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Sample records for abbreviated emergency laparotomy

  1. Abbreviated laparotomy or damage control laparotomy: Why, when and how to do it?

    Voiglio, E J; Dubuisson, V; Massalou, D; Baudoin, Y; Caillot, J L; Létoublon, C; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    The goal of abbreviated laparotomy is to treat severely injured patients whose condition requires an immediate surgical operation but for whom a prolonged procedure would worsen physiological impairment and metabolic failure. Indeed, in severely injured patients, blood loss and tissue injuries enhance the onset of the "bloody vicious circle", triggered by the triad of acidosis-hypothermia-coagulopathy. Abbreviated laparotomy is a surgical strategy that forgoes the completeness of operation in favor of a physiological approach, the overriding preference going to rapidity and limiting the procedure to control the injuries. Management is based on sequential association of the shortest possible preoperative resuscitation with surgery limited to essential steps to control injury (stop the bleeding and contamination), without definitive repair. The latter will be ensured during a scheduled re-operation after a period of resuscitation aiming to correct physiological abnormalities induced by the trauma and its treatment. This strategy necessitates a pre-defined plan and involvement of the entire medical and nursing staff to reduce time loss to a strict minimum. PMID:27542655

  2. [Abbreviated laparotomy for treatment of severe abdominal trauma: use in austere settings].

    Balandraud, P; Biance, N; Peycru, T; Savoie, P H; Avaro, J P; Tardat, E; Pourrière, M; Cador, L

    2007-10-01

    Abbreviated laparotomy is a recent technique for management of patients with severe abdominal trauma. It is based on a unified approach taking into account the overall extent of injury and the victim's physiologic potential to respond to hemorrhage. It is the first step in a multi-modal strategy. The second step is the critical care phase. The third step consists of "second-look" laparotomy that should ideally be performed on an elective basis within 48 hours and is aimed at definitive treatment of lesions. The goal of abbreviated laparotomy is damage control using temporary quick-fix procedures limited to conspicuous lesions and rapid hemostasis and/or viscerostasis procedures so that the patient can survive the acute critical period. Tension-free closure of the abdominal wall, if necessary using laparostomy, is essential to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. With reported survival rates of about 50% in Europe and the United States, this simple life-saving technique that requires limited resources should be introduced in Africa where severe abdominal trauma often involves young patients. PMID:18225739

  3. Efficacy of Possum Score in Predicting the Outcome in Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy

    Sreeharsha Harinatha; Sp Rai; Sreekar Harinatha; Reddy Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of surgical outcome is increasingly important part of governance of surgical activity. The aim of the study. POSSUM scoring system was applied prospectively to determine how it performed in predicting morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy in our hospital, a group known to be at high risk of complications and death. Material and methods. A total of 100 cases of emergency laparotomies were studied in patients admitted in general surgery department during...

  4. PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS OF LAPAROTOMY WOUND IN ELECTIVE AND EMERGENCY SURGERY

    Deepak R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative wound complications are of common occurrence. The incidence of postoperative wound infections ranged from <2% to 38%. Based on NNIS (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system reports, surgical site infections are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infections among hospitalized patient. Aim is to compare the complications of laparotomy wound in elective and emergency surgery and to study the various determinants affecting it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective randomized study of 216 patients undergoing emergency and elective laparotomy. Postoperative wound complications and various factors affecting it are compared between emergency and elective surgery. RESULTS: The study was conducted on 216 patients, aged between 13-80 years, who underwent major elective and emergency laparotomy surgery in Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre Bijapur, between October 2008 – May 2014 (5 year 6 month. Among the 216 patients, 15(14% out of 108 patients were in elective laparotomy group and 27(25% out of 108 patients were in emergency laparotomy who developed complications. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, laparotomy wound complications are multifactorial, this study demonstrated no significant increase in incidence of postoperative tissue and wound complications in emergency (25% and elective surgery (14% p=0.08. It mainly depends on higher ASA score, anemia and higher wound class who are more likely to be associated with development of wound complications.

  5. From NELA to EPOCH and beyond: enhancing the evidence base for emergency laparotomy.

    Odor, Peter M; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Around 35,000 patients undergo emergency laparotomy surgery in the UK each year with an in-hospital 30-day mortality estimated as between 11 and 15 %. The recent publication of the First Patient Report of the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) has provided a detailed description of individual hospital performance against national standards of care in emergency laparotomy in England and Wales. Although the standards used for audit purposes in NELA are based upon the best currently available evidence, none of the source data derives from randomised controlled studies. This commentary explores the evidence base for the standards evaluated by NELA and highlights recent and forthcoming studies that may substantially contribute to improving the evidence base in this area, thereby improving patient care and strengthening the validity of the NELA audit standards. PMID:27594991

  6. Assessing the risk: Scoring systems for outcome prediction in emergency laparotomies.

    Nag, Deb Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    Emergency laparotomy is the commonest emergency surgical procedure in most hospitals and includes over 400 diverse surgical procedures. Despite the evolution of medicine and surgical practices, the mortality in patients needing emergency laparotomy remains abnormally high. Although surgical risk assessment first started with the ASA Physical Status score in 1941, efforts to find an ideal scoring system that accurately estimates the risk of mortality, continues till today. While many scoring systems have been developed, no single scoring system has been validated across multiple centers and geographical locations. While some scoring systems can predict the risk merely based upon preoperative findings and parameters, some rely on intra-operative assessment and histopathology reports to accurately stratify the risk of mortality. Although most scoring systems can potentially be used to compare risk-adjusted mortality across hospitals and amongst surgeons, only those which are based on preoperative findings can be used for risk prognostication and identify high-risk patients before surgery for an aggressive treatment. The recognition of the fact, that in the absence of outcome data in these patients, it would be impossible to evaluate the impact of quality improvement initiatives on risk-adjusted mortality, hospital groups and surgical societies have got together and started to pool data and analyze it. Appropriate scoring systems for emergency laparotomies would help in risk prognostication, risk-adjusted audit and assess the impact of quality improvement initiative in patient care across hospitals. Large multi-centric studies across varied geographic locations and surgical practices need to assess and validate the ideal and most apt scoring system for emergency laparotomies. While APACHE-II and P-POSSUM continue to be the most commonly used scoring system in emergency laparotomies,studies need to compare them in their ability to predict mortality and explore if either

  7. Abbreviations

    Brine, Kevin R.; Ciletti, Elena; Lähnemann, Henrike

    2013-01-01

    List of abbreviations of books of the Bible and versions of the Bible as used in this volume (according to The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., 2003, sections 15.50–54). The Jewish Bible/Old Testament Am Amos 1 Chr 1 Chronicles 2 Chr 2 Chronicles Dn Daniel Dt Deuteronomy Eccl Ecclesiastes Est Esther Ex Exodus Ez Ezekiel Gn Genesis Hg Haggai Hos Hosea Is Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Jb Job Jl Joel Jon Jonah Jo Joshua Jgs Judges 1 Kgs 1 Kings 2 Kgs 2 Kings Lam Lamentations Lv Leviticus Mal Malachi Mi ...

  8. Risk assessment tools validated for patients undergoing emergency laparotomy: a systematic review.

    Oliver, C M; Walker, E; Giannaris, S; Grocott, M P W; Moonesinghe, S R

    2015-12-01

    Emergency laparotomies are performed commonly throughout the world, but one in six patients die within a month of surgery. Current international initiatives to reduce the considerable associated morbidity and mortality are founded upon delivering individualised perioperative care. However, while the identification of high-risk patients requires the routine assessment of individual risk, no method of doing so has been demonstrated to be practical and reliable across the commonly encountered spectrum of presentations, co-morbidities and operative procedures. A systematic review of Embase and Medline identified 20 validation studies assessing 25 risk assessment tools in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. The most frequently studied general tools were APACHE II, ASA-PS and P-POSSUM. Comparative, quantitative analysis of tool performance was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of study design, poor reporting and infrequent within-study statistical comparison of tool performance. Reporting of calibration was notably absent in many prognostic tool validation studies. APACHE II demonstrated the most consistent discrimination of individual outcome across a variety of patient groups undergoing emergency laparotomy when used either preoperatively or postoperatively (area under the curve 0.76-0.98). While APACHE systems were designed for use in critical care, the ability of APACHE II to generate individual risk estimates from objective, exclusively preoperative data items may lead to better-informed shared decisions, triage and perioperative management of patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. Future endeavours should include the recalibration of APACHE II and P-POSSUM in contemporary cohorts, modifications to enable prediction of morbidity and assessment of the impact of adoption of these tools on clinical practice and patient outcomes. PMID:26537629

  9. A review of anaesthesia for emergency laparotomy in paediatric intestinal obstruction in Enugu, Nigeria

    Ugochukwu Vincent Okafor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the anaesthetic management and outcome for emergency laparotomy for paediatric intestinal obstruction in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Methods:The anaesthetic charts and folders of pediatric patients that had emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction in the general operating theatre of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria, from October 2007 - September 2008 were reviewed. The records were examined for anaesthetic technique, patient primary diagnosis, intra-operative events, blood and fluid therapy and patient outcome. Patients above thirteen years were excluded. Results: Forty-four out of 285 (15.7% paediatric patients underwent emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction in the general operating theatre. There were 29 males and 15 females. The average age of the patients was 3.75 years. There were a total of 1674 anesthetics in the general operating theatre during the study. The leading causes of intestinal obstruction in this study were typhoid peritonitis (14 or 31.8%, intussusceptions (14 or 31.8% and congenital anomalies (11 or 25%. Six patients (13% had a preoperative packed cell volume of less than 30%, while ten patients received intra-operative blood transfusion (21.7%. There was one anesthetic death to give a case mortality rate of 2.2%. Conclusion: The mortality rate in this study shows the importance and relevance of trained providers of anaesthesia managing paediatric patients in the developing world. Early presentation of patients allowed time for resuscitation and fewer complications before surgery

  10. Diagnostic Yield and Clinical Utility of Abdominopelvic CT Following Emergent Laparotomy for Trauma.

    Haste, Adam K; Brewer, Brian L; Steenburg, Scott D

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence of unexpected injuries that are diagnosed with computed tomography (CT) after emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma and whether identification of such injuries results in additional surgery or angiography. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The trauma databases of two urban level 1 trauma centers were queried over a period of more than 5 years for patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT within 48 hours of emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma. Comparisons were made between CT findings and those described in the surgical notes. Descriptive statistics were generated, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined by using an exact method based on a binomial distribution. Results The study cohort consisted of 90 patients, including both blunt and penetrating trauma victims with a median injury severity score of 17.5 (interquartile range, 9.25-34). Seventy-three percent (66 of 90) of patients sustained penetrating trauma, 82% (74 of 90) of whom were male. A total of 19 patients (21.1%; 95% CI: 13.2, 31.0) had additional injuries within the surgical field that were not identified during laparotomy. There were 17 unidentified solid organ injuries, and eight patients had active bleeding within the surgical field. Eight patients (8.9%; 95% CI: 3.9, 16.8) had unexpected injuries at CT that were substantial enough to warrant additional surgery or angiography. In addition, previously undiagnosed fractures were found in 45 patients (50%; 95% CI: 39.3, 60.7). Conclusion Performing CT after emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma is useful in identifying unexpected injuries and confirming suspected injuries that were not fully explored at initial surgery. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26963577

  11. Efficacy of Possum Score in Predicting the Outcome in Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy

    Sreeharsha Harinatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of surgical outcome is increasingly important part of governance of surgical activity. The aim of the study. POSSUM scoring system was applied prospectively to determine how it performed in predicting morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy in our hospital, a group known to be at high risk of complications and death. Material and methods. A total of 100 cases of emergency laparotomies were studied in patients admitted in general surgery department during the period of May 2008 to August 2010. The study group consisted of the following cases. Duodenal perforation (37 cases, intestinal obstruction (27 cases, gastric perforation (8 cases, ileal perforation (8 cases, appendicular perforation (7 cases, blunt trauma (4 cases and others (9 cases. They were scored using POSSUM scoring system. Physiological scoring was done at the time of admission and operative scoring was done intraoperatively. They were followed up for the first 30 day post operative period for any complications and the outcome was noted. The observed morbidity and mortality rates were compared with the POSSUM predicted morbidity and mortality rates. Results. 15 patients died (mortality rate of 15%. The POSSUM predicted mortality was 20 deaths. O:E ratio of 0.71 was obtained. There was no statistically significant difference between the observed and predicted mortality rates (χ2=1.72, p=0.974. 71 patients experienced complications. The POSSUM predicted morbidity was 61 patients. O:E ratio of 1.19 was obtained. There was no statistically significant difference between the observed and predicted morbidity rates (χ2=1.594, p=0.991. Conclusions. POSSUM scoring is an accurate predictor of mortality and morbidity following emergency laparotomy and is a valid means of assessing adequacy of care provided to the patient. POSSUM can be used for surgical audit to assess and improve the quality of surgical care and helps in better outcome to the patient

  12. Add on dexmedetomidine in the treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal in a patient of emergency laparotomy

    Roshan Madan Shende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to American statistics 90% of people drink alcohol at some time in life. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse among hospitalized in patients is 20 % and 10- 33 % in patients admitted to the ICU. Approximately 18% of these patients will develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS whose symptoms can include physical and psychological manifestations that range from mild to life threatening. Although AWS has been reported in literature in post-operative periods and in intensive care unit, there is less information on treatment and preparing of a patient with AWS, coming for emergency surgical procedure. The surgical stress and deranged liver functions possess an additional challenge to the anesthesiologist. Here we are reporting the successful management of a case of delirium tremens by using Dexmedetomidine in pre, intra and post-operative period in a patient with hollow viscous perforation for emergency laparotomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2446-2449

  13. Alcoholic delirium tremens with hollow viscus perforation scheduled for emergency laparotomy

    Anand T Talikoti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a drug consumed at some time in life by up to 80% of the population according to western statistics. Wide differences in socioeconomic status in India contribute to various degrees and severity of alcoholism and its associated complications. The symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range from such minor ones as insomnia and tremulousness to severe complications such as withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Although alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the literature in post-operative periods and in Intensive Care Unit, there is paucity of information on treatment and preparation of a patient with alcohol withdrawal syndrome coming for emergency surgical procedures. The surgical stress and deranged liver function in such cases poses an additional challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Here, we report the successful management of a case of acute alcoholic delirium tremens who presented with hollow viscous perforation for emergency exploratory laparotomy.

  14. Alcoholic delirium tremens with hollow viscus perforation scheduled for emergency laparotomy.

    Talikoti, Anand T; Sindhu, Bs; Kavyashree, Sp; Kumar, Ks Kishore

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol is a drug consumed at some time in life by up to 80% of the population according to western statistics. Wide differences in socioeconomic status in India contribute to various degrees and severity of alcoholism and its associated complications. The symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range from such minor ones as insomnia and tremulousness to severe complications such as withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Although alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the literature in post-operative periods and in Intensive Care Unit, there is paucity of information on treatment and preparation of a patient with alcohol withdrawal syndrome coming for emergency surgical procedures. The surgical stress and deranged liver function in such cases poses an additional challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Here, we report the successful management of a case of acute alcoholic delirium tremens who presented with hollow viscous perforation for emergency exploratory laparotomy. PMID:22701216

  15. EVALUATION OF PULMONARY ASPIRATION AND SELLICK’S MANEUVER IN EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMIES

    Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sellick’s maneuver is used for the prevention of pulmonary aspiration in emergency situation. To evaluate the efficacy of Sellick’s maneuver controlled trials were not done up till now because of ethical and legal issue. On the background of recent updates, we have planned to evaluate the emergency laparotomy and obstetric cases of last four and a half years for the risk of pulmonary. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence rate of pulmonary aspiration, the morbidity and mortality of pulmonary aspiration and to discuss the efficacy of Sellick’s maneuver. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cases selected are from the period January 2011 to June 2015. Total 807 cases were for evaluation. After permission of record section of our hospital case sheets are evaluated. Where ever required the concerned assistant professor of anesthesiology was interviewed. OBSERVATIONS The incidence of pulmonary aspiration is 1:807. This patient did not need intensive pulmonary management. There is no mortality because of pulmonary aspiration. Two cases of vomiting immediately after extubation are observed, but there was nothing to suggest for pulmonary aspiration. CONCLUSION There are chances of regurgitation even with all preventive measures are applied. The incidence rate is 1:807 in emergency surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Out of three main groups, i.e. obstetric group, pediatric group and adult patients of emergency laparotomy group no group can be labeled as more high risk group for risk of aspiration. There is no mortality because of regurgitation. The training of assistant is crucial to prevent the incidence of aspiration. We are of opinion that Sellick’s maneuver will remain beneficial during induction of general anesthesia to prevent pulmonary aspiration.

  16. High mortality after emergency room laparotomy in haemodynamically unstable trauma patients

    Lund, Helle; Kofoed, Steen Christian; Hillingsø, Jens Georg; Larsen, Claus Falck; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hypovolaemic shock is a major course of death in trauma patients. The mortality in patients in profound shock at the time of arrival is extremely high and we wanted to investigate the outcome of patients undergoing laparotomy at the Trauma Care Unit (TCU).......Hypovolaemic shock is a major course of death in trauma patients. The mortality in patients in profound shock at the time of arrival is extremely high and we wanted to investigate the outcome of patients undergoing laparotomy at the Trauma Care Unit (TCU)....

  17. Evaluating the Causes of Emergent Laparotomy in Two Treatment Centers of Babol City: Shahid Beheshti and Yahya Nejad (1999-2001

    A. Gholizadeh Pasha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Emergent laparotomy has many usages in abdomen trauma and acute abdomen. Knowing its common causes and patient's conditions will be useful for good management of these patients. This study determined the common etiologies of emergent laparotomy and evaluated these causes.Materials & Methods: This descriptive and retrospective study was carried out on patients who had received laparotomy and their dossiers were available in archives of Beheshty and Yahya Nejad hospitals. Results: 300 patients were laparotomised (201 male and 99 female. 69 out of these patients had received laparotomy because of trauma (48 blunt and 21 penetrating and 231 of them for acute abdomen. The most common signs were tenderness and guarding. Most of the patients were in 11-20 and 21-30 years age groups. In trauma: most common causes of injury were car accident and stab wounds. It usually happens in the third decade of the life. Accuracy of physical examinations was 91% by using three criteria of hypotension, tenderness and guarding. Negative laparotomy was 4 in blunt and 10 in penetrating trauma. Most common injured organs were spleen in blunt and intestine in penetrating traumas. In acute abdomen: most common causes for emergent laparotomy were peritonitis (43% and obstruction (25%. Negative laparotomy was 3 in acute abdomen. P.U (4.46% and perforated appendicitis (4.36% were the most common causes of peritonitis. Rate of mortality in 5 cases was for trauma patients and 4 in cases for acute abdomen patients.Conclusion: This study proved that acute abdomen was the most common cause of emergent laparotomy and peritonitis and intestine obstruction were the common causes of acute abdomen which lead in laparotomy. In traumatic patients, blunt trauma (resulting from car accident was the most regardable factor of emergent laparotomy (resulting from car accident

  18. Retained Intra-Abdominal Surgical Clamp Complicating Emergency Laparotomy: Incidental Finding on Hysterosalpingogram for Evaluation of Tubal Infertility

    Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of intraperitoneal foreign body complicating surgical intervention broadly remains as an issue of safety in the operative room, a source of emotive concern for the patient, and an upsetting but equally embarrassing situation to the surgeon and the team. However, in the media world, it is a source of sumptuous and captivating headline on the newspaper and to the legal profession, an attractive case to prosecute. A middle age teacher presented with secondary infertility. She had emergency laparotomy fifteen years ago for ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy in a private hospital and postoperative period was uneventful. Amongst other investigations to find out the cause of infertility, she had hysterosalpingography and a radio-opaque clamp was visualized on the films. She was counselled and had laparotomy. A pair of surgical Kocher clamps was retrieved buried in the mesentery.

  19. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A GERIATRIC PATIENT WITH PARKINSON`S DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS POSTED FOR EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMY

    Prajwal Patel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, one of the most common disabling neurological diseases, affects about 1% of the population over 60 years of age. It is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by the loss of dopaminergic fibers in basal ganglia of the brain. PD is an important cause of perioperative morbidity and with an increasingly elderly population; it is being encountered with greater frequency in surgical patients. Here we report a case of 79year old male with Parkinsonism and diabetes mellitus posted for emergency laparotomy, which we managed successfully with general anesthesia.

  20. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following an inadvertent dural puncture during an emergency laparotomy for ischemic colitis – a case report

    Shah R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reena Shah, Agnieszka Kubisz-Pudelko, Jeremy Reid Yeovil District Hospital, Yeovil, UK Abstract: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a clinico-neuroradiological syndrome characterized by various symptoms of neurological disease. It has commonly been reported in association with acute hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, sepsis, and exposure to immunosuppressants. Here, we report on a normotensive woman who developed a severe frontal headache, visual disturbances, and hypertension 3 days after undergoing an emergency laparotomy for ischemic colitis during which she suffered an inadvertent dural puncture. Neuro-imaging revealed features consistent with PRES. The patient went on to make a good recovery, being discharged 21 days postoperatively, with only minor visual disturbances and memory problems. This case highlights the importance of awareness of PRES to all specialties. On reviewing the literature, we feel that PRES may be a potential differential diagnosis to post-procedural neurological symptoms in those patients undergoing routine procedures such as spinal anesthetics or lumbar punctures. Keywords: PRES, neurological disease, lumbar puncture, spinal anesthetic

  1. EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMY AND DEATH IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY: A RARITY NOWADAYS? A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Suja Mary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy implanted outside the endometrial cavity constitutes ectopic gestation. The reproductive performance can be poor following an ectopic pregnancy. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the importance of public awareness about the need for early reporting to hospital in doubtful cases, to analyze the risk factors for ectopic, to study the role of βHCG estimation and transvaginal sonography in early detection in order to preserve the fallopian tube by medical therapy and/or to do early elective surgery preventing emergency laparotomy and death from ectopic pregnancy. METHODOLOGY: All cases of ectopic gestations managed in a tertiary care hospital for a period of one year is reviewed, roughly around 70 cases. The objectives were to analyze demographic characteristics, risk factors, methods of diagnosis and to evaluate the protocol for ectopic management in the hospital. RESULTS: The study showed that the maximum number of ectopic was seen in the 26 - 30 age group and more commonly among multies. Maximum number of ectopic cases is seen between 5.1 to 6 weeks and 80% of the cases are seen in ≤8 weeks. 42/70 patients showed one or more risk factors like previous history of ectopic, LSCS, infertility treatment, sterilization and use of IUCD.82.9% patients presented either with pain alone or pain along with spotting/bleeding p/v. Earlier, majority of the cases were reported after tubal rupture resulting in shock, which sometimes even lead to death. In the present scenario, however, only 2 patients developed hypotension, 11 out of 70 alone required blood transfusion and none required laparotomy. Majority of cases of unruptured ectopic (83% showed <66% rise in βHCG in 48 hours. Pelvic ultrasound and serum βHCG estimation has revolutionized the diagnostic proce ss of ectopic pregnancy enabling detection in the unruptured stage itself in 50% of the cases and the rest in early stages of rupture. In most cases, medical line of management with

  2. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result.

  3. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy.

    Bellevue, Oliver C; Johnson, Bennett M; Feczko, Andrew F; Nadig, Daniel E; White, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  4. Explorative laparotomy of solid tumours

    We can state that the diagnostical advantages of exploratory laparotomy must be compared to the risk of surgery. It requires a critical determination of indications and should not be primarily planned in a clinical-exploratory form but always also as therapeutic laparotomy. In addition, the general state of the patient must be so good that the anaesthesia and operative trauma can be tolerated. The patient must be prepared bearing in mind that the possible tumour resection or at least tumour reduction or other surgical palliative measures can be carried out. The wide spectrum of precise pre-examinations which are possible nowadays has caused the exploratory laparotomy to lose some of its importance. (orig.)

  5. FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations database provides a quick reference to acronyms and abbreviations related to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) activities

  6. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... complications requiring laparotomy after transplantation with outcomes for patients at increased risk. METHODS: In this study we performed a retrospective analysis of data of patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012. The study period was limited to the first 90 days after...... transplantation. RESULTS: Lung transplantation was performed in 258 patients, including 51 patients with α1-anti-trypsin deficiency (A1AD). Seventy-eight patients (30%) had an X-ray of the abdomen, and 23 patients (9%) required laparotomy during the first 90 days after transplantation. Patients with A1AD...

  7. 急诊腹腔镜与传统开腹手术治疗输卵管异位妊娠疗效观察%Observation on curative effect of emergent laparoscopy and routine laparotomy in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    董毅; 黄子娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe and compare the clinical efficacies of emergent laparoscopy and routine laparotomy in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 75 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy treated with emergent laparoscopy and 75 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy treated with routine laparotomy were analyzed retrospectively, the operation times, the amounts of blood loss during operation, anal exhausting times after operation, tubal patency situations after operation in the two groups were compared. Results; There was no significant difference in the operation time between emergent laparoscopy group ( (40.43 ±2.45) minutes] and routine laparotomy group ( (40. 52 ±2.78) minutes] ; there was significant difference in the amount of blood loss during operation between emergent laparoscopy group [ (16.23 ±2. 27) ml] and routine laparotomy group [ (48.65 ± 12. 23) ml] ; there was significant difference in the anal exhausting time after operation between emergent laparoscopy group ( ( 1. 23 ±0. 6) days] and routine laparotomy group [ (2. 35 ±0. 8) days] ; there was significant difference in patency rate of fallopian tubes between emergent laparoscopy group [ (83. 5 ± 2. 3)% ] and routine laparotomy group ( (52. 7 ±3. 9)% ] . Conclusion; Laparoscopy has the advantages of less blood loss, rapid recover-y, and high patency rate of fallopian tubes in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy, its curative effect is superior to routine laparotomy, and it is the first choice for treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy.%目的:观察比较急诊腹腔镜与传统开腹手术在治疗输卵管异位妊娠中的临床效果.方法:回顾性分析输卵管异位妊娠患者在行急诊腹腔镜手术与传统手术治疗的临床资料各75例患者,比较两组患者手术时间、术中出血量、术后肛门排气时间、术后输卵管通畅情况.结果:急诊腹腔镜组手术时间(40.43±2.45) min与传统开腹手术组手术时间(40.52

  8. Acute Abdomen; Pre and Post-Laparotomy Diagnosis

    Marjan Laal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal pain is a common presentation that requires almost immediate management. It is sometimes crucial to diagnose at the earliest and make a decision as to operate. Therefore it is necessary for the physician to be familiar both with the presentations of common causes of abdominal pain and the validity of diagnostic tests.  Diagnosis of acute abdomen before laparotomy is essential in reducing the morbidity and mortality while preventing from unnecessary operations especially where the diagnostic facilities are limited and clinical awareness plays an important role in the diagnosis and management. Objectives: This study attempted to compare pre and post-operative diagnosis in acute abdomen.Materials & Methods: This was an observational study, conducted from February to December 2005. The study included 139 consecutive patients referred to Sina hospital (Tehran, Iran presented with symptoms of acute abdomen, operated to see the negative laparotomy rate, the diagnostic accuracy and predictive values of different investigations in acute abdomen. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 11.5. P value of Results: All 139 patients with diagnosis of acute abdomen underwent emergency laparotomy. Acute abdomen was most common in the age group 20-29 years with male predominance. Acute appendicitis (57.6% was the most common cause of surgical condition, and then the most common causes of acute abdomen were peritonitis (14.4% and bowel obstruction (7.9% in male and ovarian cyst torsion (24.5% in female patients. The negative laparotomy rate was 12.2% (P value Conclusion: The decision to operate is based on the results of a good history and thorough physical examination(s with the guidance of investigative tools. Diagnostic modalities could guide the physician in confirming the diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis of acute abdomen can avoid from unnecessary operations so reduces the rate of negative laparotomies.

  9. Laparoscopic Versus Open Nissen Fundoplication in Infants After Neonatal Laparotomy

    Barsness, Katherine A.; Feliz, Alexander; Potoka, Douglas A.; Gaines, Barbara A.; Upperman, Jeffery S.; Kane, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Nissen fundoplication is an effective treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. Laparoscopic procedures after previous laparotomy are technically more challenging. The role of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication after neonatal laparotomy for diseases unrelated to reflux is poorly described. Methods: This was a retrospective review of open vs laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in infants after neonatal laparotomy. Of 32 infants who underwent neonatal laparotomy, 26 required a...

  10. Peritoneal sepsis: re laparotomy characteristic patient

    Patients suffering from severe sepsis originating in the abdominal peritoneal region frequently require re-interventions, as this condition persist with high morbidity.Management of therapy is difficult and tends to be controversial; existing studies consider a universe which that is far from homogenic.The analysis covers a five year period.Case material involved 55 patients with severe abdominal sepsis requiring at least one re laparotomy.It takes into considerations the incidence, clinical manifestations leading to a positive re laparotomy, death rate and factors involved in prognosis.The absence of multi organic dysfunction (MOD) was considered a valid criteria for exclusion. A total of 121 relapses with corresponding laparotomy were performed, of which 17(14%) showed no relapse.The latter was less frequently associated with the presence of prolonged symptomatology, gastrointestinal anastomosis and /or MOD at the time of re-laparotomizing the patient (p<0,05).Local signs proved to be poor indicators of the advisability to re laparotomize. When comparing programmed re-laparotomy with this procedure undertaken whenever it be required, no differences were established as to the number of interventions performed, mean hospital days of patients and mortality. Crude mortality was 76% and related death-rate was 55%.The oldest patient was 70 years of age, the A:P:A:C:H:E: II points exceeded 17 and the presence of 3 or more sys functions were significantly associated with death rate in the range of 90%.The conclusion of this stud was that, given the high mortality of patients with 3 or more dysfunctions, the strategy for improving death rate is to re operate at an early stage those patients with 1 or 2 dysfunctions,particularity those presenting prolonged symptoms and/or gastrointestinal anastomosis

  11. A study of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts.

    Liu, Hongfang; Aronson, Alan R; Friedman, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Abbreviations are widely used in writing, and the understanding of abbreviations is important for natural language processing applications. Abbreviations are not always defined in a document and they are highly ambiguous. A knowledge base that consists of abbreviations with their associated senses and a method to resolve the ambiguities are needed. In this paper, we studied the UMLS coverage, textual variants of senses, and the ambiguity of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts. We restricted ou...

  12. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply...

  14. 40 CFR 86.098-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in §...

  15. 40 CFR 86.000-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.000-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in §...

  16. 40 CFR 86.096-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.094-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.094-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86... Petroleum Gas NMHC—Nonmethane Hydrocarbons NMHCE—Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Equivalent PM—Particulate...

  18. Neuromuscular blockade for improvement of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Scheppan, Susanne; Kissmeyer, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During laparotomy, surgeons frequently experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. This issue is particularly pertinent while closing the fascia and placing the intestines into the abdominal cavity. Establishment of a deep...

  19. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  20. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication. 

  1. Rescue bedside laparotomy in the intensive care unit in patients too unstable for transport to the operating room

    Schreiber, Joerg; Nierhaus, Axel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Braune, Stephan A; Frings, Daniel P; Vashist, Yogesh; Izbicki, Jakob R; Kluge, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prognoses of critically ill patients with a requirement for emergency laparotomy and severe respiratory and/or hemodynamic instability precluding transport to the operating room (OR) are often fatal without surgery. Attempting emergency surgery at the bedside might equally result in an adverse outcome. However, risk factors and predictors that could support clinical decision making have not been identified so far. This study describes the clinical characteristics, indicative ...

  2. Abbreviations

    2013-01-01

    ACAME Association des centrales d’achat de médicaments essentiels (Association of central medical stores for essential generic drugs) AMPOT Association malienne pour la promotion des ophtalmologues traditionnels (Malian association for the promotion of traditional ophthalmologists) CT Cicatricial (scar) trachoma DALY Disability Adjusted Life-Years DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DMT Department of traditional medicine DOTS Directly Observed Therapy Short Course FT Follicular trachoma GIS G...

  3. Abbreviations

    2013-01-01

    ADEGE Agence nationale pour la démoustication et la gestion des espaces démoustiqués CAREC Caribbean Epidemiology Center CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention CIRE Cellule interrégionale d'épidémiologie Antilles-Guyane DHF Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever DSDS Direction de la santé et du développement social DSS Dengue Shock Syndrome EDEN European Association of Public Operators for Mosquito Control FDAs French Départements of America (refers to Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana) IGR I...

  4. Abbreviations

    2013-01-01

    "AB" The official French logo for certified organic produce ("Agriculture Biologique") CF Conventional farming EF Ecological farming IFS Integrated farming systems LIF Low-input farming OF Organic farming OFgc Organic farming under group certification AFSAA Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (French food safety agency) AMAP Association pour le Maintien d'une Agriculture Paysanne (Association for the maintenance of small-scale farming – there is a network of such associations ...

  5. Abbreviations used in scientific and technical reports

    Reports contain a large number of abbreviations which have not yet been included in the current specialized dictionaries or lists of abbreviations. It is therefore often time-consuming or even fruitless to search for such abbreviations. The present alphabetical list of more than 4,000 abbreviations gathered from the report inventory of the Central Library of the KFA Juelich in the period from 1982-1986, taking into consideration all the scientific and technical disciplines, is intended to remedy a deficiency and to offer assistance which will undoubtedly be welcomed by scientists and engineers. (orig./HP)

  6. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Body packing: from seizures to laparotomy.

    Janczak, Joanna M; Beutner, Ulrich; Hasler, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25883813

  8. 40 CFR 86.090-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.... GC—Gas chromatograph. HPLC—High-pressure liquid chromatography. MeOH—Methanol (CH3OH)....

  9. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    Tolman, B.J. [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  10. Intestinal mantle cell lymphoma recurring at laparotomy scar region

    Ray Amitabh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a moderately aggressive variety of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Extranodal presentation of MCL is well known, the intestine being a common site. The incidence of colorectal involvement is relatively rare. Moreover, the recurrence of the disease at laparotomy scar site is even more rare. We report an unusual case of incision line recurrence in a case of colonic MCL occuring three years after initial treatment.

