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Sample records for abbreviated emergency laparotomy

  1. Abbreviated laparotomy or damage control laparotomy: Why, when and how to do it?

    Voiglio, E J; Dubuisson, V; Massalou, D; Baudoin, Y; Caillot, J L; Létoublon, C; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    The goal of abbreviated laparotomy is to treat severely injured patients whose condition requires an immediate surgical operation but for whom a prolonged procedure would worsen physiological impairment and metabolic failure. Indeed, in severely injured patients, blood loss and tissue injuries enhance the onset of the "bloody vicious circle", triggered by the triad of acidosis-hypothermia-coagulopathy. Abbreviated laparotomy is a surgical strategy that forgoes the completeness of operation in favor of a physiological approach, the overriding preference going to rapidity and limiting the procedure to control the injuries. Management is based on sequential association of the shortest possible preoperative resuscitation with surgery limited to essential steps to control injury (stop the bleeding and contamination), without definitive repair. The latter will be ensured during a scheduled re-operation after a period of resuscitation aiming to correct physiological abnormalities induced by the trauma and its treatment. This strategy necessitates a pre-defined plan and involvement of the entire medical and nursing staff to reduce time loss to a strict minimum. PMID:27542655

  2. [Abbreviated laparotomy for treatment of severe abdominal trauma: use in austere settings].

    Balandraud, P; Biance, N; Peycru, T; Savoie, P H; Avaro, J P; Tardat, E; Pourrière, M; Cador, L

    2007-10-01

    Abbreviated laparotomy is a recent technique for management of patients with severe abdominal trauma. It is based on a unified approach taking into account the overall extent of injury and the victim's physiologic potential to respond to hemorrhage. It is the first step in a multi-modal strategy. The second step is the critical care phase. The third step consists of "second-look" laparotomy that should ideally be performed on an elective basis within 48 hours and is aimed at definitive treatment of lesions. The goal of abbreviated laparotomy is damage control using temporary quick-fix procedures limited to conspicuous lesions and rapid hemostasis and/or viscerostasis procedures so that the patient can survive the acute critical period. Tension-free closure of the abdominal wall, if necessary using laparostomy, is essential to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. With reported survival rates of about 50% in Europe and the United States, this simple life-saving technique that requires limited resources should be introduced in Africa where severe abdominal trauma often involves young patients. PMID:18225739

  3. Efficacy of Possum Score in Predicting the Outcome in Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy

    Sreeharsha Harinatha; Sp Rai; Sreekar Harinatha; Reddy Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of surgical outcome is increasingly important part of governance of surgical activity. The aim of the study. POSSUM scoring system was applied prospectively to determine how it performed in predicting morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy in our hospital, a group known to be at high risk of complications and death. Material and methods. A total of 100 cases of emergency laparotomies were studied in patients admitted in general surgery department during...

  4. PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS OF LAPAROTOMY WOUND IN ELECTIVE AND EMERGENCY SURGERY

    Deepak R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative wound complications are of common occurrence. The incidence of postoperative wound infections ranged from <2% to 38%. Based on NNIS (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system reports, surgical site infections are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infections among hospitalized patient. Aim is to compare the complications of laparotomy wound in elective and emergency surgery and to study the various determinants affecting it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective randomized study of 216 patients undergoing emergency and elective laparotomy. Postoperative wound complications and various factors affecting it are compared between emergency and elective surgery. RESULTS: The study was conducted on 216 patients, aged between 13-80 years, who underwent major elective and emergency laparotomy surgery in Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre Bijapur, between October 2008 – May 2014 (5 year 6 month. Among the 216 patients, 15(14% out of 108 patients were in elective laparotomy group and 27(25% out of 108 patients were in emergency laparotomy who developed complications. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, laparotomy wound complications are multifactorial, this study demonstrated no significant increase in incidence of postoperative tissue and wound complications in emergency (25% and elective surgery (14% p=0.08. It mainly depends on higher ASA score, anemia and higher wound class who are more likely to be associated with development of wound complications.

