health the Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used. For performing survey at site the method of rapid epidemiological assessment was chosen. Statistical analysis included the methods of descriptive statistics, multivariate regression analysis and calculation of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results. Mental health problems (total score were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Psychosomatic problems were present in more than half of the respondents (55.4%, while anxiety and insomnia were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Social dysfunction had more than three fifths of the respondents (63.1% and depression more than a quarter of the respondents (28.5%. More positive responses in the questionnaire were statistically significantly associated with older age, poor financial situation, abuse and assessing of the current political-security situation as high risk. The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.705. Conclusions. Almost half of the respondents (49.2% of North Kosovska Mitrovica had mental health problems. Mental health problems were associated with older age, poor

  9. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania

    Mathew A. Mwanyangala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.

  10. Association of Health Literacy with Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Primary Care Patients

    Bains Sujeev S; Egede Leonard E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the United States, it is estimated that 40% of adults utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Recently, national surveys report that over 90 million adults have inadequate health literacy. To date, no study has assessed health literacy and its effect on CAM use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between health literacy and CAM use independent of educational attainment. Second objective was to evaluate the differen...

  11. Intimate Partner Violence Among Hong Kong Young Adults: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Health Problems.

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p violence (OR = 8.48, p violence (OR = 0.15, p violence (OR = 5.00, p violence (OR = 5.63, p male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670

  12. Validation of an Interaction Model of Health Behavior Among Adults With Hypertension.

    Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John M; Alaamri, Marym

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior among adults with hypertension. The predictive associations among health literacy, quality of the provider interaction, perceived communication skills, and behavioral activation on blood pressure control were examined. Participants were 109 adults with hypertension recruited from community settings. A path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was conducted in Analysis of Moment Structures for Windows (AMOS). The model fit to these data was excellent (χ(2) = 1.1, p = .76, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 1.1, comparative fit index [CFI] = 1.0, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .00, standardized root mean residual [SRMR] = .03). As hypothesized, health literacy, quality of the provider interaction, and perceived communication skills directly affected behavioral action. The quality of the provider interaction, perceived communication skills, and behavioral activation had direct effects on systolic blood pressure control. The study results support health literacy screening and communication skill building, and improving the quality of provider interactions to enhance blood pressure control among adults with hypertension. PMID:26879829

  13. Attachment, forgiveness, and physical health quality of life in HIV + adults.

    Martin, Luci A; Vosvick, Mark; Riggs, Shelley A

    2012-01-01

    Research aims to help HIV + individuals improve and maintain a healthy quality of life, while managing a chronic illness. Using Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping, we examined the main and interactive effects of attachment style and forgiveness on physical health quality of life of HIV + adults. Participants (n=288, 49% women) were recruited in Dallas/Fort Worth and self-identified as African-American (52%), European-American (32%), Latino(a) (12%), and other (4%), with an average age of 41.7 (SD=8.6). The average number of years participants reported being HIV + was 7.6 (SD=5.4). Participants completed medical and demographic information, measures assessing attachment anxiety and avoidance, forgiveness of self and others, and five quality of life scales (physical functioning, pain, role functioning, social functioning, and health perceptions). Significant correlations revealed that attachment anxiety was inversely related to physical health quality of life, while forgiveness of self was associated with greater quality of life. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that attachment anxiety and avoidance, forgiveness of self and others, as well as interactions between attachment style and forgiveness, were related to the physical health quality of life of HIV + adults. Interpretation of the interactions identified that for individuals who endorsed greater attachment anxiety, forgiveness of others was associated with greater pain, while forgiveness of self was associated with a greater perception of health. Research has indicated that forgiveness interventions lead to positive health outcomes for most individuals; however, in HIV + adults, whether an outcome is health promoting may be dependent on attachment style. PMID:22292903

  14. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  15. Health-related quality of life among older adults with arthritis

    Gold Carol H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is a key outcome in arthritis, but few population-based studies have examined the relationship of specific arthritic conditions, such as osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA with HRQOL. Methods Older adults in Pennsylvania completed a mail version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL modules. Medicare data were used to identify subjects with OA, RA, and no arthritis diagnosis. We compared HRQOL responses among these groups, and we also examined relationships of demographic characteristics to HRQOL among subjects with arthritis. Results In analyses controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbidity, subjects with OA and RA had poorer scores than those without arthritis on all HRQOL items, including general health, physical health, mental health, activity limitation, pain, sleep, and feeling healthy and full of energy. HRQOL scores were also lower for those with RA compared to OA. Among individuals with arthritis, all subject characteristics (including age, race, sex, nursing home residence, marital status, income, and comorbid illnesses were significantly related to at least one HRQOL item. Older age, nursing home residence, and greater comorbidity were the most consistently associated with poorer HRQOL. Conclusions Results of this study show that both OA and RA have a significant impact on multiple dimensions of HRQOL among older adults. Results also suggest the CDC HRQOL items are suitable for use among older adults and in mail surveys. Due to the rising number of older adults in many countries, the public health burden of arthritis is expected to increase dramatically. Efforts are needed to enhance access to medical care and disseminate self-management interventions for arthritis.

  16. Correlates of health and financial literacy in older adults without dementia

    Bennett Jarred S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has begun to recognize the important influence of literacy levels and how they affect health and wellbeing, especially in older adults. Our study focuses on health and financial literacy, two domains of literacy which previous research has suggested may be significantly related to health and wellbeing. Our study examines the relation of health and financial literacy with health promoting behaviors and health status among community-based older persons. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of aging in northeastern Illinois. The study consisted of 556 older persons without dementia, each determined by a clinical evaluation. Health and financial literacy were measured using a series of questions designed to assess the ability to understand and process health and financial information, concepts, and numeracy; the two scores were averaged to yield a total literacy score. Health promoting behaviors, including engagement in cognitive, physical, and social activities, were assessed using self report measures. Indicators of heath status, including cognition (global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities, functional status (basic and instrumental activities of daily living, mobility disability, and mental health (depressive symptoms, loneliness were assessed. Results In a series of regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher total literacy scores were associated with more frequent participation in health promoting behaviors, including cognitive, physical and social activities (all p values Conclusions Health and financial literacy are associated with more frequent engagement in health promoting behaviors and better health status in older persons without dementia.

  17. The self-reported oral health status and behaviors of adults who are deaf and blind.

    Jin, Elvine Y W; Daly, Blánaid

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perceived oral health, felt need, oral health knowledge and behaviors, and utilization of dental services among a community of deaf and blind adults in Toronto, Canada. Seven adults participated in in depth interviews facilitated by intervenors skilled in communication with people who are deaf and blind. Subjects reported that their oral health was good, however oral health knowledge was poor and daily oral hygiene practices were minimal. Few subjects had ever received dental health education and were largely unaware of how to prevent dental disease. A subsidized dental program enabled subjects to have regular dental visits, though they were concerned about the costs of more complex dental treatment not covered by the program. They also worried about finding an alternative source of care once their eligibility for the program ceased at the age of 65. The presence of the subsidized sympathetic dental program and the facilitative role of intervenors promoted utilization of dental care for many of the subjects who participated in this study. There is a clear need to develop appropriate dental health education programs for this group of people, which would harness the support of the community of deaf and blind people and their intervenors. The interventions need to be sensitive and appropriate for the individual's level of impairment. PMID:20051068

  18. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    Abdur Razzaque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in

  19. Physical health and well-being: Experiences and perspectives of young adult mental health consumers.

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Kerley, David; Delgado, Cynthia; Turnell, Adrienne

    2016-08-01

    Compromised physical health and raised levels of morbidity and mortality are experienced by young people (16-24 years) with mental illness, and are compounded by psychotropic medication. How this group conceives and experiences physical health is not well understood. We investigated the meanings, beliefs, and endeavours of young people that impact their physical health understandings and behaviours. The present study formed the qualitative phase of a sequential mixed-methods study, and incorporated semistructured interviews with 12 hospitalized young people. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data. Participants held a holistic ideal of physical health that they did not meet. Weight change, poor sleep, and limited exercise adversely impacted their lives and self-image. Sedentary behaviour, reduced energy, and limited health literacy compromised effective management of physical health. Young people needed structure and support to assist them in addressing their physical health needs when amotivation overwhelmed their internal resources. Nurses are well placed to help young people increase their competency for health management. Individualized information and methods to promote good physical health are required for this group in jeopardy from physical morbidity and mortality. PMID:26856981

  20. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  1. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    Marjan Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and

  2. Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.

    Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

    2016-08-01

    The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159

  3. Why Provide Music Therapy in the Community for Adults With Mental Health Problems?

    Helen Odell-Miller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes music therapy within a community mental health setting for adults using a care programme approach in England. It describes the setting, and emphasises the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in order to enable music therapy to be effective. It provides some statistics and descriptive clinical information which demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy for adults with long-term mental health problems, and argues that music therapy should be a priority for this client group. To support these points of view, the article includes a case study showing a psychoanalytically informed approach in music therapy. This paper was given as a keynote address at the 1994 Australian Conference of Music Therapy.

  4. Cigarette Taxes and Older Adult Smoking: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    MacLean, Johanna Catherine; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Kenkel, Donald S

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use the Health and Retirement Study to test whether older adult smokers, defined as those 50 years and older, respond to cigarette tax increases. Our preferred specifications show that older adult smokers respond modestly to tax increases: a $1.00 (131.6%) tax increase leads to a 3.8-5.2% reduction in cigarettes smoked per day (implied tax elasticity = -0.03 to -0.04). We identify heterogeneity in tax elasticity across demographic groups as defined by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status and by smoking intensity and level of addictive stock. These findings have implications for public health policy implementation in an aging population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25721732

  5. Educational technologies designed to promote cardiovascular health in adults: integrative review

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigating the educational technologies developed for promoting cardiovascular health in adults. Method Integrative review carried out in the databases of PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, with 15 articles selected. Results Over half (60% of the studies were randomized clinical trials. The developed educational technologies were programs involving three strategies, with duration of one year, use of playful technologies with storytelling, computer programs or software for smartphones, and electronic brochure. These technologies resulted in reduction of blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, decreased hospitalizations and increased years of life. Conclusion The studies with better impact on the cardiovascular health of adults were those who brought the technology in the form of program and duration of one year.

  6. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient’s well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  7. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults.

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-08-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient's well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  8. Young adults experiences of seeking online information about diabetes and mental health in the age of social media

    Fergie, Gillian; Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Internet is a primary source of health information for many. Since the widespread adoption of social media, user-generated health-related content has proliferated, particularly around long-term health issues such as diabetes and common mental health disorders (CMHDs). Objective: To explore perceptions and experiences of engaging with health information online in a sample of young adults familiar with social media environments and variously engaged in consuming user-ge...

  9. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults

    McEniry, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual infant mortality (IMR) at the munic...

  10. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Helmuth, Eric D; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; PunKay, Marc; Kurz, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Fa...

  11. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) lo...

  12. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justic...

  13. Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M; Alegria, Magarita; Ortega, Alexander N.; Takeuchi, David

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults may be at elevated risk for mental health and substance use disorders, possibly due to anti-gay stigma. Little of this work has examined putative excess morbidity among ethnic/racial minorities resulting from the experience of multiple sources of discrimination. We report findings from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), a national household probability psychiatric survey of 4,488 Latino and Asian American adu...

  14. Health-related quality of life among older adults with arthritis

    Gold Carol H; Ahern Frank M; Dominick Kelli L; Heller Debra A

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a key outcome in arthritis, but few population-based studies have examined the relationship of specific arthritic conditions, such as osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with HRQOL. Methods Older adults in Pennsylvania completed a mail version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HRQOL modules. Medicare data were used to identify subjects with OA, RA, and no arthritis diagnosis. We compared HRQOL re...

  15. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  16. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eli...

  17. Psychosocial, Socio-Demographic and Health Determinants in Information Communication Technology Use by Older-Adults

    Berner, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate factors influencing ICT use by older-adults. A selection of psycho-social, socio-demographic and health determinants were investigated with Internet use. Data were collected through questionnaires (Studies I-III) and interviews (Study IV). Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, investigating Internet use as a dichotomous variable, with the aforementioned factors. The results indicated that psycho-social determinants did not affect older-a...

  18. Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults: Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    Ward, Brian W.; Schiller, Jeannine S.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing and ameliorating chronic conditions has long been a priority in the United States; however, the increasing recognition that people often have multiple chronic conditions (MCC) has added a layer of complexity with which to contend. The objective of this study was to present the prevalence of MCC and the most common MCC dyads/triads by selected demographic characteristics. We used respondent-reported data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to study the US adult civ...

  19. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Hopkins Robert B; Bischof Matthias; Burke Natasha; Tarride Jean-Eric; Goeree Linda; Campbell Kaitryn; Xie Feng; O'Reilly Daria; Goeree Ron

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of...

  20. Poster Determinants for Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life among Danish adults

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Børge; Fiehn, Nils-Erik;

    Objectives To identify and analyze determinants for oral-health-related quality of life among adults admitted to a Danish research program on general health and lifestyle (DANHES 2007-2008) Materials and methods Study population of the present (dental) study: 4402 volunteers invited among...... participants of main study (n18065) covering 12 different Danish cities. Age 18-96 years (average 54) Structured interviews (from main study and dental study) and clinical oral examination Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life measured by a 10 item index Non-parametric statistical methods, chi-square, simple and...... multivariate logistic regression Data are not representative to the Danish population, however, associations between outcome and independent variables are considered valid. Regular dental visits and high number of natural teeth are determinants for a high level of Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life Untreated...

  1. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, wh...

  2. Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services

    Grant, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.