  11. Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors

    Mathew G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Primary conservative surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy have resulted in high cure ratesin malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A significant proportion of advanced tumors may have post-chemotherapyresidue and it is important to distinguish necrosis or fibrosis without viable tumor from persistent viable tumorand teratoma. Aims : To evaluate the role of laparotomy in assessing the nature of post-chemotherapy residue in ovariangerm cell tumors. Materials and Methods : Eighty-three patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors seen at Cancer Institute,Chennai between 1992 and 2002 were studied. Sixty-eight patients completed combination chemotherapywith cisplatin regimes, of whom 35 had radiological residual masses. Twenty-nine out of these 35 patientsunderwent laparotomy to assess the nature of the residue. Results : On laparotomy, three patients had viable tumor, seven immature teratoma, three mature teratomaand 16 only necrosis or fibrosis. None of our patients with dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, absence ofteratoma element in the primary tumor and radiological residue of < 5 cm had viable tumor whereas all patientswith tumors containing teratoma component initially had residual tumor. Absence of viable disease was higherin patients who had normalization of serum markers by two cycles of chemotherapy. Conclusion : Our study suggests that patients with absence of teratoma element initially, radiological residue of< 5 cm and normalization of serum markers after two cycles of chemotherapy do not require surgery to assessthe nature of post-chemotherapy residue. However, laparotomy should be performed in patients with tumorsthat initially contain teratoma element and in those with sluggish tumor marker response after two cycles ofchemotherapy since they have a high chance of having viable postchemotherapy residue.

  12. Generating abbreviations using Google Books library

    Solovyev, Valery D.; Bochkarev, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the original method of creating a dictionary of abbreviations based on the Google Books Ngram Corpus. The dictionary of abbreviations is designed for Russian, yet as its methodology is universal it can be applied to any language. The dictionary can be used to define the function of the period during text segmentation in various applied systems of text processing. The article describes difficulties encountered in the process of its construction as well as the ways to over...

  13. A Study of Abbreviations in Clinical Notes

    Xu, Hua; Stetson, Peter D.; Friedman, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Various natural language processing (NLP) systems have been developed to unlock patient information from narrative clinical notes in order to support knowledge based applications such as error detection, surveillance and decision support. In many clinical notes, abbreviations are widely used without mention of their definitions, which is very different from the use of abbreviations in the biomedical literature. Thus, it is critical, but more challenging, for NLP systems to correctly interpret...

  14. Abbreviation definition identification based on automatic precision estimates

    Kim Won; Comeau Donald C; Sohn Sunghwan; Wilbur W John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The rapid growth of biomedical literature presents challenges for automatic text processing, and one of the challenges is abbreviation identification. The presence of unrecognized abbreviations in text hinders indexing algorithms and adversely affects information retrieval and extraction. Automatic abbreviation definition identification can help resolve these issues. However, abbreviations and their definitions identified by an automatic process are of uncertain validity. ...

  15. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • General Safety Requirements; • International Commission on Radiological Protection; • Intensive Contamination Survey Area; • International Experts Meeting; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of the Environment; • Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation; • Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; • Special Decontamination Area; • Specific Safety Requirements; • technical cooperation; • Three Mile Island; • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

  16. Acute peritoneal dialysis in a Jehovah's Witness post laparotomy.

    Appalsawmy, Usha Devi; Akbani, Habib

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old man who was a Jehovah's Witness with an advanced directive against autologous procedures developed acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy while he was intubated and ventilated on the intensive care unit. He was being treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. He also had a healing laparotomy wound, having undergone a splenectomy less than a month ago following a road traffic accident. His hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis were refractory to medical treatment. As he became oligoanuric, decision was taken to carry out acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) by inserting a Tenckhoff catheter in his abdomen using peritoneoscopic technique. The patient was started on automated PD without any complications. His urine output gradually improved, and his renal function eventually recovered. On discharge from hospital, his renal function was within normal range, and he had no abdominal complications from the acute PD. PMID:27581233

  17. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ....403-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations....

  18. 40 CFR 600.203-77 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ....203-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.203-77 Abbreviations....

  19. Abdominal injury patterns in patients with seatbelt signs requiring laparotomy

    Seema Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We analyzed our series of patients with seatbelt signs (bruising that underwent laparotomy in order to correlate injury pattern with clinical course and outcome. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with seatbelt signs presenting to the level 1 Trauma Unit between 2005 and 2010 was performed. We evaluated the nature of injuries during laparotomy associated with seatbelt signs and their treatment and complications. Results: There were 41 patients, 25 (61% male, with a median age of 26 years. Median injury severity score (ISS was 25 (range 6-66 and overall mortality was 10% (four patients. Patients were classified into three groups according to time from injury to surgery. Median time to surgery for the immediate group (n = 12 was 1.05 h, early group (n = 22 was 2.7 h, and delayed group (n = 7 was 19.5 h. Patients in the immediate group tended to have solid organ injuries; whereas, patients in the delayed group had bowel injury. Patients with solid organ injuries were found to be more seriously injured and had higher mortality (P < 0.01 and morbidity compared with patients with the "classic" bowel injury pattern associated with a typical seatbelt sign. Conclusion: Our data suggest that there is a cohort of patients with seatbelt injury who have solid organ injury requiring urgent intervention. Solid organ injuries associated with malpositioned seatbelts lying higher on the abdomen tend to result in hemodynamic instability necessitating immediate surgery. They have more postoperative complications and a greater mortality. Seatbelt signs should be accurately documented after any car crash.

  20. Detecting Abbreviations in Discharge Summaries using Machine Learning Methods

    WU, YONGHUI; Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Denny, Joshua C.; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A.; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts man...

  1. Predictive Potential of Heart Rate Complexity Measurement: An Indication for Laparotomy Following Solid Organ Injury

    Foroutan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV has been recently used as a predictor of prognosis in trauma patients. Objectives We applied nonlinear analysis of HRV in patients with blunt trauma and intraperitoneal bleeding to assess our ability to predict the outcome of conservative management. Patients and Methods An analysis of electrocardiography (ECG from 120 patients with blunt trauma was conducted at the onset of admission to the emergency department. ECGs of 65 patients were excluded due to inadequacy of noise-free length. Of the remaining 55 patients, 47 survived (S group and eight patients died in the hospital (Non-S group. Nineteen patients were found to have intra-abdominal bleeding, eight of which ultimately underwent laparotomy to control bleeding (Op group and 11 underwent successful non-operative management (non-Op. Demographic data including vital signs, glasgow coma scale (GCS, arterial blood gas and injury severity scores (ISS were recorded. Heart rate complexity (HRC methods, including entropy, were used to analyze the ECG. Results There were no differences in age, gender, heart rate (HR and blood pressure between the S and Non-S groups. However, approximate entropy, used as a method of HRC measurement, and GCS were significantly higher in S group, compared to the Non-S group. The base deficit and ISS were significantly higher in the Non-S group. Regarding age, sex, ISS, base deficit, vital signs and GCS, no difference was found between Op and Non-Op groups. Approximate entropy was significantly lower in the Op group, compared to the Non-Op group. Conclusions The loss of HRC at the onset of admission may predict mortality in patients with blunt trauma. Lower entropy, in recently admitted patients with intra-abdominal bleeding, may indicate laparotomy when the vital signs are stable.

  2. Nasogastric intubation causes gastroesophageal reflux in patients undergoing elective laparotomy.

    Manning, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The routine use of nasogastric tubes in patients undergoing elective abdominal operation is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative fever, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that nasogastric tubes have no significant effect on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux or on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that nasogastric intubation in patients undergoing laparotomy reduces lower esophageal sphincter pressure and promotes gastroesophageal reflux in the perioperative period. METHODS: A prospective randomized case-control study was undertaken in which 15 consenting patients, admitted electively for bowel surgery, were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 underwent nasogastric intubation after induction of anesthesia, and Group 2 did not. All patients had manometry and pH probes placed with the aid of endoscopic vision at the lower esophageal sphincter and distal esophagus, respectively. Nasogastric tubes, where present, were left on free drainage, and sphincter pressures and pH were recorded continuously during a 24-hour period. Data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The mean number of reflux episodes (defined as pH < 4) in the nasogastric tube group was 137 compared with a median of 8 episodes in the group managed without nasogastric tubes (P =.006). The median duration of the longest episode of reflux was 132 minutes in Group 1 and 1 minute in Group 2 (P =.001). A mean of 13.3 episodes of reflux lasted longer than 5 minutes in Group 1, with pH less than 4 for 37.4% of the 24 hours. This was in contrast to Group 2 where a mean of 0.13 episodes lasted longer than 5 minutes (P =.001) and pH less than 4 for 0.2% of total time (P =.001). The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressures were lower in Group 1. CONCLUSIONS. These findings demonstrate that patients undergoing elective laparotomy with routine nasogastric tube placement have significant gastroesophageal

  3. Emergency surgery

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely......National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...

  4. Laparotomy for peritonitis: primary or delayed primary closure

    Background: Although literature does not provide a level-1 evidence to support either method of closure, various studies have shown a reduced frequency of superficial surgical site infection with delayed primary closure (DPC) as opposed to primary closure (PC). Nevertheless, PC is still preferred by most. surgeons to avoid a second procedure. This study was conducted with the objective to compare the frequency of wound infection and duration of hospitalization among patients undergoing primary and delayed primary closure of the skin wound following laparotomy for peritonitis. Method: A randomized controlled trial comprising 70 patients: Thirty-five patients underwent PC (Group-A) and 35 DPC (Group-B). Frequency of wound infection during follow up period and duration of hospital stay was noted in both groups. Results: In group-A, 18 (51.43 percentage) patients showed wound infection while in group-B, it was 9 (25.71 percentage) with p=0.027. Mean hospital stay recorded in group-A was 7.03 days ± 1.81, and for group-B, it was 6.34 days±4.14 (p=0.372). Conclusion: DPC for surgical wounds is better than PC technique as it decreases the frequency of wound infection during follow-up period without any significant increase in duration of hospital stay. (author)

  5. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  6. The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Morphine and Paracetamol in the Patients Undergoing Laparotomy, Using PCA Method

    Yaghoubi, Siamak; Pourfallah, Reza; Barikani, Ameneh; Kayalha, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: postoperative pain increases the activity of the sympathetic system, causes hypermetabolic conditions, retains salt and water, increases glucose, fatty acid lactate and oxygen consumption, weakens the immunity system which delays wound healing. Our object was comparison of the analgesic effect of morphine and paracetamol in the patients undergoing laparotomy, using PCA method. Method: Seventy patients who had undergone laparotomy were studied using double blind randomized clinical ...

  7. Imaging of a retained laparotomy towel that migrated into the colon lumen

    Retention of surgical instruments, most commonly small laparotomy sponges, is a known complication of surgery. Such retained instruments may remain silent or may cause a variety of complications. We report a case in which a retained laparotomy towel migrated into the colon. This is an infrequently reported complication. We were able to document the passage of the towel through the colon on plain radiographs. The USG and MRI findings are also described

  8. 40 CFR 310.4 - What abbreviations should I know?

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution Contingency Plan also known as the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR part 300). NRC—National... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What abbreviations should I know? 310... RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES General Information § 310.4 What abbreviations should I know?...

  9. Sequenced Contractions and Abbreviations for Model 2 Reading.

    Cronnell, Bruce

    The nature and use of contractions and abbreviations in beginning reading is discussed and applied to the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program, a four-year program (K-3) for teaching reading skills to primary-grade children. The contractions and abbreviations are listed and sequenced for the reading program. The results of…

  10. 7 CFR 4274.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    2010-01-01

    ..., which is a problem solving activity. The Agency will determine whether a specific activity qualifies as... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 4274.302 Section 4274... Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.302 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) General definitions. The...

  11. The use of abbreviations in surgical note keeping

    B. Collard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations are used to improve the speed of note keeping and to simplify patient notes. However studies have shown that they can reduce clarity, increase mistakes and cause confusion in management plans. Our review highlights the misuse of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

  12. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  13. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 516.3 Section 516.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.3 Explanation of abbreviations and terms. (a)...

  14. Comparison of abdominopelvic CT results and findings at second-look laparotomy in ovarian carcinoma patients

    Restaging in epithelial ovarian carcinoma after primary therapy has proven difficult by standard noninvasive methods and commonly requires second-look laparotomy. In the authors' study to date preoperative abdominopelvic CT (CBT) results and operative findings have been compared in 24 patients (25 studies) with ovarian adenocarcinoma currently clinically free of disease originally graded as FIGO stage III or IV, except for one patient with stage IC, undergoing second-look laparotomy to determine tumor status. There were ten true-negative, three false-negative, 12 true-positive, and no false-positive CBTs. Negative studies were associated with positive findings at laparotomy, including microscopic foci, in only 12% of all cases; thus, CBT in the series has shown a better correlation with surgery than in previous studies. Currently the authors are combining monoclonal antibody scanning with the CBT results with the goal of possibly avoiding second-look surgery in certain patients

  15. THE ISSUES OF LATIN ABBREVIATIONS IN THE DIPLOMATICES DOCUMENTS

    Иван Балта

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of Latin abbreviations in the diplomatic documents are a very complex problem in the diplomatic word processing and deciphering the historiography documents. Abbreviations originated from Latin letters caused a favorable advantage for the scribe, but created difficulties for the reader, since they were complicated and questionable at the time. The Romans called the Latin abbreviations notae-or-sigla, using them just to save space and materials on which the letters were written. Increased use of abbreviations in medieval manuscripts emphasized a need for a manual in both the Code and Charter, specifying the form of abbreviations and centuries which they belonged to. Steffens divided the abbreviations of the Roman epoch according to the chronological development into the five ways of shortening: suspension, notes Tironianae, contraction, notes iuris, and signs for numbers, which were retained and added new shortcuts in the Middle Ages, especially in the territory of today's Pannonia and the Eastern Adriatic coast. Punctuation, which was alike the abbreviations, had a long process of development, which began as an antique-scriptura continua, trying to clarify the meaning of putting points in various positions between the individual words. Abbreviations differed not only by the type of Latin letters, but also by the territory in which they evolved, at different time periods. Abbreviations of Latin letters from the Beneventan East Adriatic coast were specific, were formed gradually, could be used as a criterion for dating, and were carried out with more ways of shortening the letters. Schiaparelli probably entered the deepest essence of the development of Latin minuscule in which he noted that the Frankish influences were much stronger in the first period of the development of the Beneventan East Adriatic coast. However, perhaps no other medieval script was developed better than a system of abbreviations in the Gothic style, especially in

  16. Minimal laparotomy management of a giant ovarian cystic teratoma in adolescence

    Toshihiro Yasui; Tatsuya Suzuki; Fujio Hara; Shunsuke Watanabe; Hirokazu Tomishige; Naoko Uga; Atsuki Naoe

    2015-01-01

    Giant ovarian cysts in adolescents are very rare. Those treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery is discussed with gynecologists and pediatric surgeons because its limited working space and risk of rupture and malignancy. We present a case of minimal laparotomy management of a giant ovarian cystic teratoma in adolescent. A 13-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and constipation. A CT scan showed a giant simple ovarian cystic tumor in her abdomen measuring 29 × 13 × 24 cm. We ma...

  17. Conventional laparotomy for management of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a case report

    Nilesh C. Mhaske

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the rates of caesarean deliveries has led to a concurrent rise in the number of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancies (CSEP. With recent advances, diagnosis can be made at an early gestational age, hence facilitating a prompt intervention. With the varied treatment options available, choosing the right one may possess a clinical dilemma. However, in a low resource setting, conventional laparotomy may be the only option feasible. A case of CSEP managed with laparotomy is presented. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1581-1584

  18. Transfusion practice and complications after laparotomy - an observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Meyhoff, C S; Johansson, P I;

    2012-01-01

    Background  Transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBC) may be associated with side effects. This study aimed to assess whether an association could be detected between transfusion practice and the occurrence of complications after laparotomy. Study design and methods  This study is an observ...

  19. 7 CFR 1945.5 - Abbreviations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 103-354. (l) LFAC—Local Food and Agriculture Council. (m) NASS—State Statistical Office of the USDA.... (e) EM—Emergency. (f) EOH—USDA Emergency Operations Handbook. (g) FAC—Food and Agriculture Council... Administration. (p) SFAC—USDA State Food and Agriculture Council. (q) USDA—United States Department...

  20. Detecting abbreviations in discharge summaries using machine learning methods.

    Wu, Yonghui; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts manually annotated abbreviations in seventy discharge summaries, which were randomly broken into a training set (40 documents) and a test set (30 documents). We implemented and evaluated several ML algorithms using the training set and a list of pre-defined features. The subsequent evaluation using the test set showed that the Random Forest classifier had the highest F-measure of 94.8% (precision 98.8% and recall of 91.2%). When a voting scheme was used to combine output from various ML classifiers, the system achieved the highest F-measure of 95.7%. PMID:22195219

  1. Application of abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score in fatal cases with abdominopelvic injuries.

    Subedi, Nuwadatta; Yadav, Bishwanath; Jha, Shivendra

    2014-12-01

    In forensic casework, investigation of injury severity is important in evaluating the mortality, occasionally in terms of the adequacy of clinical management. The study was conducted with an objective to study the relationship of severity of the injuries using Abbreviated Injury Scale and Injury Severity Score (ISS) with survival period and place of death among fatal cases with abdominopelvic trauma.The total number of cases studied was 80. The injuries in all the body parts were allotted using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008, and the ISS was calculated. The male/female ratio was 4:1, and the mean (SD) age was 30.76 (15.2) years. The cause of trauma was road traffic accidents in 82.5% of the cases. The median duration of survival was 2 hours. The mean (SD) ISS was 38.90 (14.89). Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of 5 and 4 were the most common in the region. With increase in the ISS, the survival period was decreased. There was a highly significant difference between the mean ISS of the victims who died prehospital and that of who died in the emergency department (P < 0.005). The mean ISS of the victims who died in the emergency department and of those who died in the ward, intensive care unit, or after discharge was also significantly different (P < 0.05).Although the cases with more severe injuries died sooner, there should be provision of treatment on the spot without delay. More time taken to start the treatment increases the fatalities. PMID:25354224

  2. Abdominal damage control surgery and reconstruction: world society of emergency surgery position paper

    Godat, Laura; Kobayashi, Leslie; Costantini, Todd; Coimbra, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Damage control laparotomy was first described by Dr. Harlan Stone in 1983 when he suggested that patients with severe trauma should have their primary procedures abbreviated when coagulopathy was encountered. He recommended temporizing patients with abdominal packing and temporary closure to allow restoration of normal physiology prior to returning to the operating room for definitive repair. The term damage control in the trauma setting was coined by Rotondo et al., in 1993. ...

  3. [Should routine exploratory laparotomy be performed in the presence of an abdominal wound? Discussion apropos of 176 cases].

    Guiberteau, B; Kohen, M; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C; Le Neel, J C

    1992-10-01

    Management of abdominal wounds is presently the subject of discussion between the partisans of routine laparotomy and those preferring "armed" surveillance. Results of study of a series of 176 abdominal wounds subjected to surgical dogma showed: that the diagnosis of non penetrating wounds (17.6%) was not always evident, due either to their anatomical localization (frontier region wounds) or to insufficient local exploration in urgent cases (6.6% of false-negatives), that the existence of serious clinical signs (50 cases) was always associated with one or more visceral lesions, requiring urgent laparotomy with a morbidity of 20% and a mortality of 8% (4 cases), that in the case of asymptomatic penetrating wounds (96 cases), routine laparotomy did nevertheless allow the diagnosis of visceral lesions in 50 cases (including 23 major lesions) but was of no utility in 46 cases (31.5% of blind laparotomies for the total series). The elevated proportion of useless laparotomies (30% in the literature), the result of a dogmatic attitude, or the risk of a delayed intervention (5 to 8%) in the series practising the selective method, led to a modification in the authors' attitude. The existence of serious signs should obviously result in a laparotomy. In their absence, and when confronted with a penetrating or doubtful (frontier region) wound, an exploratory celioscopy is proposed to ensure complete abdominal exploration, to confirm the presence or absence of penetration, to treat minimal lesions and to perform a classical laparotomy in case of evident necessity. PMID:1294583

  4. Second look laparotomy in the management of epithelial cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    Mead, G. M.; Williams, C. J.; MacBeth, F. R.; Boyd, I. E.; Whitehouse, J M

    1984-01-01

    Case histories from 20 patients undergoing postchemotherapy "second look" laparotomy for metastatic epithelial cell carcinoma of the ovary were reviewed in an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure and its likely impact on patient survival. The patient population comprised 18 patients treated with a combination of cisplatin, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (PACe) and 2 patients treated with chlorambucil. The findings at second look were often predictable, and related to the adeq...

  5. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT FOR A RARE CASE OF LOEYS-DIETZ SYNDROME FOR LAPAROTOMY

    Premalatha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS is an autosomally dominant connective tissue disorder characterised by vascular and skeletal manifestations. It is caused by mutations in the TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2 or SMAD3 genes. There are four types of which type I is the most common accounting for more than 75% of the cases. Here we report the anaesthetic management of a case of LDS type I who presented with abdominal pain with suspected twisted ovarian cyst for laparotomy.

  6. Comparison of polydioxanone (PDS and polyamid (nylon sutures complications in abdominal midline repair (laparotomy surgery

    F.Eshghi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite progresss in the techniques of surgery, there is still a lot of controversy about selection of the best technique and suture material. Many post operation complications such as infection, wound dehiscence, pain and sinus formation are related to the type of the suture used. In this study we compared the complications due to the absorbent suture (PDS with a non absorbent suture (nylon in laparotomy operation.Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 120 patients referring to Imam Khomeini hospital, Sari, 2003-2005 for laparotomy. They were randomly divided in tow groups of equal number. The incision was repaired with PDS sutures in case and with nylon suture in control group. All patients under study were followed up for one year. Data about chronic pain,wound dehiscence, infection, hernia and sinus formation were recorded and analyzed using SPSS software and Chi- square test.Results: In this study 120 patients (60 in case and 60 in control groups were enrolled. After laparotomy, the incidence of chronic pain and sinus formation in case group was significantly less than the control group. There were no significant differences between the rate of infection, hernia and wound dehiscence in the two groups.Conclusion: No significant differences in the rate of infection, hernia and wound dehiscence between two types of suture materials were observed. However, application of PDS leads to less pain and sinus formation. Therefore, it can be a better choice in surgical incisions.

  7. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    M. F. Ulum; D. R. Setiadi; B. Panjaitan; M. Noordin; Amrozi .

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickne...

  8. Sourcing archaeological obsidian by an abbreviated NAA procedure

    An abbreviated NAA procedure has been developed to fingerprint obsidian artifacts in the Mesoamerican region. Despite the large number of available sources, an NAA procedure, which relies on producing short-lived isotopes, has been applied with a success rate greater than 90 percent. The abbreviated NAA procedure is rapid and cost competitive with the XRF technique more often applied in obsidian sourcing. Results from the analysis of over 1,200 obsidian artifacts from throughout Mesoamerica are presented. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Hodgkin's disease in children: Treatment with MOPP and low-dose, extended field irradiation without laparotomy. Late results and toxicity

    The 10 year results of a trial of bimodal treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children with 6 cycles of MOPP and low-dose extended field irradiation, without staging laparotomy, were for 57 children in all stages as follows: survival 85%, relapse-free survival 80%, and survival-free of second relapse 86%. There were three fatal toxic events, two due to viral infection and one to a second malignant tumor (NHL). Three other patients developed a second malignant tumour, and one developed a thyroid adenoma. No patient developed acute leukemia. These results are compared with the results of treatment of surgically staged children by extended field irradiation alone, with bimodal treatment reserved for relapse or advanced disease at diagnosis. Initial bimodal treatment improved the overall 10 year survival free from a second relapse rate by 20% (86% vs. 66%). No major difference in treatment toxicity between these two groups has emerged during the first 10 years of follow-up. We conclude that, except for favourable CS-1 presentations, children with Hodgkin's disease confined to the lymphatic system should be given bimodal treatment, but that the least morbid effective combination remains to be determined

  10. Predicting Chinese Abbreviations from Definitions: An Empirical Learning Approach Using Support Vector Regression

    Xu Sun; Hou-Feng Wang; Bo Wang

    2008-01-01

    In Chinese, phrases and named entities play a central role in information retrieval. Abbreviations, however,make keyword-based approaches less effective. This paper presents an empirical learning approach to Chinese abbreviation prediction. In this study, each abbreviation is taken as a reduced form of the corresponding definition (expanded form),and the abbreviation prediction is formalized as a scoring and ranking problem among abbreviation candidates, which are automatically generated from the corresponding definition. By employing Support Vector Regression (SVR) for scoring,we can obtain multiple abbreviation candidates together with their SVR values, which are used for candidate ranking.Experimental results show that the SVR method performs better than the popular heuristic rule of abbreviation prediction.In addition, in abbreviation prediction, the SVR method outperforms the hidden Markov model (HMM).

  11. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  12. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  13. 40 CFR 205.155 - Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle class and manufacturer...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.155 Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation. (a) Motorcycles must be grouped into classes determined...

  14. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 1/5

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 1/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • accident management; • accident management guideline; • auxiliary operator; • abnormal operating procedure; • air operated value; • alarm pocket dosimeter; • all rods in; • containment atmospheric monitoring system; • containment cooling system; • control rod; • core spray; • condensate storage tank; • diesel driven fire pump; • dry well; • emergency core cooling system; • emergency diesel generator; • emergency operating procedure; • Emergency Response Centre; • fire protection; • high pressure coolant injection; • heating, ventilating and air-conditioning; • isolation condenser; • loss of off-site power; • metal clad switch gear; • motor control centre; • main control room; • Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; • motor operated valve; • measuring point/monitoring post; • main steam isolation valve; • make-up water condensate; • Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Regulatory Authority; • power centre; • primary containment isolation signal; • primary containment vessel; • reactor building; • reactor core isolution cooling; • residual heat removal; • residual heat removal and cooling seawater; • reactor pressure vessel; • station blackout; • suppression chamber; • self-contained breathing apparatus; • spent fuel pool; • standby gas treatment system; • standby liquid control; • standby liquid control system; • safety relief valve; • top of active fuel; • turbine building; • Tokyo Electric Power Company; • wide range

  15. Computed tomography, lymphography, and staging laparotomy: correlations in initial staging of Hodgkin disease

    Castellino, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Blank, N.; Young, S.W.; Neumann, C.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-07-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated Hodgkin disease underwent abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scanning and bipedal lymphography. These studies were followed by staging laparotomy, which included biopsy of the liver, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes, and splenectomy. Correlation of the results of the imaging studies with the histopathologic diagnoses revealed a small - but significant - increased accuracy of lymphography compared with CT in assessing the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The theoretical advantages of CT scanning in detecting lymphomatous deposits in lymph nodes about the celiac axis and the mesentery, or in the liver and spleen, were not confirmed.

  16. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome required decompression laparotomy during minimally invasive mitral valve repair.

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Saito, Tetsuya; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-12-01

    We treated a 77-year-old patient with secondary abdominal compartment syndrome that caused failure to maintain cardiopulmonary bypass while undergoing elective minimally invasive right mini-thoracotomy mitral valve and tricuspid valve repair procedures. During the operation, a decompression laparotomy was needed to relieve elevated intraabdominal pressure that caused instability of the cardiopulmonary bypass. Due to poor oxygenation and the long cardiopulmonary bypass time, the patient required peripheral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation before recovery. We alert surgeons to this rare complication that can occur even in patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery with a right mini-thoracotomy. PMID:26943679

  17. Review of Subcutaneous Wound Drainage in Reducing Surgical Site Infections after Laparotomy

    B. Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Surgical site infections (SSIs remain a significant problem after laparotomies. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence on the efficacy of subcutaneous wound drainage in reducing SSI. Methods. MEDLINE database was searched. Studies were identified and screened according to criteria to determine their eligibility for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and a fixed effects model. Results. Eleven studies were included with two thousand eight hundred and sixty-four patients. One thousand four hundred and fifty patients were in the control group and one thousand four hundred and fourteen patients were in the drain group. Wound drainage in all patients shows no statistically significant benefit in reducing SSI incidence. Use of drainage in high risk patients, contaminated wound types, and obese patients appears beneficial. Conclusion. Using subcutaneous wound drainage after laparotomy in all patients is unnecessary as it does not reduce SSI risk. Similarly, there seems to be no benefit in using it in clean and clean contaminated wounds. However, there may be benefit in using drains in patients who are at high risk, including patients who are obese and/or have contaminated wound types. A well designed trial is needed which examines these factors.

  18. COMPARISON OF SURGICAL STRESS RESPONSE UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN OPEN LAPAROTOMY VS LAPAROSCOPIC ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Gopal Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The stress response is the name given to the hormonal and metabolic changes which follow injury or trauma. The systemic reactions to surgical injury encompass a wide range of endocrinological, immunological and haematological effects. The ability of anaesthetic agents modifies the endocrine and metabolic responses have been studied enthusiastically. This research describes the endocrine and metabolic changes which occur during different types of surgical techniques, effects of anaesthetic and analgesic regimens to modify their responses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of stress response on blood glucose levels and hemodynamics in patients undergoing open Laparotomy surgeries v/s laparoscopic surgeries. METHODS: Sixty surgical patients were enrolled in this clinical trial. The pulse, BP records were taken and blood sugar levels were tested peri-operatively. RESULTS: The results were analyzed and found that raise pulse rate, blood pressure and blood sugar levels due to stress in proportionate to surgical trauma, and duration of surgery under anaesthesia. Blood sugar levels gradually increased 90.5±4.88 to 115±7.18 and at post op119.4±6.93 in laparotomy group when compared to 91.07±4.93 to 118.33±5.06 and at post-op120.1±4.51 in laparoscopy group. CONCLUSION: Lap surgery causes minimum tissue injury and less stress response more so during postoperative period.

  19. A comparative study of outcome of the absorbable suture polydioxanone and nonabsorbable suture polypropylene in laparotomy wound closure

    Kiran Shankar H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal wound closure is one of the common operations for a general surgeon. Prevention of complications is important to reduce post-operative morbidity and mortality. Post-operative wound pain, wound infection, wound dehiscence, suture sinus formation; palpable knots and incisional hernia are the parameters are to be studied. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare polydioxanone and polypropylene suture material for abdominal fascial closure regarding morbidity in terms of post-operative wound complications. Methods: Patients admitted in the department of surgery, who undergo laparotomy operations, with midline abdominal incisions were included in the study. The recruited subjects were divided into Group-A, whom abdominal incisions are closed with non-absorbable suture material polypropylene and Group-B whom abdominal incisions are closed with absorbable suture material polydioxanone. Data was expressed as percentages. Results: The incidence of wound pain was observed in all the patients in both immediate and delayed post-operative period in the polypropylene suture material compared to polydioxanone. The incidence of wound infection was higher in polypropylene (24% compared to PDS (2%. There were 4% cases of wound dehiscence in the present study. The incidence of suture sinus formation was higher in the polypropylene suture material (9% compared to the polydioxanone suture material (2% in the delayed postoperative period. The incidence of palpable knots was higher in the polypropylene suture material (23% compared to the polydioxanone suture material. No cases of incisional hernia were reported with polydioxanone suture material. Conclusions: The overall morbidity from abdominal closure was considerably reduced in the Polydioxanone group. We encountered reduction in wound complications like burst abdomen, wound infection, wound pain, suture sinus formation, palpable knots and incisional hernia. Therefore

  20. Implantation of peritoneal catheters by laparotomy: nephrologists obtained similar results to general surgeons

    Restrepo CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Restrepo, Carlos Alberto Buitrago, Cielo Holguin Division of Nephrology, Department of Health Sciences, Caldas University, Caldas, ColombiaPurpose: To analyze the complications and costs of minilaparotomies performed by a nephrologist (group A compared with conventional laparotomies performed by a surgeon (group B for peritoneal catheter implantation.Setting: Two university hospitals (Santa Sofia and Caldas in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.Methods: The study included stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients, with indication of renal replacement therapy, who were candidates for peritoneal dialysis and gave informed consent for a peritoneal catheter implant. Minilaparotomies were performed by a nephrologist in a minor surgery room under local anesthesia. Conventional laparotomies were performed by a surgeon in an operating room under general anesthesia.Results: Two nephrologists inserted 157 peritoneal catheters, and seven general surgeons inserted 185 peritoneal catheters. The groups had similar characteristics: the mean age was 55 years, 49.5% were men, and the primary diagnoses were diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and unknown etiology. The implant was successful for 98.09% of group A and 99.46% of group B. There was no procedure-related mortality. The most frequent complications in the first 30 days postsurgery in group A versus group B, respectively, were: peritonitis (6.37% versus 3.78%, exit-site infection (3.82% versus 2.16%, tunnel infection (0% versus 0.54%, catheter entrapment by omentum (1.27% versus 3.24%, peritoneal effluent spillover (1.91% versus 2.16%, draining failure (4.46% versus 6.49%, hematoma (0% versus 1.08%, catheter migration with kinking (3.18% versus 2.70%, hemoperitoneum (1.27% versus 0%, and hollow viscera accidental puncture (1.91% versus 0.54%. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of complications between groups. In 2013, the cost of a surgeon-implanted peritoneal

  1. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    M. F. Ulum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickness showed that in all groups of does were similar and not different statistically. The thickness of oblique external and oblique internal abdominal muscles increased in the pregnant does as compared to non-pregnant does (P<0.05.

  2. Computed tomography, primary laparotomy and 'second-look' operation for ovarian carcinoma

    The value of computed tomography for staging and for observing the course of ovarian carcinomas was analysed in 56 patients in whom the diagnosis has been verified by laparotomy. CT achieved correct staging in 85% of cases. The ability of CT to demonstrate a variety of abnormalities varies; ascites and pleural effusions were shown in 100%, lymph node metastases in 90%, infiltration of the recto-sigmoid and terminal ileum in 70-80%, subcapsular liver metastases in 70%, involvement of the omentum in 70%, of the peritoneum in 65% and of the mesentery in 35%. A ''second-look'' operation remains necessary in order to confirm complete remission after chemotherapy, since CT is only rarely able to show residual tumours smaller than 1.5-2 cm. (orig.)