  5. From NELA to EPOCH and beyond: enhancing the evidence base for emergency laparotomy.

    Odor, Peter M; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Around 35,000 patients undergo emergency laparotomy surgery in the UK each year with an in-hospital 30-day mortality estimated as between 11 and 15 %. The recent publication of the First Patient Report of the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) has provided a detailed description of individual hospital performance against national standards of care in emergency laparotomy in England and Wales. Although the standards used for audit purposes in NELA are based upon the best currently available evidence, none of the source data derives from randomised controlled studies. This commentary explores the evidence base for the standards evaluated by NELA and highlights recent and forthcoming studies that may substantially contribute to improving the evidence base in this area, thereby improving patient care and strengthening the validity of the NELA audit standards. PMID:27594991

  6. Assessing the risk: Scoring systems for outcome prediction in emergency laparotomies.

    Nag, Deb Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    Emergency laparotomy is the commonest emergency surgical procedure in most hospitals and includes over 400 diverse surgical procedures. Despite the evolution of medicine and surgical practices, the mortality in patients needing emergency laparotomy remains abnormally high. Although surgical risk assessment first started with the ASA Physical Status score in 1941, efforts to find an ideal scoring system that accurately estimates the risk of mortality, continues till today. While many scoring systems have been developed, no single scoring system has been validated across multiple centers and geographical locations. While some scoring systems can predict the risk merely based upon preoperative findings and parameters, some rely on intra-operative assessment and histopathology reports to accurately stratify the risk of mortality. Although most scoring systems can potentially be used to compare risk-adjusted mortality across hospitals and amongst surgeons, only those which are based on preoperative findings can be used for risk prognostication and identify high-risk patients before surgery for an aggressive treatment. The recognition of the fact, that in the absence of outcome data in these patients, it would be impossible to evaluate the impact of quality improvement initiatives on risk-adjusted mortality, hospital groups and surgical societies have got together and started to pool data and analyze it. Appropriate scoring systems for emergency laparotomies would help in risk prognostication, risk-adjusted audit and assess the impact of quality improvement initiative in patient care across hospitals. Large multi-centric studies across varied geographic locations and surgical practices need to assess and validate the ideal and most apt scoring system for emergency laparotomies. While APACHE-II and P-POSSUM continue to be the most commonly used scoring system in emergency laparotomies,studies need to compare them in their ability to predict mortality and explore if either

  7. Abbreviations

    Brine, Kevin R.; Ciletti, Elena; Lähnemann, Henrike

    2013-01-01

    List of abbreviations of books of the Bible and versions of the Bible as used in this volume (according to The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., 2003, sections 15.50–54). The Jewish Bible/Old Testament Am Amos 1 Chr 1 Chronicles 2 Chr 2 Chronicles Dn Daniel Dt Deuteronomy Eccl Ecclesiastes Est Esther Ex Exodus Ez Ezekiel Gn Genesis Hg Haggai Hos Hosea Is Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Jb Job Jl Joel Jon Jonah Jo Joshua Jgs Judges 1 Kgs 1 Kings 2 Kgs 2 Kings Lam Lamentations Lv Leviticus Mal Malachi Mi ...

  8. Risk assessment tools validated for patients undergoing emergency laparotomy: a systematic review.

    Oliver, C M; Walker, E; Giannaris, S; Grocott, M P W; Moonesinghe, S R

    2015-12-01

    Emergency laparotomies are performed commonly throughout the world, but one in six patients die within a month of surgery. Current international initiatives to reduce the considerable associated morbidity and mortality are founded upon delivering individualised perioperative care. However, while the identification of high-risk patients requires the routine assessment of individual risk, no method of doing so has been demonstrated to be practical and reliable across the commonly encountered spectrum of presentations, co-morbidities and operative procedures. A systematic review of Embase and Medline identified 20 validation studies assessing 25 risk assessment tools in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. The most frequently studied general tools were APACHE II, ASA-PS and P-POSSUM. Comparative, quantitative analysis of tool performance was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of study design, poor reporting and infrequent within-study statistical comparison of tool performance. Reporting of calibration was notably absent in many prognostic tool validation studies. APACHE II demonstrated the most consistent discrimination of individual outcome across a variety of patient groups undergoing emergency laparotomy when used either preoperatively or postoperatively (area under the curve 0.76-0.98). While APACHE systems were designed for use in critical care, the ability of APACHE II to generate individual risk estimates from objective, exclusively preoperative data items may lead to better-informed shared decisions, triage and perioperative management of patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. Future endeavours should include the recalibration of APACHE II and P-POSSUM in contemporary cohorts, modifications to enable prediction of morbidity and assessment of the impact of adoption of these tools on clinical practice and patient outcomes. PMID:26537629