  3. Thermal and health outcomes of energy efficiency retrofits of homes of older adults.

    Ahrentzen, S; Erickson, J; Fonseca, E

    2016-08-01

    Mitigation of thermal stress and adverse indoor climatic conditions is important to older low-income populations whose age, health, and economic circumstances make them vulnerable to indoor environmental conditions. This research examines whether energy retrofits in affordable housing for older adults can also improve indoor climatic (i.e., temperature, humidity, air infiltration) conditions and whether such improvements correspond with improved health and comfort of residents. An apartment complex for low-income older adults in Phoenix was the study site. In 2010, renovations were undertaken to make it more energy efficient and to replace interior cabinetry, flooring, and paint with materials that had low or no volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Fifty-seven residents from 53 apartment units participated in both baseline (pre-renovation) and 1 year post-renovation data collection trials. Environmental measures included temperature, relative humidity, and air infiltration. Health measures included general health, emotional distress, and sleep. Four questions addressed residents' perceptions of temperature quality. Results demonstrated a 19% reduction in energy consumption following the retrofit. In addition, fixed effects statistical models of the panel data showed significant stabilization of unit temperature from pre-retrofit to 1 year post-retrofit. Reductions in an apartment's temperature extremes of 27.2°C (81°F) and above also corresponded with improvement in occupant's reported health over the same time period, although not with occupant's perceptions of thermal comfort. PMID:26249033

  4. Social determinants of health information seeking among Chinese adults in Hong Kong.

    Man Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health communication inequalities were observed in Western population but less is known about them among the Chinese. We investigated health information seeking behaviours and its social determinants among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. METHODS: Probability-based sample surveys over telephone were conducted in 2009, 2010/11 and 2012 to monitor family health and information use. Frequency of health information seeking from television, radio, newspapers/magazines and Internet were recorded and dichotomised as ≥1 time/month and <1 time/month (reference. Logistic regression was used to yield adjusted odds ratios (aOR of health information seeking for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (education, employment and income, chronic disease and behaviours (smoking, drinking and physical activity. RESULTS: Among 4553 subjects in all surveys, most (85.1% had sought health information monthly from newspapers/magazines (66.2%, television (61.4%, radio (35.6% or Internet (33.2%. Overall, being male, lower education attainment, lower household income, ever-smoking and physical inactivity were associated with less frequent health information seeking (all P <0.05. Compared with younger people, older people were less likely to search health information from Internet but more like to obtain it from radio (both P for trend <0.001. Having chronic diseases was associated with frequent health information seeking from television (aOR  =  1.25, 95% CI: 1.07-1.47 and Internet (aOR  =  1.46, 95% CI: 1.24-1.73. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided the first evidence on health information inequalities from a non-Western population with advanced mass media and Internet penetration. Socioeconomic inequalities and behavioural clustering of health information seeking suggested more resources are needed for improving health communication in disadvantage groups.

  5. Modeling mental health information preferences during the early adult years: a discrete choice conjoint experiment.

    Cunningham, Charles E; Walker, John R; Eastwood, John D; Westra, Henny; Rimas, Heather; Chen, Yvonne; Marcus, Madalyn; Swinson, Richard P; Bracken, Keyna; The Mobilizing Minds Research Group

    2014-04-01

    Although most young adults with mood and anxiety disorders do not seek treatment, those who are better informed about mental health problems are more likely to use services. The authors used conjoint analysis to model strategies for providing information about anxiety and depression to young adults. Participants (N = 1,035) completed 17 choice tasks presenting combinations of 15 four-level attributes of a mental health information strategy. Latent class analysis yielded 3 segments. The virtual segment (28.7%) preferred working independently on the Internet to obtain information recommended by young adults who had experienced anxiety or depression. Self-assessment options and links to service providers were more important to this segment. Conventional participants (30.1%) preferred books or pamphlets recommended by a doctor, endorsed by mental health professionals, and used with a doctor's support. They would devote more time to information acquisition but were less likely to use Internet social networking options. Brief sources of information were more important to the low interest segment (41.2%). All segments preferred information about alternative ways to reduce anxiety or depression rather than psychological approaches or medication. Maximizing the use of information requires active and passive approaches delivered through old-media (e.g., books) and new-media (e.g., Internet) channels. PMID:24266450

  6. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  7. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  8. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  9. Health Care Provider Advice for African American Adults Not Meeting Health Behavior Recommendations

    Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1 determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2 examine correlates of provider advice; and 3 assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed

  10. Acceptance, Usability and Health Applications of Virtual Worlds by Older Adults: A Feasibility Study

    Winkler, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Background Virtual worlds allow users to communicate and interact across various environments, scenarios, and platforms. Virtual worlds present opportunities in health care to reduce the burden of illness and disability by supporting education, rehabilitation, self-management, and social networking. The application of virtual worlds to older adults who bear the burden and cost of health conditions associated with age has not been evaluated. Objective The aim of this study is to explore the usability, ease of use, and enjoyment of a virtual world by older adults, the types of virtual world activities that older adults may engage in, and the perceptions of older adults regarding the application of virtual worlds in health care. Methods This quasi-experimental pre-post design research was guided by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Participants were recruited from a Lifelong Learning Institute (LLI) program at Nova Southeastern University. Participants attended four training sessions over a 5-week period in the Second Life (SL) virtual world. Subjects were surveyed before and after the training on perceived ease of use, attitudes towards technology, behavioral intention to use the system, facilitating conditions, effort expectancy, and self-efficacy. Results Older adults (N=19) completed the informed consent and attended the first training session, and 11 participants (58%, 11/19) completed the full training and the post survey. Completers (82%, 9/11) were more likely than non-completers (37%, 3/8) to consider themselves technologically savvy (P=.048), and to express confidence in being able to use the virtual world (100%, 11/11 vs 37%, 3/8; P=.002). All completers (100%, 11/11) perceived that SL has application in health behaviors and disease and reducing social isolation among people who are homebound. Of the completers, 10 (91%, 10/11) responded that they enjoyed learning how to use SL. Completers suggested that future trainings include more assistants and

  11. The importance of full-time work for urban adults' mental and physical health.

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2012-11-01

    Unemployment and underemployment have adverse mental and physical health consequences, such as increased stress and depression. Health damaging behaviors like unhealthy eating, smoking, and alcohol use may be used to cope, contributing to chronic disease risk. In this adverse economic climate, it is vital to understand the health implications of unemployment and underemployment as well as underlying mechanisms. A randomized household survey of adults in six low resource communities was conducted in New Haven, Connecticut in 2009, yielding a sample of 1205 (73% participation) racially diverse adults (61% Black, 20% Latino, 12% White) ages 18-65 (61% women). We used ANOVA to test group differences and structural equation modeling to test mediation. 14.5% were unemployed and looking for work, 18.4% worked part-time, 38.2% worked full-time. Those employed full-time reported the least damaging psychological factors and health behaviors: lowest levels of stress and depression, most healthy and least unhealthy eating, most physical activity, and lowest levels of smoking and drinking. Those employed part-time fell in the middle, and those unemployed fell on the unhealthy end of all psychological and behavioral factors. Stress significantly mediated the associations of full-time employment with frequency of unhealthy eating and physical activity, and amount of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Depression significantly mediated the association of full-time employment with frequency of healthy eating. Compared to time reported adverse health behaviors as compared to those employed full-time, partially mediated by heightened stress and depression. It is vital for the health and well-being of the nation to increase not simply employment, but specifically full-time employment. Provision of mental health services to those unemployed and underemployed should be a priority to promote healthier lifestyles and prevent costly future chronic disease. PMID:22858166

  12. Characteristics Associated with Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks among US Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the...

  13. Epidemiological Studies of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease in Japan: A Pediatric Perspective in Present Day Japan

    Kikuchi, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The origins of adult disease are considered to relate to fetal undernutrition, and this concept is termed “developmental origins of adult health and disease” (DOHaD). Here, we describe several epidemiological studies performed in Japan and discuss whether DOHaD is applicable to children in present day Japan. In a study of healthy children and young adults, it was found that systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and adiponectin were associated with birth weight. Hyperinsulinemia, high blo...

  14. Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    Stevens, Alissa; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility lim...

  15. Higher education attainment does not improve the adult employment outcomes of adolescents with ill health

    Emily Joy Callander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to  not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024.  The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.

  16. Pulmonary function, chronic respiratory symptoms, and health-related quality of life among adults in the United States – National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010

    Wheaton, Anne G; Ford, Earl S.; Thompson, William W.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R.; Croft, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the association of impaired lung function and respiratory symptoms with measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among US adults. Methods The sample included 5139 participants aged 40–79 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 who underwent spirometric testing and responded to questions about respiratory symptoms, health status, and number of physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or activity limitation days...

  17. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    A. I. Olugbenga-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

  18. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Total and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition ... less than 10% of women) had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol during 2011–2012. The percentage ...

  19. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  20. Diet assessment in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: Development of a food frequency questionnaire

    Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present the development of the Food Frequency Questionaire used in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil and analyze how diet exposes individuals to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil dietary assessment instrument is based on a previously validated Food Frequency Questionaire and the final list of items took into consideration a study done in the six Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil investigation centers. RESULTS: New foods/preparations were included in the Food Frequency Questionaire with their respective portions, totaling 114 items. The perspectives of dietary analysis and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are presented in Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brazil. CONCLUSION: A new instrument was developed to cover the regional particularities of the study population.

  1. Impact of Health Perception, Balance Perception, Fall History, Balance Performance, and Gait Speed on Walking Activity in Older Adults

    Talkowski, Jaime B; Brach, Jennifer S.; Studenski, Stephanie; Newman, Anne B

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Disagreement currently exists regarding the contributions of various factors to physical activity in older adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the simultaneous impact of psychological (health perception and balance perception) and physiological (gait speed, fall history, and balance performance) factors on walking activity in older adults.

  2. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  3. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  4. Perceptions and Beliefs about the Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Brain Health in Older Adults

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…

  5. Persuasive robotic assistant for health self-management of older adults: Design and evaluation of social behaviors

    Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Cnossen, F.

    2010-01-01

    Daily health self-management, such as the harmonization of food, exercise and medication, is a major problem for a large group of older adults with obesity or diabetics. Computer-based personal assistance can help to behave healthy by persuading and guiding older adults. For effective persuasion, th

  6. Persuasive robotic assistant for health self-management of older adults : Design and evaluation of social behaviors

    Looije, Rosemarijn; Neerincx, Mark A.; Cnossen, Fokie

    2010-01-01

    Daily health self-management, such as the harmonization of food, exercise and medication, is a major problem for a large group of older adults with obesity or diabetics Computer-based personal assistance can help to behave healthy by persuading and guiding older adults For effective persuasion, the

  7. Education for Older Adults with Early-Stage Dementia: Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit

    Richeson, Nancy E.; Boyne, Sarah; Brady, E. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 13-week adult education class for older adults with early-stage dementia titled Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit. The mixed method research design (N = 14) used a quasiexperimental one-group pretest/posttest and the qualitative methods of focus group and phone interview with…

  8. Measuring health-related quality of life in adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings

    Hand, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe health-related quality of life (HRQOL) conceptual frameworks, critically review 3 commonly used HRQOL scales relevant to adults with chronic conditions in primary care settings, and make recommendations for using HRQOL scales in primary care practice. Data sources Information was accessed regarding HRQOL conceptual and theoretical approaches. A comprehensive search strategy identified 3 commonly used scales that met the review criteria and evidence regarding use of the scales in adults with chronic conditions in community settings. Scale selection Scales were selected if they were designed for clinical use; were easy to administer; were generic and broad in content areas; and contained some individualized items. Scales were critiqued according to content development, theoretical basis, psychometric properties, scoring, feasibility, the concepts being measured, and the number of items that measured an individualized concept. Synthesis Early HRQOL approaches focused on health and functional status while recent approaches incorporate individualized concepts such as the person’s own values and the environment. The abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Duke Health Profile were critiqued. All address physical, mental, and social domains, while the WHOQOL-BREF also addresses environment. Psychometric evidence supports use of the SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF with this population. The SF-36 has the most evidence of responsiveness but has some floor and ceiling effects, while the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to have floor or ceiling effects but has limited evidence of responsiveness. The WHOQOL-BREF has the highest proportion of individualized items. Conclusion Measurement of HRQOL in adults with chronic conditions can support patient management and contribute to primary care service evaluation. Scales that are based on a broad definition of health and that

  9. Health Inequalities and Access to Health Care for Adults with Learning Disabilities in Lincolnshire

    Walker, Carol; Beck, Charles R.; Eccles, Richard; Weston, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The NHS Constitution requires all NHS organisations to provide high-quality comprehensive services, based on clinical need, which do not discriminate between patients (DH 2010a). Together with its health and social care partners, the NHS also has a statutory duty of care to meet the needs of all patients with dignity and compassion. Recent…

  10. Oral health behaviour and lifestyle factors among overweight young adults in Europe:a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    nihtila, annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, P.; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stéphane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011–2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18–35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, e...

  11. A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome

    Tantam Digby; Balfe Myles

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the health and social profile of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) living in the community. We conducted a study to describe the living, employment and psycho-social situation of a community sample of forty two adults and adolescents with AS, and to describe these indivdiuals' experiences of accessing health services and taking medication. Findings Most respondents (including those over eighteen years of age) lived at home with their ...

  12. Multiple physical and mental health comorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities: population-based cross-sectional analysis

    COOPER, SALLY-ANN; McLean, Gary; Guthrie, Bruce; McConnachie, Alex; Mercer, Stewart; Sullivan, Frank; Morrison, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Background Adults with intellectual disabilities have increased early mortality compared with the general population. However, their extent of multimorbidity (two or more additional conditions) compared with the general population is unknown, particularly with regards to physical ill-health, as are associations between comorbidities, neighbourhood deprivation, and age. Methods We analysed primary health-care data on 1,424,378 adults registered with 314 representative Scottish practices. Data ...

  13. Commentary: Assessing the Health Effects of Medicare Coverage for Previously Uninsured Adults: A Matter of Life and Death?

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Meara, Ellen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to a previous study we conducted and other evidence, a recent study found no significant effects of Medicare coverage after age 65 on overall health for previously uninsured adults and significant adverse effects on survival for some of these adults. We discuss explanations for these inconsistent findings, particularly the different ways in which deaths were handled, a key methodological challenge in longitudinal analyses of health. We demonstrate that analytic approaches suitable...

  14. Suicidal Ideation in Underweight Adults Who Attempt to Lose Weight: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012

    Kim, Jinho; Shin, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun A; Lee, Jungkwon

    2015-01-01

    Background Being underweight has been related to health risks. However, little is known about the relationship between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight. This study was conducted to examine if there is an association between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight among underweight adults. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,122 underweight adults (range, 19 to 69 years) was conducted based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012. We exa...

  15. Evidence of impact: health, psychological and social effects of adult HIV on children.

    Sherr, L; Cluver, L D; Betancourt, T S; Kellerman, S E; Richter, L M; Desmond, C

    2014-07-01

    There is a growing evidence base on the immediate and short-term effects of adult HIV on children. We provide an overview of this literature, highlighting the multiple risks and resultant negative consequences stemming from adult HIV infection on the children they care for on an individual and family basis. We trace these consequences from their origin in the health and wellbeing of adults on whom children depend, through multiple pathways to negative impacts for children. As effective treatment reduces vertical transmission, the needs of affected children will predominate. Pathways include exposure to HIV in utero, poor caregiver mental or physical health, the impact of illness, stigma and increased poverty. We summarize the evidence of negative consequences, including those affecting health, cognitive development, education, child mental health, exposure to abuse and adolescent risk behaviour, including sexual risk behaviour, which has obvious implications for HIV-prevention efforts. We also highlight the evidence of positive outcomes, despite adversity, considering the importance of recognizing and supporting the development of resilience. This study is the first in a series of three commissioned by President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)/United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the summary provided here was used to inform a second study which seeks to identify insights from the broader child development field which will help us predict what long-term negative consequences children affected by HIV and AIDS are likely to experience. The third study discusses the design of a model to estimate these consequences. Although comprehensive, the review is often hampered by poor-quality research, inadequate design, small sample sizes and single studies in some areas. PMID:24991898

  16. Gender Differences in Mental Health among Adult Population in Vojvodina Serbia

    Vetlana Kvrgic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health and mental disorders are determined by multiple and interacting social, psychological and biological factors which determine the prevalence, onset and course of mental and behavioral disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in mental health status regarding gender of the adult population in the Province of Vojvodina.Methods: Research was carried out as a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data was obtained from the “National Health Survey in Serbia, 2006” database that refers to the representative adult population of Vojvodina, aged 20 and over. A specially designed questionnaire was applied as a research instrument.Results: This study included 3627 examinees, average age 49.9 years. In the month prior to the study, a half of the adult population in Vojvodina (48.4% was exposed to stress and one third had emotional problems (32.9%, while both stress and emotional problems were more prevalent in females. The average score value on the psychological distress scale (presence of negative conditions and feelings of all examinees was 64.1 (from 0 to 100 and it was statistically significantly lower in women (62.0, compared to men (66.6 (P<0.001. Statisticaly significant differences were also observed between average score values on the role-emotional and vitality scales (P<0.001.Conclusion: When mental health is considered, this research showed that female population is more vulnerable compared to males. Women are more often exposed to stressful situations and emotional problems and more often faced with negative conditions and feelings.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study.

    Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:24974249

  18. Health conditions and their impact among adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    Terri J Pikora

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of medical conditions and use of health services among young adults with Down syndrome and describe the impact of these conditions upon their lives. METHODS: Using questionnaire data collected in 2011 from parents of young adults with Down syndrome we investigated the medical conditions experienced by their children in the previous 12 months. Univariate, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: We found that in addition to the conditions commonly experienced by children with Down syndrome, including eye and vision problems (affecting 73%, ear and hearing problems (affecting 45%, cardiac (affecting 25% and respiratory problems (affecting 36%, conditions also found to be prevalent within our young adult cohort included musculoskeletal conditions (affecting 61%, body weight (affecting 57%, skin (affecting 56% and mental health (affecting 32% conditions and among young women menstrual conditions (affecting 58%. Few parents reported that these conditions had no impact, with common impacts related to restrictions in opportunities to participate in employment and community leisure activities for the young people, as well as safety concerns. CONCLUSION: There is the need to monitor, screen and provide appropriate strategies such as through the promotion of healthy lifestyles to prevent the development of comorbidities in young people with Down syndrome and, where present, to reduce their impact.

  19. With Health and Good Food, Great Life! Gender Differences and Happiness in Chilean Rural Older Adults

    Germán, Lobos; Grunert, Klaus G; Bustamante, Miguel;

    2016-01-01

    of well-being, i.e. happiness in older adults, both women and men, living in rural areas in the Maule Region, Chile. A subjective happiness scale was applied across female (N = 241) and male (N = 144) older adults (age range 60–90). Statistical analysis included comparison of means for independent...... samples and multiple comparison tests. Ordered logit models were computed to examine the determinants of happiness. We find that satisfaction related to food, perception of health and functionality are significantly linked to individual happiness within both gender groups. An influential predictor of...... female’s happiness is the frequency of having dinner with companion. An increased quantity of goods at home implied more happiness. A positive coefficient for age and a negative coefficient for age-squared seem to support the idea of an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and happiness in the...

  20. Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults

    Vicente Romo-Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity (PI are risk factors for chronic diseases and are associated with lifestyle and environmental factors. The study tested the association between PI, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 21,486. The sample included 41.5% men, with mean age 52.3 years (± 18.03, and age range 20-82 years. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%/12.7% in women and 52.1%/12.7% in men (p < 0.001 for obesity in both sexes. 53% of women and 57.5% of men met recommended levels of physical activity by walking (≥ 150 minutes/week. According to logistic regression analysis, individuals that walked less had higher risk of overweight or obesity. Data from the population-based surveillance study support suggestions that regular walking by adults is associated with positive self-rated health and better BMI profile. Obesity and low/very low self-rated health have low prevalence rates to meet the recommendations.

  1. Predictors of health-related quality of life in adult ambulatory independence neuromuscular disease patients

    To evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of totally independent ambulatory neuromuscular disease (NMD) patients in comparison with age matched healthy control subjects, and to assess associations between socio demographic variables and HRQoL in totally independent NMD patients. Ninety-nine adult patients with a diagnosis of NMD referred to the Physical Therapy Department of the Health Sciences Faculty of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between 2007 and 2009 were included in the study. The Functional Independence Measurement and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were the main outcomes to assess independence level in activities of daily living and quality of life. The HRQoL score as measured by NHP was high (worse) in patients than healthy controls, and the difference between the 2 groups was significant for energy, physical mobility, and total score. Employed NMD patients scored significantly lower (better) than those unemployed in the majority of NHP domains. The genders and duration of illness displayed no significant difference in all dimension scores. All NMD patients had a poorer HRQoL than with healthy subjects with respect to energy, physical mobility dimensions, and total score. Furthermore, occupation was found to be a main factor that affects HRQoL in adult ambulatory NMD patients. (author)

  2. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan.

    Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them. PMID:26320730

  3. Evaluation of the health status in adult celiacs of the Valencian Community (Spain

    Pelegrí Calvo, C.; Soriano del Castillo; J. M., Mañes Vinuesa, J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In adult patients, the diagnostic process for coeliac disease (CD is usually very late (eleven years on average, which leads to health complications that could be avoided with earlier diagnosis.Therefore, we have studied some aspects about thehealth status of the celiac patients interviewed. Objectives: The objective of this study is to quantify the prevalence of health-related issues, such as reproductive problems, other associated diseases, possible triggers of CD, bone health, anemia and otherautoimmune diseases or tumors, and the presence ofCD in first grade relatives.Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study in 98adult celiac through a validated questionnaire specificfor coeliac patients. Results: The 23% of women had reproductive problems, most of the coeliac patients showed associatedconditions and 51% of CD cases was triggered after aphysical or psychological event. Conclusions: High prevalence of celiac disease inindividuals concomitant diseases as iron deficiency anemia, depression, hypothyroidism, lactose intolerance,IgA deficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest theneed of diagnostic tests to determine or rule out CD. The presence of one or more symptoms or conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, lactose intolerance, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes or IgA deficiency in first-degree relatives of a celiac should raise suspicions abouta non-diagnosed EC.

  4. Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study

    Leon Bilder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH, using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson χ2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044. The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001 and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018. Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001. Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001.

  5. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  6. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  7. Internet use and looking up information online in adults with epilepsy varies by epilepsy status--2013 National Health Interview Survey.

    Us Centers For Disease Control And Prevention Epilepsy Program

    2016-01-01

    We estimated US national prevalences of Internet use and looking up health information online among adults with epilepsy and those without, overall (age-standardized) and by three age groups (18-44, 45-59, and ≥60years) using the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Results showed that both overall and across all age groups, a significantly lower percentage of adults with active epilepsy reported using the Internet compared with that of adults without epilepsy. However, among Internet users, the percentage of looking up health information online did not differ by epilepsy status or age. Ensuring access to the Internet and encouraging use of quality, secure, and easy-to-access resources and e-tools might help adults with epilepsy to optimize their self-management and improve their quality of life. PMID:26655448

  8. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    Yahya Al-Nakeeb; Mark Lyons; Dodd, Lorna J.; Anwar Al-Nuaim

    2015-01-01

    This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, a...

  9. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    Agnes N. Pedersen; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of ...

  10. Reduction of referral to assessment time for an older adults community mental health team

    Sin Fai Lam, Chun Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggested that waiting times within the older adults community mental health team (OA CMHT) had been increasing over time. An assessment and evaluation was indicated to ensure best quality care was provided for patients. A comparison was made between waiting times in January to December 2011 compared with August 2013 to July 2014. In 2011 the mean number of days until initial assessment from the point of referral was 12 days for routine cases, and 3.6 days for urgent cases....

  11. Glycated Hemoglobin and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Singaporean Chinese Adults: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Bancks, Michael P.; Odegaard, Andrew O.; Woon-Puay Koh; Jian-Min Yuan; Gross, Myron D.; Mark A. Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The American Diabetes Association recently included glycated hemoglobin in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but research on the utility of this biomarker in Southeast Asians is scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between percent HbA1c and incident diabetes in an Asian population of adult men and women without reported diabetes. Methods Data analysis of 5,770 men and women enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who provided a blood sample at the...

  12. Factors Associated with Edentulism among Adult Users of Public Oral Health Services in Victoria, Australia

    Rodrigo Mariño

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined edentulism (total absence of natural dentition trends among adults’ users of public oral health care in Victoria, Australia and factors associated with these trends. The sample comprised 13,578 dental clients of public oral health care services, collected between July 2008 and June 2009, from which data were complete. The group of edentulous clients represented 6.8% of all clients. Older participants were more likely to be edentulous (OR = 3.95; 95% CI 3.53–4.43. By language spoken at home, those who spoke English were more likely to be edentulous than those who spoke other languages (OR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02–1.63. Aboriginal clients were more likely to be edentulous than non-Aboriginal clients (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 1.15–4.27. By region of residence, clients living in rural locations were more likely to be edentulous than those living in urban regions (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.32–1.78. The full model explained 16.8% of the variance in being edentulous. Findings in edentulism were lower than what was reported by the National Survey of Adult Oral Health. However, despite this trend, significant variations existed across urban and rural locations. Innovative public health programs and services are essential to prevent inequalities in oral health diseases and conditions for rural populations.

  13. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  14. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    Lee, Aaron; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks. PMID:27478639

  15. The Relationship between Health Status, Life Satisfaction, and Humor as a Coping Mechanism among Noninstitutionalized Older Adults

    Jones, Cristina Llanos

    2010-01-01

    The older adult population is growing faster than any other cohort of people. By the year 2011, the baby boomers will start turning age 65, presenting a problem for public policy and health care systems. One of the key components of successful aging is the maintenance of good health. Numerous studies have extensively documented the link between…

  16. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Health Inequalities and Service Access by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Cooper, S. A.; McConnachie, A.; Allan, L. M.; Melville, C.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) experience health inequalities and are more likely to live in deprived areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of deprivation of the area a person lives in affects their access to services, hence contributing to health inequalities. Method: A cross-sectional study…

  17. The association of health literacy with adherence in older adults, and its role in interventions : a systematic meta-review

    Geboers, Bas; Brainard, Julii S.; Loke, Yoon K.; Jansen, Carel J. M.; Salter, Charlotte; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low health literacy is a common problem among older adults. It is often suggested to be associated with poor adherence. This suggested association implies a need for effective adherence interventions in low health literate people. However, previous reviews show mixed results on the assoc

  18. Prevalence, risk factors and disability associated with fall-related injury in older adults in low- and middle-incomecountries: results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    Williams, Jennifer Stewart; Kowal, Paul; Hestekin, Heather; O'Driscoll, Tristan; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Salinas Rodriguez, Aaron; Manrique Espinoza, Betty; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010 falls were responsible for approximately 80 % of disability stemming from unintentional injuries excluding traffic accidents in adults 50 years and over. Falls are becoming a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. Methods Nationally representative standardized data collected from adults aged 50 years and over participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SA...

  19. Racial Disparities in Health Care Access and Cardiovascular Disease Indicators in Black and White Older Adults in the Health ABC Study

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Klesges, Lisa M; Newman, Anne B; Ayonayon, Hilsa

    2008-01-01

    Black adults consistently exhibit higher rates and poorer outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to other racial groups, even after accounting for differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Whether factors related to health care access can further explain racial disparities in CVD have not been thoroughly examined. Using logistic regression we examined racial and health care [i.e. health insurance and access to care] associations with CVD indicators [i.e. hypertension, low ankle-ar...

  20. High prevalence of bronchiectasis in adults. Analysis of CT findings in a health screening program

    Bronchiectasis is one of the common chronic respiratory diseases and associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, neither its prevalence nor its etiology is well-defined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of bronchiectasis in adults. In a retrospective study, we analyzed radiologic findings on chest computed tomography (CT) images performed as part of a health-screening program. From January to December 2008, 1,409 (24.6%) of 5,727 participants in the screening program of a health promotion center at a university hospital underwent chest CT scans based on the subject's decision. Bronchiectasis was diagnosed, if there was abnormal bronchial dilatation in any area of both lungs on chest CT. Respiratory symptoms, smoking status, and past medical history were also analyzed to define clinical characteristics and risk factors of bronchiectasis. Of 1,409 patients (aged 23-86 years), who were screened for respiratory diseases using chest CT for one year in a health promotion center, 129 patients (9.1%) were diagnosed with bronchiectasis. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was higher in females than in males (11.5% vs. 7.9%, p=0.022) and increased with age. Respiratory symptoms were reported in 53.7% of subjects. Previous history of tuberculosis (TB) (odds ratio (OR) 4.61, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 2.39-8.88, p=0.001) and age (OR 2.49, 95% Cl 1.56-3.98, p=0.001) were significantly associated with bronchiectasis. This retrospective analysis of chest CT findings in health screening examinees revealed a very high prevalence of bronchiectasis in adults. Previous TB infection is one of the major causes of bronchiectasis. (author)

  1. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  2. The effect of baduanjin on promoting the physical fitness and health of adults.