  3. The laparotomy incision: a technique to facilitate capsulorhexis in microincision cataract surgery.

    O'Connor, Jeremy C; O'Connell, Eamon D; Sciscio, Andrea; Mulhern, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    Microincision cataract surgery is a new technique in the development of cataract surgery and is not without difficulties. Creation of the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis as performed in conventional coaxial phacoemulsification surgery does not apply as readily. The authors describe a method for initiating the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (the laparotomy incision) using only an inexpensive 25-gauge bent needle cystototome. The technique involves a long linear incision in the anterior capsule down the belly of the lens as a means of initiating the capsulorhexis. Advantages of the technique include the creation of a large capsular flap, which allows easier completion of the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through a smaller range of movement, avoiding "oar locking" in the small incision and creation of striae in the cornea. It also allows better maintenance of anterior chamber depth, minimizing risk of radial tears. PMID:19065989

  4. Laparotomy enables retrograde dilatation and stent placement for malignant esophago-respiratory fistula

    Iskender Özcan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant esophageal stenosis with complete obstruction and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF is difficult to treat with standard endoscopic techniques. Case presentation We report a patient in whom with local recurrence of esophageal carcinoma an esophagotracheal fistula occurred. Initially the patient had undergone esophageal resection with interposition of a gastric tube. Due to complete obstruction of the lumen by recurrent tumor conventional transoral stent placement failed. For retrograde dilatation a laparotomy was performed. Via a duodenal incision endoscopic access to the gastric tube was achieved. Using a guidewire the esophageal obstruction was traversed and dilated. Then it was possible to place an esophageal stent via an antegrade approach. Conclusion Open surgery enables a safe access for retrograde endoscopic therapy in patients who had undergone esophageal resection with gastric interposition.

  5. Lactobacillus Sepsis following a Laparotomy in a Preterm Infant: A Note of Caution.

    Brecht, Marcus; Garg, Alka; Longstaff, Karen; Cooper, Celia; Andersen, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics for preterm infants have been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in a recent meta-analysis. It has been argued, however, that some of these results may not be applicable to specific subgroups, e.g. infants with a birth weight of probiotics in improving health outcomes in preterm and term infants following intestinal surgery is not well defined. We report a case of a premature infant diagnosed with late-onset sepsis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus following a laparotomy. We review pertinent published cases. This case highlights the importance of considering preterm infants as being at a higher risk of systemic probiotic infection following intestinal surgery. PMID:26780534

  6. Unlocking Runes? Reading Anglo-Saxon Runic Abbreviations in Their Immediate Literary Context

    Birkett, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Runic abbreviations appear sporadically in a number of Old English manuscripts, including three of the four major poetic codices. A convincing rational for the apparently erratic deployment of these unusual abbreviations has yet to be proposed. In this article I identify the immediate literary context as an important factor influencing the distribution of Anglo-Saxon runic abbreviations, noting in particular that the runic brevigraphs often appear in passages which deal with unlocking. To ill...

  7. Use of abbreviations in the nursing records of a teaching hospital

    Sylvia Miranda Carneiro; Herica Silva Dutra; Fernanda Mazzoni da Costa; Simone Emerich Mendes; Cristina Arreguy-Sena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the use of abbreviations in nursing records of a teaching hospital and describing their profile in different sectors, work shifts and professional nursing categories. Methods: documentary study that analyzed 627 nursing records in 24 patient charts using a systematic observation script. Results: we identified 1,792 abbreviations, and 35.8% were nonstandard. The incidence of abbreviations was higher in the Intensive Care Unit, used by nurses and in the night shift. Concl...

  8. Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon

    Saul Shiffman; Helene Cotton; Christina Jessurun; Sembower, Mark A.; Steve Pype; Jerry Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150) reported use and interp...

  9. New bilingual version of the VGB abbreviation catalogue for power plant technology released

    Hantschel, Jochen; Seiffert, Joerg [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Froehner, Joerg [ct.e Controltechnology Engineering GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the VGB Standard for power plant technology VGB-S-891-00 (abbreviation catalogue) is to regulate the systematic creation of abbreviations. The determination of abbreviations for terms related to power plants provides a common basis for planners, erectors, and operators of power plants and their systems. In combination with VGB-B 108 ''Rules for the creation of denominations and their application for power plant engineering'' the abbreviation catalogue is the basis for the creation of denominations.

  10. Exploratory laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions in children: A review of 10 years of experience with 334 cases

    Ghritlaharey Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to review 10 years of experience in the management of children with acute intestinal conditions requiring exploratory laparotomy. Patients and Methods : This retrospective study included 334 children (244 boys and 90 girls who underwent laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions between Jan 1, 2000 to Dec 31, 2009. Patients were grouped into two categories: group A (n = 44 included patients who needed laparotomy with terminal ileostomy and group B (n = 290 included patients who needed laparotomy without terminal ileostomy. We excluded neonates and patients with jejunoileal and colonic atresias, anorectal malformations, congenital pouch colon, neonatal necrotising enterocolitis, Hirschsprung′s disease, appendicitis, abdominal trauma and gastrointestinal tumours. Results : During the last 10 years, 334 laparotomies were performed in children under 12 years: 59.88% for intestinal obstruction and 40.11% for perforation peritonitis. Causes in order of frequency were: ileal perforations 34.13%; intussusceptions 26.34%; Meckel′s obstruction 10.17%; congenital bands and malrotation 6.88%; postoperative adhesions 5.98%; miscellaneous peritonitis 5.68%; miscellaneous intestinal obstructions 4.79%; abdominal tuberculosis 4.19% and roundworm intestinal obstruction 1.79%. Ileostomy closures (n = 39 was tolerated well by all except one. The mortalities were 28 (8.38% in group B and 6 (1.79% in group A. Conclusions: The need for re-exploration not only increases the morbidity but also increases mortality as well. Diverting temporary ileostomy adds little cumulative morbidity to the primary operation and is a safe option for diversion in selected cases. The best way to further reduce the mortality is to create ileostomy at first operation.

  11. Evaluation of sub-fascial lidocaine infusion in post-operative pain management following laparotomy

    F. Eshghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractBackground and Purpose: One of the important problems of major abdominal surgery is post-operative pain control. There are different modalities to control the pain after surgery, such as oral, local or intravenous analgesic drugs, regional nerve block, epidural catheters and pain killer pumps with their own benefits and complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous peritoneal infusion of lidocaine by a pain killer pump for post-operative pain management following laparotomy.Materials and Methods: This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on 76 patients (38 cases and 38 controls who underwent laparotomy with midline incision, in Imam Hospital, Sari, Iran, in 2008. Two groups were matched in age and sex. After surgery a catheter infusion pump was prepared for all patients. In case group, 2% lidocaine (20mg/kg/day and for control, normal saline infused for 24 hours. Pain score (Visual Analog Scale, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature and analgesic requirement was evaluated in 4, 10, 16 and 24 hours after surgery. Results analyzed by means of SPSS (15 software and chi-square, t test and repeated measurement. The p value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant statistically.Results: 76 patients, 39 (51.3% females and 37 (48.7% males, with mean age of 47.03±15.2 years were studied. There was no significant difference in age, sex and weight between two groups. The mean of admission days was 5.03±0.6 in case and 5.29±1.3 in control, with no significant difference between them. Mean of opiod consumption was 16.05±13.05 mg and 25.39±11.4 mg in case and control respectively (P= 0.002. Mean of VAS score, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature in case group was less than control group and the difference was significant statistically. Pain severity changes during 4, 10, 16 and 24 hours following surgery were significantly different in two

  12. Can Clinical Findings Prevent Negative Laparotomy in Parasitosis Mimicking Acute Appendicitis?

    Musa Zorlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Rates of negative laparotomy (NL for acute appendicitis have been reported as 15% and parasitosis contributed to 2%. This study was planned to reduce the rates of NL by preoperative determination of parasitosis. Methods. In retrospective examination of 2730 appendectomy specimens in Hitit University Department of General Surgery between 2008 and 2012, 55 patients were determined with parasitosis and compared with 102 age-matched randomly selected patients with lymphoid hyperplasia. Results. The parasite group comprised 63.6% females with a mean age of 15.1 years. The number of patients in the parasitosis group increased from city centre to rural areas of towns and villages (p2.2% was determined as a diagnostic value. Conclusion. It is important to determine parasitosis to prevent NL. When acute appendicitis is considered for young patients living in rural areas, the observation of high eosinophil together with negative sonographic findings should bring Enterobius vermicularis parasitosis to mind and thereby should prevent NL.

  13. Efek Oksigen Konsentrasi Tinggi Pascaoperasi Laparotomi pada Peritonitis terhadap Tingkat Infeksi Luka Operasi

    Wildan Djaya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple method to improve oxygen pressure to tissue perfusion adequately is by increasing the concentration of inspired oxygen.We therefore tested the hypothesis that the supplemental administration of oxygen during the post-operative period decreases the incidence of wound infection.We randomly assigned 102 patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital who underwent exploratory laparotomy due to local and diffuse peritonitis to receive 30 percent or 80 percent inspired oxygen for two hours post-operation. The 30% oxygen was obtained from the nasal canule and 3 litres of oxygen whereas 80% oxygen was obtained from non-rebreathing mask and 10 litres of oxygen. Using the single-blind protocol, wounds were evaluated before the patients were discharged or 7 days post-operative and then two weeks after surgery. The clinical trial was performed at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung between October 2009–May 2010. From the 51 patients who received 80% oxygen, 2 (4% had surgical-wound infections, whereas from the 51 patients given 30 percent oxygen, 9 (18% had surgical-wound infections. The length of hospital stay for both groups were the same. In conclusion that post-operative administration of high concentration ofoxygen can reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infections.

  14. Etoricoxib - preemptive and postoperative analgesia (EPPA in patients with laparotomy or thoracotomy - design and protocols

    Hatz Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Our objective was to report on the design and essentials of the Etoricoxib protocol- Preemptive and Postoperative Analgesia (EPPA Trial, investigating whether preemptive analgesia with cox-2 inhibitors is more efficacious than placebo in patients who receive either laparotomy or thoracotomy. Design and Methods The study is a 2 × 2 factorial armed, double blinded, bicentric, randomised placebo-controlled trial comparing (a etoricoxib and (b placebo in a pre- and postoperative setting. The total observation period is 6 months. According to a power analysis, 120 patients scheduled for abdominal or thoracic surgery will randomly be allocated to either the preemptive or the postoperative treatment group. These two groups are each divided into two arms. Preemptive group patients receive etoricoxib prior to surgery and either etoricoxib again or placebo postoperatively. Postoperative group patients receive placebo prior to surgery and either placebo again or etoricoxib after surgery (2 × 2 factorial study design. The Main Outcome Measure is the cumulative use of morphine within the first 48 hours after surgery (measured by patient controlled analgesia PCA. Secondary outcome parameters include a broad range of tests including sensoric perception and genetic polymorphisms. Discussion The results of this study will provide information on the analgesic effectiveness of etoricoxib in preemptive analgesia and will give hints on possible preventive effects of persistent pain. Trial registration NCT00716833

  15. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  16. 49 CFR 1500.3 - Terms and abbreviations used in this chapter.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms and abbreviations used in this chapter. 1500.3 Section 1500.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPLICABILITY, TERMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS §...

  17. 21 CFR 314.92 - Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted.

    2010-04-01

    ... offered for sale by its manufacturer, a person who wishes to submit an abbreviated new drug application... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted. 314.92 Section 314.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  18. Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Acronyms and Abbreviations in Clinical Texts

    Moon, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    The use of acronyms and abbreviations is increasing profoundly in the clinical domain in large part due to the greater adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and increased electronic documentation within healthcare. A single acronym or abbreviation may have multiple different meanings or senses. Comprehending the proper meaning of an…

  19. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications. 314.100 Section 314.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for...

  20. Compression and the origins of Zipf's law of abbreviation

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R; Seguin, C

    2015-01-01

    Languages across the world exhibit Zipf's law of abbreviation, namely more frequent words tend to be shorter. The generalized version of the law, namely an inverse relationship between the frequency of a unit and its magnitude, holds also for the behaviors of other species and the genetic code. The apparent universality of this pattern in human language and its ubiquity in other domains calls for a theoretical understanding of its origins. We generalize the information theoretic concept of mean code length as a mean energetic cost function over the probability and the magnitude of the symbols of the alphabet. We show that the minimization of that cost function and a negative correlation between probability and the magnitude of symbols are intimately related.

  1. Dictionary of International Abbreviations - Environment and Natural Sciences

    The dictionary comprises about 3000 acronyms and abbreviations, with explanations in German and English. Subjects: Chemistry, medicine, geology, air, water, soil, waste, air pollution and noise abatement, chemicals and pollutants, agriculture and food, conservation and landscaping, energy, immission protection, radiation protection and nuclear safety, industry and biotechnology, environmental pollution, waste management and recycling. It is intended as a working and communication tool for a wide range of users in industry, administration, universities, scientists and students, journalists, translators and interested laymen. There is an appendix with supplementary information, i.e. mass, volume, SI units, chemical compounds and formulas, occupational pollutant exposure, food additives, environmental disasters, environmental laws, regulations and specifications, international programmes and organisations for environmental protection, and guidelines of environmental and international law. (orig.)

  2. Influence of transfusion of lymphokine-activated T killer cells on inflammatory responses in dogs after laparotomy.

    Mie, Keiichiro; Tomihari, Mizuki; Hoshi, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Miyahara, Kazuro; Shimada, Terumasa

    2016-05-01

    The influence of transfusion of lymphokine-activated T killer cells (T-LAK) on inflammatory responses was examined in dogs after laparotomy. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level, cell numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and mRNA expression levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured in dogs with (T-LAK group) or without (control group) a single T-LAK administration immediately after laparotomy. The plasma CRP level initially increased and then decreased to the normal range at 7 days after laparotomy in the T-LAK group, which was earlier than in the control group. The expression level of IL-10 mRNA showed a marked postoperative increase and was significantly higher than the preoperative level on day 7 (Pimmunity related to cytokine production by PBMCs. PMID:26727638

  3. Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon

    Saul Shiffman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150 reported use and interpretation of candidate abbreviations Ac and Acm. Pharmacists (n = 150 interpretations of prescription orders using the candidate abbreviations APAP, Ac, Ace and Acm in typed, handwritten or spoken form, were judged for critical confusions likely to cause patient harm. Critical confusion was rare, except for omission by pharmacists of the acetaminophen dose for Hydrocodone/APAP prescriptions (10%. Ac was in common use to indicate “before meals”, and was interpreted as such, but some physicians (8% said they use Ac to indicate anticoagulant drugs. Most pharmacists (54% interpreted Ace as acetaminophen, and none interpreted it as referring to ACE-inhibitors. Acm was rarely used in prescriptions, had no common interfering meanings, and was often (63% interpreted as acetaminophen, especially when prescribed in combination with an opiate (85%. The data validated concerns about abbreviations in prescribing: all abbreviations resulted in some misinterpretations. However, Acm was rarely misinterpreted, was readily associated with “acetaminophen”, and seemed appropriate for use in a graphic icon to help consumers/patients identify acetaminophen medications.

  4. Emergency presurgical visit

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.

  5. [Interest in several surgeries for serious abdominal trauma].

    Chosidow, D; Lesurtel, M; Sauvat, F; Paugam, C; Johanet, H; Marmuse, J P; Benhamou, G

    2000-01-01

    Abbreviated laparotomy and planned reoperation(s) is a new concept in severely injured patients with multivisceral failure by hemorrhagic shock, coagulopathy and hypothermia. The aim of an abbreviated laparotomy is to control hemorrhage, prevent digestive contamination and close the abdominal wall without tension. After a delay for reanimation during 24 to 96 hours, discovery of unknown lesions and anatomic reconstruction will be possible through planned reoperation in better conditions. Emergency reoperation for hemorrhage and abdominal hyperpression severely worsens prognosis. PMID:10921187

  6. Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Pasien dengan Sick Sinus Syndrome yang Menjalani Laparotomi Ec Perforasi Gaster

    Radian Ahmad Halimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SA node dysfunction, or known as Sick Sinus Syndrome is the common cause of disrythmia and can be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the SA node. The diagnose performed by the occurrence of bradi- takhikardia episode and the clinical symptoms, could be syncope, palpitation, or maybe asymptomatic. Some of the literature defined that the perioperative management of sick sinus syndrome is preoperative insertion of pacemaker (transcutaneal or transvenous pacing. A 75 years old man underwent laparotomy with diffuse peritonitis caused by gastric perforation. In preoperative clinical evaluation the patients revealed full awake ( compos mentis, with history of uncontrolled hypertension. In physical exammination a severe bradicardia was found with pulse of 31x/minute, and the blood pressure was 190/100 mmHg. In this rural hospital there was no fascility to insert the pace-maker. The organ perfusion was considered to be optimal from clinical evaluation ( proved by the wakefullness, SpO2 99%, and diuresis 1cc/kgBW after optimalization . The chest X’ray showed a cardiomegali without the sign of pulmonary congestion. The laboratory test were within normal limit including the renal function test ( creatinin; 0,97 mg/dl, and ureum 82,6 mg/dl. We decided to perform general anesthesia in this procedure. Before the induction while patient still awake, fentanyl 2µg/kgBW was given intravenously. Fifteen menue after fentanyl administration induction of anesthesia performed and initiated with propofol intravenous injection slowly until patients felt asleep, than intubated after muscle relaxant intravenous reached the onset After intubation the pulse / heart rate of patients rose to 44 – 90x/minute. While the pulse was 90/ minute the heart rythm of the patients became irregular, a multifocal ventricular extra systole occured, and it was reversible when the heart rate back to 44x/ minute. We decided to maintain the heart rate between 35 – 40dmitted to

  7. The Abbreviated Injury Scale: application to autopsy data.

    Adams, V I; Carrubba, C

    1998-09-01

    Twenty autopsy reports, comprising 1 fall, 1 cutting, 1 burn, 1 drowning, 1 strangulation, 3 gunshot wound, and 13 traffic fatalities, were scored by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The codes were adequate for wounds of skin and long bones, and for most wounds of viscera. The autopsy descriptions were more detailed than the coding criteria for craniocerebral, cervicovertebral and muscular trauma, and less detailed for thoracoabdominal visceral, and long bone trauma. Lung contusions and rib fractures received scores that seemed unduly high, possibly reflecting the greater sensitivity of autopsy diagnosis over clinical diagnosis for these lesions. Complete hinge fractures of the skull base scored 4 (severe), which does not reflect the almost universally lethal nature of the accompanying cerebral concussion, which was itself not codeable. AIS scores were low and did not seem to reflect the lethal outcome when the lethal mechanism was purely physiologic and without a striking morphologic derangement, as in instances of cerebral or cardiac concussion, compression of the neck, occlusive airway hemorrhage, and visceral herniation into an adjacent body cavity. The scores were similarly low when therapy was delayed or adverse. Low AIS and ISS scores in a fatality from blunt or penetrating trauma may be useful retrospective clues to the presence of purely physiologic death mechanisms or therapeutic problems. PMID:9760090

  8. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  9. Emergency Thoracotomy- Isolated Internal Thoracic Artery Injury

    Islam S; Shah J; Narayn Singh V

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A tension haemothorax is an uncommon injury after penetrating chest trauma. Presentation of a Case: We present a case in which a 55 year old man sustained multiple thoracic stab wounds. He had emergency right antero-lateral thoracotomy and laparotomy. A massive haemothorax secondary to complete disruption of right internal mammary artery and a laceration to middle lobe of right lung was noticed. Conclusion: Penetrating thoracic injury with isolated internal mammary injury is a very rare ...

  10. Combining Corpus-derived Sense Profiles with Estimated Frequency Information to Disambiguate Clinical Abbreviations

    Xu, Hua; Stetson, Peter D.; Friedman, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Abbreviations are widely used in clinical notes and are often ambiguous. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) for clinical abbreviations therefore is a critical task for many clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Supervised machine learning based WSD methods are known for their high performance. However, it is time consuming and costly to construct annotated samples for supervised WSD approaches and sense frequency information is often ignored by these methods. In this study, we prop...

  11. An abbreviated task-oriented assessment (Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation).

    Mann, W C; Huselid, R

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore development of an abbreviated version of the Task-Oriented Assessment component of the Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation (BaFPE). The BaFPE is widely used by occupational therapists practicing in mental health, but therapists have requested an instrument that could be administered and scored more quickly. Both a subjective and objective analysis support the development of an abbreviated version of the Task-Oriented Assessment. PMID:8470740

  12. Value of computed Tomography in re-staging patients undergoing second-look laparotomy for ovarian cancer

    Twenty-five patients with ovarian carcinoma who had been operated and treated with chemotherapy underwent clinical examination and CT before reintervention (second-look laparotomy) to detect the presence of eventual recurrences. The prediction of recurrence based on CT and clinical findings was compared with the surgical findings at reintervention. CT proved to be more accurate than clinical examination in detecting recurrences; this was especially true for masses in the abdominal cavity, with the exception of small peritoneal nodules. The authors suggest the use of CT for staging the patients candidate to reintervention. This might help to avoid reintervantion in patients with persistent disease and to plan treatment

  13. Supra-transumbilical laparotomy (STL approach for small bowel atresia repair: Our experience and review of the literature

    Ernesto Leva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supra-Transumbilical Laparotomy (STL has been used in paediatric surgery for a broad spectrum of abdominal procedures. We report our experience with STL approach for small bowel atresia repair in newborns and review previous published series on the topic. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients with small bowel atresia were treated via STL approach at our Institution over a 5-year period and their charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results: STL procedure was performed at mean age of 3.1 day. No malrotation disorders were detected with pre-operative contrast enema. Eight patients (54.1% presented jejunal atresia, five (35.7% ileal atresia, and one (7.1% multiple ileal and jejunal atresias. Standard repair with primary end-to-back anastomosis was performed in all but one patient. In the newborn with multiple atresia, STL incision was converted in supra-umbilical transverse incision due to difficulty of exposition. After surgery, one patient developed anastomotic stricture, and another developed occlusion due to adhesions: Both infants required second laparotomy. No infections of the umbilical site were recorded, and cosmetic results were excellent in all patients. Conclusions: Increasing evidence suggests that STL approach for small bowel atresia is feasible, safe and provides adequate exposure for small bowel atresia surgery. When malrotation and colonic/multiple atresia are pre-operatively ruled out, STL procedure can be choosen as first approach.

  14. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  15. Combining corpus-derived sense profiles with estimated frequency information to disambiguate clinical abbreviations.

    Xu, Hua; Stetson, Peter D; Friedman, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Abbreviations are widely used in clinical notes and are often ambiguous. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) for clinical abbreviations therefore is a critical task for many clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Supervised machine learning based WSD methods are known for their high performance. However, it is time consuming and costly to construct annotated samples for supervised WSD approaches and sense frequency information is often ignored by these methods. In this study, we proposed a profile-based method that used dictated discharge summaries as an external source to automatically build sense profiles and applied them to disambiguate abbreviations in hospital admission notes via the vector space model. Our evaluation using a test set containing 2,386 annotated instances from 13 ambiguous abbreviations in admission notes showed that the profile-based method performed better than two baseline methods and achieved a best average precision of 0.792. Furthermore, we developed a strategy to combine sense frequency information estimated from a clustering analysis with the profile-based method. Our results showed that the combined approach largely improved the performance and achieved a highest precision of 0.875 on the same test set, indicating that integrating sense frequency information with local context is effective for clinical abbreviation disambiguation. PMID:23304376

  16. Using Genetic Algorithms in a Large Nationally Representative American Sample to Abbreviate the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Scrucca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are robust machine learning approaches for abbreviating a large set of variables into a shorter subset that maximally captures the variance in the original data. We employed a GA-based method to shorten the 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) by half without much loss of information. Experiential avoidance or the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences is a key target of many psychological interventions and its measurement is an important issue in psychology. The 62-item MEAQ has been shown to have good psychometric properties, but its length may limit its use in most practical settings. The recently validated 15-item brief version (BEAQ) is one short alternative, but it reduces the multidimensional scale to a single dimension. We sought to shorten the 62-item MEAQ by half while maintaining fidelity to its six dimensions. In a large nationally representative sample of Americans (N = 7884; 52% female; Age: M = 47.9, SD = 16), we employed a GA method of scale abbreviation implemented in the R package, GAabbreviate. The GA-derived short form, MEAQ-30 with five items per subscale, performed virtually identically to the original 62-item MEAQ in terms of inter-subscales correlations, factor structure, factor correlations, and zero-order correlations and unique latent associations of the six subscales with other measures of mental distress, wellbeing and personal strivings. The two measures also showed similar distributions of means across American census regions. The MEAQ-30 provides a multidimensional assessment of experiential avoidance whilst minimizing participant burden. The study adds to the emerging literature on the utility of machine learning methods in psychometrics. PMID:26941672

  17. The Use of Abbreviations in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Paper Titles: A Problematic Issue

    David I. Méndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we carry out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of abbreviations in 300 randomly collected research paper titles published in the most prestigious European and US-based Astrophysics journals written in English. Our main results show that the process of shortening words and groups of words is one of the most characteristic and recurrent features in Astrophysics research paper titling construction. In spite of the convenience of abbreviations as a mechanism for word-formation, some of them may pose certain difficulties of understanding and/or misinterpretation because of their specificity, ambiguity, or overlapping. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a series of options which with no doubt would lead to a better interaction among the different branches of Astrophysics in particular and of science in general and would definitely improve how research is currently performed and communicated.Keywords: Abbreviations; Astrophysics; English; Research Papers

  18. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  19. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    Mango, Victoria L., E-mail: vlm2125@columbia.edu [Columbia University Medical Center, Herbert Irving Pavilion, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); David Dershaw, D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Abramson, Andrea, E-mail: abramsoa@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles, E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); New York Medical College, 40 Sunshine Cottage Rd, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Hughes, Mary, E-mail: hughesm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Kaplan, Jennifer, E-mail: kaplanj@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S., E-mail: jochelsm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  20. Improving Discrete Trial Instruction by Paraprofessional Staff Through an Abbreviated Performance Feedback Intervention

    Leblanc, Marie-Pierre; Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated an abbreviated performance feedback intervention as a training strategy to improve discrete trial instruction of children with autism by three paraprofessional staff (assistant teachers) at a specialized day school. Feedback focused on 10 discrete trial instructional skills demonstrated by the staff during teaching sessions. Following…

  1. Text-Message Abbreviations and Language Skills in High School and University Students

    De Jonge, Sarah; Kemp, Nenagh

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of text-message abbreviations (textisms) in Australian adolescents and young adults, and relations between textism use and literacy abilities. Fifty-two high school students aged 13-15 years, and 53 undergraduates aged 18-24 years, all users of predictive texting, translated conventional English sentences into…

  2. Symbolic Capital in a Virtual Heterosexual Market: Abbreviation and Insertion in Italian iTV SMS

    Herring, Susan C.; Zelenkauskaite, Asta

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes gender variation in nonstandard typography--specifically, abbreviations and insertions--in mobile phone text messages (SMS) posted to a public Italian interactive television (iTV) program. All broadcast SMS were collected for a period of 2 days from the Web archive for the iTV program, and the frequency and distribution of…

  3. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    2010-04-01

    ... from sale for safety or effectiveness reasons under § 314.161, or the reference listed drug has been... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application. 314.127 Section 314.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Abbreviated Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire

    Moore, E. Whitney G.; Brown, Theresa C.; Fry, Mary D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an abbreviated version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (PMCEQ-A) to provide a more practical instrument for use in applied exercise settings. In the calibration step, two shortened versions' measurement and latent model values were compared to each other and the original…

  5. A dictionary of nuclear power and waste management with abbreviations and acronyms

    This book provides defined terms from the nuclear power and radioactive waste management industries. It includes abbreviations and acronyms associated with nuclear power and the sister industry of waste management, for example, NIMBY (not in my backyard). Technical definitions from other sciences which are related to the subject of nuclear waste management have also been included

  6. Evaluating an Abbreviated Version of the Paths Curriculum Implemented by School Mental Health Clinicians

    Gibson, Jennifer E.; Werner, Shelby S.; Sweeney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    When evidence-based prevention programs are implemented in schools, adaptations are common. It is important to understand which adaptations can be made while maintaining positive outcomes for students. This preliminary study evaluated an abbreviated version of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum implemented by…

  7. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  8. The impact of listening to music on analgesic use and length of hospital stay while recovering from laparotomy.

    Vaajoki, Anne; Kankkunen, Päivi; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kokki, Hannu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain management is based on the use of analgesics; however, music may alleviate pain either by direct analgesic effects or by relaxing and distracting the mind from pain and unpleasant feelings. Conflicting results have been presented about how listening to music affects analgesic use and length of hospital stay after surgery. We assessed the effect of music listening on analgesic use, length of hospital stay, and adverse effects in adult patients having laparotomy, using a prospective design with two parallel groups. Patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery (n = 168) were assigned to either a music group (n = 83) operated on odd weeks or a control group (n = 85) operated on even weeks. The music group listened to music 7 times for 30 minutes at a time during the first 3 postoperative days. The control group did not listen to the music. The hypotheses that patients in the music group will need less analgesic, have a shorter length of hospital stay, and experience less adverse effects than those in the control group were not supported by the data, although patients recovering from surgery enjoyed listening to music. Music listening may enhance quality of hospital stay and recovery in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and could be a useful tool to relieve the patient's pain experience. PMID:22847288

  9. Effect of early endoscopic therapy and therapeutic laparotomy on serum markers of severe acute biliary pancreatitis patients

    Yan-Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of early endoscopic therapy and therapeutic laparotomy on serum markers of severe acute biliary pancreatitis patients. Methods: 80 cases of patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and divided into endoscopic group and open group. 3 d after treatment, serum was collected and contents of inflammation related molecules, liver and kidney function indicators and signaling pathway molecules were detected. Results: (1) inflammation related molecules: compared with open group, contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, PCT, HMGB-1 and MCP-1 in serum of endoscopic group were lower; contents of anti-inflammatory cytokines sTNF-1R and sTNF-2R were higher; (2) liver and kidney function indicators: compared with open group, contents of ALT, AST, OCT, GLDH, Cys C and Hcy in serum of endoscopic group were lower;(3) pancreatitis related signaling pathways: compared with open group, mRNA contents of JNKK2, SAPK, c-Jun, Elk-1, Smad2, Smad3, ERK and p38 in serum of endoscopic group were lower. Conclusion: Early endoscopic therapy is helpful to relieve inflammatory response, prevent liver and kidney function injury and inhibit activation of pancreatitis related signaling pathways; it’s an ideal method in treating severe acute biliary pancreatitis.

  10. The Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST): A Preliminary Assessment of Test Validity.

    Vanhove, Adam J; Harms, P D; DeSimone, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    The 24-item Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST) was developed to efficiently measure character strengths (Peterson, Park, & Castro, 2011 ). However, its validity for this purpose has not yet been sufficiently established. Using confirmatory factor analysis to test a series of structural models, only a modified bifactor model showed reasonably acceptable fit. Further analyses of this model failed to demonstrate measurement invariance between male and female respondents. Relationships between ACST dimension and Big Five personality trait scores were generally weak-to-moderate, and support for hypotheses regarding each ACST virtue's expected correspondence with specific Big Five dimensions was mixed. Finally, scores on ACST dimensions accounted for a combined 12% of the variance in satisfaction with life scores, after controlling for socially desirability. Although an abbreviated measure of character strengths represents a practical need, considerable improvements to the ACST are needed for it to adequately meet this purpose. PMID:26983465

  11. Evaluation of an abbreviated abdominal-pelvic CT blunt trauma protocol

    In an attempt to expedite computed tomographic (CT) imaging in patients who have suffered multiple blunt trauma, an abbreviated abdominal-pelvic CT protocol was designed and tested. From 30 cases of abnormal full, 1.0-cm abdominal-pelvic scans, only post-contrast scans were selected for blind review at 1.0-cm increments through the spleen, 2.0-cm increments through the liver, and 3.0-cm increments to the symphysis pubis. Results and receiver operating characteristic curves were correlated with formal scan results and medical records. Preliminary results suggest that with adequate plain film spine and pelvic evaluation abbreviated abdominal -pelvic CT scanning may be effective in evaluating solid organ injury and in establishing trauma imaging protocols for the victim of multiple blunt trauma

  12. McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI: Proposal of an abbreviate version

    Chamarrita Farkas Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.

  13. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale

    Farahman Farrokhi; Shahram vahedi

    2011-01-01

    "nObjective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. "nMethod: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. "nResults: As expected,...

  14. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  15. Lung Emergencies

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  16. Laparoscopy versus mini-laparotomy peritoneal catheter insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    He, Mingliang; Ouyang, Leping; Wang, Shengwen; Zheng, Meiguang; Liu, Anmin

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment is the main treatment method for hydrocephalus. The traditional operative approach for peritoneal catheter insertion is mini-laparotomy. In recent years, laparoscopy-assisted insertion has become increasingly popular. It seems likely that use of an endoscope could lower the incidence of shunt malfunction. However, there is no consensus about the benefits of laparoscopy-assisted peritoneal catheter insertion. METHODS A systematic search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases. A manual search for reference lists was conducted. The protocol was prepared according to the interventional systematic reviews of the Cochrane Handbook, and the article was written on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. RESULTS Eleven observational trials and 2 randomized controlled trials were included. Seven operation-related outcome measures were analyzed, and 3 of these showed no difference between operative techniques. The results of the meta-analysis are as follows: in the laparoscopy group, the rate of distal shunt failure was lower (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.67; p = 0.0003), the absolute effect is 7.11% for distal shunt failure, the number needed to treat is 14 (95% CI 8-23), operative time was shorter (mean difference [MD], -12.84; 95% CI -20.68 to -5.00; p = 0.001), and blood loss was less (MD -9.93, 95% CI -17.56 to -2.31; p = 0.01). In addition, a borderline statistically significant difference tending to laparoscopic technique was observed in terms of hospital stay (MD -1.77, 95% CI -3.67 to 0.13; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS To some extent, a laparoscopic insertion technique could yield a better prognosis, mainly because it is associated with a lower distal failure rate and shorter operative time, which would be clinically relevant. PMID:27581319

  17. Identification of the high risk emergency surgical patient: Which risk prediction model should be used?

    Stephen Stonelake; Peter Thomson; Nigel Suggett

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: National guidance states that all patients having emergency surgery should have a mortality risk assessment calculated on admission so that the ‘high risk’ patient can receive the appropriate seniority and level of care. We aimed to assess if peri-operative risk scoring tools could accurately calculate mortality and morbidity risk. Methods: Mortality risk scores for 86 consecutive emergency laparotomies, were calculated using pre-operative (ASA, Lee index) and post-operative ...