  9. A review of anaesthesia for emergency laparotomy in paediatric intestinal obstruction in Enugu, Nigeria

    Ugochukwu Vincent Okafor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the anaesthetic management and outcome for emergency laparotomy for paediatric intestinal obstruction in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Methods:The anaesthetic charts and folders of pediatric patients that had emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction in the general operating theatre of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria, from October 2007 - September 2008 were reviewed. The records were examined for anaesthetic technique, patient primary diagnosis, intra-operative events, blood and fluid therapy and patient outcome. Patients above thirteen years were excluded. Results: Forty-four out of 285 (15.7% paediatric patients underwent emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction in the general operating theatre. There were 29 males and 15 females. The average age of the patients was 3.75 years. There were a total of 1674 anesthetics in the general operating theatre during the study. The leading causes of intestinal obstruction in this study were typhoid peritonitis (14 or 31.8%, intussusceptions (14 or 31.8% and congenital anomalies (11 or 25%. Six patients (13% had a preoperative packed cell volume of less than 30%, while ten patients received intra-operative blood transfusion (21.7%. There was one anesthetic death to give a case mortality rate of 2.2%. Conclusion: The mortality rate in this study shows the importance and relevance of trained providers of anaesthesia managing paediatric patients in the developing world. Early presentation of patients allowed time for resuscitation and fewer complications before surgery

  10. Diagnostic Yield and Clinical Utility of Abdominopelvic CT Following Emergent Laparotomy for Trauma.

    Haste, Adam K; Brewer, Brian L; Steenburg, Scott D

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence of unexpected injuries that are diagnosed with computed tomography (CT) after emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma and whether identification of such injuries results in additional surgery or angiography. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The trauma databases of two urban level 1 trauma centers were queried over a period of more than 5 years for patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT within 48 hours of emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma. Comparisons were made between CT findings and those described in the surgical notes. Descriptive statistics were generated, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined by using an exact method based on a binomial distribution. Results The study cohort consisted of 90 patients, including both blunt and penetrating trauma victims with a median injury severity score of 17.5 (interquartile range, 9.25-34). Seventy-three percent (66 of 90) of patients sustained penetrating trauma, 82% (74 of 90) of whom were male. A total of 19 patients (21.1%; 95% CI: 13.2, 31.0) had additional injuries within the surgical field that were not identified during laparotomy. There were 17 unidentified solid organ injuries, and eight patients had active bleeding within the surgical field. Eight patients (8.9%; 95% CI: 3.9, 16.8) had unexpected injuries at CT that were substantial enough to warrant additional surgery or angiography. In addition, previously undiagnosed fractures were found in 45 patients (50%; 95% CI: 39.3, 60.7). Conclusion Performing CT after emergent exploratory laparotomy for trauma is useful in identifying unexpected injuries and confirming suspected injuries that were not fully explored at initial surgery. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26963577