    Li, Ran; Jin, Li; Hong, Ping; He, Zi-Hong; Huang, Chuan-Ye; Zhao, Jie-Xiu; Wang, Mei; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of study was to assess the efficacy of a 16-week Baduanjin qigong training intervention in promoting physical fitness and health for adults. An experimental design was adopted, and subjects were assigned randomly into an experimental group (n = 55) and a control group (n = 55). In the intervention group comprised of adults, there were no significant variations in blood glucose, blood lipid, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and vital capacity indices. The body weight and body mass index (BMI) dropped in the intervention group. Compared with the control group, the skinfold thicknesses decreased at lower corner of scapula, triceps brachii, and abdomen, with a statistical significance (P < 0.001; P = 0.005; P = 0.003). By comparing the physical fitness indices, it was found that the increase of the results of sit-and-reach test in the intervention group had statistical significance (P = 0.001). In conclusion, it was found by our trial that Baduanjin exercise could significantly improve the physical flexibility and subcutaneous adipose accumulation in the healthy adults. PMID:25050127

  3. The Health Literacy of U.S. Adults across GED[R] Credential Recipients, High School Graduates, and Non-High School Graduates. GED Testing Service[R] Research Study, 2008-1. Executive Summary

    Hsu, Yung-chen

    2008-01-01

    Health literacy is important for all adults. Because lower health literacy is associated with lower educational attainment, many adult basic and literacy education programs increasingly provide health education to low-literate adults to improve their health literacy. Using data from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL), this study…

  4. The Health Literacy of U.S. Adults across GED Credential Recipients, High School Graduates, and Non-High School Graduates. GED Testing Service[TM] Research Studies, 2008-1

    Hsu, Yung-chen

    2008-01-01

    Health literacy is important for all adults. Because lower health literacy is associated with lower educational attainment, many adult basic and literacy education programs increasingly provide health education to low-literate adults to improve their health literacy. Using data from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL), this study…

  5. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues. PMID:26942388

  6. Relationship between Sense of Coherence and oral health in adults and elderly Brazilians.

    Davoglio, Rosane Silvia; Abegg, Claídes; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Oliveira, Mônica Maria Celestina de; Aerts, Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique

    2016-05-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health clinical variables (number of teeth present and absence of need for dental prostheses). The sample consisted of 720 adults and elderly Brazilians. The data were collected at home using the SOC-13 scale - a form of clinical examination for the evaluation of oral conditions - and a questionnaire evaluating socioeconomic aspects and the use of dental services. Statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate, was performed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment. The average age of the participants was 60.2 years, and they were predominantly female (57.8%). Among the participants who had a strong SOC, the absence of the need for dental prostheses was 34% higher than among those with a weak SOC, demonstrating a significant difference between the groups (PR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.06-1.70; p = 0.015). Individuals who had a strong SOC had a 5% higher prevalence of 14 or more existing teeth than those with a weak SOC, which was statistically significant after adjustment for co-factors (PR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.01-1.11, p = 0.033). A strong personal Sense of Coherence has a beneficial influence on the oral health of adults and older people in Brazil. PMID:27223136

  7. Ethnographic research into nursing in acute adult mental health units: a review.

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Acute inpatient mental health units are busy and sometimes chaotic settings, with high bed occupancy rates. These settings include acutely unwell patients, busy staff, and a milieu characterised by unpredictable interactions and events. This paper is a report of a literature review conducted to identify, analyse, and synthesize ethnographic research in adult acute inpatient mental health units. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1990-present. Additional searches were conducted using reference lists. Ethnographic studies published in English were included if they investigated acute inpatient care in adult settings. Papers were excluded if the unit under study was not exclusively for patients in the acute phase of their mental illness, or where the original study was not fully ethnographic. Ten research studies meeting our criteria were found (21 papers). Findings were grouped into the following overarching categories: (1) Micro-skills; (2) Collectivity; (3) Pragmatism; and (4) Reframing of nursing activities. The results of this ethnographic review reveal the complexity, patient-orientation, and productivity of some nursing interventions that may not have been observed or understood without the use of this research method. Additional quality research should focus on redefining clinical priorities and philosophies to ensure everyday care is aligned constructively with the expectations of stakeholders and is consistent with policy and the realities of the organisational setting. We have more to learn from each other with regard to the effective nursing care of inpatients who are acutely disturbed. PMID:21736465

  8. Health Care Provider Mobility Counseling Provision to Older Adults: A Rural/Urban Comparison.

    Huseth-Zosel, Andrea L; Sanders, Gregory; O'Connor, Melissa; Fuller-Iglesias, Heather; Langley, Linda

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined rural-urban differences in health care provider (HCP) perceptions, attitudes, and practices related to driving safety/cessation-related anticipatory guidance provision to older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with HCPs in several north central states. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine dimensions of HCP perceptions and attitudes related to mobility counseling. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if HCP rurality was significantly predictive of HPC provision of mobility counseling by age. Rural HCPs were less likely than urban HCPs to provide mobility counseling to their patients aged 75 or older. Rural HCPs were less likely to refer patients to a driving fitness evaluation resource if they had questions related to driving issues, and were less likely to perceive there were adequate resources to help with driving issues. Rural-urban differences in HCP mobility counseling provision may contribute to potential health disparities between urban and rural patients. Both rural and urban HCPs need training about older driver issues, so they may educate their patients about driving safety/cessation. Future research should examine the association between rural-urban differences in HCP mobility counseling provision and rural older adult overrepresentation in motor vehicle injuries and fatalities statistics. PMID:26070871

  9. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea.

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60-120) (median [5-95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as "obese" (O) or "non-obese" (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m(2). People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered "metabolically unhealthy" (MU), while those with none were considered "metabolically healthy" (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21-1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63-2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74-0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57-0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  10. Predictors of Health Among Refugee Adults from Myanmar and the Development of Their Children.

    Muennig, Peter; Boulmier-Darden, Prairie; Khouzam, Noor; Zhu, Wenyi; Hancock, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to attempt to understand predictors of health among adult migrants from Myanmar to Thailand and predictors of development among their children. EQ5D5L scores and sociodemographic data were obtained among adult household members of children from two schools on the Thai/Myanmar border. Children were administered Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQs). OLS and logistic regressions were used to examine predictors (e.g., witnessing gunfire) of various outcome measures (e.g., ASQ scores among children). In logistic regression analyses, maternal literacy proved to be a very strong predictor of the child's ASQ communication [17 ASQ points out of 60; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3, 31 points], problem solving (25 points; 95% CI 4, 45 points), and social skills (12 points; 95 % CI 1, 23 points) scores. A lower number of habitants/room predicted significantly better dentition among children [odds ratio (OR) 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.67] and better social skills on the child's ASQ (12 points; 95% CI 1, 23 points). Appliance ownership was a weak predictor of adult health, with those who own a refrigerator having about an 8% higher score on the EQ5D5L (1.08; 95% CI 1.01, 1.16). Finally, parents who witnessed gunfire tended to have children with ASQ scores that were 14 points lower than average in problem solving (95% CI -24, -4). Maternal education programs may have a very large impact on the development of their children. However, identifying those households at greatest need of resources is not a simple task, and will require a more complete census of communities at risk. PMID:25155822

  11. Evaluating change in health-related quality of life in adult rhinitis: Responsiveness of the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index

    Katz Patricia P; Chen Hubert; Shiboski Stephen; Blanc Paul D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) is a validated measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in rhinitis. Responsiveness of the RSDI to changes in health status over time has not been described. Methods We studied adults with a self-reported physician diagnosis of rhinitis identified through a national telephone survey. HRQL was assessed at baseline and at 24 months using the RSDI. Symptom severity, physical health status (SF-12 PCS), psychological mood (CES-...

  12. Healthy minds in healthy bodies: An international comparison of education-related inequality in physical health among older adults

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Education is arguably the most important correlate of health We study education-related inequality in the physical of older adults across 11 European countries and the US. Combining data from HRS 2002, ELSA 2002 and SHARE 2004, our results suggest that education is strongly correlated with health both across and within countries. Education-related inequality in health is larger in Mediterranean and Anglo-Saxon countries than in western European countries. We find no evidence of a trade-off be...

  13. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  14. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India. PMID:26513366

  15. Oral health related behaviors among adult Tanzanians: a national pathfinder survey

    Senkoro Ahadieli R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral health education programs which have been organised and delivered in Tanzania were not based on a thorough understanding of behaviours which influence oral health. Therefore, evaluation of these programs became difficult. This study aimed at investigating the oral health related behaviours and their determinants among Tanzanian adults. Methods A national pathfinder cross sectional survey was conducted in 2006 involving 1759 respondents from the six geographic zones of mainland Tanzania. Frequency distributions, Chi square and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 13.0. Results The rates of abstinence from alcohol for the past 30 days and life time smoking were 61.6% and 16.7% respectively, with males being more likely to smoke (OR 9.2, CI 6.3 -12.9, p Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrated social demographic disparities in relation to oral health related behaviors, while dental pain was associated with low consumption of sugar and high likelihood to take alcohol.

  16. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Mueller, Noel T.; Bruce B. Duncan; Sandhi M. Barreto; Chor, Dora; Bessel, Marina; Aquino, Estela ML; Pereira, Mark A.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had comple...

  17. Pediatric Provider's Perspectives on the Transition to Adult Health Care for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Strategies and Promising New Directions

    Kuhlthau, Karen A.; Warfield, Marji E.; Hurson, Jill; Delahaye, Jennifer; Crossman, Morgan K.

    2015-01-01

    Few youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) nationally report receiving services to help them transition from the pediatric health care system to the adult health care system. For example, only one-fifth (21.1%) of youth with ASD receive any transition planning services. To better understand why the transition from pediatric to adult health care…

  18. PREVALENCE OF PREHYPERTENSION AMONG ADULTS ATTENDING RURAL COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRE, SOUTH KERALA , INDIA

    Vasantha Mallika

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High Blood Pressure is one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases worldwide. It is estimated that Hypertension, the silent killer, is responsible for fifty percent of cardiovascular deaths. In India, studies show steadily increasing prevalence of Hypertension since 1950 leading to deaths among young people. Scanty data exist regarding prevalence of Pre hypertension among poor and ignorant population attending rural health facilities like Community Health Centres. OBJECTIVES: To determine Prevalence of Prehypertension among adults attending outpatient departme nt of CHC, Vellarada and to identify the risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional study was conducted during a period of three months from 18 th January2010 among 18100 adults of 18 years and above attending CHC, Vellarada, a village situated 40 kilometres away from Thiruvananthapuram and nearer to Tamil n adu. Pretested questionnaire - based information was collected about diet, physical activity, and tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Standardized techniques were used for data on BP, weight, heigh t and lipid profile. Using JNC - 7 criteria, Prehypertension was defined as Systolic BP 120 - 139 mmHg and Diastolic BP 80 - 89 mm Hg. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS package. RESULTS: Prevalence of Hypertension was 35.14% ( men 35.9%, women 34.6% and P rehypertension 40.9% ( men 40.56%, women 41.1%. On multivariate logistic regression analysis , Prehypertension showed significant positive association with BMI >23kg/m2 ( OR 1.79, age ( OR 1.74, Serum Triglyceride >150 mg/dl ( OR 2.2 and HDL cholesterol < 40mg/dl ( OR 1.48 . CONCLUSION: High prevalence of pre hypertension and associated risk factors among young, economically productive group of rural population needed targeted interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. It is beneficial if every health faci lity makes attempts for routine BP recording of young people so that prehypertensives may be

  19. Impacts of highway traffic exhaust in alpine valleys on the respiratory health in adults: a cross-sectional study

    Künzli Nino; Ragettli Martina S; Schindler Christian; Hazenkamp-von Arx Marianne E; Braun-Fahrländer Charlotte; Liu Lee-Jane S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Most studies having shown respiratory health effects from traffic exhaust were conducted in urban areas with a complex mixture of air pollution sources. This study has investigated the potential impact of traffic exhaust on respiratory symptoms among adults living along a Swiss alpine highway corridor, where traffic exhaust from the respective trans-Alpine highway is the predominate source of air pollution. Methods In summer 2005, we recruited 1839 adults aged 15 to 70 fro...

  20. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay

    Susana M. Lorenzo; Ramón Alvarez; Ernesto Andrade; Virginia Piccardo; Alejandro Francia; Fernando Massa; Marcos Britto Correa; Marco Aurélio Peres

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal ...

  1. Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey

    Ryu, So Yeon; Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. Methods We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifes...

  2. Discrimination in Healthcare Settings is Associated with Disability in Older Adults: Health and Retirement Study, 2008–2012

    Rogers, Stephanie E.; Thrasher, Angela D.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W John; Smith, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND As our society ages, improving medical care for an older population will be crucial. Discrimination in healthcare may contribute to substandard experiences with the healthcare system, increasing the burden of poor health in older adults. Few studies have focused on the presence of healthcare discrimination and its effects on older adults. OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine the relationship between healthcare discrimination and new or worsened disability. DESIGN This was a longitudinal a...

  3. Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    Choi, O Jin Ee; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

    2013-01-01

    Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the ...

  4. Outdoor physical activity and self rated health in older adults living in two regions of the U.S.

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults spend little time outdoors and many are physically inactive. The relationship between outdoor physical activity and self rated health has not been studied in older adults. This paper aimed to assess the relation of location of physical activity to self rated health and physical activity minutes. This was an observational study of ambulatory adults 66 years and older conducted in 2005–2008. Participants (N = 754 completed survey measures of physical activity location and self rated health, and wore an accelerometer to objectively assess physical activity. A mixed model linear regression procedure adjusted for neighborhood clustering effects. Differences in self rated health and physical activity minutes were compared across three physical activity settings (indoor only, outdoor only, both indoor and outdoor. Results Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were significantly greater in those who were physically active at least once a week outdoors compared with those who were physically active indoors only. Self rated health was significantly related to being physically active but did not vary by location of activity. Conclusions Older adults who were physically active outdoors accumulated significantly more physical activity, but self-rated health was not significantly greater than those being physically active indoors.

  5. Illness-related behaviour and utilization of oral health services among adult city-dwellers in Burkina Faso

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Fournet, Florence;

    2006-01-01

    mostly undertaken for symptomatic reasons. The objectives of the present study were to describe the prevalence of oral symptoms among adults in Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso and the use of oral health services and self-medication in response to these symptoms and to measure the associations...... oral health problem during the past 12 months; a high proportion (62%) reported pain or acute discomfort affecting daily life. In response to symptoms, only 28% used oral health facilities, 48% used self-medication and 24% sought no treatment at all. Multivariate analyses revealed that several socio...... people who have obtained oral health care is alarmingly low in Ouagadougou and self-medication appears to be an important alternative source of care for adult city-dwellers. Decision-makers in sub-Saharan countries must seek to ensure that access to essential oral health care is improved....

  6. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). Findings 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5–11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast

  7. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY OF POTENTIAL MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM IN ADULT WOMEN LIVING IN URBAN SLUMS OF HYDERABAD

    Kiran Mai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mental illness has a significant burden on morbidity and disability. The problem is higher than previously thought due to urbanization and modernization. There could be a significant level of unidentified and unmet need within this group , so a genuine att empt has been done to screen for potential mental health problem in adult women. OBJECTIVES: 1.To estimate the proportion of potential mental health problem. 2. To study the selected risk factors for potential mental health problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study was done on 440 adult (18 yrs and above females residing in urban slum areas of Hyderabad city. Data was collected using a pre - structured questionnaire during house - to - house visits regarding mental health using Meninger’s scale , age , marital st atus , socio - economic status and other selected risk factors; physical examination included pallor , height and weight. Data was analyzed using proportions and chi - square test. RESULTS: The overall potential mental health problem in adult women was 66.8%. Ag e above 45 yrs , married women , lower socio economic status , house - wives , use of OTC analgesics , age at first childbirth , lack of physical activity , pallor and overweight/obesity were significantly associated with potential mental health problem. CONCLUSION: These analyses show that mental health of women is influenced by many factors and the burden is very high. RECOMMENDATIONS : There is an urgent need to increase awareness regarding mental hygiene and strengthen National Mental Health Programme i n India and help people lead a productive life.

  8. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009

    Wichai Aekplakorn; Rungkarn Inthawong; Pattapong Kessomboon; Rassamee Sangthong; Suwat Chariyalertsak; Panwadee Putwatana; Surasak Taneepanichskul

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) and II (BMI ≥...