  18. Site and number of liver tumors recorded at angiography and computed tomography compared with the findings at laparotomy and of resected liver specimens

    Angiography and computed tomography (CT) were performed in 96 patients before laparotomy for an intended liver resection. Of these, 73 patients underwent liver resection, from a local excision to a trisegmentectomy. The accuracy of angiography in tumor localization was 77% when the results were compared with the findings at laparotomy and from resected specimens. With CT the accuracy was 85%. In 47 patients an analysis of the number of tumor nodules was possible. There were 76 nodules, and 42 (55%) were correctly identified by angiography and 58% (76%) byCT. Thirty-four tumor nodules were not seen at angiography, with the majority of these situated in the left liver lobe. At CT, 18 nodules were not observed, about equal numbers in right and left lobes. Five lesions thought to be present at angiography (9 at CT), could not be verified upon inspecting the resected specimens. Neither angiography nor CT seems to be reliable enough for an accurate prediction of resectability of liver tumors prior to laparotomy. (orig.)

  19. BUSINESS ENGLISH OUTSIDE THE BOX. BUSINESS JARGON AND ABBREVIATIONS IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

    Pop Anamaria-Mirabela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business English is commonly understood language, yet Harvard Business Review called business jargon “The Silent Killer of Big Companies”. As we all have been taught in school, we are aware of the fact that in communication we must comply with linguistic rules so that our message gets across succinctly. Yet, there is one place where all these rules can be omitted (at least in the recent decades: the corporate office. Here, one can use euphemisms and clichés, can capitalize any word that is considered important, the passive voice is used wherever possible and abbreviations occur in every sentence. The worst part is that all of these linguistic enormities are carried out deliberately. The purpose of this paper is to analyse to what extent business jargon and abbreviations have affected business communication (which most of the time, it is filled with opaque language to mask different activities and operations and the reasons for which these linguistic phenomena have become so successful in the present. One of the reasons for the research is that in business English, jargon can be annoying because it overcomplicates. It is frequently unnecessary and it can transform a simple idea or instruction into something very confusing. It is true that every field has its jargon. Education, journalism, law, politics, medicine, urban planning – no filed is immune. Yet, it seems that business jargon has been described as “the most annoying”. Another reason is that jargon tends to be elitist. Those who do not understand the terms feel confused and uncertain. The paper starts with defining these two concepts, business jargon and abbreviations, and then it attempts to explain the “unusual” pervasion of these, both in business communication and in everyday communication. For this, the paper includes a list with the most common business jargon and abbreviations. In this view, the authors have accessed different economic blogs and specialty journals

  20. Abbreviations list

    2013-01-01

    Adege National Agency for Mosquito Destruction and Management of Mosquito-controlled Areas(Agence nationale pour la démoustication et la gestion des espaces naturels démoustiqués) AFD French Development Agency(Agence française de développement) Afssa French Agency for Health Security of Food(Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments) Afsset French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Safety(Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l’environnement et du travail) Anaes French Na...

  1. An abbreviated version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS

    MD Yasuhiro Kaneda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A short version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS was derived. Methods: We calculated the corrected item-total correlation (CITC for each test score relative to the composite score, and then computed the proportion of variance that each test shares with the global score excluding that test (Rt² = CITCt² and the variance explained per minute of administration time for each test (Rt²/mint. Results and Conclusions: The 3 tests with the highest Rt²/mint, Symbol Coding, Digit Sequencing, and Token Motor, were selected for the Abbreviated BACS.

  2. USAGE OF ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NAMES OF WORKPLACES İŞ YERİ ADLARINDA KISALTMALARIN KULLANIMI

    Gülnaz ÇETINOĞLU BERBEROĞLU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations take an important place in the names of workplaces which have the feature of showing the service type that is giving by the workplace as separating its similars and have the characteristic of a kind of identity. In being formed of abbreviations some apprehensions like being conspicuous, being different from similar, keeping in mind easily and euphony become prominence as well as the thougt of save time and effort. Therefore, attempt to comply with the rules of language while the abbreviations are being formed is ignored. The abbreviations are formed casually and as being ignored the rules of language is concluded by the evaluation of data. So, it is determined that an order can’t be found and it can’t be connected to the rules. Verilen hizmet türünü benzerlerinden ayırarak gösterme özelliğine sahip, bir çeşit kimlik niteliği taşıyan iş yeri adlarında kısaltmalar, büyük yer tutar. Kısaltmaların oluşturulmasında zamandan ve emekten tasarruf etme düşüncesinin yanı sıra dikkat çekme, benzerlerinden farklı olma, akılda kolay kalma ve kulağa hoş gelme gibi kaygılar öne çıkmaktadır. Bu nedenle, yapılan kısaltmalarda dilin kurallarına uyma çabası göz ardı edilmektedir. Verilerin değerlendirilmesiyle, kısaltmaların dil kuralları göz ardı edilerek gelişigüzel oluşturulduğu sonucuna varılmış; dolayısıyla bir düzen sağlanamayacağı ve kurala bağlanamayacağı saptanmıştır.

  3. Abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms frequently used by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.. Second edition

    Miller, J.T.

    1994-09-01

    Guidelines are given for using abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms (AAIs) in documents prepared by US Department of Energy facilities managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The more than 10,000 AAIs listed represent only a small portion of those found in recent documents prepared by contributing editors of the Information Management Services organization of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document expands on AAIs listed in the Document Preparation Guide and is intended as a companion document

  4. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • Agency for Natural Resources and Energy; • essential service water; • International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale;• Integrated Regulatory Review Service; • Japan Atomic Energy Agency; • Japan Atomic Energy Commission; • Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp; • Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization; • low head safety injection; • low level radioactive waste; • Madras Atomic Power Station; • main control room; • Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of International Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Foreign Affairs; • Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency; • Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation; • Nuclear Safety Technology Centre; • Onahama Port; • pressurized water reactor; • Science and Technology Agency; • Tokyo Electric Power Company

  5. Investigation of abbreviated 4 and 8 item versions of the PTSD Checklist 5.

    Price, Matthew; Szafranski, Derek D; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Gros, Daniel F

    2016-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant public health concern associated with marked impairment across the lifespan. Exposure to traumatic events alone, however, is insufficient to determine if an individual has PTSD. PTSD is a heterogeneous diagnosis such that assessment of all 20 symptoms is problematic in time-limited treatment settings. Brief assessment tools that identify those at risk for PTSD and measure symptom severity are needed to improve access to care and assess treatment response. The present study evaluated abbreviated measures of PTSD symptoms derived from the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) - a 20-item validated measure of PTSD symptoms - across two studies. In the first, using a community sample of adults exposed to a traumatic event, 4-and 8-item versions of the PCL-5 were identified that were highly correlated with the full PCL-5. In the second, using a sample of combat veterans, the 4-and 8-item measures had comparable diagnostic utility to the total-scale PCL-5. These results provide support for an abbreviated measure of the PCL-5 as an alternative to the 20-item total scale. PMID:27137973

  6. Diabetic Emergencies

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  7. Oncologic emergencies. Analysis of surgical outcomes

    Selecting the optimal treatment strategy for oncologic emergencies requires appropriate condition assessment. In the present study, we report on an algorithm which we developed for such cases. Preoperative pathological conditions, clinical course and prognosis were analyzed using abdominal X-ray and computed tomography images from 11 patients (male: n=8; age range, 42 to 73 years median age, 57 years; female: n=3; age range, 53 to 90 years; median age, 54 years) with oncologic emergencies who underwent laparotomy at our department between January 2003 and December 2007. The carcinoma type comprised seven cases of colon and rectum cancer, and one each of esophageal, intrahepatic cholangiocellular, hepatocellular and cervical cancers. The eight patients with residual tumors died, while the three without residual tumors (all with colon cancer) remained alive over the 26-month follow-up period. We conclude that patients with colon cancer without residual tumors have a greater rate of recurrence-free survival. (author)

  8. Emergency Thoracotomy- Isolated Internal Thoracic Artery Injury

    Islam S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A tension haemothorax is an uncommon injury after penetrating chest trauma. Presentation of a Case: We present a case in which a 55 year old man sustained multiple thoracic stab wounds. He had emergency right antero-lateral thoracotomy and laparotomy. A massive haemothorax secondary to complete disruption of right internal mammary artery and a laceration to middle lobe of right lung was noticed. Conclusion: Penetrating thoracic injury with isolated internal mammary injury is a very rare cause of massive haemothorax and associated with high mortality. Emergent thoracotomy can be life-saving for these patients. Introduction: Anterior thoracic penetrating injuries may result in life-threatening complications. One of these is massive tension haemothorax with pericardial tamponade as a result of stab wounds to the internal mammary artery.

  9. Perioperative nutritional management of patients undergoing laparotomy Cuidados nutricionales perioperatorios en pacientes sometidos a laparotomía

    M. I. Toulson Davisson Correia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lack of routine patient's nutritional assessment and prescription of long fasting periods throughout the perioperative period are still widely prevalent despite the advances in surgical care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess nutritional routines in two surgical wards. Methods: Adult patients undergoing laparotomy at two distinct units (gastrointestinal and gynecologic in two public hospitals (one of them a university were enrolled. Patients were divided in minor and major (groups A and B procedures and were nutritionally assessed at admission. Daily diet intake and a 24 hour recall were performed. Patients rated the quality of the meals, as well asregistered the reasons for not ingesting it fully. Results: Patients in group B presented with poorer nutritional status. Group A patients resumed oral diets on the first post operative day and most of them received regular diets (85.5%. In group B, only 4.7% were allowed a regular diet on the first PO day, 7.0% received soft diets, 30.2% full liquid diets, 27.9% clear liquids and the remaining 30.2% were on NPO. Patients in this group had a slower progression of diets from liquid to regular solid meals, with 7% of them still on NPO on the fifth PO day. Contrary to group B, patients in group A did not present with cumulative caloric and protein deficits throughout the postoperative period. Overall tolerance of the early diet was good. Conclusion: Malnutrition is still high among major surgical patients. Early oral nutrition can be feasible and well tolerated with few side effects, when prescribed.Objetivos: La falta de la valoración nutricional rutinaria del paciente y la prescripción de largos periodos de ayuno durante el periodo perioperatorio siguen siendo muy prevalentes a pesar de los avances en los cuidados quirúrgicos. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las rutinas de valoración nutricional en dos guardias quirúrgicas. Métodos: Se reclutaron

  10. Rest improves performance, nature improves happiness: Assessment of break periods on the abbreviated vigilance task.

    Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-05-01

    The abbreviated vigilance task can quickly generate vigilance decrements, which has been argued is due to depletion of cognitive resources needed to sustain performance. Researchers suggest inclusion of rest breaks within vigilance tasks improve overall performance (Helton & Russell, 2015; Ross, Russell, & Helton, 2014), while different types of breaks demonstrate different effects. Some literature suggests exposure to natural movements/stimuli helps restore attention (Herzog, Black, Fountaine, & Knotts, 1997; Kaplan, 1995). Participants were randomly assigned to one experimental condition: dog video breaks, robot video breaks, countdown breaks or continuous vigilance. We assessed task performance and subjective reports of stress/workload. The continuous group displayed worst performance, suggesting breaks help restore attention. The dog videos did not affect performance, however, decreased reports of distress. These results support the importance of rest breaks and acknowledge the benefit of natural stimuli for promoting wellbeing/stress relief, overall suggesting performance and wellbeing may be independent, which warrants future studies. PMID:27089530

  11. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. RESULTS: We found, that a cut-off of 3 on the screen correctly identified the presence of comorbid personality disorder in 73.1% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.80 and 0.70, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The findings cannot......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently...

  12. Fabrication of Nanodot Decorated Sapphire Substrates for Abbreviated Growth Mode Deposition of Gallium Nitride

    Biser, Jeffrey M.

    The overarching theme of this body of work is the development and demonstration of sapphire substrates with sub-micron scale surface features laid out in arrays with controlled shape, size, and distribution. The key contributions of the work are: (1) the collaborative demonstration that such substrates enable novel GaN fabrication options like the Abbreviated Growth Mode (AGM) approach that can lead to lower cost, higher quality LED devices, (2) the proof-of-concept demonstration that large scale surface patterning with the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is a feasible approach for creating low-cost patterns that should be compatible with AGM, and (3) that the Aluminum-to-sapphire conversion process used to fabricate the surface structures has distinct zones of behavior with regard to feature size and temperature that can be used to suggest an optimized set of process conditions.

  13. 78 FR 25749 - Submission of New Drug Application/Abbreviated New Drug Application Field Alert Reports: Notice...

    2013-05-02

    ... Application Field Alert Reports: Notice of Form FDA 3331--Automated Pilot Program AGENCY: Food and Drug... submit new drug application (NDA) and abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) Field Alert Reports (FARs... program should be sent to district Drug Field Alert Monitors (contact information for each of...

  14. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  15. 76 FR 26307 - Guidance for Industry on the Submission of Summary Bioequivalence Data for Abbreviated New Drug...

    2011-05-06

    ... the Federal Register in January 2009 (74 FR 2849, January 16, 2009). The final rule requires ANDA... announced the availability of the draft version of this guidance (74 FR 17872). The public comment period... Bioequivalence Data for Abbreviated New Drug Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  16. Txt Msg N School Literacy: Does Texting and Knowledge of Text Abbreviations Adversely Affect Children's Literacy Attainment?

    Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Bell, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies which investigated the relationship between children's texting behaviour, their knowledge of text abbreviations and their school attainment in written language skills. In Study One, 11-12-year-old children provided information on their texting behaviour. They were also asked to translate a standard English…

  17. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Groen, Aard J.; Sijde, van der Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies an

  18. Emergency contraception

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing ...

  19. Fatores predisponentes das complicações incisionaisde laparotomias medianas em eqüinos Predisposal factors to incisional complications of ventral midline laparotomies in horses

    Geane Maciel Pagliosa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As complicações incisionais após laparotomia mediana em eqüinos têm prevalência de 35 a 87,5% e levam a aumento no período de convalescença ou mesmo ao óbito. Os fatores predisponentes destas complicações são pouco abordados na literatura médica eqüina e são inerentes ao paciente, ao ato cirúrgico, à anestesia e ao período pós-operatório. Considerações sobre os cuidados no pré-operatório, tamanho da incisão, roupa do cirurgião, escolha do fio cirúrgico e as condições clínicas e comportamentais do eqüino são salientadas entre os fatores predisponentes que, quando bem conhecidos, podem ser melhor administrados, no sentido de minimizar as complicações incisionais na laparotomia mediana.Incisional complications after equine midline laparotomy have an incidence of 35 to 87.5% and lead an increase in the convalescence period or to death. Predisposed factors to these complications are little approached in the equine medicine literature and consist of inherent factors to the patient, surgery, anesthesia and postoperative period. Preoperative cares, size of the incision, surgeon clothes, the choice of the suture material and equine clinical and behaviour conditions may be considered and well known in order to decrease the incisional complications after the midline laparotomy.

  20. Portal and systemic serum growth factor and acute-phase response after laparotomy or partial hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases : A prognostic role for C-reactive protein and hepatocyte growth factor

    de Jong, KP; Hoedemakers, RMJ; Fidler, [No Value; Bijzet, J; Limburg, PC; Peeters, PMJG; de Vries, EGE; Slooff, MJH

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play a role in wound healing and tumour growth. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) and laparotomy on serum levels of growth factors and acute-phase proteins in patients with colorectal liver metastases and to correlate these levels

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging. Sequence acronyms and other abbreviations in MR imaging

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in clinical routine is still increasing. The large number of possible MR acquisition schemes reflects the variety of tis ue-dependent parameters that may influence the contrast within the image. Those schemes can be categorized into gradient echo and spin echo techniques. Within hese groups, further sorting can be done to differentiate between single-echo, ulti-echo, and single-shot techniques. Each of these techniques can be combined with preparation schemes for modifying the longitudinal magnetization. Hybrids re found between the groups, which are those techniques that utilize spin echoe as well as gradient echoes. Academic groups as well as vendors often have diff rent sequence acronyms for the same acquisition scheme. This contribution will ort these sequence acronyms into the previously mentioned scheme. The basic pri nciple of the data acquisition is elaborated on and hints are given for potentia clinical applications. Besides the sequence-specific acronyms, new abbreviations have surfaced recently in conjunction with ''parallel acquisition techniques.'' The latter means the utilization of multiple surface coils where the position a d the sensitivity profile of the coils provide additional spatial information, allowing the application of reduced matrixes leading to a shorter measurement ti e. (orig.)

  2. The Convergent, Discriminant, and Concurrent Validity of Scores on the Abbreviated Self-Leadership Questionnaire

    Faruk Şahin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the psychometric properties of a short measure of self-leadership in the Turkish context: the Abbreviated Self-Leadership Questionnaire (ASLQ. The ASLQ was examined using two samples and showed sound psychometric properties. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that nine-item ASLQ measured a single construct of self-leadership. The results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the one-factor model of the ASLQ in relation to the 35-item Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire and General Self-Efficacy scale, respectively. With regard to internal consistency and test-retest reliability, the ASLQ showed acceptable results. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that scores on the ASLQ positively predicted individual's self-reported task performance and self-efficacy mediated this relationship. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Turkish version of the ASLQ is a reliable and valid measure that can be used to measure self-leadership as one variable of interest in the future studies.

  3. ‘LOL’, ‘OMG’ and Other Acronyms and Abbreviations : A study in the creation of initialisms

    Lundell, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Marchand (1969) claims that abbreviations and acronyms, which are also known as ‘initialisms’, are used to create “names of new scientific discoveries, trade-names, names of organizations, new foundations or offices, but occasionally, and chiefly in American English, personal and geographical names are also coined in this way” (Marchand, 1969: 452). However, initialisms that originate from netspeak, such as ‘LOL’, are different from the initialisms Marchand (1969) describes. These initialisms...

  4. The effectiveness of an abbreviated training program for health workers in breast cancer awareness: innovative strategies for resource constrained environments

    Mutebi, Miriam; Wasike, Ronald; Mushtaq, Ahmed; Kahie, Aideed; Ntoburi, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is characterized by late presentation and significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Breast screening aids in early detection of breast cancer. Nurses are uniquely placed to provide advocacy and screening in a resource limited environment. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of an abbreviated training program in breast cancer awareness on nurses at a tertiary hospital, in a resource constrained environment. Methods Using a statistical tool, the So...

  5. Diagnostic per-patient accuracy of an abbreviated hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance.

    Marks, Robert M; Ryan, Andrew; Heba, Elhamy R; Tang, An; Wolfson, Tanya J; Gamst, Anthony C; Sirlin, Claude B; Bashir, Mustafa R

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the per-patient diagnostic performance of an abbreviated gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI protocol for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review identified 298 consecutive patients at risk for HCC enrolled in a gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI-based HCC surveillance program. For each patient, the first gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was analyzed. To simulate an abbreviated protocol, two readers independently read two image sets per patient: set 1 consisted of T1-weighted 20-minute hepatobiliary phase and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) images; set 2 included diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and images from set 1. Image sets were scored as positive or negative according to the presence of at least one nodule 10 mm or larger that met the predetermined criteria. Agreement was assessed using Cohen kappa statistics. A composite reference standard was used to determine the diagnostic performance of each image set for each reader. RESULTS. Interreader agreement was substantial for both image sets (κ = 0.72 for both) and intrareader agreement was excellent (κ = 0.97-0.99). Reader performance for image set 1 was sensitivity of 85.7% for reader A and 79.6% for reader B, specificity of 91.2% for reader A and 95.2% for reader B, and negative predictive value of 97.0% for reader A and 96.0% for reader B. Reader performance for image set 2 was nearly identical, with only one of 298 examinations scored differently on image set 2 compared with set 1. CONCLUSION. An abbreviated MRI protocol consisting of T2-weighted SSFSE and gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase has high negative predictive value and may be an acceptable method for HCC surveillance. The inclusion of a DWI sequence did not significantly alter the diagnostic performance of the abbreviated protocol. PMID:25714281

  6. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated ...

  7. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    Leontjevas, R.; Evers-Stephan, A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Thewissen, V.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPAN

  8. Emergency Checklist

    ... Prevention Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call ... may save you from a visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you ...

  9. The use of a subfascial vicryl mesh buttress to aid in the closure of massive ventral hernias following damage-control laparotomy.

    Tobias, Adam M; Low, David W

    2003-09-01

    Damage control laparotomy for life-threatening abdominal conditions has gained wide acceptance in the management of exsanguinating trauma patients as well as septic patients with acute abdomen. Survivors considered too ill to undergo definitive abdominal wall closure are temporized, often with skin grafting on granulated viscera. These maneuvers compromise the integrity of the anterior abdominal wall and result in a subset of patients with loss of abdominal domain and massive, debilitating ventral hernias. A retrospective review was conducted of 21 such patients (16 men, five women) who underwent elective abdominal wall reconstruction at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between November of 1998 and October of 2000. The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experience with these complex abdominal wall reconstructions. A double-layer, subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress was used in all repairs to aid in reestablishing abdominal wall integrity. The mean hernia size was 813 cm2 (range, 75 to 1836 cm2), and the average interval to definitive repair was 24.4 months (range, 3 weeks to 11 years). Mean follow-up was 13.5 months (range, 1 month to 40 months). Twenty patients (95 percent) had successful ventral hernia repair. Four patients with massive hernias (924 to 1836 cm2) required submuscular Marlex mesh implantation. Two patients (10 percent) developed abdominal compartment syndrome that required surgical decompression. One patient (5 percent) developed an incisional hernia at a prior colostomy site. Four patients (19 percent) had superficial skin dehiscence that healed secondarily with daily wound care. There were no mesh infections. In most cases, successful single-stage repair of large ventral hernias following damage control laparotomy can be achieved using a subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress in combination with other established reconstructive techniques. Massive defects exceeding 900 cm2 typically require permanent mesh implantation to achieve

  10. Towards a Theory and View of Teaching Compressed and Abbreviated Research Methodology and Statistics Courses

    James Carifio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the highly questionable effects of educational reform and other curriculum reshaping factors at both the high school, post-secondary and graduate levels has been the shift to teaching compressed, pared-down or abbreviated courses in still needed or required subject-matter that became de-emphasized in the current educational reformation. Research methodology, particularly the highly quantitative and experimental kind and statistics, are two still needed to some degree subject matters that has been especially affected by this demotion and compression movement at the pre-service, in-service, professional development, undergraduate, continuing education and graduate levels, even though the professional areas of education, science, business, politics and most other areas (including history have become far more quantitative and objective research oriented than in the past. Until there are more enlightened policy shifts, effective means of teaching such compressed courses need to be devised and tested, if only to lessen the negative outcomes of such critical courses. This article, therefore, analyzes compressed courses from the point of view of cognitive learning and then describes 5 methods and approaches that were tested to improve the effectiveness of research methodology and statistics courses taught in these formats. Each of the formats helped to reduce student stress and anxiety about the content and its compressed presentation and improved understanding and achievement. The theory and view developed in this article is also applicable to similar compressed courses for scientific and/or technical content which are currently prevalent in allied health and biotechnology areas.

  11. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  12. Emergency thoracotomy.

    Champion, H. R.; Danne, P D; Finelli, F.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-nine consecutive trauma patients, who were treated at one institution and received emergency thoracotomy, were studied. Although 76 (85%) of the patients had no vital signs at hospital arrival, 15 (17%) patients survived the emergency thoracotomy to progress to other hospital treatments. Ten patients were ultimately discharged, nine of whom have normal functions. Maintaining a broad set of indications for emergency thoracotomy may increase survival amongst trauma patients for whom the ...

  13. Emergency Shelters

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Asholt Thomsen, Rune; Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture......The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture...

  14. Emergency Contraception

    ... the early weeks of pregnancy to end the pregnancy. Pills used for emergency contraception cannot end a pregnancy once a fertilized ... body for up to 10 years to prevent pregnancy. After you take emergency contraceptive pills, your period may come earlier or ...

  15. 妇科开腹手术切口感染控制的PDCA管理%Gynecological Laparotomy Incision Infection Control PDCA Management

    韩淑波

    2016-01-01

    Objective Of gynecological laparotomy incision infection control PDCA management. Methods in our hospital gynecology clinic operating room in July 2013 - July 2015 2 724 cases admitted (1 223 cases before PDCA management control, the implementation of 1 501 cases after PDCA management control) patients, medical staff and select 152 (PDCA management control before 53, after the implementation of PDCA management control 99) as in this study, comparative analysis of the implementation of wound infection and health care personnel hand hygiene before and after the PDCA man-agement. Results After the implementation laparotomy wound infection rate (0.4%) was significantly lower than before (2.3%) of the difference comparison P<0.05; the medical staff hand hygiene compliance (93.9%), the passing rate of hand hygiene after the implementation (92.9%) significantly higher than the previous management control 77.4%, 69.8%, compar-ing the difference P<0.05. Conclusion Abdominal Gynecological implement PDCA management mode control wound infec-tion surgery to good effect, can effectively reduce the wound infection rate, enhance staff compliance with hand hygiene and hand hygiene qualification rate, worthy of promotion.%目的:探析妇科开腹手术切口感染控制的PDCA管理é方法选取该院妇科门诊手术室2013年7月-2015年7月收治的2724例(PDCA管理控制前1223例,实施PDCA管理控制后1501例)患者,并选择152名医护人员(PDCA管理控制前53名,实施PDCA管理控制后99名)作为此次研究对象,对比分析实施PDCA管理前后切口感染率及医护人员手卫生等情况é结果实施后开腹手术切口感染率(0.4%)明显低于实施前(2.3%),差异有统计学意义P<0.05;实施后医护人员手卫生依从性(93.9%)、手卫生合格率(92.9%)明显高于管理控制前77.4%、69.8%,差异有统计学意义P<0.05é结论妇科开腹手术患者实施PDCA管理模式控制切口感染的效果良好,可有效降

  16. MEMbrain. A software emergency management system

    MEMbrain is the name of the EUREKA project EU904. MEM is an abbreviation for Major Emergency Management and brain refers to computer technology. MEMbrain is a strategic European project - the consortium includes partners from six countries, covering the European continent from North to South (Finland, Norway, Denmark, France, Portugal and Greece). The strategy for the project has been to develop a dynamic decision support tool based on: information, prediction, communication, on-line training. The project's results has resulted in a set of knowledge-based software tools supporting MEM activities e.g.; public protection management, man to man communication management, environment information management, resource management, as well as an implementation of an architecture to integrate such tools. (R.P.)

  17. Essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania

    The essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania - Brazilian city - occurred in 1987 is consequence of confront of data obtained in two distinct situations having for criterion: time, efficiency and pertinence. Besides of this, they are introduced palografic and the house-tree-person - HTP - tests. These tests aimed at the common psychological characteristics verification to radioactive accident victims' personality of Goiania and to the data existential moment for those people. Among the three tests, the one of Luscher was what obtained the best interviewees acceptance index

  18. Urologic Emergencies.

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785

  19. Emergency CT in blunt abdominal trauma of multiple injury patients

    Multiple injury patients with blunt abdominal trauma (n = 110) were examined by abdominal CT. An i.v., but not peroral, contrast medium was used, thereby eliminating the delay caused by administering peroral contrast medium and any subsequent delay in making the diagnoses and beginning operative treatment. Eighteen patients underwent emergency laparotomy after the initial CT examination. The preoperative CT findings were compared to the laparotomy findings. CT revealed all but one of the severe parenchymal organ lesions requiring surgery. The one liver laceration that went undetected had caused hemoperitoneum, which was diagnosed by CT. The bowel and mesenteric lesions presented as intra-abdominal blood, and the hemoperitoneum was discovered in every patient with these lesions. Fourteen patients also initially had positive abdominal CT findings; 10 of them underwent an additional abdominal CT within 3 days, but the repeat studies did not reveal any lesions in need of surgery. Omission of the oral contrast medium did not jeopardize making the essential diagnoses, but it did save time. (orig.)

  20. Thoracic emergencies.

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  1. Ear emergencies

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

  2. Emergency Contraception

    ... can be used after a woman has been raped. How does EC work? Using EC does not ... used has failed, or if a woman is raped. Emergency contraception methods include progestin- only pills, ulipristal, ...

  3. Self efficacy for fruit, vegetable and water intakes: Expanded and abbreviated scales from item response modeling analyses

    Cullen Karen W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To improve an existing measure of fruit and vegetable intake self efficacy by including items that varied on levels of difficulty, and testing a corresponding measure of water intake self efficacy. Design Cross sectional assessment. Items were modified to have easy, moderate and difficult levels of self efficacy. Classical test theory and item response modeling were applied. Setting One middle school at each of seven participating sites (Houston TX, Irvine CA, Philadelphia PA, Pittsburg PA, Portland OR, rural NC, and San Antonio TX. Subjects 714 6th grade students. Results Adding items to reflect level (low, medium, high of self efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake achieved scale reliability and validity comparable to existing scales, but the distribution of items across the latent variable did not improve. Selecting items from among clusters of items at similar levels of difficulty along the latent variable resulted in an abbreviated scale with psychometric characteristics comparable to the full scale, except for reliability. Conclusions The abbreviated scale can reduce participant burden. Additional research is necessary to generate items that better distribute across the latent variable. Additional items may need to tap confidence in overcoming more diverse barriers to dietary intake.

  4. Emergent Modernism

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".......This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement"....

  5. EMERGENCY CALLS

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  6. Emerging images

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  7. TORSADES DE POINTES ASSOCIATED WITH TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY IN AN ANOREXIA NERVOSA PATIENT DURING EMERGENCE FROM GENERAL ANESTHESIA.

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Michiko; Kondo, Akio; Yamada, Yasuhito; Inoue, Masaya

    2016-06-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a disease in which the patient exhibits transient, reversible left ventricular dysfunction that is triggered by physical or emotional stress. Prolongation of QT interval, a risk factor for arrhythmia and sudden death, has been reported to be prevalent among patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and is also observed in those with severe anorexia nervosa. In this report, we describe the rare case of a 30-year-old female patient with anorexia nervosa who developed Torsades de Pointes associated with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during emergence from general anesthesia for emergency exploratory laparotomy. PMID:27487642

  8. Hematologic emergencies

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  9. Emerging boundaries

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    and formalization. These principles are then used to argue the case for socioconceptual emergence and causality between the lines. This causality appears only in a long-term perspective and implies that, although the development of these boundaries was chronologically displaced across northwestern......This article proposes a processual ontology for the emergence of man-made, linear boundaries across northwestern Europe, particularly in the first millennium BC. Over a significant period of time, these boundaries became new ways of organizing the landscape and settlements—a phenomenon that has...... Europe, elements of this phenomenon emerged along equivalent trajectories. At the same time, variation in the regional incorporation of these linear phenomena points toward situation-specific applications and independent development....

  10. Emergency situations

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  11. Emergency Arbitration

    Hakanen, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Viime vuosien aikana monet vÀlitysinstituutit ovat lisÀnneet vÀlityssÀÀntöihinsÀ ehtoja pikaturvaamismenettelystÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitration). Pikaturvaamismenettely tarkoittaa menettelyÀ, jossa osapuoli voi hakea vastapuolta vastaan turvaamistoimia vÀlityslautakunnan mÀÀrÀÀmÀltÀ pikavÀlimieheltÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitrator) silloin kun vÀlimiesoikeutta ei ole vielÀ muodostettu. TÀssÀ tutkielmassa tarkastellaan erityisesti Keskuskauppakamarin vÀlimieslautakunnan (FCC)...

  12. Nuclear emergencies

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  13. Emergency radiology

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs

  14. Studying Emerge

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra;

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...

  15. Emerging Materiality

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be...

  16. Emergency preparedness

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  17. Emergence delirium

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes that...

  18. Emergency Preparedness

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  19. 21 CFR 314.107 - Effective date of approval of a 505(b)(2) application or abbreviated new drug application under...

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter, but does not include transfer of the drug product for reasons other than sale within the...) application or abbreviated new drug application under section 505(j) of the act. 314.107 Section 314.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS...

  20. Avaliação muscular respiratória nas toracotomias e laparotomias superiores eletivas Respiratory muscle evaluation in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen

    Laryssa Milenkovich Bellinetti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe associação entre a função muscular respiratória pré-operatória abaixo dos valores previstos e a incidência de complicações pós-operatórias e o óbito, nas laparotomias superiores e toracotomias eletivas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, no qual 70 pacientes acima de dezoito anos foram acompanhados, em dois hospitais similares. A avaliação durante a internação pré-operatória classificou-os em não expostos (50 ou expostos (20, estes quando os valores das pressões respiratórias máximas foram abaixo de 75% dos valores previstos. O acompanhamento foi feito até a alta hospitalar, verificando-se a incidência de pneumonia, insuficiência respiratória aguda, broncoespasmo, ventilação mecânica prolongada, atelectasia, derrame pleural, pneumotórax e óbito nos dois grupos. Realizou-se análise comparativa entre os grupos e cálculo do risco relativo. RESULTADOS: A incidência total de complicações pós-operatórias da amostra foi de 22,86% (16/70; no grupo exposto foi de 55% (11/20 e no grupo não exposto de 10% (5/50. Os pacientes expostos apresentaram risco relativo de 5,5 (intervalo de confiança de 95% entre 2,19 e 13,82. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que a função muscular respiratória pré-operatória abaixo do valor previsto esteve associada a um risco relativo maior de complicações pós-operatórias nas cirurgias pesquisadas.OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible relation between lower than predicted preoperative respiratory muscle function and the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications and death in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted, in which 70 patients over the age of 18 were monitored in two similar hospitals. In the preoperative evaluation performed at admission, patients were classified as presenting respiratory muscle function (as determined by measurement of maximal respiratory

  1. Emergency Contraception

    Gemzell-Danielsson K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse. From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, levonorgestrel alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2 × 0.75 mg 12 hours apart showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5 mg levonorgestrel pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for emergency contraception, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that emergency contraception is considered an off label use and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Mifepristone in doses of 10 or 25 mg is being used successfully as an emergency contraceptive in China, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate in the dosage of 30 mg for emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose levonorgestrel pill with an even higher efficacy. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception are available on the market today with the most widely spread being levonorgestrel in a single dose of 1.5 mg (given as one tablet of 1.5 mg or 2 tablets of 0.75 mg each for administration up to 3 days after

  2. Emerging Multinationals

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    ) and books (e.g. Goldstein 2007; Benito and Narula 2007). This paper takes stock of the mounting trend of outward FDI from emerging economies, with special focus on a group of five countries, which are becoming increasingly economically and politically influential, viz. the ‘BRICS' countries. An ‘S......' is appended here to the conventional acronym of ‘BRIC' (Brazil, Russia, India, China) to include the largest economy on the African continent, South Africa. The five BRICS countries produced some USD25 billion of outward FDI flows in 2004, corresponding to some 3 percent of world FDI flows and well over half...... (61 percent) of total developing country outflows. OFDI from the BRICS countries has grown rapidly over the last few years, while still remaining modest compared to many developed countries. Following a brief discussion of FDI and emerging economies in general the article proceeds to hypothesise...