  11. Efficacy of Possum Score in Predicting the Outcome in Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy

    Sreeharsha Harinatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of surgical outcome is increasingly important part of governance of surgical activity. The aim of the study. POSSUM scoring system was applied prospectively to determine how it performed in predicting morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy in our hospital, a group known to be at high risk of complications and death. Material and methods. A total of 100 cases of emergency laparotomies were studied in patients admitted in general surgery department during the period of May 2008 to August 2010. The study group consisted of the following cases. Duodenal perforation (37 cases, intestinal obstruction (27 cases, gastric perforation (8 cases, ileal perforation (8 cases, appendicular perforation (7 cases, blunt trauma (4 cases and others (9 cases. They were scored using POSSUM scoring system. Physiological scoring was done at the time of admission and operative scoring was done intraoperatively. They were followed up for the first 30 day post operative period for any complications and the outcome was noted. The observed morbidity and mortality rates were compared with the POSSUM predicted morbidity and mortality rates. Results. 15 patients died (mortality rate of 15%. The POSSUM predicted mortality was 20 deaths. O:E ratio of 0.71 was obtained. There was no statistically significant difference between the observed and predicted mortality rates (χ2=1.72, p=0.974. 71 patients experienced complications. The POSSUM predicted morbidity was 61 patients. O:E ratio of 1.19 was obtained. There was no statistically significant difference between the observed and predicted morbidity rates (χ2=1.594, p=0.991. Conclusions. POSSUM scoring is an accurate predictor of mortality and morbidity following emergency laparotomy and is a valid means of assessing adequacy of care provided to the patient. POSSUM can be used for surgical audit to assess and improve the quality of surgical care and helps in better outcome to the patient

  12. Alcoholic delirium tremens with hollow viscus perforation scheduled for emergency laparotomy

    Anand T Talikoti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a drug consumed at some time in life by up to 80% of the population according to western statistics. Wide differences in socioeconomic status in India contribute to various degrees and severity of alcoholism and its associated complications. The symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range from such minor ones as insomnia and tremulousness to severe complications such as withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Although alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the literature in post-operative periods and in Intensive Care Unit, there is paucity of information on treatment and preparation of a patient with alcohol withdrawal syndrome coming for emergency surgical procedures. The surgical stress and deranged liver function in such cases poses an additional challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Here, we report the successful management of a case of acute alcoholic delirium tremens who presented with hollow viscous perforation for emergency exploratory laparotomy.

  13. Alcoholic delirium tremens with hollow viscus perforation scheduled for emergency laparotomy.

    Talikoti, Anand T; Sindhu, Bs; Kavyashree, Sp; Kumar, Ks Kishore

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol is a drug consumed at some time in life by up to 80% of the population according to western statistics. Wide differences in socioeconomic status in India contribute to various degrees and severity of alcoholism and its associated complications. The symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range from such minor ones as insomnia and tremulousness to severe complications such as withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Although alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the literature in post-operative periods and in Intensive Care Unit, there is paucity of information on treatment and preparation of a patient with alcohol withdrawal syndrome coming for emergency surgical procedures. The surgical stress and deranged liver function in such cases poses an additional challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Here, we report the successful management of a case of acute alcoholic delirium tremens who presented with hollow viscous perforation for emergency exploratory laparotomy. PMID:22701216

  14. Add on dexmedetomidine in the treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal in a patient of emergency laparotomy

    Roshan Madan Shende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to American statistics 90% of people drink alcohol at some time in life. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse among hospitalized in patients is 20 % and 10- 33 % in patients admitted to the ICU. Approximately 18% of these patients will develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS whose symptoms can include physical and psychological manifestations that range from mild to life threatening. Although AWS has been reported in literature in post-operative periods and in intensive care unit, there is less information on treatment and preparing of a patient with AWS, coming for emergency surgical procedure. The surgical stress and deranged liver functions possess an additional challenge to the anesthesiologist. Here we are reporting the successful management of a case of delirium tremens by using Dexmedetomidine in pre, intra and post-operative period in a patient with hollow viscous perforation for emergency laparotomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2446-2449

  15. EVALUATION OF PULMONARY ASPIRATION AND SELLICK’S MANEUVER IN EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMIES

    Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sellick’s maneuver is used for the prevention of pulmonary aspiration in emergency situation. To evaluate the efficacy of Sellick’s maneuver controlled trials were not done up till now because of ethical and legal issue. On the background of recent updates, we have planned to evaluate the emergency laparotomy and obstetric cases of last four and a half years for the risk of pulmonary. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence rate of pulmonary aspiration, the morbidity and mortality of pulmonary aspiration and to discuss the efficacy of Sellick’s maneuver. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cases selected are from the period January 2011 to June 2015. Total 807 cases were for evaluation. After permission of record section of our hospital case sheets are evaluated. Where ever required the concerned assistant professor of anesthesiology was interviewed. OBSERVATIONS The incidence of pulmonary aspiration is 1:807. This patient did not need intensive pulmonary management. There is no mortality because of pulmonary aspiration. Two cases of vomiting immediately after extubation are observed, but there was nothing to suggest for pulmonary aspiration. CONCLUSION There are chances of regurgitation even with all preventive measures are applied. The incidence rate is 1:807 in emergency surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Out of three main groups, i.e. obstetric group, pediatric group and adult patients of emergency laparotomy group no group can be labeled as more high risk group for risk of aspiration. There is no mortality because of regurgitation. The training of assistant is crucial to prevent the incidence of aspiration. We are of opinion that Sellick’s maneuver will remain beneficial during induction of general anesthesia to prevent pulmonary aspiration.

  16. High mortality after emergency room laparotomy in haemodynamically unstable trauma patients

    Lund, Helle; Kofoed, Steen Christian; Hillingsø, Jens Georg; Larsen, Claus Falck; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hypovolaemic shock is a major course of death in trauma patients. The mortality in patients in profound shock at the time of arrival is extremely high and we wanted to investigate the outcome of patients undergoing laparotomy at the Trauma Care Unit (TCU).......Hypovolaemic shock is a major course of death in trauma patients. The mortality in patients in profound shock at the time of arrival is extremely high and we wanted to investigate the outcome of patients undergoing laparotomy at the Trauma Care Unit (TCU)....

  17. Evaluating the Causes of Emergent Laparotomy in Two Treatment Centers of Babol City: Shahid Beheshti and Yahya Nejad (1999-2001

    A. Gholizadeh Pasha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Emergent laparotomy has many usages in abdomen trauma and acute abdomen. Knowing its common causes and patient's conditions will be useful for good management of these patients. This study determined the common etiologies of emergent laparotomy and evaluated these causes.Materials & Methods: This descriptive and retrospective study was carried out on patients who had received laparotomy and their dossiers were available in archives of Beheshty and Yahya Nejad hospitals. Results: 300 patients were laparotomised (201 male and 99 female. 69 out of these patients had received laparotomy because of trauma (48 blunt and 21 penetrating and 231 of them for acute abdomen. The most common signs were tenderness and guarding. Most of the patients were in 11-20 and 21-30 years age groups. In trauma: most common causes of injury were car accident and stab wounds. It usually happens in the third decade of the life. Accuracy of physical examinations was 91% by using three criteria of hypotension, tenderness and guarding. Negative laparotomy was 4 in blunt and 10 in penetrating trauma. Most common injured organs were spleen in blunt and intestine in penetrating traumas. In acute abdomen: most common causes for emergent laparotomy were peritonitis (43% and obstruction (25%. Negative laparotomy was 3 in acute abdomen. P.U (4.46% and perforated appendicitis (4.36% were the most common causes of peritonitis. Rate of mortality in 5 cases was for trauma patients and 4 in cases for acute abdomen patients.Conclusion: This study proved that acute abdomen was the most common cause of emergent laparotomy and peritonitis and intestine obstruction were the common causes of acute abdomen which lead in laparotomy. In traumatic patients, blunt trauma (resulting from car accident was the most regardable factor of emergent laparotomy (resulting from car accident

  18. Retained Intra-Abdominal Surgical Clamp Complicating Emergency Laparotomy: Incidental Finding on Hysterosalpingogram for Evaluation of Tubal Infertility

    Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of intraperitoneal foreign body complicating surgical intervention broadly remains as an issue of safety in the operative room, a source of emotive concern for the patient, and an upsetting but equally embarrassing situation to the surgeon and the team. However, in the media world, it is a source of sumptuous and captivating headline on the newspaper and to the legal profession, an attractive case to prosecute. A middle age teacher presented with secondary infertility. She had emergency laparotomy fifteen years ago for ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy in a private hospital and postoperative period was uneventful. Amongst other investigations to find out the cause of infertility, she had hysterosalpingography and a radio-opaque clamp was visualized on the films. She was counselled and had laparotomy. A pair of surgical Kocher clamps was retrieved buried in the mesentery.