  9. Essential Public Health Services' Accessibility and its Determinants among Adults with Chronic Diseases in China.

    Miaomiao Tian

    Full Text Available Along with three years implementation of health reform in China, this study aimed at providing the up-to-date evidence about the accessibility of essential public health services (EPHS among adults with chronic diseases (CDs in both urban and rural areas, as well as determinants in access to EPHS.The data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013, which used a multistage stratified random sampling method to select 54 urban communities and 54 rural villages. Hypertension patients and diabetes patients were the target population who are the main beneficiaries of EPHS. Single factor analysis of influencing factors on difference access to EPHS was performed by Chi-Square analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of effective management and effective control.Patients with hypertension or diabetes were predominantly middle-aged or older persons and had a mean age of 65.26 year. People with CDs in China have a higher basic accessibility rate in EPHS with more than 90% of them having experience in receiving EPHS. And those who are willing to receive services from doctors have the most positive influence on effective management and control in blood pressure or blood glucose. But unsatisfied quality and equity of EPHS still exist in primary health system. 90% of participants could receive EPHS, but just 44% of them could control their diseases effectively. And participants from cities had the higher rates in effective management (urban: rural = 57%: 50.6% and effective control (urban: rural = 39.5%: 27.8%.People with CDs have a high level in geography and economic accessibility to EPHS, but the effectiveness of health management also needs to be improved, especially for those living in rural areas. Our study highlights the continuing need for improving ability to provide EPHS and the equality among regions. Meanwhile, strengthen health education and promotion for patients with CDs to improve their

  10. Health-related quality of life in sporadic adult-onset ataxia.

    Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas

    2007-02-15

    Despite progressive disability in sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA), little is known about patients' assessment of their ataxic disorder and its impact on health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL). This study investigated Hr-QoL by means of the following self-administered scales: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36). Twenty-two unselected ataxia patients were included. Sleep-related complaints were found in 9 (41%) of 22 and symptoms of depression in 6 (38%) of 16 patients. Compared to a large german control group, SAOA patients had lower scores in all SF-36 dimensions except for bodily pain. The greatest impairment was found in the domain physical functioning, followed by the domains social functioning and role limitations (emotional problems). There was a significant negative correlation of all nonmotor SF-36 dimensions with the BDI score. Walking aid dependency was significantly correlated with poorer health status perception in several motor and nonmotor domains. In addition, impaired sleep quality was correlated with an impaired general health perception and with bodily pain. The study demonstrates a great impact of SAOA on Hr-QoL. Adequate treatment of depression, motor disability, and impaired sleep quality is essential to improve Hr-QoL in ataxic patients. PMID:17149704

  11. Acupuncture Use among American Adults: What Acupuncture Practitioners Can Learn from National Health Interview Survey 2007?

    Yan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2007 and explored acupuncture users sociodemographics characteristics, reasons and the nature of acupuncture use, and the relationship of such use with conventional medical care. All individuals who completed adults core interviews (N = 23,393 were included. Three subsets of samples (nonuser, former user, and recent user were used in the analysis performed in Stata. Our findings revealed that ever acupuncture user (including former and recent user increased from 4.2% to 6.3% of the population, representing 8.19 million and 14.01 million users in 2002 and 2007, respectively. We expected this trend to continue. People not only used acupuncture as a complementary and alternative approach to conventional treatment for a specific health condition, but also used it as a preventive means to promote general health. Effectiveness and safety appeared not to be the main predictors of acupuncture use; rather, awareness, cost, and insurance coverage played a bigger role in decision making.

  12. Associations Between Gender and Obesity Among Adults with Mental Illnesses in a Community Health Screening Study.

    Jonikas, Jessica A; Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Steigman, Pamela J; Hamilton, Marie M; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Santos, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associations with gender, clinical factors, and medical co-morbidities were examined among 457 adults attending public mental health programs in 4 U.S. states. BMI was measured directly and other information was gathered by interview. Over half (59 %, n = 270) were obese including 18 % (n = 83) who were morbidly obese. In hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis controlling for demographic, psychiatric, medical, smoking, and health insurance statuses, women were significantly more likely to be obese than men. Obesity also was more likely among those who were younger and not high school graduates, those with diabetes or hypertension, and those who did not smoke tobacco. Interaction effects were found between gender and diabetes, hypertension, tobacco smoking, education, race, and age. The high prevalence of obesity among women, coupled with interactions between gender and other factors, suggest that targeted approaches are needed to promote optimal physical health in this population. PMID:26711093

  13. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of adult great tits (Parus major)

    We examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the quality and health of adult great tits (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a non-ferrous smelter in Belgium. Tarsus length, wing length, body mass and condition of great tits were compared with respect to study site, age (first-year and older great tits), sex and season (birds caught in winter and during breeding). Tarsus length did not differ significantly among study sites. The wing length of great tits was larger at the study site furthest from the smelter, especially for older great tits. The length of the outermost tail feathers, however, did not differ significantly among study sites. We found no signs of loss of body mass or condition towards the pollution source. The body mass and condition was lowest for female great tits at the site furthest from the smelter, especially during winter. Haematocrit values did not differ significantly among sites. Overall, we found no clear significant effects of heavy metal pollution on morphological measurements and health parameters of great tits. - Heavy metal pollution had no clear effect on condition and health, but this may have been masked by habitat quality differences and gene flow

  14. Prenatal and Childhood Growth, Chemerin Concentrations, and Metabolic Health in Adult Life

    Johan G. Eriksson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several noncommunicable diseases have their origins in early developmental phases. One factor possibly explaining the association between early growth and later health could be adipocyte function. The objective of this study was to assess the association between the adipocytokine chemerin and early growth and later health. 1074 participants from Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born 1934–1944 with information on prenatal and childhood growth participated. Metabolic outcomes include glucose tolerance, adiposity, and chemerin concentration. Mean chemerin concentrations were 5.0 ng/mL higher in women than in men (95% CI 2.7 to 7.2, p<0.001. The strongest correlate of chemerin concentration was adult waist circumference and body fat percentage (r=0.22, p<0.001 and r=0.21, p<0.001, resp.. After adjustment for body fat percentage, chemerin concentration was 5.4 ng/mL lower in subjects with type 2 diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance (−0.2 to 10.9, p=0.06. It was 3.0 ng/mL higher in those with metabolic syndrome than in those without (0.6 to 5.3, p=0.01. No measure of early growth was associated with chemerin concentration. Our findings do not support a role for chemerin in linking early growth with later metabolic health.

  15. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older...

  16. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. Objective To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. Design In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, me...

  17. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  18. Where Do U.S. Adults Who Do Not Use the Internet Get Health Information? Examining Digital Health Information Disparities From 2008 to 2013.

    Massey, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    With more people turning to the Internet for health information, a few questions remain: Which populations represent the remaining few who have never used the Internet, and where do they go for health information? The purpose of this study is to describe population characteristics and sources of health information among U.S. adults who do not use the Internet. Data from 3 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 1,722) are used to examine trends in health information sources. Weighted predicted probabilities demonstrate changes in information source over time. Older adults, minority populations, and individuals with low educational attainment represent a growing percentage of respondents who have looked for health information but have never used the Internet, highlighting trends in digital information disparities. However, 1 in 10 respondents who have never used the Internet also indicate that the Internet was their first source of health information, presumably through surrogates. Findings highlight digital disparities in information seeking and the complex nature of online information seeking. Future research should examine how individuals conceptualize information sources, measure skills related to evaluating information and sources, and investigate the social nature of information seeking. Health care organizations and public health agencies can leverage the multifaceted nature of information seeking to better develop information resources to increase information access by vulnerable populations. PMID:26166484

  19. Identifying Family History and Substance Use Associations for Adult Epilepsy from the Electronic Health Record.

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S; Leppik, Ilo; Pakhomov, Serguei; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder afflicting about 50 million people worldwide. There is evidence of a strong relationship between familial risk factors and epilepsy, as well as associations with substance use. The goal of this study was to explore the interactions between familial risk factors and substance use based on structured data from the family and social history modules of an electronic health record system for adult epilepsy patients. A total of 8,957patients with 38,802 family history entries and 8,822 substance use entries were gathered and mined for associations at different levels of granularity for three age groupings (>18, 18-64, and ≥65 years old). Our results demonstrate the value of an association rule mining approach to validate knowledge of familial risk factors. The preliminary findings also suggest that substance use does not demonstrate significant association between social and familial risk factors for epilepsy. PMID:27570679

  20. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences. PMID:27192025

  1. Will our children be healthy adults? Applying science to public health policy.

    Law, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is predicted to be a leading cause of death and disability worldwide for the foreseeable future. Observational studies link a variety of prevalent early life experiences (for example, smoking in pregnancy, child poverty) to increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal studies suggest plausible causal relationships. However, there has been little consideration of how to use this wealth of information to benefit children's futures. Policy documents have drawn on research evidence to recognise that early experience influences life chances, the development of human capital, and long-term health. This has led to a general policy emphasis on prevention and early intervention. To date, there are few examples of the evidence base being useful in shaping specific policies, despite potential to do so, and some examples of policy misunderstanding of science. Minor changes to the perspectives of epidemiological research in this area might greatly increase the potential for evidence-based policy. PMID:21413485

  2. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life. PMID:25647691

  3. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings. PMID:25263738

  4. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management.

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications. PMID:25919228

  5. Intentional misuse of over-the-counter medications, mental health, and polysubstance use in young adults.

    Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana; Jeffers, Amy J

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically. Less attention has been paid to the intentional misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Misuse of OTC medications has negative health consequences similar to those of illicit drugs, including psychosis, tachycardia, seizures and agitation. When mixed with alcohol or other drugs, these medications can also be dangerous: OTC-related emergency room visits increased 70% from 2004 to 2008. This study examined the intentional misuse of OTC medications, the non-medical use of prescription drugs, the use of alcohol and illicit drugs, and psychological factors in two samples of young adults (ages 18-25) from different areas of the United States (Total N = 1,197). Overall, 18.6% of the Colorado sample and 13.0% of the Virginia sample reported lifetime misuse of an OTC medication. Participants who reported misusing OTC medications were also significantly more likely to report using marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, and non-medical use of prescription analgesics, stimulants, anxiolytics, and sedatives. Participants who reported misusing OTC medications were more than twice as likely to report hazardous alcohol use, relative to individuals who denied misusing OTC medications. Individuals who had misused OTC medications scored significantly higher in sensation seeking and hopelessness and reported more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatic distress, relative to those who denied OTC misuse. Results suggest that a considerable minority of young adults are jeopardizing their health with the misuse of OTC medications as part of a pattern of polysubstance use. PMID:24338111

  6. Health-related quality of life and well-being in adults with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.

    Armadans-Tremolosa, Imma; Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Visauta-Vinacua, Bienvenido; Guilera, Georgina; Pinal-Fernández, Iago; Vilardell-Tarrés, Miquel

    2014-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and well-being are concepts that attempt to objectively capture a person's subjective perceptions of vitality and energy. Our objectives were to determine HRQoL and well-being in adult patients diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy who attended at our outpatient clinic and to investigate clinical and biological correlations with these concepts. Sixty-two patients (52 women), with a mean age of 50.7 years, were evaluated in this cross-sectional study-47 with dermatomyositis and 15 with polymyositis. Disease damage and activity were assessed with the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies-validated instruments. Manual muscle testing was used to evaluate muscle strength. Quality of life was evaluated with the WHO instrument (WHO Quality of Life Measure (WHOQOL-BREF)), adapted for use in the Spanish population, and well-being with the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5). t tests were conducted to examine differences in HRQoL and well-being outcomes in relation to several disease- and patient-related variables. Correlation analyses were performed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. None of the clinical or biological variables analyzed was significantly associated with a poorer HRQoL or well-being. No differences in HRQoL or WHO-5 well-being score were found between the two myositis subgroups (dermatomyositis vs. polymyositis). Disease activity and muscle weakness were negatively associated with the physical and environmental domains of the HRQoL, respectively (p < 0.002), but not with well-being. Disease duration did not have a significant impact on HRQoL or well-being. In adult patients with myositis, disease activity and muscle weakness are associated with poorer HRQoL in the physical health and environmental domains, respectively. PMID:24894104

  7. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60–120) (median [5–95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as “obese” (O) or “non-obese” (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m2. People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered “metabolically unhealthy” (MU), while those with none were considered “metabolically healthy” (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21–1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63–2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74–0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57–0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  8. Mental health in international adoptees as teenagers and young adults. An epidemiological study.

    Cederblad, M; Höök, B; Irhammar, M; Mercke, A M

    1999-11-01

    Sweden has now around 38,000 individuals who have been adopted from other countries. Most often they are transracially adopted and have a different appearance from their new parents--"visible" adoptions. This study was made to explore the mental health of a teenager/young adult group that arrived with their families in the southernmost county of Sweden between 1970 and 1977. They were placed through the largest Swedish adoption agency at that time. One hundred and forty-seven families and their 211 adopted children, who were 13 years of age or older at the time of the investigation, were interviewed in their homes. CBCL, SCL-90, a self-esteem questionnaire, and two family relations inventories were also completed. Compared to nonadopted Swedish young persons of the same ages, who had been investigated with the same inventories in earlier epidemiological studies, the adoptees had as good mental health. The adoptees also reported good self-esteem. The pre-adoption conditions were more important than the age of arrival in itself for the risk of later maladaptation. Family relations, various aspects of identity, and peer relations explained much of the variance of mental health and self-esteem. Those who were most engaged in questions about their identity and felt mostly non-Swedish had more behaviour problems. The association, however, between the factor "Identity" and the mental health variables approached zero for the older subjects (18-27 years of age). The majority (about 90%) of the adoptees felt mostly Swedish. Seventy per cent didn't feel any connection to their country of origin. PMID:10604402

  9. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  10. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  11. The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults

    Broadbent Jonathan M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14. Results Of the 923 participants (48.9% female, one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality. Conclusion Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives.

  12. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Jing Shi; Nancy Wolff

    2012-01-01

    Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety) and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000)....