  3. Radiation emergencies

    Elaborate precautions are taken in the design, construction and operation of nuclear installations. Even then, there always remains the possibility, however small, of accidents. A radiation emergency can be defined as any abnormal situation following an incident/accident which may result in either unusually large radiation fields in any plant/area or large release of air or liquid borne radioactivity leading to widespread contamination of areas

  4. Emerging issues

    Some formal and informal mechanisms were implemented at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment that allow the identification of emerging environmental issues. The early warning is most often provided through the expertise of the personnel and their contacts. The Ministry commissioned a study to review the process, learn from the processes in place in other organizations, and implement the appropriate changes into its emerging issues procedure. The team conducting the review answered four specific questions. The first question was: What are the necessary elements of an emerging issues tool? The second question was: What are some of the best practices in other jurisdictions? It was followed by the question: How do those jurisdictions implement emerging issues models? The final question was: What implementation is appropriate for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment? The approach involved reviewing the appropriate literature and reviewing the best practices in place in other jurisdictions, both in the United States and in Europe. Senior officials in Canada and the United States were interviewed, and the procedure was identified and described. A case study concerning the acid rain problem in the 1960s and 1970s was used to test the developed procedure retroactively. This procedure involves a variation of the top-down, bottom-up input procedure at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), with a formal issues scanning process, and the prioritizing and analysis of the steps. It was noted that if the procedure had been in place in the late 1960s in Ontario, it would have been possible to identify one or more impacts from the acid rain situation ten years earlier. Preventive and remedial action could have been implemented, leading to environmental and economic benefits for the province of Ontario. The broad involvement of stakeholders is required for an open and systematic prioritization of the issues. The authors concluded the study by identifying

  5. Emerging Jets

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  6. Emerging jets

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  7. Hypertensive emergencies.

    Murphy, C

    1995-11-01

    Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon and physiologically diverse. Consequently, it is difficult for most physicians to develop a familiarity with all the different hypertensive crises and with all drugs available for treating them (Table 4). Clinicians should not agonize over which is the perfect therapeutic agent for a particular emergency, but instead, they should focus on scrupulous monitoring and familiarize themselves with a few agents that will serve in most situations. Generally, these agents will be sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin. Vigilant neurologic monitoring is mandatory in all hypertensive emergencies. The early symptoms and signs of cerebral hypoperfusion can be vague and subtle, but if recognized, serious complications of therapy can be avoided. Remember, the patient may still be hypertensive. Avoid acute (during the first hour) reductions in MAP of more than 20% whenever possible; subsequent reductions should be gradual. In patients known to have markedly elevated ICP and who need acute reductions in their BP, serious consideration should be given to direct monitoring of the ICP so that CPP can be maintained within safe limits. In general, oral agents should not be used for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Intravenous Labetalol and intravenous nicardipine are not suitable for general use in hypertensive emergencies. In special situations (e.g., perioperative hypertension and subarachnoid hemorrhage), however, they may be employed. Their role may expand with further study. Trimethaphan may be superior to nitroprusside for hypertension complicated by elevated ICP or cerebral dysfunction. Realistically, most physicians will continue to use nitroprusside. Intense neurologic monitoring is more important than the specific agent used. Nitroglycerin is the agent of choice for acute ischemic heart disease complicated by severe hypertension; if it fails, use nitroprusside. For aortic dissection, the combination of nitroprusside and IV

  8. Is it an Emergency?

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  9. CLINICAL AND ERITROLEUCOMETRIC EVALUATION OF COLIC HORSES SUBMITTED TO LAPAROTOMY AND SURVIVED OR NOT AVALIAÇÃO CLÍNICA E ERITROLEUCOGRAMA DE EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA SUBMETIDOS À LAPAROTOMIA, SOBREVIVENTES E NÃO SOBREVIVENTES

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Seventy horses were utilized, twenty healthy horses (GI and fifty colic horses which survived (GII, n=25 or not (GIII, n=25 after laparotomy. Clinical examination was carried out and blood samples were collected before laparotomy (T0 and after laparotomy (T24h-T240h. Animals from GII, at T0 and animals from GIII, at T0, T24h, T48h, T72h, T96h, T120h, T168h and T240h after laparotomy presented increase of respiratory and heart rates, tissue perfusion time, red blood cell, leukocyte, and packed cell volume. In the same moments the animals from GII and GIII presented decrease of concentration of total plasmatic proteins. The intensity and persistence of theses alterations relates negatively to the animals recuperation and were attributed the time, localization and, severity of obstruction. Laboratorial and clinical analysis in series can be useful for the prognosis of post-operative recovery after laparotomy.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, equine, haemogram. 
    Utilizaram-se setenta equinos, vinte sadios (GI e cinquenta com cólica, submetidos à laparotomia, sobreviventes (GII, n=25 e não sobreviventes (GIII, n=25. O exame clínico e a colheita das amostras de sangue foram realizados antes da laparotomia (T0 e diariamente, a partir da cirurgia, até o décimo dia após a intervenção (T24h - T10o dia. No T0, observou-se aumento dos valores da frequência cardíaca e respiratória, do tempo de perfusão tecidual, do número de hemácias, do volume globular e do número de leucócitos nos equinos dos grupos GII e GIII, que ainda se mantiveram até o décimo dia pós-operatório nos animais do grupo GIII. Nesses mesmos momentos e animais verificou-se diminuição na concentração das proteínas plasmáticas totais. A intensidade e a persistência das alterações relacionaram-se negativamente com a recuperação dos animais e foram atribuídas ao tempo, à localização e à gravidade do processo obstrutivo. A

  10. A rare case of mature cystic teratoma in the emergency department

    Zeynep Konyar; Gokhan Eyupoglu; Mehmet Tatli; Ozlem Guneysel

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors among pediatric and female patients, which originates from germ cells layers and can be located everywhere in bodies. They are diagnosed by ultrasonography (US), which was characterized by calcification and cystic anechoic view. Our aim is to attract attention to a 21-year-old female patient with complaint of acute abdominal pain diagnosed with teratoma by early radiological im-aging. The female patient admitted to the emergency department with a new onset of abdominal pain at the lower and left sides of the abdomen for a week. The suprapubic and left costovertebral angle tenderness were found in her physical examination. We firstly chose US for imaging. The US of the abdomen showed multiple cystic masses around uterus. Heterogeneous cystic and calcified lesions were detected on the patients computerized tomography scan, and considered as teratoma. A laparotomy was per-formed by gynecologists. At laparotomy, lobulated cystic masses were removed and the left ovary had been detorsioned. She has been discharged after two days of postoperative observation. For patients of young females with abdominal pain such as rare gyneco-logical diseases, teratoma and ovarian torsion, in the emergency department should be considered and early imaging should be performed.

  11. Nano Revolution--Big Impact: How Emerging Nanotechnologies Will Change the Future of Education and Industry in America (and More Specifically in Oklahoma). An Abbreviated Account

    Holley, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists are creating new and amazing materials by manipulating molecules at the ultra-small scale of 0.1 to 100 nanometers. Nanosize super particles demonstrate powerful and unprecedented electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties. This study examines how nanotechnology, as the multidisciplinary engineering of novel nanomaterials into…

  12. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  13. One of These Things Is Not Quite the Same: A Comparison of the Patent Doctrine of Equivalents with Suitability for Filing an Abbreviated New Drug Application

    Halstead, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The doctrine of equivalents as applied to chemical patents is compared to the FDA’s findings of bioequivalence in reviewing suitability petitions for filing Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs). The doctrine of equivalents provides the greatest flexibility early in the drug-development process, gradually diminishing as the product refinements become increasingly minor. Determinations of bioequivalence, however, exhibit the reverse trend as applied to analogous situatio...

  14. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    Ewalt, Darla R; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isola...

  15. Choice of Operative Technique for Emergency Cases of Sigmoid Volvulus in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Gujarat

    Patel Upendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sigmoid volulus is by far the most common type of volvulus, accounting for 75 to 90 % of all volvulus. Most common presenting symptom is abdominal pain and constipation. . It may be initially managed by sigmoidoscopy or rectal tube insertion but where fear of compromised vascular supply of the sigmoid colon is associated, immediate laparotomy after resuscitation must be undertaken to avoid gangrene and septic shock. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the most suitable procedure for management of patients with sigmoid volvulus needing emergency surgery. Methodology: All patients presenting with volvulus and needing emergency operative intervention during 1 years duration from January 2010 to December 2011 were included in this study. Total 41 patients were included in the study of which 25 presented with gangrenous sigmoid colon on laparotomy and viable sigmoid colon was present in the remaining 16 cases. Comparison is done with respect to mortality and early morbidity associated with different operative procedures. Results: Highest mortality i.e. 33.3% observed among patients who underwent primary resection and anastomosis without proximal colostomy. Wound infection was more common following all forms of stoma procedure. Conclusion: Hartmann’s procedure goes a long way in decreasing mortality due to sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 226-228

  16. Emerging memories

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  17. Emerging technologies

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  18. Emergency Contraception.

    Batur, Pelin; Kransdorf, Lisa N; Casey, Petra M

    2016-06-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception. Ulipristal acetate tends to be more efficacious in pregnancy prevention than is LNG, especially when taken later than 72 hours postcoitus. The mechanism of action of oral EC is delay of ovulation, and current evidence reveals that it is ineffective postovulation. Women who weigh more than 75 kg or have a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) may have a higher risk of unintended pregnancy when using oral LNG EC; therefore, ulipristal acetate or copper intrauterine devices are preferable in this setting. Providers are often unaware of the range of EC options or are unsure of how to counsel patients regarding the access and use of EC. This article critically reviews current EC literature, summarizes recommendations, and provides guidance for counseling women about EC. Useful tips for health care providers are provided, with a focus on special populations, including breast-feeding women and those transitioning to long-term contraception after EC use. When treating women of reproductive age, clinicians should be prepared to counsel them about EC options, provide EC appropriately, and, if needed, refer for EC in a timely manner. PMID:27261868

  19. Effect of intermediate care on mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. The InCare trial

    Vester-Andersen, Morten; Waldau, Tina; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    . The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients.Methods and design: The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing...... emergency laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome...... measure is all-cause 30-day mortality. We aim to enrol 400 patients in seven Danish hospitals. The sample size allows us to detect or refute a 34% relative risk reduction of mortality with 80% power. DISCUSSION: This trial evaluates the benefits and possible harm of intermediate care. The results may...

  20. [Emergency contraception].

    Bastianelli, C; Farris, M; Di Miscia, A

    2006-06-01

    A specific formulation has been approved for use in Italy for emergency contraception (EC) in 2000. As expected, marketing of this levonorgestrel (LNG) only formulation has been accompanied by an increased interest and, often, controversies leading to even strong opposition on the part of those ethically opposed to the use of any method that may act after fertilization. At present, several trials on the exact mechanism of action and safety have been conducted, giving good reason for simplifying access, providing it free or over the counter, in several European countries. EC, also known as ''the morning after pill'' or postcoital contraception, is a modality of preventing the establishment of an unwanted pregnancy after unprotected intercourse and thus, probably, of reducing the number of voluntary pregnancy terminations. Two different forms are available: the hormonal and the intrauterine. Hormonal estrogen only EC was first proposed in the 60s and in 1974 Yuzpe following his studies proposed for the first time his combined regimen, that showed better efficacy and lower side effects. More recently, a new regimen, consisting of LNG, administered alone at the dose of 1.5 mg, was introduced and found in clinical trials to be more effective than the Yuzpe regimen, if taken as early as possible, within 72 h, thereby replacing the latter in common use. Mechanism of action of both hormonal preparations used for EC is inhibiting or delaying ovulation, therefore a prefertilization action. No effect has been reported on the process of implantation nor on an ongoing pregnancy. The WHO have developed a third regimen based on the use of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (antiprogestin) Mifepristone and conducted trials with different dosages, reporting similar efficacy and safety compared to LNG. Intrauterine EC was first proposed by Lippes in 1976. It has the advantage of being effective if inserted within 5 days after unprotected intercourse and the disadvantage

  1. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  2. Little Rock and El Dorado 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles and adjacent areas, Arkansas: data report (abbreviated)

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series Little Rock 10 x 20 quadrangle (Cleveland, Dallas, and Howard Counties do not have stream sediment analyses); the El Dorado 10 x 20 quadrangle (only Clark County has stream sediment analyses); the western part (Lonoke and Jefferson Counties) of Helena 10 x 20 quadrangle; the southern part (Franklin, Logan, Yell, Perry, Faulkner, and Lonoke Counties) of Russellville 10 x 20 quadrangle; and the southwestern corner (Ashley County) of the Greenwood 10 x 20 quadrangle. Stream samples were collected at 943 sites in the Little Rock quadrangle, 806 sites in the El Dorado quadrangle, 121 sites in the Helena area, 292 sites in the Russellville area, and 77 in the Greenwood area. Ground water samples were collected at 1211 sites in the Little Rock quadrangle, 1369 sites in the El Dorado quadrangle, 186 sites in the Helena area, 470 sites in the Russellville area, and 138 sites in the Greenwood area. Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at nominal density of one site per 21 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Uranium concentrations in the sediments ranged from less than 0.1 ppM to 23.5 ppM with a mean of 1.7 ppM. The ground water uranium mean concentration is 0.113 ppB, and the uranium concentrations range from less than 0.002 ppB to 15.875 ppB. High ground water uranium values in the Ouachita Mountain region of the Little Rock quadrangle appear to be associated with Ordovician black shale units

  3. Emergency teams in Danish emergency departments

    Lafrenz, Thomas; Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; La Cour, Jeppe Lerche;

    2012-01-01

    The use of designated emergency teams for cardiac arrest and trauma patients is widely implemented. However, the use of designated teams in Danish emergency departments (EDs) has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the use and staffing of emergency teams in Danish EDs....

  4. Some Common Abbreviations

    ... Coronary artery disease A common type of heart disease CAT Computerized axial tomography A type of x-ray ... Gastrointestinal Another term for your digestive system GFR Glomerular ... that causes one type of liver disease HBV Hepatitis B virus A virus that causes ...

  5. Emergency Medical Services

    ... and need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people ... facilities. You may need care in the hospital emergency room (ER). Doctors and nurses there treat emergencies, ...

  6. Emergency Contraception Website

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This ...

  7. Emergency airway puncture

    Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It ... Emergency airway puncture is done in an emergency situation, when someone is choking and all other efforts ...

  8. Emergency Medical Services

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  9. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  10. Emerging and re-emerging infections

    Victor K E Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An emerging infection is defined as aninfection that has newly appeared in a population whilea re-emerging infection would be one that has existedin the past but its incidence has increased in recenttimes. The reasons for the emergence or reemergenceof an infection are not completely understood butthey are multifactorial and complex in the nature oftheir interactions. These factors may be related to theetiological organism, the host or the environment.Human activity appears to be a major driver. Malaysiahad to deal with outbreaks of several emerging infectionsover the last two decades. They include Nipah virusinfection, SARS and avian influenza. Infections likedengue, tuberculosis and leptospirosis are re-emergingin Malaysia. Both human activity and climatic changesappear to be key factors in the emergence and reemergenceof infections in Malaysia. Our countryneeds to put in place a comprehensive plan to meetthe challenge of emerging diseases. A multidisciplinaryapproach is required and the strategies involved shouldnot merely confined to medical and health strategies.

  11. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats; Disseminacao de bacterias marcadas com tecnecio-99m apos laparotomia e insuflacao com diferentes pressoes de CO2 em ratos

    Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Faria, Clarice Abreu dos Santos Albuquerque de; Steinbruck, Klaus [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Medicina]. E-mail: mpitombo@urbi.com.br; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bernardo Filho, Mario[Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes (IBRAG). Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  12. Emergency surgery for epidural abcess secondary to sacral fistula after laparoscopic proctectomy

    Zeitoun, Jeremie; Menahem, Benjamin; Fohlen, Audrey; Lebreton, Gil; Lubrano, Jean; Alves, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented via the emergency department with a few days history of abdominal and colic occlusion symptoms. He presented signs of sepsis, midline lumbar spine tenderness and reduced hip flexion. Computer tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a presacral collection contiguous with the posterior part of the colo-rectal anastomosis, and MRI lumbar spine revealed abscess invation into the epidural space. He underwent a laparotomy with washout of the presacral abscess and a colostomy with a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. At 3 weeks after initial presentation he had made a full clinical recovery with progressive radiological resolution of the epidural abscess. The objective of the case report is to highlight a unique and clinically significant complication of a rare post-operative complication after rectal surgery and to briefly discuss other intra-abdominal sources of epidural abscess. PMID:27421299

  13. Discussion of the Abbreviations by Simplifying Sentence of “Life is Already Hard, so Don't Expose the Truth”%从“人艰不拆”等看句子缩词

    白鑫

    2015-01-01

    The abbreviation by simplifying sentences is a new language phenomenon originated in the network, which is abbre-viated by four characters and every abbreviations is single word and at least one morpheme is a verb.But most of the abbreviations is ambiguous.The paper thinks that the there is a mapping relationship between the abbreviation and the sentence The theory of spreading activation and the grammar generation can explain the mapping relationship and the cognitive process of sentence reduc-tion.In addition, the cognitive limitation of the abbreviation by simplifying is mainly from the spreading activation level of strength and cognitive scope.%句子缩词是网络中萌芽产生的一种新的语言现象,是缩略词的一种。句子缩词以四字格居多,词中每个字均为单字词,并且至少有一个语素为动词,但缩略词大多语义不明确。我们认为,缩略词与原句具有一定的映射关系,通过激活扩散模型和语法生成理论可以解释这种映射关系,并说明句子缩词的认知过程。此外,我们认为句子缩词的认知限制主要来自激活扩散程度强弱和认知范围大小。

  14. Emerging and re-emerging infections.

    Lim, V K

    1999-06-01

    An emerging infection is defined as an infection which has newly appeared in a population while a re-emerging infection is one which has existed in the past but its incidence is rapidly increasing. The reasons for the emergence and re-emergence of infections are not well understood but appear to be associated with factors that involve the pathogen, the host and the environment. These factors are often inter-related and act together in a complex manner to bring about changes in patterns of infection. Pathogens are extremely resourceful and possess mechanisms to adapt to new hosts and environments as well as to acquire new virulence traits. Host factors include herd immunity, social behaviour and demographics. Environmental factors like the climate, deforestation and new technologies have an impact on the emergence of infections. The challenge is to contain an infection when it emerges but more importantly to prevent its emergence in the first place. As the emergence of an infection is complex and multifactorial, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Health based strategies alone are insufficient. Social, economic and environmental measures and the political will to implement appropriate policies are equally important. PMID:10972048

  15. The external emergency nuclear emergency planning

    To prevent and minimize the consequences among the population and its environment in case of an uncontrolled radioactivity release becomes the objective of the emergency planning in its external aspect. In this article the foreseen emergency plans are revised, including the grounds, actions and basic criteria necessary to be followed in such situations. (Author)

  16. Developing emergency nursing competence.

    Proehl, Jean A

    2002-03-01

    Developing and maintaining the competence emergency nurses need is an important function of emergency clinical nurse specialists (CNS), educators, and other members of the emergency department (ED) leadership team. A thorough orientation is the first and most important step in developing the competence of emergency nurses. After orientation, the challenge is to maintain currency of practice in the face of incessant change such as new medications, new equipment, and new therapies in emergency care. This article focuses on the orientation of emergency nurses. A related article in this issue addresses assessment of competency. PMID:11818264

  17. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  18. Influence of laparoscopy and laparotomy on gasometry, leukocytes and cytokines in a rat abdominal sepsis model Influência da laparoscopia e laparotomia na gasometria, leucócitos e citocinas em modelo de sepse abdominal em ratos

    Irami Araújo Filho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Laparoscopic surgery is associated with reduced surgical trauma, and less acute phase response, as compared with open surgery. Cytokines are important regulators of the biological response to surgical and anesthetic stress. The aim of this study was to determine if CO2 pneumoperitoneum would change cytokine expression, gas parameters and leukocyte count in septic rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control (anesthesia only, laparotomy, CO2 pneumoperitoneum, cecum ligation and puncture by laparotomy, and laparoscopic cecum ligation and puncture. After 30 min of the procedures, arterial blood samples were obtained to determine leukocytes subpopulations by hemocytometer. TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 were determined in intraperitoneal fluid (by ELISA. Gas parameters were measured on arterial blood, intraperitoneal and subperitoneal exsudates. RESULTS: Peritoneal TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 concentrations were lower in pneumoperitoneum rats than in all other groups (pOBJETIVO: A cirurgia laparoscópica está associada com trauma reduzido e baixa resposta na fase aguda do trauma, quando comparada com a cirurgia aberta. As citocinas e o balanço ácido-base são fatores importantes da resposta biológica ao trauma cirúrgico-anestésico. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se o pneumoperitôneo com CO2 altera a expressão das citocinas, a gasometria e a contagem diferencial de leucócitos em ratos com sepse abdominal. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 5 grupos: controle (somente anestesia, laparotomia, pneumoperitôneo com CO2, ligadura e punção do ceco por laparotomia, ligadura e punção do ceco por laparoscopia. Após 30 minutos dos procedimentos, sangue arterial foi colhido para leucometria diferencial em hemocitômetro. TNFalfa, IL-1beta e IL-6 foram dosadas no líquido intraperitoneal (por ELISA. Os parâmetros gasosos foram medidos no sangue arterial e nos exsudatos

  19. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  20. Wireless Emergency Alerts

    ... Climate Change Community Emergency Response Teams Community Resilience Indicators and National-Level Measures: A Draft Interagency Concept ... the number of imminent threats to life or property in your area. If, during an emergency, I ...

  1. Dog Bite Emergencies

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  2. Searle on Emergence

    Havlík, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, Supp.2 (2012), s. 40-48. ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : emergence * mind * consciousness * emergent property * system property Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. HANARO radiation emergency plan

    Lee, Jong Tai

    1997-10-15

    The emergency plan of HANARO (High-flux advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is prepared based on the Korea Atomic Law, the Civil Defence Law, Disaster Protection Law and the emergency related regulation guides such as the NUREG series from USNRC to ensure adequate response capabilities to the emergency event which would cause a significant risk to the KAERI staffs and the public near to the site. Periodic training and exercise for the reactor operators and emergency staffs will reduce accident risks and the release of radioactivities to the environment. The plan describes the organization and staff's duties in the radiation emergency, classification on the radiation accidents, urgent actions of reactor operators in the early state, emergency response activities, maintenance of emergency equipment, training and exercise to improve response capabilities against emergency accidents. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs.

  4. HANARO radiation emergency plan

    The emergency plan of HANARO (High-flux advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is prepared based on the Korea Atomic Law, the Civil Defence Law, Disaster Protection Law and the emergency related regulation guides such as the NUREG series from USNRC to ensure adequate response capabilities to the emergency event which would cause a significant risk to the KAERI staffs and the public near to the site. Periodic training and exercise for the reactor operators and emergency staffs will reduce accident risks and the release of radioactivities to the environment. The plan describes the organization and staff's duties in the radiation emergency, classification on the radiation accidents, urgent actions of reactor operators in the early state, emergency response activities, maintenance of emergency equipment, training and exercise to improve response capabilities against emergency accidents. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs.

  5. Encountering Meckel's diverticulum in emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction

    Amin Abid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In children with intestinal ascariasis, the diverticulum remains asymptomatic or rarely the Ascaris lumbricoides may lead to its complications in the presence of massive intestinal roundworm load. Given that preoperative diagnosis is seldom carried out, when Meckel's diverticulum is found at laparotomy for obstructive intestinal complications of roundworm, the diverticulum should be removed as complications may occur at any time. The aim of this study was to describe the findings of concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum who had surgical intervention in symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. Methods A retrospective case review study of 14 children who had surgical intervention for symptomatic intestinal ascariasis having the presence of concomitant Meckel's diverticulum was done. The study was done at SMHS Hospital Srinagar, Kashmir. Results A total of the 14 children who had ascaridial intestinal obstruction with concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum were studied. Age of children ranged from 4-12 years, male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Nine patients had asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum, whereas 5 patients with symptomatic signs were found in the course of emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Meckel's diverticulum in intestinal ascariasis may pursue silent course or may be accompanied with complications of the diverticulitis, perforation or the gangrene. Incidental finding of the Meckel's diverticulum in the intestinal ascariasis should have removal.

  6. Harwell emergency handbook

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  7. Emergency preparedness in Japan

    This document presents the countermeasures implemented in Japan in case of a nuclear accident. Various aspects of the subject are tackled such as the regulatory system for the nuclear reactor or the preparedness arrangements (responsibilities of the various government and public organizations, nuclear emergency action plans including the emergency planning zones, the emergency environmental monitoring and the emergency medical treatment). It should be noted that training exercises for the population is already implemented. (TEC). 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Derivatives in emerging markets

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  9. Emergency Management Offices - Emergency Management Region (polygon)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. This file contains location information for Emergency Management Regions in the State of...

  10. Tariffs in emergency care.

    Hughes, Thomas; Higginson, Ian; Mann, Clifford

    2014-11-01

    The crisis in emergency medicine in the UK was no surprise to staff in the specialty, but was not expected by the Department of Health. This article explains how chronic, systematic under-resourcing of emergency care has caused emergency departments to decompensate, and discusses actions that are necessary to prevent recurrence. PMID:25383433

  11. Characterization of radiological emergencies

    This paper identifies conditions that should be considered by the designers of mobile teleoperator equipment intended for service in radiological emergencies. We include a definition of radiological emergency and a taxonomy of emergencies. We will indicate the range of operating conditions that an equipment designer should consider and the type of operations that his machine might be expected to perform. 2 refs., 1 tab

  12. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  13. [Emergent viral infections

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  14. Emergent gravity in graphene

    Zubkov, M.A.; Volovik, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider monolayer graphene in the presence of elastic deformations. It is described by the tight - binding model with varying hopping parameters. We demonstrate, that the fermionic quasiparticles propagate in the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry and in the presence of the emergent U(1) gauge field. Both emergent geometry and the gauge field are defined by the elastic deformation of graphene.

  15. Emerging technology and ethics

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  16. From emerging economies toward the emerging triad

    Dehnen, Sebastian; van Dinther, Jan H.; Koubek, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    In this article an entirely new structural approach called the ‘Emerging Triad’ is identified, which is dealing with the increasing regional, intra- and interregional integration of the emerging regions Latin America, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In this context the increasing south-south cooperation’s, specific transregional free trade agreements as well as foreign direct investments are identified as the main driver for this ongoing networking process. For a deeper analysis of thi...

  17. Medical emergencies in Goa

    Saddichha Sahoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa′s roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%, which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17% and fever related (17%. Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa.

  18. Consideration of Change of Abbreviated Network Chinese Words%缩略型网络语言的变化及思考--“然并卵”等例析

    李新梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the latest abbreviated network Chinese word “Ranbingluan” from three aspects of origin , struc-ture and semanteme , and it also discussed the generating motivation of the abbreviated network Chinese word from the perspective of social environment and human mentality , the combination of abbreviation and regional dialects .Considering the rationality , possi-bility, innovativeness , openness and uncontrollability , the paper analyzed the changes of abbreviated network Chinese words .%先从来源、结构和语义这三方面分析最新缩略型的网络语言“然并卵”;进而从社会环境和人文心理这两大方面探讨网络缩略语的生成动因及最新变化:缩略与地方方言相结合;最后结合网络语言的共同特性:合理性、可能性、创新性、渗透性、开放性与不可控性,谈谈对缩略型的网络语言变化的几点思考。

  19. Emergency medicine in Ecuador.

    Webb, H R; Sagarin, M J

    2001-09-01

    Emergency medical care in Ecuador is limited by geographic, economic, political, and infrastructural barriers. Afflictions of the developing world (eg, tropical infections and natural disasters) combine with ailments of the developed world (eg, trauma and cardiovascular disease) to mandate improved emergency medical systems. The nation has recently initiated FASBASE, a program dedicated to the enhancement of both prehospital and emergency department (ED) services. Furthermore, a dedicated residency program in Emergency and Disaster Medicine recently graduated its first class. Although more programs and funding are necessary to sustain the effort, Ecuador has begun to develop a modern emergency medical system. PMID:11555804

  20. Color on emergency mapping

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  1. Defining an emerging disease.

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  2. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  3. Emergency planning and preparedness

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the role of UJD in Emergency planning and preparedness is presented. Emergency planning is the set of measures with the aim to find out and to get under control incidents and accidents at nuclear installation, and to find out and to master releases of radioactive materials into the environment. At the national level the Governmental National Emergency Commission for Radiation Accidents (KRH SR) is responsible for the emergency preparedness. This Commission consists of representatives from Ministry of Interior; Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Transportation, Posts, and Telecommunications, Ministry of Defence, and institutions participating in the emergency planning, including UJD. The UJD Chairman acts as Vice-chairman of this Commission. The assessment of the course and consequences of serious incident and accidents of nuclear installations is carried out by the Emergency Response Centre (KKC) established in 1995 by UJD, which manages its activities according to the Emergency Plan. The Emergency Plan of UJD is the set of technical and organisational measures with the aim to suggest optimal measures for protection of population and environment. In order to fulfill the tasks of the emergency planning UJD established its Emergency Response Group, which consists of four professional groups: (1) Reactor safety group; (2) Radiation protection group; (3) Logistic group; (4) Information group. UJD closely co-operates in the area of emergency planning on the international level. Agreements on co-operation have been signed with all neighbouring countries, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and other European countries. The emergency preparedness is verified by various types of emergency exercises at national or international level. UJD approved on-site emergency plans of nuclear

  4. Energy emergency handbook

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  5. Flux Emergence (Theory)

    Cheung, Mark C. M.; Hiroaki Isobe

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field) in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  6. Flux Emergence (Theory

    Mark C. M. Cheung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  7. Emergency air supply

    An air supply safety device is described which can operate in an hostile environment. The system ensures that should the ring mains supply or the operator's individual hose fail an emergency air supply is obtained from a compressed air bottle fed to the operator's face mask via a valve. The valve switches from mains/mask to emergency supply/mask when the mains pressure falls below the emergency supply pressure. (U.K.)

  8. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  9. Emergências hipertensivas Hypertensive emergencies

    Gilson Soares Feitosa-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As urgências e as emergências hipertensivas são ocorrências clínicas que podem representar mais de 25% dos atendimentos a urgências médicas. O médico deverá estar habilitado a diferenciá-las, pois o prognóstico e o tratamento são distintos. Estima-se que 3% de todas as visitas às salas de emergência decorrem de elevações significativas da pressão arterial. Nos quadros relacionados a estes atendimentos, a emergência hipertensiva é a entidade clínica mais grave que merece cuidados intensivos. É caracterizada por pressão arterial marcadamente elevada e sinais de lesões de órgãos-alvo (encefalopatia, infarto agudo do miocárdio, angina instável, edema agudo de pulmão, eclâmpsia, acidente vascular encefálico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar os principais pontos sobre o seu apropriado diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada busca por artigos originais com os unitermos "crise hipertensiva" e "emergência hipertensiva" nas bases de dados Pubmed e MedLine nos últimos dez anos. As referências disponíveis destes artigos foram verificadas. Os artigos foram identificados e revisados e o presente estudo condensa os principais resultados descritos. Para esta revisão foram considerados ensaios clínicos em língua inglesa, estudos retrospectivos e artigos de revisão. A crise hipertensiva é a entidade clínica com aumento súbito da PA (> 180 x 120 mmHg, acompanhada por sintomas, que podem ser leves (cefaléia, tontura, zumbido ou graves (dispnéia, dor precordial, coma e até morte, com ou sem lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo. Se os sintomas forem leves e sem lesão aguda de órgãos alvos, define-se a urgência hipertensiva. Se o quadro clínico apresentar risco de vida e refletir lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo têm-se, então, a emergência hipertensiva. Muitos pacientes também apresentam uma PA elevada demais, por não usarem suas medicações, tratando-se apenas de hipertensão arterial sistêmica crônica n

  10. Munchausen syndrome in the emergency department mostly difficult, sometimes easy to diagnose: a case report and review of the literature

    Vanderbruggen Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Munchausen syndrome is a rare psychiatric disorder in which patients inflict on themselves an illness or injury for the primary purpose of assuming the sick role. Because these patients can present with many different complaints and clinical symptoms, diagnosis is often made at a later stage of hospitalisation. In contrast we report a case of a 40-year old woman very easy to diagnose with Munchausen syndrome. This trained nurse presented at our emergency department (ED complaining of abdominal pain. Interviewed by the medical trainee, she immediately confessed having put a knitting needle into her urethra four days earlier. She was not able to remove it anymore because it was beyond her reach. Abdominal X-ray confirmed the presence of the needle and a median laparotomy was performed to remove it. The diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome seemed immediately obvious in this case.