  19. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A GERIATRIC PATIENT WITH PARKINSON`S DISEASE AND DIABETES MELLITUS POSTED FOR EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMY

    Prajwal Patel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, one of the most common disabling neurological diseases, affects about 1% of the population over 60 years of age. It is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by the loss of dopaminergic fibers in basal ganglia of the brain. PD is an important cause of perioperative morbidity and with an increasingly elderly population; it is being encountered with greater frequency in surgical patients. Here we report a case of 79year old male with Parkinsonism and diabetes mellitus posted for emergency laparotomy, which we managed successfully with general anesthesia.

  20. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following an inadvertent dural puncture during an emergency laparotomy for ischemic colitis – a case report

    Shah R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reena Shah, Agnieszka Kubisz-Pudelko, Jeremy Reid Yeovil District Hospital, Yeovil, UK Abstract: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a clinico-neuroradiological syndrome characterized by various symptoms of neurological disease. It has commonly been reported in association with acute hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, sepsis, and exposure to immunosuppressants. Here, we report on a normotensive woman who developed a severe frontal headache, visual disturbances, and hypertension 3 days after undergoing an emergency laparotomy for ischemic colitis during which she suffered an inadvertent dural puncture. Neuro-imaging revealed features consistent with PRES. The patient went on to make a good recovery, being discharged 21 days postoperatively, with only minor visual disturbances and memory problems. This case highlights the importance of awareness of PRES to all specialties. On reviewing the literature, we feel that PRES may be a potential differential diagnosis to post-procedural neurological symptoms in those patients undergoing routine procedures such as spinal anesthetics or lumbar punctures. Keywords: PRES, neurological disease, lumbar puncture, spinal anesthetic

  1. EMERGENCY LAPAROTOMY AND DEATH IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY: A RARITY NOWADAYS? A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Suja Mary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy implanted outside the endometrial cavity constitutes ectopic gestation. The reproductive performance can be poor following an ectopic pregnancy. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the importance of public awareness about the need for early reporting to hospital in doubtful cases, to analyze the risk factors for ectopic, to study the role of βHCG estimation and transvaginal sonography in early detection in order to preserve the fallopian tube by medical therapy and/or to do early elective surgery preventing emergency laparotomy and death from ectopic pregnancy. METHODOLOGY: All cases of ectopic gestations managed in a tertiary care hospital for a period of one year is reviewed, roughly around 70 cases. The objectives were to analyze demographic characteristics, risk factors, methods of diagnosis and to evaluate the protocol for ectopic management in the hospital. RESULTS: The study showed that the maximum number of ectopic was seen in the 26 - 30 age group and more commonly among multies. Maximum number of ectopic cases is seen between 5.1 to 6 weeks and 80% of the cases are seen in ≤8 weeks. 42/70 patients showed one or more risk factors like previous history of ectopic, LSCS, infertility treatment, sterilization and use of IUCD.82.9% patients presented either with pain alone or pain along with spotting/bleeding p/v. Earlier, majority of the cases were reported after tubal rupture resulting in shock, which sometimes even lead to death. In the present scenario, however, only 2 patients developed hypotension, 11 out of 70 alone required blood transfusion and none required laparotomy. Majority of cases of unruptured ectopic (83% showed <66% rise in βHCG in 48 hours. Pelvic ultrasound and serum βHCG estimation has revolutionized the diagnostic proce ss of ectopic pregnancy enabling detection in the unruptured stage itself in 50% of the cases and the rest in early stages of rupture. In most cases, medical line of management with

  2. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result.

  3. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy.