  13. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor cardiovascular health status. To improve cardiovascular health among the rural population, efforts, especially lifestyle improvements, education and interventions to make healthier food choices, reduce salt intake, increase physical activities, and cease

  14. Association of Health Literacy with Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Primary Care Patients

    Bains Sujeev S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, it is estimated that 40% of adults utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies. Recently, national surveys report that over 90 million adults have inadequate health literacy. To date, no study has assessed health literacy and its effect on CAM use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between health literacy and CAM use independent of educational attainment. Second objective was to evaluate the differential effect of health literacy on CAM use by race. Methods 351 patients were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. Validated surveys assessed CAM use (I-CAM-Q, health literacy (REALM-R, and demographic information. We compared demographics by health literacy (adequate vs. inadequate and overall and individual CAM categories by health literacy using chi square statistics. We found a race by health literacy interaction and ran sequential logistic regression models stratified by race to test the association between health literacy and overall CAM use (Model 1, Model 1 + education (Model 2, and Model 2 + other demographic characteristics (Model 3. We reported the adjusted effect of health literacy on CAM use for both whites and African Americans separately. Results 75% of the participants had adequate literacy and 80% used CAM. CAM use differed by CAM category. Among whites, adequate health literacy was significantly associated with increased CAM use in both unadjusted (Model 1, OR 7.68; p = 0.001 and models adjusted for education (Model 2, OR 7.70; p = 0.002 and other sociodemographics (Model 3, OR 9.42; p = 0.01. Among African Americans, adequate health literacy was not associated with CAM use in any of the models. Conclusions We found a race by literacy interaction suggesting that the relationship between health literacy and CAM use differed significantly by race. Adequate health literacy among whites is associated with increased CAM use, but not

  15. Who is the Treatment-Seeking Young Adult with Severe Obesity: A Comprehensive Characterization with Emphasis on Mental Health

    Dreber, Helena; Reynisdottir, Signy; Angelin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize treatment-seeking young adults (16–25 years) with severe obesity, particularly mental health problems. Study Design and Participants Cross-sectional study of 165 participants (132 women, 33 men) with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2 with comorbidities, enrolling in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program. Method Data collection at admission of present and life-time health issues including symptomatology of anxiety, depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) a...

  16. Impact of foods with health logo on ssaturated fat, sodium and sugar intake of young Dutch adults

    Temme, E.H.M.; Voet, van der, E.; Roodenburg, A.; Bulder, A.; Donkersgoed, van, G.; Klaveren, van, C.P.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Health logos are introduced to distinguish foods with ‘healthier’ nutrient composition from regular foods. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of changed food compositions according to health logo criteria on the intake of saturated fat, sugar and sodium in a Dutch population of young adults. Design Foods in the Dutch food composition table were evaluated against nutrient criteria for logo eligibility. Three replacement scenarios were compared with the nutrient intake ‘as...

  17. Health e-Cards as a Means of Encouraging Help Seeking for Depression Among Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Costin, Daniel L; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Batterham, Philip J; Bennett, Anthony J.; Bennett, Kylie; Christensen, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify interventions that increase help seeking for depression among young adults. Objective The aim was to evaluate a brief depression information intervention employing health e-cards (personalized emails containing links to health information presented on a Web page). Methods A randomized controlled trial was carried out with 348 19- to 24-year-olds drawn from the community. Participants were randomized to receive one of three conditions, all of which delive...

  18. Patient experiences and health system responsiveness among older adults in South Africa

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background As populations age, health systems must adapt and develop approaches that meet the needs of older patients with increasing multiple chronic conditions. Understanding older populations’ perceptions of quality of care is critical to developing measures to increase the utilization of primary healthcare services. Using the data from the Global Study on Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) survey, the current study aims to evaluate the degree of perceived responsiveness with outpatient and inpatient healthcare in South Africa. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare utilization and responsiveness, and other health variables. Results Healthcare utilization was 9% inpatient care in the past 3 years and 50% outpatient care in the past 12 months. The overall mean perceived responsiveness score for inpatient care was 71 and for outpatient care 69. According to the evaluation of inpatient care, autonomy and prompt attention showed the lowest while quality, confidentiality, and dignity showed the highest degree of perceived responsiveness among all the areas analyzed. Regarding outpatient care, prompt attention showed the lowest while quality, confidentiality, and dignity the highest degree of perceived responsiveness scores. Overall, perceived healthcare responsiveness was higher in private than in public inpatient and outpatient healthcare facilities. Multivariate analysis found that being from the White population group (OR=3.96, CI=1.54–19.19), not a public health facility (OR=0.34, CI=0.17–0.69), poor subjective health status (OR=0.53, CI=0.38–0.75) and having health insurance paying for the outpatient care visit (OR=3.39, CI=1.24–9.27) were associated with outpatient perceived healthcare responsiveness, whereas male gender (OR=0.36, CI=0.14–0.89), 80 years or older (OR=5

  19. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    Yahya Al-Nakeeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (PA amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health.

  20. Promoting brain health through exercise and diet in older adults: a physiological perspective.

    Jackson, Philippa A; Pialoux, Vincent; Corbett, Dale; Drogos, Lauren; Erickson, Kirk I; Eskes, Gail A; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-08-15

    The rise in incidence of age-related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss. Of interest, there are substantial inter-individual differences in the degree to which these physical and functional changes impact upon cognitive function as we grow older. This review describes how engaging in physical activity and cognitive activities and adhering to a Mediterranean style diet promote 'brain health'. From a physiological perspective, we discuss the effects of these modifiable lifestyle behaviours on the brain, and how some recent human trials are beginning to show some promise as to the effectiveness of lifestyle behaviours in combating cognitive impairment. Moreover, we propose that these lifestyle behaviours, through numerous mechanisms, serve to increase brain, cerebrovascular and cognitive reserve, thereby preserving and enhancing cognitive function for longer. PMID:27524792

  1. Mental Health Nursing of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Illness: A Review of Empirical Studies 1994-2013.

    Bakken, Trine Lise; Sageng, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities and mental illness is underresearched. The aim of this review is to summarize empirical mental health nursing studies including adults with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness. Out of 137 hits, 16 articles were reviewed in full text. Thirteen of the articles presented modified nursing interventions. Three articles discussed training and education. The main finding is that mental health nursing interventions in patients with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness are in line with mental health nursing for the general population. There are still not many publications on empirical studies concerning mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities. Clinical implications are primarily related to the need for facilitated nurse-patient communication adjusted to the patients' cognitive levels. Insights drawn from this review illuminate the importance of mental health nursing interventions adjusting to the particular patients' symptoms, instead of targeting behavior change. The findings underpin factors found to have a positive impact on patients with mental illness in the general population as relevant topics for future research. PMID:26992884

  2. Revisualising 'porn': how young adults' consumption of sexually explicit Internet movies can inform approaches to Canadian sexual health promotion.

    Hare, Kathleen A; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Jackson, Lois; Steenbeek, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The Internet offers an invaluable opportunity to re-imagine ideas, constructs and disciplines to create innovative sexual health promotion interventions. To gain insight into what young adults (aged 19-28) may be seeking in online sexual resources and approaches, this study explored how young people perceived their sexual health to be influenced by their consumption of the highly utilised sexual medium of Sexually Explicit Internet Movies [SEIM]. Employing an exploratory, qualitative methodology, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 urban, heterosexual young adults, who self-identified as having consumed SEIM for a period of at least one year. All interviews were audiotaped with permission, transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed to identify emergent thematic concepts. Participants described utilising SEIM as an all-inclusive sexual forum to learn more about the positive aspects of sexual health, in a context that they viewed as being devoid of alternatives. Young adults' perceptions of the utility of SEIM suggest that it would be beneficial to create novel, sex-positive online sexual health interventions. Further exploration is clearly warranted on how Internet resources that are related to sexual health, such as SEIM, can be utilised to facilitate innovative approaches to online sexual health promotion. PMID:24917353

  3. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  4. Use of the Internet as a Health Information Resource Among French Young Adults: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen-Thanh, Viet; Montagni, Ilaria; Parizot, Isabelle; Renahy, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is one of the main resources of health information especially for young adults, but website content is not always trustworthy or validated. Little is known about this specific population and the importance of online health searches for use and impact. It is fundamental to assess behaviors and attitudes of young people looking for online health-related information and their level of trust in such information. Objective The objective is to describe the characteristics of Internet users aged 15-30 years who use the Web as a health information resource and their trust in it, and to define the context and the effect of such use on French young adults’ behavior in relation to their medical consultations. Methods We used the French Health Barometer 2010, a nationally representative survey of 27,653 individuals that investigates population health behaviors and concerns. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed using a subsample of 1052 young adults aged 15-30 years to estimate associations between demographics, socioeconomic, and health status and (1) the use of the Internet to search for health information, and (2) its impact on health behaviors and the physician-patient relationship. Results In 2010, 48.5% (474/977) of Web users aged 15-30 years used the Internet for health purposes. Those who did not use the Internet for health purposes reported being informed enough by other sources (75.0%, 377/503), stated they preferred seeing a doctor (74.1%, 373/503) or did not trust the information on the Internet (67.2%, 338/503). However, approximately 80% (371/474) of young online health seekers considered the information found online reliable. Women (P<.001) and people with higher sociocultural positions (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9 and OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7 for employees and manual workers, respectively, vs individuals with executive or manager positions) were more likely to use the Internet for health purposes. For a subsample of women only

  5. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  6. Considering Accreditation in Gerontology: The Importance of Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies to Ensure Quality Health Care for Older Adults

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Koontz, Jennifer Scott; Rogers, Nicole; Brickell, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The health care needs of older adults can be complex and multifaceted. Safe, effective, equitable, and person-centered service provision relies on skilled interprofessional, team-based practice. Too often, students seeking a career specializing in gerontology are not exposed to such interprofessional, team-based learning and practice during their…

  7. Health Status and Coping Strategies among Older Parent-Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in an Australian Sample

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an…

  8. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  9. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John;

    2014-01-01

    therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage. METHODS: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised...

  10. Carer Reports of Health Status among Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities in Taiwan Living at Home and in Institutions

    Wang, K.-Y.; Hsieh, K.; Heller, T.; Davidson, P. W.; Janicki, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the health status of a cohort of adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities (I/DD) residing in family homes or institutions in Taiwan and to examine whether morbidity varied with age, sex, existing diagnosis [Down syndrome (DS), seizures, cerebral palsy (CP), intellectual disability…

  11. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  12. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  13. Assessing and optimizing health-related quality of life during and after cancer treatment in adolescents and young adults

    Szalda D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dava Szalda,1 Esther Kim,2 Jill P Ginsberg1,2 1Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Adolescent and young adults (AYAs with cancer have needs unique from their pediatric or adult counterparts at diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout survivorship care. Healthcare teams may find it difficult to assess and manage the complex psychosocial needs of AYA patients, however, attention to the multi-faceted care of the AYA oncology patient may directly affect health outcomes and quality of life. Comprehensive AYA care therefore must be maximized during treatment and in transition to survivorship care by including assessments of general health, sexual health, mental health, health behaviors, and conversations concerning transition to survivorship and adulthood with AYA patients. Identifying and treating issues that arise in the AYA population may help promote adherence to treatment, engagement in follow-up care, and ultimately quality of life for this unique group of patients. Keywords: quality of life, sexual health, health behaviors, mental health, transition, survivorship

  14. Lifecourse Urbanization, Social Demography, and Health Outcomes among a National Cohort of 71,516 Adults in Thailand

    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of urbanization on household structure, social networks, and health in Thailand. We compare lifetime urban or rural dwellers and those who were rural as children and urban as adults. Data derived from a large national cohort of 71,516 Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University adult students participating in an on-going longitudinal study of the health-risk transition in Thailand. The rural-urban group, one-third of cohort households, was significantly different from other groups (e.g., smaller households. The rural-rural and the urban-urban groups often were the two extremes. Urbanization, after adjusting for covariates, was a risk factor for poor overall health and depression. Urbanization is a mediator of the health-risk transition underway in Thailand. Health programs and policies directed at transitional health outcomes should focus on the health risks of the urbanizing population, in particular smoking, drinking, low social trust, and poor psychological health.

  15. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  16. Talking health, a pragmatic randomized-controlled health literacy trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults: rationale, design & methods.

    Zoellner, Jamie; Chen, Yvonnes; Davy, Brenda; You, Wen; Hedrick, Valisa; Corsi, Terri; Estabrooks, Paul

    2014-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contributes to a wide range of poor health outcomes. Further, few US adults drink less than the recommended ≤8 oz per day; and individuals with low socioeconomic, low health literacy status, and in rural areas are even less likely to meet recommendations. Unfortunately, few SSB behavioral interventions exist targeting adults, and none focus on low health literacy in rural areas. Talking Health, a type 1 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial targeting adults in rural southwest Virginia, was developed using the RE-AIM planning and evaluation framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). The primary aim of this pragmatic randomized-controlled trial was to determine the effectiveness of a scalable 6-month intervention aimed at decreasing SSB consumption (SIPsmartER) when compared to a matched contact physical activity promotion control group (MoveMore). SIPsmartER was developed based upon the Theory of Planned Behavior and uses health literacy strategies to improve comprehension of the intervention content among participants. MoveMore is based on a research-tested intervention that was adapted to address all theory of planned behavior constructs and health literacy principles. Secondary aims include additional health outcomes (e.g., physical activity, weight) and reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance indicators. This paper highlights the opportunities and considerations for developing health behavior trials that aim to determine intervention effectiveness, provide all study participants an opportunity to benefit from research participation, and collect key information on reach and the potential for organizational adoption, implementation, and maintenance with the longer-term goal of speeding translation into practice settings. PMID:24246819

  17. Used and foregone health services among a cohort of 87,134 adult open university students residing throughout Thailand.

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2009-11-01

    There are limited data on the frequency of foregone health service use in defined populations. Here we describe Thai patterns of health service use, types of health insurance used and reports of foregone health services according to geo-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data on those who considered they had needed but not received health care over the previous year were obtained from a national cohort of 87,134 students from the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (STOU). The cohort was enrolled in 2005 and was largely made up of young and middle-age adults living throughout Thailand. Among respondents, 21.0% reported use of health services during the past year. Provincial/governmental hospitals (33.4%) were the most attended health facilities in general, followed by private clinics (24.1%) and private hospitals (20.1%). Health centers and community hospitals were sought after in rural areas. The recently available government operated Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) was popular among the lower income groups (13.6%), especially in rural areas. When asked, 42.1% reported having foregone health service use in the past year. Professionals and office workers frequently reported 'long waiting time' (17.1%) and 'could not get time off work' (13.7%) as reasons, whereas manual workers frequently noted it was 'difficult to travel' (11.6%). This information points to non-financial opportunity cost barriers common to a wide array of Thai adults who need to use health services. This issue is relevant for health and workplace policymakers and managers concerned about equitable access to health services. PMID:20578471

  18. Childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, and old-age health trajectories: Connecting early, middle, and late life

    Zachary Zimmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper advances literature on earlier-life socioeconomic status (SES and later-life health in a number of ways, including conceptualizing later-life health as a developmental process and relying on objective rather than retrospective reports of childhood and adult SES and health. Methods: Data are from the Utah Population Database (N=75,019, which contains variables from Medicare claims, birth and death certificates, and genealogical records. The morbidity measure uses the Charlson Comorbidity Index. SES is based on converting occupation to Nam-Powers scores and then dividing these scores into quartiles plus farmers. Analyses are conducted in two steps. Group-based trajectory modeling estimates patterns of morbidity and survival and divides the sample into sex-specific groups ordered from least to most healthy. Multilevel ordered logistic regression incorporating Heckman selection predicts group trajectory membership by SES in adulthood conditioned upon childhood SES. Results: Higher SES in childhood is associated with membership in groups that have more favorable morbidity trajectories and survival probabilities. SES in adulthood has additive impact, especially for females. For example, if a female is characterized as being in the lowest SES quartile during childhood, her probability of having the most favorable health trajectory improves from 0.12 to 0.17 as her adult SES increases from the lowest to highest quartile. Conclusions: Results suggest both childhood and adult SES independently impact upon old-age health trajectories.