  11. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  12. The Emergence of Ideas

    Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...

  13. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    Sjoeblom, K

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  14. The national emergency organisation

    In any emergency situation, the organisation of the response in France is based on predetermined emergency response plans. These plans define worst-case accident scenarios in terms of safety and the measures necessary to control the accident and to protect the personnel on the sites as well as the general public. (authors)

  15. Emerging wind energy technologies

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro;

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  16. [Emergency departments - 2016 update].

    Zimmermann, M; Brokmann, J C; Gräff, I; Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Gries, A

    2016-04-01

    Acute medical care in hospital emergency departments has experienced rapid development in recent years and gained increasing importance not only from a professional medical point of view but also from an economic and health policy perspective. The present article therefore provides an update on the situation of emergency departments in Germany. Care in emergency departments is provided with an increasing tendency to patients of all ages presenting with varying primary symptoms, complaints, illnesses and injury patterns. In the process, patients reach the emergency department by various routes and structural provision. Cross-sectional communication and cooperation, prioritization and organization of emergency management and especially medical staff qualifications increasingly play a decisive role in this process. The range of necessary knowledge and skills far exceeds the scope of prehospital medical emergency care and the working environment differs substantially. In addition to existing structural and economic problems, the latest developments, as well as future proposals for the design of in-hospital emergency medical care in interdisciplinary emergency departments are described. PMID:26952123

  17. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  18. Emergency Notification Strategy

    Katsouros, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In higher education, the IT department is often the service provider for the institution's emergency notification system (ENS). For many institutions, the complexity of providing emergency notification to students, faculty, and staff makes using a local, on-premise solution unrealistic. But finding the right commercially hosted technical solution…

  19. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of emergency peripartum hysterectomy. DESIGN: Nordic collaborative study. POPULATION: 605 362 deliveries across the five Nordic countries. METHODS: We collected data prospectively from patients undergoing emergency peripartum hysterectomy within...... 7 days of delivery from medical birth registers and hospital discharge registers. Control populations consisted of all other women delivering on the same units during the same time period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Emergency peripartum hysterectomy rate. RESULTS: The total number of emergency.......7%), uterine rupture (n = 31, 14.7%), other bleeding disorders (n = 12, 5.7%), and other indications (n = 8, 3.8%). The delivery mode was cesarean section in nearly 80% of cases. Previous cesarean section was reported in 45% of women. Both preterm and post-term birth increased the risk for emergency peripartum...

  20. Electric power emergency handbook

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  1. Transumbilical laparotomy: a cosmetic and minimally invasive operative route in pediatric patients%经脐入路--一种美观与微创的儿童腹部手术径路

    李爱武; 张文同; 李福海; 崔新海; 刘月忠; 庄岩

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨婴幼儿腹部手术经脐入路这一微创方法的可行性与实用性.方法:沿肚脐右侧环形皱襞作半环形切开,最大不超过270,经腹直肌或中线剪开腹膜,拖出病变或在切口处直视下进行手术操作,可吸收线皮内缝合脐部切口.结果:2001年1月~2005年1月,57例患儿经脐行58项手术,手术时间20~170min,无1例需扩大皮肤切口或转为传统开腹术.除术后1例小肠闭锁新生儿出现吻合口瘘,无其他并发症.术后5~7d愈痊出院,随访3月~4年,切口美观,无脐疝发生.结论:婴幼儿腹部手术经脐入路安全、简便、微创、美观、实用,适用于多种腹部疾病,在其它手术范围年龄及其他系统疾病都有很好的应用前景.%Objective:The feasibility of a minimally invasive cosmetic transbilical laparotomy was studied in fifty-seven pediatric patients.The advantages of this technique will be discussed.Methods:The circumferential incision was made following the ring fold of the right umblilicus,which was less than 2700.The peritoneum was opened in the midline via rectus abdominis.Intra-peritoneal lesions were detected and explored.The surgical procedures were able to be carried out either inside or outside of the peritoneum.After closure of peritoneum,the umbilical incision was closed subcutaneously with an absorbable suture.Results:From January 2001 to January 2005,58 procedures via transumbilical route have been done in 57 pediatric patients.None of those cases required conversion to a traditional abdominal incision.The duration of surgery was from 20 to 170 minutes.All patients were discharged five days postoperatively and follow-up was conducted from 3 months to 4 years.No complications were observed in all but one patient.This patient had a leaking anastamosis.No visible scars were present and the cosmetic results were excellent.All patients had shorter hospital stay and lower operating cost.Conclusion:Transumbilical approach is a

  2. Evidence-based nursing radical psychological impact on patients undergoing colon cancer with laparotomy%循证护理对开腹结肠癌根治术患者术前心理的影响

    米卫华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological impact of evidence-based care in patients undergoing colon cancer with laparotomy. Methods 80 cases were divided into two groups, each 40 cases, the observation group were implemented evidence-based nursing interventions in this study, the control group were implemented routine care, such as general care, general psychological care, health education, fears, depression, self-assessment, then patients with nursing intervention tables and Self-Rating Anxiety scale score and intraoperative vital signs during the night before 20:00were compared in the two groups. Results The observation group without fear of proportion was higher than control group (P<0.05), the proportion of moderate fear was more than control group (P<0.05), Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were lower than control group (P<0.05), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure were lower than control group (P<0.05), heart rate was slower than control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The evidence-based psychological interventions for reducing pre-nursing patients undergoing abdominal cancer treatment anxiety and fear has a positive meaning, it can stable the preoperative vital signs.%目的:探讨循证护理对开腹结肠癌根治术患者术前的心理影响。方法选择患者80例,分为两组,各40例,观察组实施本研究循证护理干预方法,对照组则实施常规护理,如一般护理、普通心理护理,健康教育等,比较两组患者护理干预后恐惧情绪、抑郁自评量表和焦虑自评量表得分以及,术前晚20点时的生命体征。结果观察组术前无恐惧比例高于对照组(P<0.05),中度以上恐惧比例低于对照组(P<0.05),抑郁自评量表和焦虑自评量表得分低于对照组(P<0.05),收缩压、舒张压低于对照组(P<0.05),心率慢于对照组(P<0.05)。结论循证护理心理

  3. Medical Emergencies in Goa

    Saddichha Sahoo; Saxena Mukul

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa′s roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types o...

  4. Acute oncological emergencies.

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  5. [Emerging parasitic diseases].

    Weibel Galluzzo, C; Wagner, N; Michel, Y; Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

    2014-05-01

    Travels, migration and circulation of goods facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases often unrecognized outside endemic areas. Most of emerging infections are of viral origin. Muscular Sarcocystis infection, an acute illness acquired during short trips to Malaysia, and Chagas disease, a chronic illness with long incubation period found among Latin American migrants, are two very different examples of emerging parasitic diseases. The former requires a preventive approach for travelers going to Malaysia and must be brought forth when they return with fever, myalgia and eosinophilia, while the latter requires a proactive attitude to screen Latin American migrant populations that may face difficulties in accessing care. PMID:24908745

  6. Chapter 23. Emergency examinations

    The place which nuclear medicine should occupy in an emergency and reanimation centre was shown. It offers simple, rapid solutions to complex and urgent problems. However the use of radioisotopes in emergency cases is recent, dating from the generalized use of Tc-99m in the laboratory. For the sake of clarity emergency situations were classified not according to degree but as a function of the organs involved: exploration of the brain and spine, thyroid, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, blood and spleen, placenta, veins. Classification by degree of urgency was nevertheless discussed briefly since this is important for summing up and for the organization of a service. The various criteria to be met in the organization of a nuclear medicine emergency centre were listed

  7. Emergency data handbook

    When responding to serious emergencies involving the release of radionuclides into the environment, a large quantity and range of information and data will be required in a readily accessible format. This handbook provides a compilation of such information. (author)

  8. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads......Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence. In this...... in identifying excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  9. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  10. OEM Emergency Response Information

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  11. Emergency Preparedness at NCI

    Information to help prepare for an emergency. Includes resources for patients and health care providers to continue cancer care, NCI contacts for grantees, and resources to prepare and update NCI employees and contractors.

  12. Nuclear emergencies: medical preparedness

    This note outlines C.E.G.B. facilities and emergency plans to deal with casualties of on site radiation accidents, tested each year under the auspices of the U.K. HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. (U.K.)

  13. Emerging topics in FXTAS

    Hall, Deborah A; Birch, Rachael C; Anheim, Mathieu;

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes key emerging issues in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as presented at the First International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms & Clinical Involvement in 2013....

  14. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    ... Neighborhood Partnerships Children and Disasters Climate Change Community Emergency Response Teams Contact Us Continuity of Operations Dam ... Visualization Disability Disaster Assistance Reports Disaster ... Communications Disaster Recovery Centers Document and Resource Library ...

  15. Recognizing medical emergencies

    ... there in an emergency. Wear a medical identification tag if you have a chronic condition or look ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  16. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  17. Emergency medicine in space.

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight. PMID:17239732

  18. Emergency Notification System

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID...

  19. Emerging nuclear suppliers

    Efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons have usually taken two tracks: The traditional approach has concentrated on a potential proliferant's perceived need for nuclear technology and possibly weapons; a second approach has targeted the supply side of the proliferation equation. The issue being examined in this book---emerging nuclear suppliers---falls between these two approaches. The potential proliferants have emerged as possible unrestrained suppliers of nuclear materials and technology. They threaten the entire nonproliferation regime by their exporting, not their weapons development. Analyzing and understanding the issue of emerging suppliers requires a refined definition of suppliers in general. The simple dichotomy of traditional versus emerging suppliers is no longer an adequate framework for analysis. Suppliers differ significantly in their technical capabilities, experience, and regime involvement, and these distinctions result in different nuclear export policies

  20. Emergency Preparedness Plan.

    Randolph, Susan A

    2015-07-01

    Although some disasters can be predicted, others may occur without much warning. The occupational and environmental health nurse should be involved in all aspects of an emergency response plan. PMID:26187176

  1. When will Consciousness emerge?

    Imants Vilks

    2013-01-01

    The article is a short rewiev about one particular but important and essential question in the field of AI: the consciousness. The main idea is to cast away non-scientific pronouncements about mystics and impossibility in the field. To clear up the basic notions (emergence) and define the main theme - consciousness. The article proposes temporary definition of consciousness, consciousness emergence conditions and how to recognize and test the consciousness.

  2. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos;

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of...... architecture. Followed by articles focusing on interdisciplinary research and design of emergency shelters as well as educational environments. Finally concretized in 35 studies from international workshops arranged globally on and by different architect schools: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Denmark...

  3. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; J. C. Talbot; Crane, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ is generally used to refer to compounds previously not considered or known to be significant to groundwater (in terms of distribution and/or concentration) which are now being more widely detected. As analytical techniques improve, previously undetected organic micropollutants are being observed in the aqueous environment. Many emerging contaminants remain unregulated, but the number of regulated contaminants will continue to grow slowly over th...

  4. An emergency exercise experience

    Emergency exercises are held to satisfy regulatory requirements and to hopefully improve emergency response. Unfortunately, simply satisfying the requirement is often the principle concern of those who plan drills. Argonne National Laboratory has detailed emergency plans, and each Division is required to have an emergency exercise at least once each year. However, the pressure to minimize time taken from research efforts reduces the value of many exercises. During the past year, the Health Physics Section at ANL made an effort to optimize the information and training obtained in the time allotted for a drill. The purpose of this presentation is to share our approach and the results of one experience with the anticipation that it will stimulate others to critically look at emergency exercises in their organizations. To be of value, an emergency response exercise must have clear objectives, allow organized reporting, contain a documented follow-up critique, and provide for correction of deficiencies in training and in the emergency plan. A mock criticality incident at ANL was used to test specific emergency response capabilities. The objectives of the 45 minute exercise included testing: (1) how well Health Physics, Fire Department, and Medical personnel would deal with the unexpected find of an unconscientious, contaminated person in a high radiation field; (2) the capability to quickly predict environmental radioactivity concentration for a surprise mock stack release of fission products; (3) the time required and accuracy for dose assessment from personnel dosimeters, criticality dosimeters and samples of blood and hair which were irradiated to known doses in the Argonne Janus reactor; (4) how well Health Physics personnel would identify and sort 'exposed persons' who had no dosimeters (small radioactive sources were hidden on select persons); and (5) how persons from the evacuated building would be accounted for. As a result of findings, special Health Physics

  5. Accident and emergency management

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  6. Characterizing emergency departments to improve understanding of emergency care systems

    Steptoe, Anne P; Corel, Blanka; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    International emergency medicine aims to understand different systems of emergency care across the globe. To date, however, international emergency medicine lacks common descriptors that can encompass the wide variety of emergency care systems in different countries. The frequent use of general, system-wide indicators (e.g. the status of emergency medicine as a medical specialty or the presence of emergency medicine training programs) does not account for the diverse methods that contribute t...

  7. Mini laparotomy versus conventional laparotomy for abdominal hysterectomy: A comparative study

    Sharma Jai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Less traumatizing measures for hysterectomies are searched for to improve the recovery from surgery. AIM: Comparison of minilaparotomy abdominal hysterectomy with conventional abdominal hysterectomy in respect to per-operative and post-operative outcome and complications. SETTING AND DESIGN: In a medical college hospital patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled. It was a concomitant comparative study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We are presenting our comparative data of 100 cases of minilaparotomy abdominal hysterectomy (group I, incision =< 6 cm performed over last 4 years from January 1998 to December 2002 and comparing the outcome with 99 cases of abdominal hysterectomy (group II, incision > 6 cm done by traditional method over the same duration. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square and Fischer test with significance of p value being taken at 0.05 were used for categorical data, while student′s t test was used for continuous data. RESULTS: Mean age and parity of patients were similar in the two groups. Incision was transverse in 100% cases in-group I and 22.2% cases in-group II. Estimated blood loss was significantly higher (354 ml in group II in contrast to group I (240 ml. Blood transfusion was also required more commonly (22.2% in-group II than in-group I (9%. Mean operative time was significantly more in-group II (90 minutes than in group I (41 minutes. Mean hospital stay, day of mobility, starting oral diet and days of injectable analgesics required were higher in group II than in group I. Major complications were rare in both the groups, but minor complications were significantly higher in group II (40.4% than in group I (26%. CONCLUSION: Minilaparotomy abdominal hysterectomy appears to be an attractive alternative to traditional abdominal hysterectomy with fewer complications.

  8. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    ... store an emergency water supply. Visit the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Website for additional guidance on preparing and storing an emergency water supply. Look for other sources of water ...

  9. Emergency planning zone reduction

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  10. Risk adapted transmission prophylaxis to prevent vertical HIV–1 transmission: Effectiveness and safety of an abbreviated regimen of postnatal oral Zidovudine

    Neubert Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral drugs including zidovudine (ZDV are effective in reducing HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT, however safety concern remains. The optimal duration of postnatal ZDV has not been established in clinical studies and there is a lack of consensus regarding optimal management. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a risk adapted two week course of oral postnatal ZDV as part of a combined intervention to reduce MTCT. Methods 118 mother infant pairs were treated according to the German-Austrian recommendations for HIV therapy in pregnancy and in HIV exposed newborns between 2000–2010. In the absence of factors associated with an increased HIV–1 transmission risk, children were assigned to the low risk group and treated with an abbreviated postnatal regimen with oral ZDV for 2 weeks. In the presence of risk factors, postnatal ZDV was escalated accordingly. Results Of 118 mother-infant pairs 79 were stratified to the low risk group, 27 to the high risk group and 11 to the very high risk group for HIV–1 MTCT. 4 children were lost to follow up. Overall Transmission risk in the group regardless of risk factors and completion of prophylaxis was 1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 0.09–6.6. If transmission prophylaxis was complete, transmission risk was 0.9% (95% CI 0.01-5.7. In the low risk group receiving two week oral ZDV transmission risk was 1.4% (95% CI 0.01–8.4 Conclusion These data demonstrate the effectiveness of a short neonatal ZDV regimen in infants of women on stable ART and effective HIV–1 suppression. Further evaluation is needed in larger studies.

  11. Emergent geometry of membranes

    de Badyn, Mathias Hudoba; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che

    2015-11-01

    In work [1], a surface embedded in flat ℝ 3 is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ 3. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.

  12. Emergent Use-Patterns

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    with the work practice. This research-in-progress investigates the possibilities of evaluating the integration by characterising emergent use-patterns. We have studied the deployment and use of a generic web based groupware application – Lotus QuickPlace (QP) – in a large networked organisation...... distributed throughout Scandinavia and elsewhere. We have employed a research method comprising different data-gathering techniques – interview, participant observation, document analysis, survey, and http-log analysis – in an attempt to analyse how the groupware is used and which general use-patterns emerge...... after deployment. The ongoing research has been carried out since the initial installation of the application in summer 2000, and has identified different types of general use-patterns, which have emerged in the subsequent use of the groupware in the organisation. We examine four cases of QP use and...

  13. Emergence and Phase Transitions

    Sikkema, Arnold

    2006-05-01

    Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.

  14. Emerging foodborne diseases.

    Altekruse, S F; Cohen, M L; Swerdlow, D L

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

  15. Fuel cells : emerging markets

    This presentation highlighted the findings of the 2009 review of the fuel cell industry and emerging markets as they appeared in Fuel Cell Today (FCT), a benchmark document on global fuel cell activity. Since 2008, the industry has seen a 50 per cent increase in fuel cell systems shipped, from 12,000 units to 18,000 units. Applications have increased for backup power for datacentres, telecoms and light duty vehicles. The 2009 review focused on emerging markets which include non-traditional regions that may experience considerable diffusion of fuel cells within the next 5 year forecast period. The 2009 review included an analysis on the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Brazil and India and reviewed primary drivers, likely applications for near-term adoption, and government and private sector activity in these regions. The presentation provided a forecast of the global state of the industry in terms of shipments as well as a forecast of countries with emerging markets

  16. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  17. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  18. To determine the accuracy of focused assessment with sonography for trauma done by nonradiologists and its comparative analysis with radiologists in emergency department of a level 1 trauma center of India

    Sanjeev Bhoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST is an important skill during trauma resuscitation. Use of point of care ultrasound among the trauma team working in emergency care settings is lacking in India. Objective: To determine the accuracy of FAST done by nonradiologists (NR when compared to radiologists during primary survey of trauma victims in the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center in India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done during primary survey of resuscitation of nonconsecutive patients in the resuscitation bay. The study subjects included NR such as one consultant emergency medicine, two medicine residents, one orthopedic resident and one surgery resident working as trauma team. These subjects underwent training at 3-day workshop on emergency sonography and performed 20 supervised positive and negative scans for free fluid. The FAST scans were first performed by NR and then by radiology residents (RR. The performers were blinded to each other′s sonography findings. Computed tomography (CT and laparotomy findings were used as gold standard whichever was feasible. Results were compared between both the groups. Intraobserver variability among NR and RR were noted. Results: Out of 150 scans 144 scans were analyzed. Mean age of the patients was 28 [1-70] years. Out of 24 true positive patients 18 underwent CT scan and exploratory laparotomies were done in six patients. Sensitivity of FAST done by NR and RR were 100% and 95.6% and specificity was 97.5% in both groups. Positive predictive value among NR and RR were 88.8%, 88.46% and negative predictive value were 97.5% and 99.15%. Intraobserver performance variation ranged from 87 to 97%. Conclusion: FAST performed by NRs is accurate during initial trauma resuscitation in the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center in India.

  19. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  20. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  1. Characterization of radiological emergencies

    Several severe radiological emergencies were reviewed to determine the likely range of conditions which must be coped with by a mobile teleoperator designed for emergencies. The events reviewed included accidents at TMI (1978), SL-1 (1961), Y-12 (1958), Bethesda (1982), Chalk River (1952 and 1958), Lucens (1969). The important conditions were: radiation fields over 10,000 R/h, severe contamination, possible critical excursion, possible inert atmosphere, temperatures from 500C to -200C, 100% relative humidity, 60-cm-high obstacles, stairs, airlocks, darkness, and lack of electric power

  2. Classification of Emergency Scenarios

    Muench, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In most of today's emergency scenarios information plays a crucial role. Therefore, information has to be constantly collected and shared among all rescue team members and this requires new innovative technologies. In this paper a classification of emergency scenarios is presented, describing their special characteristics and common strategies employed by rescue units to handle them. Based on interviews with professional firefighters, requirements for new systems are listed. The goal of this article is to support developers designing new systems by providing them a deeper look into the work of first responders.

  3. LARYNGEAL MYXOMA : EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

    Budhram Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A sixty five years male presented with stridor and dysphonia in emergency clinic of Govt. CIMS medical college, Bilaspur. Indirect laryngoscopic examination revealed a polypoidal lesion in glottic chink. CT scan evaluation confirmed the findings of clinical examination. Patient was relived of symptoms after emergency tracheostomy followed by surgical removal of polypoidal lesion from right vocal cord by microlaryngeal surgery. Histopathological examination revealed myxoma. Clinical examination after eight months showed significant improvement in hoarseness of voice with no evidence of recurrence of lesion. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 175-177

  4. Plant emergency procedures

    Thompson, P.

    1959-10-01

    Emergency procedures are given for the water plant, effluents, contamination, criticality and storage basin ruptures. For the water supply: a loss of flow to a single tube, loss of flow to several tubes, interruption of river flow, breach of Grand Coulee dam, and evacuation are all considered. For the failure of the effluent system: blockage or rupture of effluent lines, retention basin, or outfall line; and downcomer overflow or failure are discussed. An emergency resulting in the spread of contamination is examined. Hypothetical criticality accidents in dry or wet storage are discussed.

  5. Radioanalytical emergency response exercise

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST Radiochemistry Intercomparison Program [NRIP]) and the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML Performance Testing [PT] 0904) recently conducted two separate radiological emergency preparedness exercises to evaluate participating radioanalytical laboratories' capability of making measurements under a short time constraint. Results of the exercises demonstrated that radioanalytical laboratories can respond within eight hours to better than a factor of two, laboratories need to do a better job of estimating uncertainties of their measurements, the quality of the laboratory capabilities must be appropriate and demonstrated prior to real emergencies, and exercises will help laboratories and consequence managers be prepared for the real event. (author)

  6. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    Marco Bo; Ivo Casagranda; Mario Galzerano; Lorena Charrier; Maria Michela Gianino

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC) as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to thei...

  7. Management of blunt hepatic trauma.

    Letoublon, C; Amariutei, A; Taton, N; Lacaze, L; Abba, J; Risse, O; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    For the last 20 years, nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma (BHT) has been the initial policy whenever this is possible (80% of cases), i.e., in all cases where the hemodynamic status does not demand emergency laparotomy. NOM relies upon the coexistence of three highly effective treatment modalities: radiology with contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) and hepatic arterial embolization, intensive care surveillance, and finally delayed surgery (DS). DS is not a failure of NOM management but rather an integral part of the surgical strategy. When imposed by hemodynamic instability, the immediate surgical option has seen its effectiveness transformed by development of the concept of abbreviated (damage control) laparotomy and wide application of the method of perihepatic packing (PHP). The effectiveness of these two conservative and cautious strategies for initial management is evidenced by current experience, but the management of secondary events that may arise with the most severe grades of injury must be both rapid and effective. PMID:27519150

  8. Emergence of regional clusters

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  9. Financing emerging energies

    This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent income

  10. The Emergence of Quantifiers

    S. Pauw; J. Hilferty

    2012-01-01

    Human natural languages use quantifiers as ways to designate the number of objects of a set. They include numerals, such as "three", or circumscriptions, such as "a few". The latter are not only underdetermined but also context dependent. We provide a cultural-evolution explanation for the emergence

  11. LNG - emergency control

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  12. Emergency gas processing device

    The present invention provides an emergency gas processing device which discharged contaminated air in a reactor building to the outside. Namely, a suction port of an emergency gas processing pipeline is disposed in the inside of the reactor building. The exit of the pipeline is connected to an exhaustion pipe of the building. On the side of the inlet of the pipeline, there are disposed an inlet valve, an air dryer, a blower, a filter unit and an exit valve from the suction port to the downstream. A heater is disposed to the air dryer. A recycling pipeline equipped with an automatic closing valve for connecting the inlet side of the inlet valve and the inlet side of the exit valve is disposed. Then, the moisture in an emergency gas flown from the inlet valve is removed, heated by the heater, and the temperature of the emergency gas is elevated. Impurities are removed by the filter unit. The automatic closing valve of the recycling pipeline is opened and the blower and the heater are operated to keep the temperature and humidity in the filter unit to a predetermined value during stand-by time. Upon occurrence of an accident, the automatic closing valve is closed, and the aimed system operation is preformed. (I.S.)

  13. Crowdfunding in Emerging Markets

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to capture lessons learned from East African entrepreneurs who were some of crowdfunding’s first adopters. Their experiences can serve as a practical guide for entrepreneurs looking to more effectively utilize crowdfunding across all emerging markets. In order to gather this data, the World Bank conducted interviews with a number of East African technology entr...

  14. Fire Department Emergency Response

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  15. Emergency medicine in Vietnam.

    Richards, J R

    1997-04-01

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future. PMID:9095019

  16. Paediatric emergencies: non-traumatic abdominal emergencies

    Presentation with acute abdominal pain or abdominal symptopathology is a very common cause of presentation of children to hospital. The causes are dependent in part on the age of the child, in part on the presence of previous surgery, and can be divided into those that relate to congenital abnormalities at whatever age they present, acquired disease and infection. Children, particularly young children are often poor historians, and therefore the clinical examination and the laboratory investigations are important in helping to come to a diagnosis. Primary imaging of abdominal emergencies in childhood is a radiograph of the abdomen, followed by ultrasound. Further imaging depends on the results of these studies. An ordered review of the abdomen radiograph is important if the salient features on X-ray are not to be missed. Practitioners should be competent with abdominal ultrasound in children and know where to seek the causes of disease, as these are different from those that are obtained in many instances in adults. Familiarity with the likely causes is important. The three commonest causes of acute abdominal pain in childhood are, in young infants, intussusception, appendicitis and mesenteric adenitis. In older children, inflammatory bowel disease and ovarian pathology are also included. This article details the approach to imaging and the salient features of some of the conditions. (orig.)

  17. On the Reality of Emergents

    Charbel Niño El-Hani

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy over the notion of emergence has recently re-emerged But a rigorous debate concerning how it might be explained or defined often lacking Emergence is discussed heir under two strict conditions (I emergents can be predictable from the knowledge about a system's parts, (11 emergents can be regarded as dependent on, and determined by, the system's micro-structure O’Connor’s definition of an emergent property is taken as a starting-point for a new definition, incorporating Emmeche and colleagues’ analysis of downward causation and Baas' treatment of emergence It is not necessary to assume that das definition might provide die solution to the problem of emergence Rather, theoretical pluralism regarding different pragmatically-workable notions of emergence is welcome The reality of emergents is discussed here from the standpoint of Dennet’s mild realism.

  18. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  19. Hemograma e proteinograma plasmático de eqüinos hígidos e de eqüinos acometidos por abdômem agudo, antes e após laparotomia Hemogram and plasma proteins of healthy horses and horses with acute abdomen before and after laparotomy

    J.J. Fagliari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 20 eqüinos adultos, 10 sadios e 10 acometidos por abdômen agudo, submetidos à laparotomia. O exame clínico e a colheita de amostras de sangue foram realizados antes da laparotomia e diariamente, a partir da cirurgia, até o 10º dia após a intervenção. Constatou-se elevação da temperatura retal, das freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, do número de hemácias e de leucócitos, do volume globular e dos valores das proteínas plasmáticas após a cirurgia, em ambos os grupos, porém com valores mais elevados nos animais enfermos, especialmente do número de neutrófilos. O proteinograma plasmático dos eqüinos com abdômen agudo mostrou que houve elevação significativa nas concentrações de proteínas na fase aguda com maiores valores ao redor de 48 horas após a cirurgia. Os resultados indicaram que o padrão de elevação e decréscimo dessas proteínas pode ser útil na definição do prognóstico do quadro clínico de abdômen agudo e da recuperação cirúrgica dos eqüinos.Hemogram and plasma protein concentrations of healthy horses and horses affected with acute abdomen before and after laparotomy were determined to investigate if these determinations can be of help on the diagnosis and prognosis of the post-operative intercurrence. The body temperature, respiratory and heart rates, red blood cell, leukocyte and neutrophil counts, packed cell volume, and plasma protein concentrations increased after laparotomy, mainly in sick horses. Acute phase protein concentrations were higher in the horses affected with acute abdomen than in the healthy horses with the highest values detected at about 48 hours after surgery. The results suggest that determining the level of these proteins can be useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of post-operative recovery after laparotomy in healthy horses and in horses affected with acute abdomen.

  20. Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations

    ... virus that causes one type of liver disease HCT Hematocrit A blood test measurement HCV Hepatitis C ... A type of joint disease RBC Red blood cell A type of blood cell RSV Respiratory syncytial ...

  1. Emergency plan belgian experience

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions

  2. How Emergent is Gravity?

    Bhattacharya, Swastik

    2015-01-01

    General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a space-like hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this essay, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and, hence gravity is truly emergent.

  3. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  4. The Emerging City

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development at...... the urban milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over...... a period of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether...

  5. Preparing for Emergency

    Melchiors, Jacob; Todsen, Tobias; Nilsson, Philip;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency cricothyrodotomy (EC) is a lifesaving procedure. Evidence-based assessment of training effects and competency levels is relevant to all departments involved in emergency airway management. As most training uses low-fidelity models, the predictive value of good performance on...... created. Sixteen physicians (7 experienced surgeons and 9 novice physicians) performed an EC on a low-fidelity model and a cadaver. Two blinded raters assessed video recordings of performances using the assessment tool. RESULTS: We found a high interrater reliability, based on a Pearson's r (0.81), and...... good evidence for validity, based on successfully distinguishing the 2 groups, using an independent samples t test (P < .001). We found a good correlation between performance on a low-fidelity model and the cadaver with an R (2) = 0.78. CONCLUSION: The tool for assessing EC competence proved reliable...

  6. Emergency preparedness involves cooperation

    The measures of the Finnish authorities in radiation emergency situations are summarised in the article. The emphasis of emergency measures has sifted to peace-time accident preparedness. The potential radiation risk sources include nuclear power plant accidents, passing nuclear-driven ships, radioactive wastes etc. In Finland the Ministry of the Interior is the highest authority in matters of radiation control and preparedness. For analysing radiation situations and ensuring compliance with recommended actions, the Ministry relies on the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the Finnish Meteorological Institute as its main expert bodies. Other authorities, such as Defence Forces and fire departments, also play an important role in situations involving a radiation hazard

  7. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  8. [Medical emergency teams

    Bunkenborg, G.; Lund, C.; Petersen, John Asger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of medical emergency teams (MET) is to identify and treat deteriorating patients on general wards, and to avoid cardiac arrest, unplanned intensive care unit admission and death. The effectiveness of METs has yet to be proven, as the only two randomised, controlled trials on the subject...... show conflicting results. Despite the lack of evidence, METs are gaining popularity and are being implemented in Danish hospitals as part of Operation Life Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  9. Pediatric oncologic emergencies

    Oncologic emergencies arise in three ways: disease or therapy induced cytopenias; a space occupying lesion causing pressure on or obstruction of surrounding tissues; or leukemia or tumors creating life-threatening metabolic or hormonal problems. Knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of these emergencies are essential in pediatric oncologic nursing. Neutropenia opens the door for all manner of infections, but the most life threatening is septicemia progressing to shock. A variety of organisms can cause septic shock in the neutropenic patient, but episodes are most often due to gram-negative organisms and the endotoxins they release. Shock, while still compensated, may present with a elevated or subnormal temperature, flushed, warm, dry skin, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, tachypnoea and irritability, but without medical intervention will progress to hypo tension, cool, clammy extremities, decreased urinary out- put, and eventually to bradycardia and cardiogenic shock. Another emergency in the cytopenia category is bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia. Of greatest concern is intracranial hemorrhage that may occur at platelet counts of less than 5,000/mm3. Space-occupying lesions of the chest may produce superior vena cava syndrome (SVGS), pleural and pericardial effusions, and cardiac tamponade. SVGS is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and presents as cough, hoarseness, dyspnea, orthopnea and chest pain. Signs include swelling, plethora, cyanosis, edema of conjunctiva and wheezing. Pleural and pericardial effusions present with respiratory or cardiac distress as does cardiac tamponade. Abdominal emergencies arise because of inflammation, mechanical obstruction, hemorrhage (often from steroid induced ulcers), and perforation. Pain is the most common presenting symptom, although vital sign alterations, fever, blood in vomitus or stool, abdominal distension and cessation of flatus are also important components of the acute abdomen

  10. Influenza: an emerging disease.

    Webster, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Because all known influenza A subtypes exist in the aquatic bird reservoir, influenza is not an eradicable disease; prevention and control are the only realistic goals. If people, pigs, and aquatic birds are the principal variables associated with interspecies transfer of influenza virus and the emergence of new human pandemic strains, influenza surveillance in these species is indicated. Live-bird markets housing a wide variety of avian species together (chickens, ducks, geese, pigeon, turke...

  11. Neurologic emergencies in pregnancy.

    Donaldson, J O

    1991-06-01

    Any one neurologic emergency is rare during pregnancy. As a group, neurologic disorders are a major cause of maternal mortality. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and ready access to the collective experience of other clinicians. This article discusses the management of status epilepticus, eclamptic hypertensive encephalopathy, stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage, myasthenic crisis, porphyric crisis, acute Guillain-Barré syndrome, autonomic hyperreflexia, malignant hyperthermia, chorea gravidarum, and Wernicke's encephalopathy. PMID:1945251

  12. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  13. Attacks on Emerging Architectures

    Hanna, Steven Craig

    2012-01-01

    New architectures require careful examination of security properties in order to assess and contain new threats. In light of this, emerging technologies, such as web APIs, medical devices, and applications on mobile phones, are a new security landscape that has recurring security problems. We develop new techniques to analyze these applications for security vulnerabilities, utilizing techniques including: dynamic symbolic execution, binary analysis and reverse engineering, and wide scale appl...