    Bellevue, Oliver C; Johnson, Bennett M; Feczko, Andrew F; Nadig, Daniel E; White, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  4. Explorative laparotomy of solid tumours

    We can state that the diagnostical advantages of exploratory laparotomy must be compared to the risk of surgery. It requires a critical determination of indications and should not be primarily planned in a clinical-exploratory form but always also as therapeutic laparotomy. In addition, the general state of the patient must be so good that the anaesthesia and operative trauma can be tolerated. The patient must be prepared bearing in mind that the possible tumour resection or at least tumour reduction or other surgical palliative measures can be carried out. The wide spectrum of precise pre-examinations which are possible nowadays has caused the exploratory laparotomy to lose some of its importance. (orig.)

  5. FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations database provides a quick reference to acronyms and abbreviations related to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) activities

  6. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... complications requiring laparotomy after transplantation with outcomes for patients at increased risk. METHODS: In this study we performed a retrospective analysis of data of patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012. The study period was limited to the first 90 days after...... transplantation. RESULTS: Lung transplantation was performed in 258 patients, including 51 patients with α1-anti-trypsin deficiency (A1AD). Seventy-eight patients (30%) had an X-ray of the abdomen, and 23 patients (9%) required laparotomy during the first 90 days after transplantation. Patients with A1AD...

  7. 急诊腹腔镜与传统开腹手术治疗输卵管异位妊娠疗效观察%Observation on curative effect of emergent laparoscopy and routine laparotomy in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    董毅; 黄子娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe and compare the clinical efficacies of emergent laparoscopy and routine laparotomy in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 75 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy treated with emergent laparoscopy and 75 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy treated with routine laparotomy were analyzed retrospectively, the operation times, the amounts of blood loss during operation, anal exhausting times after operation, tubal patency situations after operation in the two groups were compared. Results; There was no significant difference in the operation time between emergent laparoscopy group ( (40.43 ±2.45) minutes] and routine laparotomy group ( (40. 52 ±2.78) minutes] ; there was significant difference in the amount of blood loss during operation between emergent laparoscopy group [ (16.23 ±2. 27) ml] and routine laparotomy group [ (48.65 ± 12. 23) ml] ; there was significant difference in the anal exhausting time after operation between emergent laparoscopy group ( ( 1. 23 ±0. 6) days] and routine laparotomy group [ (2. 35 ±0. 8) days] ; there was significant difference in patency rate of fallopian tubes between emergent laparoscopy group [ (83. 5 ± 2. 3)% ] and routine laparotomy group ( (52. 7 ±3. 9)% ] . Conclusion; Laparoscopy has the advantages of less blood loss, rapid recover-y, and high patency rate of fallopian tubes in treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy, its curative effect is superior to routine laparotomy, and it is the first choice for treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy.%目的:观察比较急诊腹腔镜与传统开腹手术在治疗输卵管异位妊娠中的临床效果.方法:回顾性分析输卵管异位妊娠患者在行急诊腹腔镜手术与传统手术治疗的临床资料各75例患者,比较两组患者手术时间、术中出血量、术后肛门排气时间、术后输卵管通畅情况.结果:急诊腹腔镜组手术时间(40.43±2.45) min与传统开腹手术组手术时间(40.52

  8. Acute Abdomen; Pre and Post-Laparotomy Diagnosis

    Marjan Laal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal pain is a common presentation that requires almost immediate management. It is sometimes crucial to diagnose at the earliest and make a decision as to operate. Therefore it is necessary for the physician to be familiar both with the presentations of common causes of abdominal pain and the validity of diagnostic tests.  Diagnosis of acute abdomen before laparotomy is essential in reducing the morbidity and mortality while preventing from unnecessary operations especially where the diagnostic facilities are limited and clinical awareness plays an important role in the diagnosis and management. Objectives: This study attempted to compare pre and post-operative diagnosis in acute abdomen.Materials & Methods: This was an observational study, conducted from February to December 2005. The study included 139 consecutive patients referred to Sina hospital (Tehran, Iran presented with symptoms of acute abdomen, operated to see the negative laparotomy rate, the diagnostic accuracy and predictive values of different investigations in acute abdomen. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 11.5. P value of Results: All 139 patients with diagnosis of acute abdomen underwent emergency laparotomy. Acute abdomen was most common in the age group 20-29 years with male predominance. Acute appendicitis (57.6% was the most common cause of surgical condition, and then the most common causes of acute abdomen were peritonitis (14.4% and bowel obstruction (7.9% in male and ovarian cyst torsion (24.5% in female patients. The negative laparotomy rate was 12.2% (P value Conclusion: The decision to operate is based on the results of a good history and thorough physical examination(s with the guidance of investigative tools. Diagnostic modalities could guide the physician in confirming the diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis of acute abdomen can avoid from unnecessary operations so reduces the rate of negative laparotomies.