  19. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis. PMID:21831493

  20. Developing and Evaluating a Website to Guide Older Adults in Their Health Information Searches: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    Fink, Arlene; Beck, John C

    2015-08-01

    This mixed-methods study developed and evaluated an online program to improve older adults' skills in identifying high-quality web-based health information. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews to collect data on older adults' preferences for online instruction and information. We used the findings to develop, pilot test, and evaluate an interactive website which was grounded in health behavior change models, adult education, and website construction. Sixty four participants were randomly assigned to Your Health Online: Guiding eSearches or to an analogous slide-based-tutorial and compared in their knowledge, self-efficacy, and program assessment. Experimental participants assigned significantly higher ratings of usability and learning to the new site than controls did to their tutorial although no differences were found in self-efficacy or knowledge. Experimental participants reported that participation was likely to improve future searches. Information is now needed to examine if such programs actually improve health searches, ehealth literacy, and health outcomes. PMID:24652883

  1. Communication skills training for health care professionals improves the adult orthopaedic patient's experience of quality of care

    Nørgaard, Birgitte; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012; Communication skills training for health care professionals improves the adult orthopaedic patient's experience of quality of care Rationale:  Despite the fact that communication has become a core topic in health care, patients still experience the information provided as...... insufficient or incorrect and a lack of involvement. Objective:  To investigate whether adult orthopaedic patients' evaluation of the quality of care had improved after a communication skills training course for healthcare professionals. Design and methods:  The study was designed as an intervention study...... limitation. Response rates were comparable to those of other studies. Conclusion:  Patients show increased satisfaction with the quality of health care after professionals have attended a communication skills training course, even when implemented in an entire department. Practice implications:  We recommend...

  2. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center

    Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confir...

  3. 76 FR 23479 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult

    2011-04-27

    ... (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Interim final rule with... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TRICARE Young ] Adult program is a premium-based...

  4. Effective dose conversion coefficients for health care provider exposed to pediatric and adult victims in radiological dispersal device incident

    After an incident of radiological dispersal devices (RDD), health care providers will be exposed to the contaminated patients in the extended medical treatments. Assessment of potential radiation dose to the health care providers will be crucial to minimize their health risk. In this study, we compiled a set of conversion coefficients (mSv MBq−1 s−1) to readily estimate the effective dose from the time-integrated activity for the health care providers while they deal with internally contaminated patients at different ages. We selected Co-60, Ir-192, Am-241, Cs-137, and I-131 as the major radionuclides that may be used for RDD. We obtained the age-specific organ burdens after the inhalation of those radionuclides from the Dose and Risk Calculation Software (DCAL) program. A series of hybrid computational phantoms (1-, 5-, 10-, and 15 year-old, and adult males) were implemented in a general purpose Monte Carlo (MC) transport code, MCNPX v 2.7, to simulate an adult male health care provider exposed to contaminated patients at different ages. Two exposure scenarios were taken into account: a health care provider (a) standing at the side of patients lying in bed and (b) sitting face to face with patients. The conversion coefficients overall depended on radionuclides, the age of the patients, and the orientation of the patients. The conversion coefficient was greatest for Co-60 and smallest for Am-241. The dose from the 1 year-old patient phantom was up to three times greater than that from the adult patient phantom. The conversion coefficients were less dependent on the age of the patients in the scenario of a health care provider sitting face to face with patients. The dose conversion coefficients established in this study will be useful to readily estimate the effective dose to the health care providers in RDD events. (paper)

  5. Less indoor cleaning is associated with poor health and unhappiness in adults: Japanese General Social Survey, 2010.

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Indoor environment is important to human health and well-being. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among indoor cleaning, rubbish disposal and human health and well-being in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the Japanese General Social Survey, 2010. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency of indoor cleaning and rubbish disposal and self-reported health and well-being in Japanese adults was obtained by household interview. Analysis included chi-square test, logistic and multi-nominal regression modelling. Of 5003 Japanese adults (aged 20-89) included in the study cohort, 11.4 % (n = 566) never cleaned their living place, 39.1 % had occasional cleaning and 49.6 % had frequent cleaning. Moreover, 17.5 % (n = 869) never disposed rubbish, 24.9 % had occasional rubbish disposal and 57.6 % had frequent rubbish disposal. 15.0 % of Japanese adults claimed poor self-rated health, and 5.9 % reported unhappiness. Compared to people who frequently cleaned the living place, others tended to report poor self-rated health condition (relative risk ratios (RRR) 1.52, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.24-1.85, P RRR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.10-1.95, P RRR 2.61, 95 % CI 1.40-4.88, P = 0.003) and unhappiness (RRR 2.72, 95 % CI 1.72-4.30, P < 0.001). Only half of the Japanese population frequently cleaned their living place and disposed rubbish. Less or never cleaning and rubbish disposal were associated with poor self-rated health, subjective happiness and potentially other health conditions. Public education on maintaining clean indoor environments to optimise psychological well-being in addition to the known physical health would be suggested. PMID:26503003

  6. Adolescent and adult first time mothers' health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, central Uganda

    Annika Johansson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. In order to get a better understanding of adolescent mothers'needs we compared health seeking practices of first time adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August, 2007 in Wakiso district. A total of 762 women (442 adolescents and 320 adult were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios with their 95% CI for antenatal and postnatal health care seeking, stigmatisation and violence experienced from parents comparing adolescents to adult first time mothers. STATA V.8 was used for data analysis. Results Adolescent mothers were significantly more disadvantaged in terms of health care seeking for reproductive health services and faced more challenges during pregnancy and early motherhood compared to adult mothers. Adolescent mothers were more likely to have dropped out of school due to pregnancy (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 2.40–5.44, less likely to earn a salary (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.24–0.76, and more likely to attend antenatal care visits less than four times compared to adult mothers (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.07. Adolescents were also more likely to experience violence from parents (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.39–3.08 and to be stigmatized by the community (CI = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.09–2.59. In early motherhood, adolescent mothers were less likely to seek for second and third vaccine doses for their infants [Polio2 (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98, Polio3 (OR = 0.70: 95% CI: 0.51–0.95, DPT2 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96, DPT3 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50–0.92] compared to adult mothers. These results are compelling and call for urgent adolescent focused interventions. Conclusion Adolescents showed poorer health care seeking behaviour for themselves and their children, and experienced

  7. Empirical redefinition of comprehensive health and well-being in the older adults of the United States.

    McClintock, Martha K; Dale, William; Laumann, Edward O; Waite, Linda

    2016-05-31

    The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a "state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Despite general acceptance of this comprehensive definition, there has been little rigorous scientific attempt to use it to measure and assess population health. Instead, the dominant model of health is a disease-centered Medical Model (MM), which actively ignores many relevant domains. In contrast to the MM, we approach this issue through a Comprehensive Model (CM) of health consistent with the WHO definition, giving statistically equal consideration to multiple health domains, including medical, physical, psychological, functional, and sensory measures. We apply a data-driven latent class analysis (LCA) to model 54 specific health variables from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative sample of US community-dwelling older adults. We first apply the LCA to the MM, identifying five health classes differentiated primarily by having diabetes and hypertension. The CM identifies a broader range of six health classes, including two "emergent" classes completely obscured by the MM. We find that specific medical diagnoses (cancer and hypertension) and health behaviors (smoking) are far less important than mental health (loneliness), sensory function (hearing), mobility, and bone fractures in defining vulnerable health classes. Although the MM places two-thirds of the US population into "robust health" classes, the CM reveals that one-half belong to less healthy classes, independently associated with higher mortality. This reconceptualization has important implications for medical care delivery, preventive health practices, and resource allocation. PMID:27185911

  8. Self-regulatory driving practices among older adults: health, age and sex effects.

    Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Molnar, Lisa J

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how older adults self-regulate driving, and to identify differences by age, sex, and health-related functioning. Michigan drivers over age 64 were surveyed by telephone (n=961, age [mu=74.2, sigma=5.8], 56% female) about their driving-related behaviors, physical functioning, and health. Respondents were presented with scenarios involving driving to an important appointment under adverse conditions (rainy stormy weather, on alternate route in heavy freeway traffic, 200-mile trip on unfamiliar roads). Generalized logit models examined outcomes for each scenario: driving as usual, driving with modifications, and not driving. Results indicate that the effect of sex on self-regulation was significant and greater than that of age and physical functioning. Women were more likely to self-regulate by not driving. Odds ratios and 95% confidence limits for each scenario for women vs. men are 6.8 (3.8-2.0), 6.5 (3.6-12.0), and 17.7 (11.0-28.6). The effect of sex on self-regulation by modifying driving was smaller and significant only in scenarios 2 and 3. Women were more likely then men to modify driving for scenario 2 (odds ratio, 3.0 (2.0-4.5)) and scenario 3 (odds ratio 4.4 (3.1-0.1)). Overall, the study finds the relative effect of sex on self-regulation greater than that of age and physical functioning for conditions examined. PMID:18606292

  9. Nutritional status and fat tissue distribution in health adults from some places in central Banat

    Pavlica Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine, relying on anthropological parameters, nutritional status, fat tissue distribution and possible health risk in adult population of Central Banal. Material and methods. 730 subjects of both genders (average age 4O.19±11.36y underwent following measurements: height, weight, waist and hip circumference. Results and discussion. Central Banat population was characterized by great height (males: 178.40±7.24 cm: females: 163.06±6.32 cm. The average BMI was at the lower limit of overweight category (males: 26.59 kg/m2; females: 25.29 kg/m2. Overweight and obesity were found in 55.5% of examined subjects. In males, normal weight was recorded only in the youngest age group (20-29y, while in older age groups the percentage of overweight and obese males increased with age. In females, normal weight was recorded till the age of 50, after which overweight category was mainly present. Regarding both of the sexes, obesity was most frequent in the age group 50-59 (22%. The average waist circumference was lower than the cut-off values recommended by WHO (96.43 cm in males and 82.49 cm in females. According to fat distribution, normal values were recorded in males younger that 39y, after which there was an increase m risk central obesity. In females, normal fat distribution was mainly present in all ages, although the percentage of the risk category increased with age. The highest percentage of the subjects of both sexes showed no health risk. Conclusion. Our results indicate the need for preventive action towards obesity consequences and obesity inducing surroundings.

  10. The Health and Well-Being of Black Mothers Who Care for Their Adult Children With Schizophrenia

    Magaña, Sandy M.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha M.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the mental and physical health of two groups of black mothers aged 55 years and older: those who were providing care for their adult child with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=30) and those who did not have a child with mental illness (N=263). The only demographic variable that was found to differ between the two groups was that the women who were providing care for their adult child with mental illness had more children than the women in the comparison group....

  11. Differences in self-rated health among older adults according to socioeconomic circumstances: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is influenced by socioeconomic circumstances, but related differences in its structure have received little attention. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health structure differs according to socioeconomic circumstances in later life. The study included 1,505 individuals (86.4% residing in Bambui and aged 60 years or older. Correlates of self-rated health among lower-income older adults (monthly household income < US$ 240.00 and higher-income seniors were assessed. Social network stood out as a major factor in the structure of self-rated health among the poorest. Psychological distress was independently associated with worse self-rated health among the poorest, while perceptions by the wealthiest were broader, including psychological distress, insomnia, Trypanosoma cruzi infection, use of medications, and access to health services. Physician visits and hospitalizations were associated with self-rated health in both groups. Our results show important differences in the structure of self-rated health according to socioeconomic circumstances and reinforce the need for policies to reduce health inequalities in later life.

  12. The oral health of vulnerable older adults and persons with disabilities.

    Douglass, Chester W; Glassman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Demographic trends in the United States show that the number of people with one or more disabilities is going to increase dramatically over the coming decades. This paper describes the types of disabilities that make up this increase and documents growth of this population over the next 40 years. Dental care market forces are defined and analyzed as they will influence the ability of vulnerable elders and people with disabilities to purchase dental care. The capacity of the dental profession to deliver appropriate high quality dental services to vulnerable elders and people with disabilities is also discussed. Dental disease trends are presented along with a description of the changing living arrangements characterized by the newly termed "senior industry." The paper concludes with the disquieting conclusion that the need for dental care among vulnerable elders and people with disabilities will dramatically increase while the capacity of the dental profession will not keep up with the expanding need and demand for dental case across the entire U.S. population. Thus, disparities in oral health and access to dental care are likely to occur for vulnerable able older adults and persons with disabilities. PMID:23795636

  13. Integration and continuity of Care in health care network models for frail older adults

    Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; da Motta, Luciana Branco; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change. PMID:24897058

  14. Assessment of the priority target group of mental health service networks within a nation-wide reform of adult psychiatry in Belgium

    Lorant, Vincent; Grard, Adeline; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Helmer, Eva; Vanderhaegen, Joke; Nicaise, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Belgium is currently implementing a nation-wide reform of mental health care delivery based on service networks. These networks are supposed to strengthen the community-based supply of care, reduce the resort to hospitals, and improve the continuity of care. They are also intended to supply comprehensive care to all adult mental health users. It is unclear, however, if one single model of network can target the needs of the whole adult population with mental health problems. Method...

  15. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  16. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    Scheidt-Nave Christa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1 extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic

  17. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status. PMID:26242431

  18. A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome

    Tantam Digby

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health and social profile of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS living in the community. We conducted a study to describe the living, employment and psycho-social situation of a community sample of forty two adults and adolescents with AS, and to describe these indivdiuals' experiences of accessing health services and taking medication. Findings Most respondents (including those over eighteen years of age lived at home with their parents. Most had trouble reading and responding to other people's feelings, and coping with unexpected changes. Difficulties with life skills, such as cleaning, washing and hygiene were prevalent. The majority of respondents were socially isolated and a large minority had been sexually or financially exploited. Almost all respondents had been bullied. Mental health problems such as anxiety or depression were common. 30% of respondents said that they regularly became violent and hit other people and 15% had attempted suicide. More positively, the majority of respondents felt that they could access health services if they had a health problem. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a relatively poor social and health profile for many people with Asperger syndrome living in the community, with high levels of social problems and social exclusion, and difficulties managing day to day tasks such as washing and cleaning; these findings support the results of other studies that have examined psycho-social functioning in this group.