  14. Advances in emergency networking

    de Graaf,, Dirk C; Berg, van den, C.A.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Elfrink, Herman; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia; Haan, de, R.J.; Marvelde, te, Arjan; Ommeren, van, F.J.; Roijers, Frank; Stemerdink, Jan; Tromp, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Crisis situations require fast regain of control. Wireless ad-hoc networks will enable emergency services to act upon the actual status of the situation by retrieving and exchanging detailed up-to-date information. Deployment of highbandwidth, robust, self-organising ad-hoc networks will therefore enable quicker response to typical hat/where/when questions, than the more vulnerable low-bandwidth communication networks currently in use. This paper addresses a number of results of the projects ...

  15. Web Science emerges

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The relentless rise in Web pages and links is creating emergent properties, from social networks to virtual identity theft, that are transforming society. A new discipline, Web Science, aims to discover how Web traits arise and how they can be harnessed or held in check to benefit society. Important advances are beginning to be made; more work can solve major issues such as securing privacy and conveying trust.

  16. Run an emergency helpline.

    Stark, C; Christie, P; Marr, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Telephone helplines are an effective way of dealing with health related incidents in which large numbers of people need personal counselling or information for reassurance or case finding. Helplines often have to be set up at short notice, which is labour intensive and makes recruitment of appropriate staff difficult. They should ideally be part of local emergency planning resources. Doctors need to be included in the team organising the helpline to ensure that staff are properly briefed, to ...

  17. Avenues for emergent ecologies

    Bartlett, Stuart; Bullock, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present some fascinating behaviour emerging from a simple synthetic chemistry model. The results of Ono and Ikegami (2001) demonstrated the spontaneous formation of primitive, self-reproducing cells from a random homogeneous mixture of chemical components. Their model made use of a simple, artificial reaction network. Discrete particles were placed on a triangular lattice and the dynamics consisted of the following particle transitions: translation over one lattice spacing an...

  18. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A

    Cerin Ester

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. Methods A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. Results The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS and 10 (NEWS-A correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. Conclusion This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual

  19. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I and C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions

  20. Emergency core cooling device

    The present invention provides an emergency core cooling device without using a reactor core spray device, in which the reactor core of a BWR type reactor is cooled effectively and certainly by flooding of the reactor core. That is, the emergency core cooling device comprises a high pressure core water injection system as an emergency core cooling system (ECCS) for cooling the inside of the reactor core upon loss of coolants accident (LOCA). By means of the high pressure core water injection system, water is injected from a condensate storage vessel or a suppression pool to the inside of the reactor core shroud upon LOCA. Accordingly, the reactor core is cooled effectively by reactor core flooding. In this device, cooling water can be injected to the inside of the reactor core shroud by means of the high pressure core injection system upon LOCA in which the coolants are discharged from the outside of the reactor core shroud. On the other hand, upon LOCA in which the coolants are discharged from the inside of the reactor core shroud, the cooling water can be supplied to the reactor core by means of a cooling system upon reactor isolation which injects water to the outside of the reactor core or a low pressure water injection system. (I.S.)

  1. Management of hypertension emergencies.

    Elliott, William J

    2003-12-01

    Although they have become less common, hypertensive emergencies occur with an incidence of approximately 1 to 2/100,000 people per year. Our knowledge about this problem, its pathophysiology, risk factors, and appropriate treatment options has expanded during the past decade. A hypertensive emergency can be declared when an elevated blood pressure is associated with acute target-organ damage. Rapid evaluation and treatment (typically with an intravenously administered agent) should be instituted, usually in an intensive care unit setting, and the patient should be observed carefully during acute blood-pressure lowering. When properly treated, the prognosis for these patients is not nearly as dismal as it was more than 60 years ago, and the initial level of function of target organs (brain, heart, kidneys) is more indicative of an emergency than the actual level of blood pressure. Therapeutic options include the time-tested sodium nitroprusside (which has toxic metabolic products and is contraindicated in pregnancy, tobacco amblyopia, and Leber's optic atrophy); fenoldopam mesylate; and nicardipine. When properly treated, "malignant hypertension" need be considered malignant no longer. PMID:14594569

  2. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  3. Emergency reactor scram system

    The present invention provides an emergency reactor scram system capable of shut down a reactor safely upon occurrence of pump trip by improving a passive scram performance for an FBR-type reactor. Namely, a driving motor and an electric generator are connected to a main pump of a primary system. An AC/DC convertor is connected to the electric generator. A shielding plug is disposed to the upper end opening of a reactor container, a control rod drive mechanism is erected on the shielding plug, and an extension pipe is attached to scram magnets of the control rod drive mechanism. The extension pipe is connected to a control rod. The rotation of the shaft of the pump is used as a direct rotator to provide an integrated-type electric generator. The electric generator is electrically connected with the power source of a scram magnet of the emergency scram system. Accordingly, the control rod of the emergency scram system is automatically and rapidly inserted to the reactor core using the power source of the electric generator upon trip of the main pump thereby enabling to scram the reactor safely. (I.S.)

  4. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  5. Emergency Information Management System

    Information management is a key element for success for any planned activity. The same gains more importance in managing unplanned or off-normal activity. Availability of timely information is therefore a definite pre-requisite to success in handling the emergency/off-normal situations (mock or real). To meet this requirement of effectively managing various information being received during such conditions, Health Physics Unit at RAPS-5 and 6 has conceived, designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive integrated network based system, named Emergency Information Management System (ElMS). The system is highly scalable in terms of number of users and client systems. In addition, it may be extended to a decision support system which will assist the advisory groups in taking decision in light of incoming inputs/data. This system is highly helpful in organizing, presenting and displaying information in an orderly manner so as to help in handling, re-evaluation and reinforcing steps to mitigate the consequences and ensure optimum utilization of resources. The need of such a system has always been felt and its usage during recent wide scale Off-site emergency exercise at Rawatbhata Rajasthan Site has proven its advantages

  6. Emergency preparation and maneuver of HFETR

    The report presents the emergency document formation, emergency organization establishment, emergency facilities preparation and emergency accident maneuver onsite of High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). The result of emergency preparations and maneuver is summarized. (authors)

  7. Emergence of Life

    Marie-Paule Bassez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  8. On-site emergency planning

    This lecture covers the Emergency Planning of the Operating organization and is based on the Code of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as on arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau and - outlines the basis and content of an emergency plan - describes the emergencies postulated for emergency planning purposes - describes the responsibilities, the organization and the procedures of the operating organization to cope with emergency situations and the liaison between the operating organization, the regulatory body and public authorities - describes the facilities and equipment which should be available to cope with emergency sitauations - describes the measures and actions to be taken when an emergency arises in order to correct abnormal plant conditions and to protect the persons on-and off-site - describes the aid to be given to affected personnel - describes the aspects relevant to maintaining the emergency plan and organization in operational readiness. (orig./RW)

  9. EDF national emergency organization

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  10. The Emergence of Disruption

    Buchta, Christian; Meyer, David; Mild, Andreas; Pfister, Alexander; Taudes, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    We study the influence of technological efficiency and organizational inertia on the emergence of competition when firms decide myopically. Using an agent-based computer simulation model, we observe the competitive reaction of a former monopolist to the advent of a new competitor. While the entrant uses a new technology, the monopolist is free either to stick to his former technology or to switch to the new one. We find that?irrespective of details regarding the demand side?a change of indust...

  11. Emerging Sealing Technologies Development

    2005-01-01

    Under this Cooperative Agreement, the objective was to investigate several emerging sealing technologies of interest to the Mechanical Components Branch of National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (NASA GRC). The majority of the work conducted was to support the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for application to aeronautic auxiliary power units, though technical investigations of interest to other groups and projects were also conducted. In general, accomplishments and results were periodically reported to the NASA Technical Monitor, the NASA GRC Seal Team staff, and NASA GRC project management. Several technical reports, journal articles, and presentations were given internally to NASA GRC and to the external public.

  12. Emergence and Evolution

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family, are...

  13. Emergency procedures in London

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  14. Spontaneous Expulsion of Intramural Fibroid Six Weeks after Emergency Caesarean Section.

    Sagoo, Balvinder; Ng, Ka Ying Bonnie; Ghaleb, G; Brown, Heather

    2015-01-01

    We present a thirty-six-year-old woman with a high risk pregnancy, complicated by multiple congenital anomalies, severe hyperemesis, a pulmonary embolus, and a large intramural fibroid. This fibroid grew in size during the pregnancy. At 34 + 5 weeks, there were reduced fetal movements and a pathological CTG. A live infant was delivered by an emergency cesarean section. Five weeks postpartum, she presented with abdominal pain, offensive vaginal discharge, and fevers. She was given antibiotics and ferrous sulphate. An abdominal ultrasound showed an 11 × 12 × 9 cm fibroid with a coarse degenerative appearance. Clinically, she showed signs of sepsis; a CT scan and laparotomy performed under general anesthetic did not find any collections as a source of sepsis. When stable, she was discharged. She re-presented two days later with a large mass (necrotic fibroid) in her vagina. This is the first case of spontaneous expulsion of fibroid six weeks after caesarean section. Presentation of pain and fever after the delivery may be due to red degeneration of the fibroid, caused by diminished blood supply, ischaemia, and necrosis. This case highlights the importance of considering fibroids as a cause for abdominal pain during and after pregnancy, even up to 6 weeks after delivery. PMID:26380133

  15. Spontaneous Expulsion of Intramural Fibroid Six Weeks after Emergency Caesarean Section

    Balvinder Sagoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a thirty-six-year-old woman with a high risk pregnancy, complicated by multiple congenital anomalies, severe hyperemesis, a pulmonary embolus, and a large intramural fibroid. This fibroid grew in size during the pregnancy. At 34 + 5 weeks, there were reduced fetal movements and a pathological CTG. A live infant was delivered by an emergency cesarean section. Five weeks postpartum, she presented with abdominal pain, offensive vaginal discharge, and fevers. She was given antibiotics and ferrous sulphate. An abdominal ultrasound showed an 11 × 12 × 9 cm fibroid with a coarse degenerative appearance. Clinically, she showed signs of sepsis; a CT scan and laparotomy performed under general anesthetic did not find any collections as a source of sepsis. When stable, she was discharged. She re-presented two days later with a large mass (necrotic fibroid in her vagina. This is the first case of spontaneous expulsion of fibroid six weeks after caesarean section. Presentation of pain and fever after the delivery may be due to red degeneration of the fibroid, caused by diminished blood supply, ischaemia, and necrosis. This case highlights the importance of considering fibroids as a cause for abdominal pain during and after pregnancy, even up to 6 weeks after delivery.

  16. Consumption-Driven Market Emergence

    Diane M. Martin; Schouten, John W

    2014-01-01

    New market development is well theorized from a firm-centered perspective, but research has paid scant attention to the emergence of markets from consumption activity. The exceptions conceptualize market emergence as a product of consumer struggle against prevailing market logics. This study develops a model of consumption-driven market emergence in harmony with existing market offerings. Using ethnographic methods and actor-network theory the authors chronicle the emergence of a new market w...

  17. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  18. Emergency preparedness and response

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became painfully obvious to the international community that there was an urgent need to establish a system for the coordination of international disaster assistance. It became the task of the United Nations Office for Disaster Relief (UNDRO) to develop such a system. The former UNDRO was subsumed into the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), established in January 1992 on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 adopted in December 1991, and the disaster relief system presently found in DHA is a further evolution of the system established by UNDRO. One particular importance in relation to nuclear accidents is the fact that UNDRO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding defining their respective responsibilities and the need for cooperation in case of accidents involving the unintentional release of nuclear radiation. In essence, the MOU makes it clear that the responsibilities of the IAEA, in connection with accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, related to the technical and radiological aspects, in particular to accident prevention, to the on-site preparedness, and to remedial measures within the 30-km zone outside the NPP. DHA's responsibilities, on the other hand, relate to the general preparedness and the rescue efforts outside the 30 km zone. In this respect, the preparedness and emergency response system is no different from the system employed in any other type of sudden-onset emergency

  19. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    Mehmet Sıddık Evsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence, indications and maternal characteristics of emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH.Medical records belong to 49 patients, that undergone EPH at Diyarbakır Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital, between September 2005 and August 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. During three years, from 63463 deliveries, hysterectomy was performed to 49 patients (0.77/1000 due to obstetrical hemorrhage. Indications for EPH were uterine atony (49.6%, uterine rupture (42.9% and placenta accreata (8.2%. The mean age of patients was 34.6±5.7 years, and mean gravida was 5.5±2.4. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed to 31 (63.3% patients and total hysterectomy to 18 (36.7% of them. Bilateral hypogastric artery ligation was performed to 8 (16.3% and unilateral ooferectomy to 7 (14.3%. Two of our patients died secondary to uncontrolled uterine bleeding.In conclusion, uterine atony and uterine rupture were the most frequent causes of EPH. Emergent and appropriate management of these patients is the most important life saving procedure.

  20. Vascular retroperitoneal emergencies

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is the major surgical emergency in the retroperitoneal compartment. Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is always fatal without urgent operative repair. Computed tomography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in hemo-dynamically stable patients. At CT, the diagnosis is based on the combination of abdominal aortic aneurysm and extra-luminal retroperitoneal blood. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage usually demonstrates both iso-dense and hyperdense areas. In most cases hemorrhage is located in psoas compartments and perirenal space. In the case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm other findings may be demonstrates both iso-dense and hyperdense areas. In the most cases hemorrhage is located in psoas compartments and perirenal space. In the case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm other findings may be demonstrated such as focal interruption of the aortic wall and active extravasation of contrast media in the retroperitoneal compartments. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm, that may present as acute abdominal pain, should be recognized and differentiated from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm is characterized by a fibrotic process around the abdominal aorta that may entrap adjacent structures such as ureters, duodenum and inferior vena cava. Aortic dissection, mycotic aneurysm, and inferior vena cava thrombosis are less common. Complications occurring after emergency aneurysm replacement are also considered. (author). 23 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  1. Planning for nuclear emergencies

    A properly developed and executed emergency plan represents an additional level of safety in dealing with potential accidents in nuclear facilities. A state-of-the-art review of the subject is presented which is based primarily on material presented by a variety of speakers during a short course held at the Harvard School of Public Health in May 1975. A certain degree of confusion has existed because of the multitude of federal and state agencies having responsibilities in this field; however, steps are being taken to correct this situation. Although updated Protective Action Guides for airborne releases have been published, similar action is needed for limitations on radionuclide intake via food and water. Indications are that, for a single puff type of airborne release, it may not be possible to evacuate the neighboring population within the short time span available to avoid exposure. For a longer term continuous type of airborne release, however, evacuation can be very useful. Still in need of further evaluation as an adjunct or alternative to evacuation is the use of protective shelter and/or radio-protective prophylaxis. Also in need of additional study and/or development are methods for assessing the nature and course of an accident, techniques for rapidly estimating the pathway of a release and anticipated population doses, assessment of the long-range implications of potential widespread radioactive contamination of land areas, and improvements in the capabilities of state and local agencies in providing radiological emergency response

  2. Communication system for emergency

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  3. [Sepsis in Emergency Medicine].

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Bertsch, Thomas; Singler, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    Sepsis is defined as "life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host-response to infection". Presence of organ dysfunction is associated with a mortality of 10% and higher in hospitalized sepsis patients.Introduction of standards in diagnosis and treatment of sepsis in intensive care units has not considerably reduced sepsis mortality. About 80% of patients with sepsis are transferred to intensive care units from usual care wards and emergency departments. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether opportunities for further improvement of sepsis management exist outside of intensive care units. Performing a "quick sequential organ assessment" (qSOFA; two of following criteria have to be present: respiratory rate >22/min; sytolic blood pressure <100mmHg; altered mental status) supports to identify patients with suspicion of an infection and an increased risk of death within the hospital. Subsequent treatment according to current guidelines on sepsis management will reduce in-hospital mortality of sepsis patients. Indeed, we were able to show a substantial decrease of in-hospital mortality of about 20% in patients presenting with community acquired pneumonia to the emergency department.In summary, decision of further management of sepsis patients has to be done outside intensive care units at the time of initial presentation to professional care givers. Sepsis management in acute care settings should include a structured and standardized protocol to further improve survival in affected patients with even mild organ dysfunction. PMID:27464279

  4. Communication system for emergency

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru [Shizuoka Prefecture (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ``super bird`` has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  5. Regulating emerging technologies

    Full text: The presentation is designed for individuals who are involved in therapeutic administration of radioactive material and the implementation of the radiation safety programme. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has regulatory authority over the medical use of by-product material and the radiation from by-product material. The presentation will address how the NRC regulates new medical uses (i.e. emerging technologies) used in radiation oncology that are too new to be covered in the current regulations. NRC's process that allows licensees to get approved for these emerging technologies until regulations are promulgated for the new modalities will be described. The presentation will also cover NRC's reporting requirements for medical events and other radiation safety-related incidents. Some examples of errors that have occurred for these new NRC-regulated activities will be provided. The root causes in these events will be identified to prevent similar additional incidents from occurring in other facilities performing the same type of therapy. (author)

  6. A Study of Abbreviation Identification in Official Documents Based on Bivariate Correlations%基于二元相关性的公文缩略语识别研究

    孙启高

    2014-01-01

    运用相关性理论,建立1200多万字的当代汉语政教类公文抽样语料库,在对语料库进行分词、标注等加工的基础上,对其中词语的二元相关性组合进行了抽样统计分析,以此为基础对双音节缩略语进行识别和抽取,获得了比较理想的结果,为缩略语的自动识别和公文自动理解提供了新的思路和方法。%According to the correlation theory , this paper establishes a contemporary Chinese political and educational documents corpus which has more than 12 million words . The data are analyzed based on the corpus segmentation , tagging and processing . The results of identifying and extracting double syllable abbreviations based on the statistics and analysis are satisfactory , w hich provides more ideas and methods for the automatic identification of abbreviations and understanding of the official documents .

  7. [Hypertensive emergency and urgence].

    Gegenhuber, Alfons; Lenz, Kurt

    2003-12-01

    DEFINITION, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, THERAPY: The hypertensive crisis is characterized by a massive, acute rise in blood pressure. Patients with underlying hypertensive disease usually have an increase in systolic blood pressure values > 220 mmHg and diastolic values > 120 mmHg. The severity of the condition, however, is not determined by the absolute blood pressure level but by the magnitude of the acute increase in blood pressure. Thus, in the presence of primarily normotensive baseline values (such as those in eclampsia), even a systolic blood pressure > 170 mmHg may lead to a life-threatening condition. The most important causes are non-compliance (reduction or interruption of therapy), inadequate therapy, endocrine disease, renal (vessel) disease, pregnancy and intoxication (drugs). The management of this condition greatly depends on whether the patient has a hypertensive crisis with organ manifestation (hypertensive emergency) or a crisis without organ manifestation (hypertensive urgency). By documenting the medical history, the medical status and by simple diagnostic procedures, the differential diagnosis can be established at the emergency site within a very short period of time. In the absence of organ manifestations (hypertensive urgency) the patient may have non-specific symptoms such as palpitations, headache, malaise and a general feeling of illness in addition to the increase in blood pressure. In a hypertensive urgency the patient's blood pressure should not be reduced within a few minutes but within a period of 24 to 48 hours. Such adjustment can be achieved on an out-patient basis, however, only if the patient can be followed up adequately for early detection of a renewed attack. In the absence of follow-up facilities, the patient's blood pressure should be reduced over a period of 4 to 6 hours, if necessary in an out-patient emergency service. While intravenous medication is given preference when a rapid effect is desired, oral medication may be used for

  8. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  9. Emergent traffic jams

    Nagel, K; Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t) \\sim t^{-3/2} of lifetimes, t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes, and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  10. Why did life emerge?

    Annila, Arto; Annila, Erkki

    2008-10-01

    Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each time a new mechanism of energy transduction emerges, e.g., by random variation in syntheses, evolution prompts by punctuation and settles to a stasis when the accessed free energy has been consumed. The evolutionary course towards an increasingly larger energy transduction system accumulates a diversity of energy transduction mechanisms, i.e. species. The rate of entropy increase is identified as the fitness criterion among the diverse mechanisms, which places the theory of evolution by natural selection on the fundamental thermodynamic principle with no demarcation line between inanimate and animate.

  11. Communication in nuclear emergency

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ''the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others'' are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  12. Obesity: an emerging disease.

    Ogunbode, A M; Ladipo, Mma; Ajayi, I O; Fatiregun, A A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is rapidly becoming an emerging disease in developing countries due to the increasing westernization of societies and change in the lifestyle. The etiology of obesity is said to be multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Literature has been extensively reviewed to provide a broad overview of obesity. Data for this review were obtained from original articles, review articles and textbooks. Internet search engines were also employed. The years searched were from 1993 to 2008. Obesity, classified in terms of the body mass index and the waist-hip ratio, has several associated co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, degenerative osteoarthritis and infertility. In Nigeria, there is limited information on obesity. A literature review on obesity is necessary to improve the knowledge about obesity in developing countries, its prevention and its management. PMID:22248935

  13. Emergency gas processing device

    Purpose: To fully prevent the leakage of radioactive materials in case of a reactor accident, and also to cut the cost of one filter train without lowering maintainability and safety. Constitution: In a reactor building, a moisture remover, an electric heater and a space heater are arranged separately from a pre-filter, high-performance particle filter, and a charcoal filter for iodine. An exhaust fan is disposed between the heater and the filter train or after the filter train. The moisture remover and heater are assembled in two systems, for which two pumps are provided and, furthermore, the filter train as one system is provided for emergency use in case of a trouble of dynamic equipment such as the electric heater, etc., thus reducing equipment. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Emergent Computation Emphasizing Bioinformatics

    Simon, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Emergent Computation is concerned with recent applications of Mathematical Linguistics or Automata Theory. This subject has a primary focus upon "Bioinformatics" (the Genome and arising interest in the Proteome), but the closing chapter also examines applications in Biology, Medicine, Anthropology, etc. The book is composed of an organized examination of DNA, RNA, and the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Rather than examine these areas from a purely mathematical viewpoint (that excludes much of the biochemical reality), the author uses scientific papers written mostly by biochemists based upon their laboratory observations. Thus while DNA may exist in its double stranded form, triple stranded forms are not excluded. Similarly, while bases exist in Watson-Crick complements, mismatched bases and abasic pairs are not excluded, nor are Hoogsteen bonds. Just as there are four bases naturally found in DNA, the existence of additional bases is not ignored, nor amino acids in addition to the usual complement of...

  15. Communication in nuclear emergency

    Nozawa, Masao [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ``the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others`` are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  16. Mechanical Containment in Emergency

    Nerea Carcoba Rubio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The restraint is a therapeutic measure aimed at blocking partial or widespread in most of the body of a patient to try to ensure the safety of himself or others. In most cases it forces to act against their will, and in a common context of urgency; in such a way that its use applies a therapeutic plan without the consent of the patient and is temporally deprived of freedom of movement. A literature review of the issue has been performed consulting surveillance systems and protocols developed at hospitals in several spanish cities. Also the current legal regulations on health matters relating to the subject are checked.After the analysis of data and evidence, is created a protocol of restraint in emergency and the various functions of the components of the team, to address the situation with greater efficiency and safe as possible.

  17. Objective standards for the emergency services: emergency admission to hospital.

    West, R.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objectives of the emergency services are to minimize early mortality and complications, although longer-term morbidity, quality of life and late mortality may also be influenced by early actions. Evaluation of the emergency services and demonstration of quality need to reflect these objectives by appropriate choice of outcome measures. This brief review of leading measures of quality in emergency admissions discusses population-based 30-day mortality, after examining some limitati...

  18. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. ...

  19. Emergency preparedness at Ignalina NPP

    Brief review of Ignalina NPP safety upgrading and personnel preparedness to act in cases of accidents is presented. Though great activities are performed in enhancing the plant operation safety, the Ignalina NPP management pays a lot of attention to preparedness for emergency elimination and take measures to stop emergency spreading. A new Ignalina NPP emergency preparedness plan was drawn up and became operational. It is the main document to carry out organizational, technical, medical, evacuation and other activities to protect plant personnel, population, the plant and the environment from accident consequences. Great assistance was rendered by Swedish experts in drawing this new emergency preparedness plan. The plan consists of 3 parts: general part, operative part and appendixes. The plan is applied to the Ignalina NPP personnel, Special and Fire Brigade and also to other contractor organizations personnel carrying out works at Ignalina NPP. There are set the following emergency classes: incident, emergency situation, alert, local emergency, general emergency. Separate intervention level corresponds to each emergency class. Overview of personnel training to act in case of an emergency is also presented

  20. Breastfeeding in emergencies.

    Kelly, M

    1995-02-01

    In emergency situations created by wars, natural disasters, and famines, people are forced to live in crowded, unsanitary conditions where access to food and health care is limited and the danger of infection, particularly with diarrheal diseases, is great. The situation is compounded when anxieties exist concerning breast feeding; this usually occurs in industrialized countries where artificial feeding was widespread prior to the crisis, breast feeding skills were lost, and inaccurate information replaced traditional knowledge. It is believed that psychological stress and poor diet cause breast milk to dry up. Although diet is important, undernourished women are capable of producing enough milk to feed their babies. Psychological stress can temporarily prevent the release of milk from the breast, but it does not affect milk production. Large supplies of infant formula are not needed, and unrestricted distribution of breast milk substitutes can undermine breast feeding and increase the risk of disease and death. Almost all mothers are physically capable of breast feeding. Those who provide health care and relief assistance during emergencies should undertake the following measures to support breast feeding and to protect the health of mothers: 1) work for agreement between outside agencies and local health workers on breast feeding policy and practice, share up-to-date information, and establish mechanisms to ensure actions are implemented in a coordinated manner; 2) ensure that maternity care practices follow WHO/UNICEF guidelines; 3) encourage women who are not breast feeding to do so, rather than criticizing them; 4) educate the whole community about the benefits of breast feeding and highlight the importance of family and social support; 5) offer one-to-one assistance to mothers who are experiencing difficulty breast feeding through use of a network of experienced mothers, or by training breast feeding counselors (women), who are sensitive to the culture

  1. 切口持续镇痛方法对腹部术后镇痛效果和短期预后影响的评价%Study on the effectiveness of continuous local infiltration analgesia and related short-term prognosis after laparotomy

    郑行; 蔡秀军

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估上腹部术后通过弹性输注泵对切口持续浸润局部麻醉给药方法的镇痛效果,及是否能够减少阿片类药物的用量.方法 回顾分析2012年1-9月接受上腹部手术患者285例,其中144例术后使用弹性输注泵行切口持续浸润的镇痛管理(LA),141例为自控静脉镇痛管理(PCA),评估两组静息状态和活动后视觉模拟评分法(VAS)评分、阿片类药物用量、肠道功能恢复情况、切口愈合以及并发症情况.结果 两组患者术后48 h内VAS评分差异无统计学意义,术后72 h静息状态VAS评分LA组高于PCA组(P<0.001).LA组术后72 h内阿片类药物用量低于PCA组(P<0.01),且术后恶心、呕吐发生率更低(P<0.001),肛门排气、排便早于PCA组(P<0.01),切口渗液发生率较PCA组高(P<0.001),但切口感染发生率差异无统计学意义.结论 开腹术后48 h内使用持续镇痛装置可达到与白控静脉镇痛相似的镇痛效果,但明显减少阿片类药物用量,并有利于早期肠道功能恢复.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of incisional infusion through local anesthetics under a continuous-infusion elastomeric pump for the management of postoperative pain after laparotomy,on reducing the amount of opioids being used after surgery.Methods We performed a retrospective comparative analysis on 285 patients who had undergone laparotomies between January 2012 and September 2012.Among those patients,144 took a continuous-infusion elastomeric pump to receive local anesthetic (LA) at the incisional area for postoperative pain management while another 141 patients took ‘patient-controlled' intravenous analgesia (PCA).Data were reviewed on items as:visual analog pain scores (VAS) during both resting and active situation,mean opioid use,bowel function,condition of incision and complications etc.Results Both groups showed similar VAS scores for the first 48 hours post-operation.However,in the LA group,VAS scores appeared

  2. Civil emergency planning in Canada.

    Wallace, J F

    1967-01-28

    THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737

  3. Collaborative Approaches in Emerging Markets

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Han, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates innovative collaboration undertaken by newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets. In particular, the paper investigates how foreign invested newly established R&D centers in emerging markets can leverage local knowledge networks, such as universities,......-based trust is more important than Westerners are used to. This is due to the different institutional backgrounds, in emerging markets and developed markets respectively.......The paper investigates innovative collaboration undertaken by newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets. In particular, the paper investigates how foreign invested newly established R&D centers in emerging markets can leverage local knowledge networks, such as universities......, in order to increase innovation performance. The theoretical framework is based on theories on trust, as well as institutional theory. The findings suggest that cognition-based trust as well as affect-based trust is needed for successful innovative collaboration, however, in emerging markets affect...

  4. 基于最大熵模型的学术缩写自动识别%Study on Automatic Identiifcation of Academic Abbreviations and their Deifnitions based on Maximum Entropy Model

    张秋子; 陆伟; 程齐凯; 黄永

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively identify the abbreviations and their corresponding deifnitions from enormous English academic texts, this paper proposes an automatic identification algorithm called MELearn-AI.In the perspective of the sequence labelling,MELearn-AI utilizes a manually labelled dataset and adopts maximum entropy algorithm to train a model, and then identify abbreviations in computer science academic texts based on the model. This method achieves a 95.8% precision rate with a 86.3% recall rate in the "Paren-sen" evaluation dataset created in this paper,it shows an obvious improvement compared to the other two algorithms.This paper proposes a method to identify the abbreviations and their corresponding deifnitions.Tested in English academic texts of computer science, the algorithm achieves satisfactory results, which is helpful to better understanding and adopting the terminology of this ifeld.%为实现海量英文学术文本中缩写词及对应缩写定义的识别,本文提出了一种自动缩写识别算法MELearn-AI。该算法在人工标注数据集的基础上,从序列标注的角度,通过最大熵模型实现了计算机领域英文学术文本中的自动缩写识别。MELearn-AI在本文构建的评测数据集“Paren-sen”上得到了95.8%的查准率和86.3%的查全率,相对于其他两组对照实验的效果有较为明显的提升。本文提出的自动缩写识别方法能够在计算机领域的学术文本上取得令人满意的效果,有助于更好地理解并利用该领域术语。

  5. A Survey of Emergency Preparedness

    Aaron Malveaux; A. Nicki Washington

    2015-01-01

    Emergency preparedness is a discipline that harnesses technology, citizens, and government agencies to handle and potentially avoid natural disasters and emergencies. In this paper, a survey of the use of information technology, including social media, in emergency preparedness is presented. In addition, the current direction of research is identified, and future trends are forecasted that will lead to more effective and efficient methods of preparing for and responding to disasters.

  6. Transport accident emergency response plan

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  7. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens

    Bolker, Benjamin M.; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2009-01-01

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging...

  8. Emergence of communication and language

    Lyon, Caroline; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together work on the emergence of communication language drawing on diverse disciplines, including linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, anthropology and computer science. Computational simulations of the emergence of phenomena associated with communication and language play a key role in illuminating some of the most significant issues, and the renewed scientific interest in language emergence has benefited greatly from research in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science. Starting with a road map chapter pointing to the ways in which disparate disciplines can inform

  9. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE.

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice. PMID:20157462

  10. Developments in Emerging Equity Markets

    Owen Bailey

    2010-01-01

    The size of equity markets in emerging economies increased very significantly over the past decade both in absolute terms and as a share of global equity markets. Emerging equity markets also account for a rising share of global equity issuance. In large part, this growth has been spurred by strong economic growth and financial development within these economies. During the global financial crisis, as risk aversion increased, emerging equity markets' share of global market capitalisation fell...

  11. The evolution of emergent computation.

    Crutchfield, J. P.; Mitchell, M.

    1995-01-01

    A simple evolutionary process can discover sophisticated methods for emergent information processing in decentralized spatially extended systems. The mechanisms underlying the resulting emergent computation are explicated by a technique for analyzing particle-based logic embedded in pattern-forming systems. Understanding how globally coordinated computation can emerge in evolution is relevant both for the scientific understanding of natural information processing and for engineering new forms...

  12. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  13. Debt overhang in emerging Europe ?

    Brown, Martin; Lane, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which debt overhang poses a constraint to economic activity in Emerging Europe, as the region emerges from the recent financial and economic crisis. At the macroeconomic level, it finds that the external imbalance problem for Emerging Europe has been in most cases more one of flows (high current account deficits in the pre-crisis years) rather than large s...

  14. Hypernatremia in the Emergency Department

    Neslihan YÜCE; ŞAHİN, İdris; Feride Sinem AKGÜN; Süleyman KÖZ; Berber, İlhami; Muzaffer Galip ÖZDEMİR

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the symptoms, clinical characteristics, prevalence and outcome of patients with hypernatremia who presented at the emergency department. MATERIAL and METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who presented at the emergency department with hypernatremia (Na>148 meq/l) from January 2008 to December 2008. RESULTS: A total of 25.545 cases presented at the Emergency Department and hypernatremia was seen in 86 patients. The prevalence of hypernatremia was 0.34%....