  19. How Is Health Related to Literacy, Numeracy, and Technological Problem-Solving Skills among U.S. Adults? Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)

    Prins, Esther; Monnat, Shannon; Clymer, Carol; Toso, Blaire Wilson

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between U.S. adults' self-reported health and proficiencies in literacy, numeracy, and technological problem solving. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that scores on all three scales were positively and…

  20. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    Truong Nhan B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of decayed, missing, filled (DMF and sound teeth (St and to determine the relative risk of teeth in different dental regions for D, M, and F, of adults living in urban and rural areas in Southern Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional DMF and St data of 2965 dentate subjects aged 20 to 95 living in urban and rural areas in three provinces were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and an oral examination. The sample was stratified by age, gender, residence and province. Results The percentage of subjects having missing teeth was high for all ages while it was low for subjects with decayed and filled teeth. The mean number of missing teeth increased gradually by age from approximately 1 in each jaw at the age of 20 to 8 at the age of 80. The number of decayed teeth was relative low at all ages, being highest in molars at young ages. The mean number of filled teeth was extremely low at all ages in all dental regions. Every additional year of age gives a significantly lower chance for decay, a higher chance for missing, and a lower chance for filled teeth. Molars had a significantly higher risk for decay, missing and filled than premolars and anterior teeth. Females had significantly higher risk for decayed and filled teeth, and less chance for missing teeth than males. Urban subjects presented lower risk for decay, but approximately 4 times greater chance for having fillings than rural subjects. Low socio-economic status (SES significantly increased the chance for missing anterior and molar teeth; subjects with high SES had more often fillings. Conclusions The majority of adults of Southern Vietnam presented a reduced dentition

  1. Substance-use coping and self-rated health among US middle-aged and older adults.

    Mauro, Pia M; Canham, Sarah L; Martins, Silvia S; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among US middle-aged and older adults is increasing. A subset of this population uses substances to cope with stress, but the characteristics of these individuals, and the association between substance-use coping and health outcomes remain unclear. We identified correlates of substance-use coping and measured its association with self-rated health in a community-based sample of adults aged 54-99 in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In the 2008 HRS, 1351 participants reported their frequency of prescription/other drug-, alcohol-, and cigarette-use coping with stress and reported self-rated health (excellent/very good, good, or fair/poor); 1201 of these participants also reported self-rated health in 2010. One in six participants frequently used substances to cope. The oldest participants were least likely to engage in frequent alcohol-use coping. Those with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to frequently engage in cigarette- and prescription/other drug-use coping. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants who frequently used cigarettes (compared to participants who infrequently used cigarettes) to cope had 2.7 times (95% CI=1.1-6.7) the odds of poor (vs. excellent) self-rated health. Relative to participants who infrequently used prescription/other drugs to cope, participants who frequently used prescription/other drugs to cope had 2.4 times (95% CI=1.1-5.1) the odds of reporting poor self-rated health. The association between prescription/other drug-use coping in 2008 and self-rated health in 2010 was statistically significant (relative OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.7-7.2). Participants engaging in substance-use coping likely have particular demographic and clinical characteristics. Interventions to reduce substance-use coping may prevent adverse health outcomes. PMID:25437264

  2. Universal family-focused intervention with young adolescents: effects on health-risking sexual behaviors and STDs among young adults.

    Spoth, Richard; Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns = 238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6% to 46% for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278

  3. The relationship between health, education, and health literacy: results from the Dutch adult literacy and life skills survey.

    Heide, I. van der; Wang, J.; Droomers, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Rademakers, J.; Uiters, E.

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the well-documented relationship between education and health. However, little empirical research has been undertaken to explore this hypothesis. The present study aims to study whether health literacy could be a pathway by whi

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; ULUKOL, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences – e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration – and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10 6...

  5. Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Adults, China National Nutrition and Health Survey, 2002

    Shuqian Liu, MD; Wenyu Wang, PhD; Jian Zhang, PhD; Yuna He, MS; Chonghua Yao, MD; Zhechun Zeng, MD; Jianhua Piao; Barbara V. Howard, PhD; Richard R. Fabsitz, PhD; Lyle Best, PhD; Xiaoguang Yang, MD, PhD; Elisa T. Lee, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Introduction As a result of rapid economic development in China, the lifestyles and dietary habits of its people have been changing, and the rates of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic conditions have increased substantially. We report the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and the association between diabetes and overweight and obesity in Chinese adults. We also compare the results with those from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2...

  6. The effects of Tai-Chi-Soft-Ball training on physical functional health of Chinese older adult

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Cheung, Siu Yin; Chow, Bik Chu

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate a 10-week training effects of Tai-Chi-Soft-Ball (TCSB), a novel Chinese exercise which combined the elements of Tai Chi and badminton, on physical functional health of private institutionalized older adults. Thirty-four participants were recruited in the training group with 60 minutes per session and two sessions per week TCSB training. Thirty-two participants were recruited simultaneously in the control group (no training). The measurements included the...

  7. Are Internet use and video-game-playing addictive behaviors? Biological, clinical and public health implications for youths and adults

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Michael J. Crowley; Mayes, Linda C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2012-01-01

    Internet use and video-game playing are experiencing rapid growth among both youth and adult populations. Research suggests that a minority of users experience symptoms traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. Mental health professionals, policy makers and the general public continue to debate the issue of Internet addiction (IA) and problematic video-game playing (PVG). This review identifies existing studies into the clinical and biological characteristics of these disord...

  8. Evaluation of an ACT trans-diagnostic pathway in an NHS Community Mental Health Team for adults

    Richardson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: this presentation outlines the development of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy transdiagnostic pathway in a secondary care NHS community adult mental health service. Nine non therapy staff (social workers, nurses and occupational therapists) and 8 therapy staff (psychologists and a psychotherapist) received 4 training days and supervision over 6 months for their first case from experienced ACT therapists. Method: clients predominantly presented with depression, but many ha...

  9. All that's mine I carry with me. Early life disease and adult health in Sweden during 250 years

    Lindström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study early life risk exposures in relation to adult health and mortality in Sweden during 250 years. A number of causal mechanisms by which exposure to diseases and stressful economic and social conditions early in life may lead to increased morbidity and mortality later in life are discussed (paper I). The early life exposures investigated are the foetal origins (nutrition) and the inflammation hypotheses. Longitudinal demographic and socioeconomic data for indi...

  10. Developing Methods of Repurposing Electronic Health Record Data for Identification of Older Adults at Risk of Unintentional Falls

    Baus, Adam; Zullig, Keith; Long, Dustin; Mullett, Charles; Pollard, Cecil; Taylor, Henry; Coben, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, nearly 40 percent of community-dwelling adults age 65 and older fall at least once a year, making unintentional falls the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries among this age group. Addressing this public health problem in primary care offers promise. However, challenges in incorporating fall risk screening into primary care result in a problem of missed opportunities for screening, counseling, intervention, and ultimately prevention. Given these barriers, this study e...

  11. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Pfortmüller, Carmen; Schwetlick, Miriam; Müller, Thomas; Lehmann, Beat; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria. Methods Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident sta...

  12. Attitudes toward technology-based health information among adult emergency department patients with drug or alcohol misuse☆,☆☆

    Choo, Esther K.; Ranney, Megan L.; Wong, Zerlina; Mello, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Technology-based screening and interventions are emerging solutions to the challenge of addressing substance use in the emergency department (ED). A standardized questionnaire of adult patients at a large-volume, urban, academic ED assessed interest in, and potential barriers to, technology-based substance use information. Questionnaire topics included substance use, access to technology, preferences for health information, and perceived barriers to technology interventions. Among the 430 par...

  13. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers. PMID:26512028

  14. Adjustment, psychological functioning and health-related quality of life in adults with primary malignant brain tumours

    Baker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The thesis has been prepared in a paper-based format and includes three papers: Paper 1, a systematic review; Paper 2, an empirical study; and Paper 3, a critical appraisal and reflection on the work.Paper 1 has been prepared for submission to Neuro-Oncology. The paper presents a systematic review of 21 studies concerning the relationships of demographic, clinical and mental health factors on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological functioning in adults with primary malignant...

  15. Effect of a health coaching self-management program for older adults with multimorbidity in nursing homes

    Park YH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yeon-Hwan Park,1,2 HeeKyung Chang31College of Nursing, 2The Research Institute of Nursing Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Seoul Women’s College of Nursing, Seoul, South KoreaBackground and aims: Although a growing number of older people are suffering from multimorbidity, most of the health problems related to multimorbidity can be improved by self-management. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a health coaching self-management program for older adults with multimorbidity in nursing homes. Methods: Older adults with multimorbidity from one nursing home in Korea were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (n=22 or conventional group (n=21. Participants in the intervention group met face to face with the researchers twice a week for 8 weeks, during which time the researchers engaged them in goal setting and goal performance using the strategies in the health coaching self-management program. Regular care was provided to the other participants in the conventional group. Results: Participants in the intervention group had significantly better outcomes in exercise behaviors (P=0.015, cognitive symptom management (P=0.004, mental stress management/relaxation (P=0.023, self-rated health (P=0.002, reduced illness intrusiveness (P<0.001, depression (P<0.001, and social/role activities limitations (P<0.001. In addition, there was a significant time-by-group interaction in self-efficacy (P=0.036. According to the goal attainment scales, their individual goals of oral health and stress reduction were achieved.Conclusion: The health coaching self-management program was successfully implemented in older adults with multimorbidity in a nursing home. Further research is needed to develop and evaluate the long-term effects of an intervention to enhance adherence to self-management and quality of life for older adults with multimorbidity.Keywords: chronic diseases, nursing intervention, older adults

  16. Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective: To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design: A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE composite health state score. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II activities of daily living (ADLs, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs, perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL. Results: Overall, more than three quarters (76.8% of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001. Older people (aged 70 years and above reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–2.30. Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70 and (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18_0.98; 30 p < 0.045, respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80 and less than primary education (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76 were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57 and medium wealth quintile (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13 were more likely to report poorer

  17. Latent Classes of Adolescent Sexual and Romantic Relationship Experiences: Implications for Adult Sexual Health and Relationship Outcomes.

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents' sexual and romantic relationship experiences are multidimensional but often studied as single constructs. Thus, it is not clear how different patterns of sexual and relationship experience may interact to differentially predict later outcomes. In this study we used latent class analysis to model patterns (latent classes) of adolescent sexual and romantic experiences, and then examined how these classes were associated with young adult sexual health and relationship outcomes in data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We identified six adolescent relationship classes: No Relationship (33%), Waiting (22%), Intimate (38%), Private (3%), Low Involvement (3%), and Physical (2%). Adolescents in the Waiting and Intimate classes were more likely to have married by young adulthood than those in other classes, and those in the Physical class had a greater number of sexual partners and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Some gender differences were found; for example, women in the Low-Involvement and Physical classes in adolescence had average or high odds of marriage, whereas men in these classes had relatively low odds of marriage. Our findings identify more and less normative patterns of romantic and sexual experiences in late adolescence and elucidate associations between adolescent experiences and adult outcomes. PMID:26445133

  18. Glycated hemoglobin and incident type 2 diabetes in singaporean chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese health study.

    Michael P Bancks

    Full Text Available The American Diabetes Association recently included glycated hemoglobin in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but research on the utility of this biomarker in Southeast Asians is scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between percent HbA1c and incident diabetes in an Asian population of adult men and women without reported diabetes.Data analysis of 5,770 men and women enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who provided a blood sample at the follow-up I visit (1999-2004 and had no cancer and no reported history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease events. Diabetes was defined as self-report of physician diagnosis, identified at the follow-up II visit (2006-2010.Hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals for incident diabetes by 5 categories of HbA1c were estimated with Cox regression models and continuous HbA1c with cubic spline analysis. Compared to individuals with an HbA1c ≤ 5.7% (≤39 mmol/mol, individuals with HbA1c 5.8-5.9% (40-41 mmol/mol, 6.0-6.1% (42-43 mmol/mol, 6.2-6.4% (44-47 mmol/mol, and ≥ 6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol had significantly increased risk for incident diabetes during follow-up. In cubic spline analysis, levels below 5.7% HbA1c were not significantly associated with incident diabetes.Our study found a strong and graded association with HbA1c 5.8% and above with incident diabetes in Chinese men and women.

  19. Incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease in the adult health study sample, 1958 - 78

    Approximately 16,000 study subjects in the Adult Health Study sample who had received examination at least once during the 20 years (1958 - 78) in Hiroshima or Nagasaki and were found to have neither stroke nor coronary heart disease (CHD) at the initial examination were studied for the incidence of stroke and CHD and the relationship of these to atomic bomb radiation exposure. Their secular trends were also studied. Findings suggestive of a relationship between stroke and radiation exposure among Hiroshima females were first discovered for the years 1969 - 73, that is, 24 - 28 years after A-bomb exposure. In general, this association is supported by the present analysis. Stroke incidence continued to decrease during the present report's period of observation. Analysis by type showed that cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage both decreased, but the decrease of the latter is especially remarkable. The trend to decrease is observed in both sexes and in both cities. A relationship between CHD and radiation exposure was, as noted for stroke, first observed only in Hiroshima females for the years 1969 - 73, but from this analysis it appears that the trend began earlier and the association is getting stronger with the passage of time. Analysis by type showed myocardial infarction (MI), but not angina pectoris, to be related to radiation exposure. The incidence rate for CHD, especially for MI, was almost constant during the observation period, it being 1.2/1,000 person-years on the average. Comparing by sex, the incidence rate was constant in males. In females, the pattern varied with time. There appear to be no between-city differences in secular trends - essentially constant. (author)

  20. The relationship between aortic calcification on chest radiography and ionizing radiation in RERF's Adult Health Study

    Aortic calcification has been reported to be an indicator of atherosclerosis and a predictor of coronary heart disease. However, the relationship between aortic calcification and conventional coronary risk factors or recently reported coronary risk factors including ionizing radiation, which is one kind of oxidative stress, has not been established. Objective: To investigate the relationship between aortic calcification and ionizing radiation in a longitudinal study design. The study cohort comprises the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's Adult Health Study participants which include atomic-bomb survivors and sex- and age-matched controls. A total of 522 men and 938 women identified as not having aortic calcification based on plain chest X-ray examinations at baseline examination between 1991 and 1993 were assessed regarding the presence of aortic calcification (mild/ severe calcification) about 10 years later. The relationship between cumulative incidence of aortic calcification and atomic-bomb radiation was analyzed using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for sex, age, and other coronary risk factors such as blood pressure, total cholesterol, and inflammation markers. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence of aortic calcification showed a possible increase with atomic-bomb radiation dose for both total aortic calcification and severe aortic calcification. But after adjusting for other coronary risk factors such as smoking, SBP, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and leukocyte neutropils, radiation dose was not a significant predictor of cumulative incidence of severe aortic calcification. Age-adjusted increase of cumulative incidence of aortic calcification with atomic-bomb radiation dose suggests ionizing radiation is one predictor of atheroscelerosis. Nevertheless, its predictive impact may not be as significant as conventional coronary risk factors