  15. The emerging nations

    If there is one common feature among developing countries it is that their electricity consumption is growing not only more rapidly than primary energy consumption but also more rapidly than electricity consumption in industrialized countries. Ten countries account for 63 percent of the total electricity production in the third world. Eight of these countries have nuclear power programs. Two more emerging countries have active nuclear power programs, two are negotiating their first plants, and three are in the planning stage. An additional 20 to 30 countries could be potential users of nuclear power during the next 15 years; however, several of these are among the major oil exporting nations. National economics and financing, and the weakness or strength of the infrastructure, have played a more significant role in the success or failure of nuclear power programs in developing countries than non-proliferation restrictions. Conditions that have to be met for the introduction of nuclear power in developing countries include: the availability of standardized plants that can compete with low-cost coal fire plants, preferable in the 300 MW(e) size range; uniformity in non-proliferation requirements imposed by suppliers; and creativity in financing arrangements. The present IAEA projection for nuclear power in the developing world is for 45-85 GW(e) by the year 2000, an increase of 35-75 GW(e) or 50-100 units

  16. Gas spill emergency

    This video presentation was designed to explain the steps that should be taken in the event of a petroleum product spill on land, to keep damages and consequences to a minimum. The events that took place when an oil truck full of gasoline overturned and smashed into a house on a residential street were described to illustrate the principles involved. The following sequence of events and actions, based on general principles of bringing the situation under control during an emergency operation were depicted: (1) identification of spilled product, (2) assessment of the situation, (3) setting priorities and evacuating the endangered area, and (4) setting up a communication system. The fire fighters sprayed the area with foam because of the fire and explosion potential. Sand was used to contain the spill and to keep it out of the storm sewers. The spilled oil was recovered. Three other spill situations - a spill at a service station, a spill in a ditch, and a spill in a waterway - were also documented. It was emphasized that while it is not possible to establish a single set of rules and actions that would apply to all situations since no two accidents involving petroleum products are alike, the general principles are universal and can be applied in all situations. First priority to consider should always be human life, then property, then the environment

  17. Consciousness: Emergent and Real

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose three lines of argumentation against Nannini’s eliminativist approach towards consciousness and the Self. First, we argue that the premises he uses to argue for eliminativism can equally well be used to draw a completely different conclusion in favor of naturalistic dualism according to which phenomenal consciousness irreducibly emerges from a physical substrate by virtue of certain psychophysical laws of nature. Nannini proposes that in contrast to dualistic theses which represent the manifest image of the world, eliminativism represents the world’s scientific image just as classical physics and theories of relativity respectively represent the world’s manifest image and scientific image. And if developments in a scientific field reveal a conflict between these two images we should always vote for the scientific image. In our second line of argument, we challenge this claim by comparing two rival interpretations of quantum mechanics, i.e. the Copenhagen and Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. Finally, we argue that Nannini’s identification of consciousness and the Self as illusions does not shed any light on the hard problem of consciousness since illusions themselves are instances of phenomenal experiences and need to be explained.

  18. Emerging Technologies and MOUT

    YONAS,GEROLD; MOY,TIMOTHY DAVID

    2000-11-15

    Operating in a potentially hostile city is every soldier's nightmare. The staggering complexity of the urban environment means that deadly threats--or non-combatants-may lurk behind every corner, doorway, or window. Urban operations present an almost unparalleled challenge to the modern professional military. The complexity of urban operations is further amplified by the diversity of missions that the military will be called upon to conduct in urban terrain. Peace-making and peace-keeping missions, urban raids to seize airports or WMD sites or to rescue hostages, and extended urban combat operations all present different sorts of challenges for planners and troops on the ground. Technology almost never serves as a magic bullet, and past predictions of technological miracles pile high on the ash heap of history. At the same time, it is a vital element of planning in the modern age to consider and, if possible, take advantage of emerging technologies. We believe that technologies can assist military operations in urbanized terrain (MOUT) in three primary areas, which are discussed.

  19. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P., E-mail: warren.mason@uhn.ca [Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  20. Emergence of the NMSGUT

    Aulakh, Charanjit S

    2007-01-01

    We trace the emergence of the ``New Minimal'' supersymmetric SO(10) GUT (NMSGUT) out of the debris created by our demonstration that the MSGUT is falsified by the data. The NMSGUT is based on ${\\bf{210\\oplus 10\\oplus 120\\oplus 126\\oplus {\\bar {126}}}}$ Higgs system. It has only spontaneous CP violation and Type I seesaw. With only 24 real superpotential parameters it is the simplest model capable of accommodating the known 18 parameter fermion mass data set and yet has enough freedom to accommodate the still unknown Leptonic CP violation and neutrino mass scale parameters. Our focus is on the two most salient features uncovered by our analysis: the domination of the ${\\bf{\\bar{126}}}$ Yukawa couplings by those of the ${\\bf{10,120}}$ (required for evasion of the no-go that trapped the MSGUT) and the inescapable raising of the Baryon violation scales(and thus suppression of proton decay) decreed by a proper inclusion of the threshold effects associated with the calculated superheavy spectra. These two structura...

  1. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  2. Automated emergency operating procedures

    This paper describes the development of a training tool for the symptom oriented emergency operating procedures used at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. EOPs and operator training are intended to assist the operator for managing accident situations. A prototype expert system based on the EOPs has been developed for operator training. The demonstration expert system was developed using a commercial shell. The knowledge base consists of two parts. The specific operator actions to be executed for 5 selected accident sequences and the EOPs steps for the reactor pressure vessel control of the water level, pressure, and power. The knowledge is expressed in the form of IF-THEN production rules. A typical training session will display a set of conditions and will prompt the trainee to indicate the appropriate step to perform. This mode will guide the trainee through selected accident sequences. A second mode of the expert system will prompt the trainee for the current plant conditions and the expert system will respond with the EOPs which are required to be performed under these conditions. This allows the trainee to study What if situations

  3. Emergent physics: Fermi point scenario

    Volovik, G E

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi-point scenario of emergent gravity has the following consequences: gravity emerges together with fermionic and bosonic matter; emergent fermionic matter consists of massless Weyl fermions; emergent bosonic matter consists of gauge fields; Lorentz symmetry persists well above the Planck energy; space-time is naturally 4-dimensional; Universe is naturally flat; cosmological constant is naturally small or zero; underlying physics is based on discrete symmetries; `quantum gravity' cannot be obtained by quantization of Einstein equations; there is no contradiction between quantum mechanics and gravity; etc.

  4. Utility perspective on emergency preparedness

    This paper discusses some of the major lessons learned from the TMI-2 accident with respect to emergency response and preparedness. A description of the GPU Nuclear Corporation emergency preparedness program is also provided to illustrate the significant differences in the program before and after the accident. While major lessons have been adopted by both government and industry there continues to be emergency preparedness related regulations and concerns that promote the misperception that nuclear power plants are unsafe. In addition, annual exercises send a message to the public and news media that most, if not all, nuclear plant emergencies will result in evacuation or sheltering of the surrounding population

  5. Medical emergencies in dental practice.

    Wilson, M H

    2009-06-01

    Serious medical emergencies are fortunately a rare occurrence in the dental practice environment; however, if an emergency situation is encountered a delay in treatment may result in potentially avoidable consequences. The risk of mortality or serious morbidity can be reduced by ensuring that basic emergency equipment and medications are in place, and that the dental team is appropriately trained in basic life support measures. This article aims to provide an overview of the basic emergency medications and equipment that should be present in dental practices, and to discuss specific responses to some of the more common adverse medical events that can present while providing dental treatment.

  6. Leucograma e teores plasmáticos de proteínas de fase aguda de eqüinos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia Leukogram and plasma acute phase protein concentrations in horses with acute abdomen submitted to treatment by laparotomy

    J.J. Fagliari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 20 eqüinos adultos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia. Dez recuperaram-se sem intercorrência pós-operatória (G1 e 10 foram a óbito sete a 10 dias após a cirurgia, com sinais de choque séptico (G2. Avaliaram-se temperatura retal, freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, tempo de preenchimento capilar e teores plasmáticos das proteínas de fase aguda - fibrinogênio, ceruloplasmina, proteína C-reativa, antitripsina, haptoglobina e glicoproteína ácida -, antes e até sete dias após a laparotomia. As leucometrias às 72h e no sétimo dia pós-operatório dos eqüinos que foram a óbito foram, respectivamente, 34,6% e 57,1%, mais altas que a dos animais curados. Os maiores valores de proteína de fase aguda ocorreram no sétimo dia após a cirurgia; os percentuais de elevação de fibrinogênio, antitripsina, glicoproteina ácida, proteína C-reativa, ceruloplasmina e haptoglobina de eqüinos do G2 em relação ao G1 foram 46,8%, 67,9%, 91,9%, 112,2%, 126,9% e 186,2%, respectivamente.Twenty adult horses with acute abdomen were examined and submitted to treatment by laparotomy; ten had no postoperative complication (group 1, and ten showed septic shock symptom and died from seven to ten days after surgery (group 2. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, filling capillary time, and plasma acute phase protein concentrations - fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein - were evaluated before laparotomy and until seven days after surgery. White blood cell counts at 72h and seven days after surgery in group 2 animals were, respectively, 34.6% and 57.1%, and were higher than those measured in group 1 horses. The highest values of acute phase proteins occurred on the seventh day after surgery. The increase percentages of fibrinogen, antitrypsin, acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin plasma concentrations in group 2

  7. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features. PMID:26608599

  8. Effect of intermediate care on mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. The InCare trial: study protocol, rationale and feasibility of a randomised multicentre trial

    Vester-Andersen Morten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency abdominal surgery carries a 15% to 20% short-term mortality rate. Postoperative medical complications are strongly associated with increased mortality. Recent research suggests that timely recognition and effective management of complications may reduce mortality. The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients. Methods and design The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing emergency laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome measure is all-cause 30-day mortality. We aim to enrol 400 patients in seven Danish hospitals. The sample size allows us to detect or refute a 34% relative risk reduction of mortality with 80% power. Discussion This trial evaluates the benefits and possible harm of intermediate care. The results may potentially influence the survival of many high-risk surgical patients. As a pioneer trial in the area, it will provide important data on the feasibility of future large-scale randomised clinical trials evaluating different levels of postoperative care. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01209663

  9. Emergency Linkage Mode of Power Enterprise

    Feng Jie; Yu Zhen; Liu Chao

    2016-01-01

    Power emergency disposal needs take full advantage of the power enterprise within the external emergency power and resources. Based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant experience of domestic and foreign emergency linkage, this paper draws the Emergency Linkage subjects, Emergency Linkage contents, Emergency Linkage level, which are three key elements if power enterprise Emergency Linkage. Emergency Linkage subjects are divided into the two types of inner subjects and the external body; ...

  10. Urgencias respiratorias Respiratory emergencies

    E. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las urgencias respiratorias en un paciente con cáncer pueden tener su origen en patologías de la vía aérea, del parénquima pulmonar o de los grandes vasos. La causa puede ser el propio tumor o complicaciones concomitantes. La obstrucción de la vía aérea debería ser inicialmente evaluada con procedimientos endoscópicos. En situaciones severas, la cirugía raramente es posible. El emplazamiento endobronquial de stents e isótopos radiactivos (braquiterapia, la ablación tumoral por láser o la terapia fotodinámica, pueden aliviar de forma rápida los síntomas y reestablecer el flujo aéreo. El manejo de la hemoptisis depende de la causa que la provoque y de la cuantía de la misma. La broncoscopia sigue siendo el procedimiento de primera línea en la mayor parte de los casos; aporta información diagnóstica y puede interrumpir el sangrado mediante lavados con suero helado, taponamiento endobronquial o inyecciones tópicas de adrenalina o trombina. La radioterapia externa sigue siendo un procedimiento extraordinariamente útil para tratar la hemoptisis de causa tumoral y en situaciones bien seleccionadas la terapia endobronquial con láser o braquiterapia y la embolización arterial bronquial pueden proporcionar un gran rendimiento paliativo. Las urgencias respiratorias por enfermedad del parénquima pulmonar en un paciente oncológico, pueden tener causa tumoral, iatrogénica o infecciosa. El reconocimiento precoz de cada una de ellas determina la administración del tratamiento específico y las posibilidades de éxito.Respiratory emergencies in a patient with cancer can have their origin in pathologies of the airway, of the pulmonary parenchyma or the large vessels. The cause can be the tumour itself or concomitant complications. Obstruction of the airway should be initially evaluated with endoscopic procedures. Surgery is rarely possible in serious situations. The endobronchial placement of stents or radioactive isotopes

  11. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  12. Preparing for radiation emergencies

    Over the past 40 years during man's expanded use of radioactive material there have been approximately 100 accidents which have resulted in injury to individuals. Most of these injuries have involved nuclear weapons development and testing rather than the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. A study of the sources causes and injuries resulting from this limited number of past events can provide guidance on the general type and magnitude of events which are most likely to occur in the future. The most common radiological and medical problems faced by the nuclear industry in the event of an accident are: internal and external overexposure to workers; radiation injury either from partial or whole-body exposure; and environmental contamination with the threat of contamination of individuals. Of the 100 or so radiation accidents which have been reported worldwide, the sources of uncontrolled radiation have been identified as shown in the table. These accidents have resulted in 16 fatalities and slightly more than 300 people each exposed to the equivalent of more than 25 rem total-body dose. In most discussions and national and international meetings the tendency has been to focus attention on large-scale nuclear accidents which are really exceedingly rare events. The purpose of the seminar on radiation emergency preparedness, held in India late last year, was to focus attention on the more common small-scale radiation events which are occurring in developing countries and which require modest efforts of advance planning and preparedness. As specific examples of the potential for radiation accidents, in India there are over 750 institutions using radiation sources: including more than 10 000 diagnostic X-ray units, 100 teletherapy units, and 90 brachytherapy units in medical applications; 332 radiography sources, and 138 nucleonic gauges in industrial applications. Of 77 accidents involving the loss of control over a radiation source, 47 involved industrial

  13. Hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    Yu-Jang Su; Chia-Jung Liao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiology, etiologies and prognostic factors of hypoglycemia. Methods:A retrospective chart review of hypoglycemic cases from December, 2009 to February, 2012 was conducted to gather the following patient data: age, gender, vital signs at triage, white blood cell count, serum glucose, C-reactive protein, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, creatinine, sodium, potassium, past history of liver cirrhosis, uremia, concomitant infection, concomitant cancer/malignancy, length of stay, lack of recent meal, status of acute renal failure and concomitant stroke. A total of 186 cases were enrolled in our study. We analyzed the data using commercial statistics software (SPSS for Windows, version 11.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We used the Student's t-test andχ2 test for the statistical analyses, and significance was set at a P value less than 0.05. Results: Hypoglycemia is related to several co-morbidities. In total, 10.2%of the patients had liver cirrhosis and 7.0% had uremia. More than half (55.4%) were bacterial infection during hospitalization. Acute renal failure accounted for 26.3%of the hypoglycemic episodes. In addition to the etiology of infection, the lack of a recent meal accounted for 44.6%hypoglycemic episodes. A total of 2.2%of the cases resulted from an acute cerebrovascular accident. Approximately 8.6%were concomitant with malignancy. Conclusions: When hypoglycemic patients present in the emergency department, physicians should pay attention to the presence of infection, malignancy, liver diseases (liver cirrhosis and biliary tract infection), and acute renal failure.

  14. Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies

    Brey, P.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of possi

  15. Emergencies in the hospital environment

    Every hospital center must have an emergency plan, which in case of an accident would immediately set off. The present article describes the particularities of radioactive installations already in existence in hospitals in case of an emergency and the radiologic risks which must be taken into account. (Author)

  16. Monitoring new and emerging risks

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Douwes, M.; Zondervan, E.; Jongen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on recent literature, will identify, define and discuss new and emerging OSH-risks together with the driving forces behind these risks. Emerging risks will be described as being related to physical load and musculoskeletal disorders [MSDs], psychosocial risks, and dangerous subst

  17. Emergency Department Management of Trauma

    MacKenzie, Colin; Lippert, Freddy

    1999-01-01

    Initial assessment and management of severely injured patients may occur in a specialized area of an emergency department or in a specialized area of a trauma center. The time from injury until definitive management is of essence for survival of life-threatening trauma. The initial care delivered...... injured patients after these patients reach a hospital emergency department or a trauma center....

  18. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  19. Keeping Food Safe During Emergencies

    Chezem, Jo Carol; Burgess, Wilella D; Mason, April C.

    1994-01-01

    Disasters can come in many forms, including tornadoes, fires, floods, and snowstorms. In any of these emergency situations, two problems commonly arise. The first is a lack of incoming supplies. The second is damage to gas and electrical power systems. This publication discusses how to handle foods before, during, and after an emergency to keep them safe and to avoid food poisoning.

  20. Wildlife Emergency and Critical Care.

    Riley, Jennifer; Barron, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Wildlife patients often present as emergencies. For veterinarians who do not typically treat wildlife, it is important to be able to stabilize and determine the underlying cause of the animal's signs. This article discusses initial assessment, stabilization, and treatment of common emergency presentations in wild birds, reptiles, and mammals. PMID:26948268

  1. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP)

    The Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) will develop and enhance integrated emergency preparedness capabilities in two major areas. First, the program is responsible for planning and ensuring proper DOE response to transportation incidents involving DOE shipments. Second, the program is responsible for ensuring DOE can carry out its responsibilities under regulations, the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) to provide technical advice and assistance as needed for any transportation incident involving radioactive or mixed hazard materials. This plan proposes a strategy for developing a comprehensive Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program, including a well organized central management and coordination structure, that serves as a process to identify, verify, and establish a consolidated effort across the Department in this very important area. This plan assumes Emergency Management to be the full range of emergency activities necessary for mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery while Emergency Preparedness activities are primarily those necessary in preparation for Incident Response Emergency Preparedness, which is the focus of this strategy plan, requires a well organized central coordination structure to be effective. 7 refs

  2. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Digital Media and Emergent Literacy

    Hisrich, Katy; Blanchard, Jay

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses digital media and its potential effects on emergent literacy skills development for young children. While the impact of digital media exposure on children's emergent literacy development is largely unknown, it is becoming a significant issue, as more and more young children throughout the world observe and use various forms…

  4. Ulipristal Acetate in Emergency Contraception

    Šprem Goldštajn, Marina; Pavičić Baldani, Dinka; Škrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrčić, Hrvoje; Čanić, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with po...

  5. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  6. Emergency department radiation accident protocol.

    Leonard, R B; Ricks, R C

    1980-09-01

    Every emergency department faces the potential problem of handling one or more victims of a radiation accident. While emergency departments near nuclear power plants or isotope production laboratories probably have a detailed protocol for such emergencies, a similar protocol is needed for the emergency department that may have to handle an isolated event, such as a vehicular accident that spills radioactive material and contaminates passengers or bystanders. This communication attempts to answer that need, presenting a step-by-step protocol for decontamination of a radiation victim, the rationale on which each step is based, a list of needed supplies, and a short summary of decorporation procedures that should be started in the emergency department. PMID:7425419

  7. Institutional planning for radiation emergencies

    Persons providing health care pride themselves on their ability to handle emergencies. This pride is born of the daily experience of caring for the sick and injured. Emergencies include traumatic injuries, sudden changes in health status, and various minor disturbances in the physical environment inside the hospital. The effectiveness of this ability is unquestioned in limited-scale problems. However, survey experience of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH) reveals weaknesses when health care organizations are faced with larger scale problems such as earthquakes and plane crashes. One may speculate that a massive emergency such as occurred at Chernobyl would overwhelm this ability. Based on the same survey experience, JCAH believes that health care organizations can plan and train to prepare for large-scale emergencies in a careful and systematic manner. Through such study and practice, their existing confidence and ability to deal with limited emergencies can be explained

  8. Emergency management information system (EMINS)

    In a time of crisis or in an emergency, a manager is required to make many decisions to facilitate the proper solution and conclusion to the emergency or crisis. In order to make these decisions, it is necessary for the manager to have correct up-to-date information on the situation, which calls for an automated information display and entry process. The information handling needs are identified in terms of data, video, and voice. Studies of existing Emergency Operations Centers and evaluations of hardware and software have been completed. The result of these studies and investigations is the design and implementation of an automated Emergency Management Information System. Not only is the system useful for Emergency Management but for any information management requirement

  9. Emergency preparedness at the UJD

    The objective of the emergency planning is to suggest optimum organisational and technical measures to restrict the threat or to eliminate the menace to the population in case of incident or accident at nuclear facility. The emergency plan is activated and executed through the set of emergency procedures, which define basic activities of the UJD during the emergency situations in compliance with legislation regulations. The assessment of the course and consequences of serious incidents and accidents of nuclear installations is carried out by the Emergency Response Centre (KKC). The Emergency Plan of UJD is the set of technical and organisation measures with the aim to propose optimal measures for protection of population and environment. The UJD- Department of Emergency Management and Informatics has an irreplaceable role in the structure of emergency response. The Emergency Response Centre is its organisational part. The UJD is a contact point of the Slovak Republic with the IAEA in frame of convention on early notification of nuclear accidents. The same is valid for bilateral agreements between the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. Uninterrupted 24 hours duty service of the contact point is assured for the UJD by the Office of Civil Protection of Ministry of Interior. In order to fulfil the tasks of the emergency planning UJD established its Emergency Response Group, which consists of four professional teams: 1. Reactor safety group, 2. Radiation protection group, 3. Logistic group, 4. Information group. Information Group consists of the head of Group, the report analysis experts and news service experts. The information group is responsible for public information as well as for informing the authorities. The Information Centre is situated closely to the Emergency Response Centre. The information group gathers, coordinates and prepares all pieces of information in compliance with commitments of the Slovak Republic

  10. Emergency preparedness: a comprehensive plan

    The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company (ARHCO) has developed comprehensive plans for coping with emergencies ranging from criticality to civil disturbance. A unique notification system provides for immediate contact with key personnel by using a central communications center, crash alarm warning networks, and a continuing telephone cascade notification system. There is also the capability of immediately contacting other contractor key personnel. Certain jobs have been predetermined as necessary for coping with an emergency. An emergency staff consisting of responsible management, with alternates, has been preselected to automatically fill these jobs when notified. Control centers for headquarters and ''field'' are established with telephone and radio communication capabilities and are also supplied with some source materials to assist initiating plans for containing an emergency for recovery. A comprehensive emergency procedures manual has been developed, which contains information of company-wide application and procedures for specific facilities covering almost all accident situations

  11. [Impact of a pre-operative mobilisation program using the Viv-Arte training model based on kinesthetic mobilisation on mobility, pain, and post-operation length of stay of patients receiving an elective medial laparotomy: a prospective, randomised, controlled pilot study].

    Haasenritter, Jörg; Eisenschink, Anna Maria; Kirchner, Elisabeth; Bauder-Missbach, Heidi; Brach, Michael; Veith, Jessica; Sander, Silvia; Panfil, Eva-Maria

    2009-02-01

    A medial incision is a common surgical technique to obtain access to the abdomen. Thereby, the muscles involved in movement are manipulated, leading to post-operative restrictions in mobility and pain determined by movement. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of a pre-operative training session using the Viv-Arte model, which is based on kinesthetic mobilisation principles. The parameters to be measured were mobility, pain, and length of hospital stay for patients, who were undergoing elective medial laparotomy. In addition, the study tested the research design and to identify possible effect sizes. The method chosen was a prospective, randomised, controlled, and unblinded design. Twenty-seven patients were involved (median=63 years, 19 of the patients were male) who were to have a medial incision for cystectomy. The intervention involved pre-operative training of post-operative mobility techniques. Mobility was tested using the "Mobilitätstest für Patienten im Akutkrankenhaus (MOTPA) (Mobility test for patients in hospital)"; pain intensity was assessed using the visual analogue scale. The intervention and control groups were comparable for all variables. There were no significant differences in the two groups related to the objectives. It is possible that the study groups or the operationalisation were not appropriate for testing the effects of the intervention. It seems important to continue to develop instruments that are appropriate for measuring the effect of mobility-related interventions. PMID:19173175

  12. Emergency thoracotomies: Two center study

    Sameh Ibrahim Sersar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Emergency thoracotomy is performed either immediately at the scene of injury, in the emergency department or in the operating room. It aims to evacuate the pericardial tamponade, control the haemorrhage, to ease the open cardiac massage and to cross-clamp the descending thoracic aorta to redistribute blood flow and maybe to limit sub-diaphragmatic haemorrhage, bleeding and iatrogenic injury are the common risk factors. We aimed to review our experience in the field of emergency thoracotomies, identify the predictors of death, analyze the early results, detect the risk factors and asses the mortalities and their risk factors. Patients and Methods: Our hospital records of 197 patients who underwent emergency thoracotomy were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed a piece of the extensive experience of the Mansoura University Hospitals and Mansoura Emergency Hospital; Egypt and Saudi German Hospitals; Jeddah in the last 12 years in the management of trauma cases for whom emergency thoracotomy. The aim was to analyse the early results of such cases and to detect the risk factors of dismal prognosis. Results: Our series included 197 cases of emergency thoractomies in Mansoura; Egypt and SGH; Jeddah; KSA in the last 12 years. The mean age of the victims was 28 years and ranged between 5 and 62 years. Of the 197 patients with emergency thoracotomy, the indications were both penetrating and blunt chest trauma, iatrogenic and postoperative hemodynamito a surgical cause. The commonest indication was stab heart followed by traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures. Conclusion: The results of emergency thoracotomy in our series were cooping with the results of other reports, mainly due to our aggressive measures to achieve rapid stabilization of the hemodynamic condition. We emphasize the importance of emergency medicine education programs on rapid diagnosis of traumatic injuries with early intervention, and adequate hemodynamic and respiratory

  13. Emergency Linkage Mode of Power Enterprise

    Feng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power emergency disposal needs take full advantage of the power enterprise within the external emergency power and resources. Based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant experience of domestic and foreign emergency linkage, this paper draws the Emergency Linkage subjects, Emergency Linkage contents, Emergency Linkage level, which are three key elements if power enterprise Emergency Linkage. Emergency Linkage subjects are divided into the two types of inner subjects and the external body; Emergency Linkage contents are in accordance with four phases of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery; Emergency Linkage level is divided into three levels of enterprise headquarter, provincial enterprise and incident unite. Binding power enterprise emergency management practice, this paper studies the internal Emergency Linkage modes (including horizontal mode and vertical mode, external Emergency Linkage mode and comprehensive Emergency Linkage Mode of power enterprise based on Fishbone Diagram and Process Management Technology.

  14. Is Q Fever an emerging or re-emerging zoonosis?

    Arricau-Bouvery, Nathalie; Rodolakis, Annie

    2005-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease considered as emerging or re-emerging in many countries. It is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium developing spore-like forms that are highly resistant to the environment. The most common animal reservoirs are livestock and the main source of infection is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Although the culture process for Coxiella is laborious, advances on the knowledge of the life cycle of the bacterium have been made. New tools have been developed to...

  15. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  16. Decision support for emergency management

    A short introduction will be given to the Nordic project ''NKA/INF: Information Technology for Accident and Emergency Management'', which is now in its final phase. To perform evaluation of the project, special scenarious have been developed, and experiments based on these will be fulfilled and compared with experiments without use of the decision support system. Furthermore, the succeeding European project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM'', with the purpose of developing a decision support system for complex and distributed decision making in emergency management in full scale, will be described and the preliminary conceptual model for the system will be presented. (author)

  17. Professional Emergence on Transnational Issues

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    . These approaches are important in identifying the sources of what becomes established, but less geared to identifying interactions that are emergent. This article extends a linked ecologies approach to emergence, arguing that interaction on transnational issues should first be understood by how they are...... what are included and excluded. A linked ecologies approach provides a fruitful way of identifying actors and distinctions on issues that are emergent. These conceptual and methodological points are demonstrated through a study of how medical experts, demographers, and economists forge issue...

  18. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  19. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  20. Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India

    T D Chugh

    2008-11-01

    There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. However, infectious diseases still remain a leading cause of global disease burden with high morbidity and mortality especially in the developing world. Furthermore, there have been threats of new diseases during the past three decades due to the evolution and adaptation of microbes and the re-emergence of old diseases due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the capacity to spread to new geographic areas. The impact of the emerging and re-emerging diseases in India has been tremendous at socioeconomic and public health levels. Their control requires continuing surveillance, research and training, better diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. Emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases and diseases caused by multiresistant organisms constitute the major threats in India. This review of bacterial emerging and re-emerging diseases should be of critical importance to microbiologists, clinicians, public health personnel and policy makers in India.

  1. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats.

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:26480316

  2. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

    T Dikid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  3. Encountering Meckel's diverticulum in emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction

    Amin Abid; Wani Muddasir; Wani Shadab; Naikoo Ghulam; Šnábel Viliam; Wani Imtiaz; Sheikh Tariq; Parray Fazal Q; Wani Rauf A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In children with intestinal ascariasis, the diverticulum remains asymptomatic or rarely the Ascaris lumbricoides may lead to its complications in the presence of massive intestinal roundworm load. Given that preoperative diagnosis is seldom carried out, when Meckel's diverticulum is found at laparotomy for obstructive intestinal complications of roundworm, the diverticulum should be ...

  4. Poison control center - emergency number

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  5. Emergency time: caring in Congo.

    Reading, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Midwifery practice in rural central Africa is full of joys (an abundance of twins, births by candlelight and resilience and stoicism that would leave even the very experienced birth practitioner speechless), but also a lot of challenges (every obstetric emergency in your wildest nightmares and worse) that are compounded by a lack of access to a skilled birth attendant. Women here have a strong culture of traditional practices and remedies, and hospital is often not the first port of call. Caring for women who cannot, themselves, consent to emergency life-saving caesarean sections, is a cultural aspect that we accept and respect as medical professionals working in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In a busy maternity ward in a low-resource setting, in a hospital supported by emergency humanitarian medical organisation Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), just how are obstetric emergencies managed--and are the outcomes what you would expect? PMID:26975127

  6. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  7. The management of nuclear emergencies

    This document presents the management of different nuclear emergencies. The main goal is to describe the radiation protection procedures related to the environmental contamination. Special emphasis was dedicated to the Chernobyl experience. Figs

  8. Emergency Shelter Grantee (ESG) Areas

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program is designed to identify sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons, as well as those at risk of homelessness, and provide...

  9. Visioning future emergency healthcare collaboration

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2010-01-01

    physicians, nurses, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals working at large and small medical centers, and asked them to share their perspectives regarding 3DMC's potential benefits and disadvantages in emergency healthcare and its compatibility and/or lack thereof...

  10. Emerging trends in surface metrology

    Lonardo, P.M.; Lucca, D.A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    Recent advancements and some emerging trends in the methods and instruments used for surface and near surface characterisation are presented, considering the measurement of both topography and physical properties. In particular, surfaces that present difficulties in measurement or require new...

  11. Energy Emergency and Contingency Planning

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Region 3 document outlines the purpose of Energy Emergency and Contingency Plans. These plans are intended to help refuges continue to function during energy...

  12. Zika virus: An international emergency?

    Palomo, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-05-01

    This Viewpoint discusses the World Health Organization's Declaration on 1 February 2016 that the epidemic infection caused by the Zika virus is a public health emergency of international concern - the basis of the decision and controversy surrounding it. PMID:26911655

  13. Value-Based Emergency Management.

    Corrigan, Zachary; Winslow, Walter; Miramonti, Charlie; Stephens, Tim

    2016-02-01

    This article touches on the complex and decentralized network that is the US health care system and how important it is to include emergency management in this network. By aligning the overarching incentives of opposing health care organizations, emergency management can become resilient to up-and-coming changes in reimbursement, staffing, and network ownership. Coalitions must grasp the opportunity created by changes in value-based purchasing and impending Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services emergency management rules to engage payers, physicians, and executives. Hope and faith in doing good is no longer enough for preparedness and health care coalitions; understanding how physicians are employed and health care is delivered and paid for is now necessary. Incentivizing preparedness through value-based compensation systems will become the new standard for emergency management. PMID:26878308

  14. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  15. Forum outlines top emerging technologies

    Extance, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing, next-generation robotics, "sense and avoid" drones that fly themselves, artificial intelligence and "neuromorphic" computing have all made it into the World Economic Forum's top 10 emerging technologies for 2015.

  16. Operator Training by Emergency Exercises

    The defence in depth concept requires not only provisions for coping with anticipated operational occurrences as well as design basis accidents but also provisions which allow appropriate reactions to beyond design basis accidents. In accordance with this concept the Nuclear Safety Convention, which was signed by many IAEA Member States, deals among others with emergency preparedness and the correlated provisions. The Safety Convention requires that on-site and off-site emergency plans are routinely tested for nuclear installations. The aim of these provisions is primarily the prevention of radiological consequences in the environment of nuclear installations but also the mitigation of such consequences, should they nevertheless occur. Up to the eighties emergency preparedness concentrated on a few provisions by the operators and in particular on plant-external emergency planning. As a result of the accidents at Three Mile Island as well as Chernobyl and with the findings from many risk studies, accident management measures and emergency procedures were developed. This led to an increased plant internal emergency preparedness focussing on the prevention of severe core damage in case of beyond design basis accidents and on the reduction of external consequences in case of such hypothetical events. For emergency exercises based on event-sheets Volume 1 of the 'Manual for the Planning, Coordination and Evaluation of Emergency Exercises' has been elaborated in 1997. This manual emphasizes the modular structure of emergency exercises. The performed simulator-assisted exercises show that this type of exercises offers an extension of the spectrum of training measures. Explanations and findings related to this type of exercises are summarized in a second Volume of the above mentioned manual. In this volume the pros and cons of the two exercise types are discussed among others. Using the gathered experience laid down in particular in the two volumes of the manual a basis

  17. Data modelling for emergency response

    Dilo, Arta; Zlatanova, Sidi

    2010-01-01

    Emergency response is one of the most demanding phases in disaster management. The fire brigade, paramedics, police and municipality are the organisations involved in the first response to the incident. They coordinate their work based on welldefined policies and procedures, but they also need the most complete and up-todate information about the incident, which would allow a reliable decision-making. There is a variety of systems answering the needs of different emergency responders, but the...

  18. Active Region Emergence & Remote Flares

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of newly emerged solar active regions (ARs) on the large-scale magnetic environment of pre-existing ARs (PEARs). We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new ARs and PEARs as the difference between (i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and (ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and P...

  19. How do communication systems emerge?

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.; GARDNER, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Communication involves a pair of behaviours—a signal and a response—that are functionally interdependent. Consequently, the emergence of communication involves a chicken-and-egg problem: if signals and responses are dependent on one another, then how does such a relationship emerge in the first place? The empirical literature suggests two solutions to this problem: ritualization and sensory manipulation; and instances of ritualization appear to be more common. However, it is not clear from a ...

  20. Reservoir Interactions and Disease Emergence

    Reluga, T.; Meza, R; Walton, D. B.; Galvani, A P

    2007-01-01

    Animal populations act as reservoirs for emerging diseases. In order for transmission to be self-sustaining, a pathogen must have a basic reproduction number R0 > 1. Following a founding transmission event from an animal reservoir to humans, a pathogen has not yet adapted to its new environment and is likely to have an R0 < 1. However, subsequent evolution may rescue the pathogen from extinction in its new host. Recent applications of branching process theory investigate how the emergence of ...