  9. Laparoscopic Versus Open Nissen Fundoplication in Infants After Neonatal Laparotomy

    Barsness, Katherine A.; Feliz, Alexander; Potoka, Douglas A.; Gaines, Barbara A.; Upperman, Jeffery S.; Kane, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Nissen fundoplication is an effective treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. Laparoscopic procedures after previous laparotomy are technically more challenging. The role of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication after neonatal laparotomy for diseases unrelated to reflux is poorly described. Methods: This was a retrospective review of open vs laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in infants after neonatal laparotomy. Of 32 infants who underwent neonatal laparotomy, 26 required a...

  10. Peritoneal sepsis: re laparotomy characteristic patient

    Patients suffering from severe sepsis originating in the abdominal peritoneal region frequently require re-interventions, as this condition persist with high morbidity.Management of therapy is difficult and tends to be controversial; existing studies consider a universe which that is far from homogenic.The analysis covers a five year period.Case material involved 55 patients with severe abdominal sepsis requiring at least one re laparotomy.It takes into considerations the incidence, clinical manifestations leading to a positive re laparotomy, death rate and factors involved in prognosis.The absence of multi organic dysfunction (MOD) was considered a valid criteria for exclusion. A total of 121 relapses with corresponding laparotomy were performed, of which 17(14%) showed no relapse.The latter was less frequently associated with the presence of prolonged symptomatology, gastrointestinal anastomosis and /or MOD at the time of re-laparotomizing the patient (p<0,05).Local signs proved to be poor indicators of the advisability to re laparotomize. When comparing programmed re-laparotomy with this procedure undertaken whenever it be required, no differences were established as to the number of interventions performed, mean hospital days of patients and mortality. Crude mortality was 76% and related death-rate was 55%.The oldest patient was 70 years of age, the A:P:A:C:H:E: II points exceeded 17 and the presence of 3 or more sys functions were significantly associated with death rate in the range of 90%.The conclusion of this stud was that, given the high mortality of patients with 3 or more dysfunctions, the strategy for improving death rate is to re operate at an early stage those patients with 1 or 2 dysfunctions,particularity those presenting prolonged symptoms and/or gastrointestinal anastomosis

  11. A study of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts.

    Liu, Hongfang; Aronson, Alan R; Friedman, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Abbreviations are widely used in writing, and the understanding of abbreviations is important for natural language processing applications. Abbreviations are not always defined in a document and they are highly ambiguous. A knowledge base that consists of abbreviations with their associated senses and a method to resolve the ambiguities are needed. In this paper, we studied the UMLS coverage, textual variants of senses, and the ambiguity of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts. We restricted ou...

  12. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply...

  14. 40 CFR 86.098-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in §...

  15. 40 CFR 86.000-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.000-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in §...

  16. 40 CFR 86.096-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.094-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.094-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86... Petroleum Gas NMHC—Nonmethane Hydrocarbons NMHCE—Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Equivalent PM—Particulate...

  18. Neuromuscular blockade for improvement of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Scheppan, Susanne; Kissmeyer, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During laparotomy, surgeons frequently experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. This issue is particularly pertinent while closing the fascia and placing the intestines into the abdominal cavity. Establishment of a deep...

  19. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  20. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication. 

  1. Rescue bedside laparotomy in the intensive care unit in patients too unstable for transport to the operating room

    Schreiber, Joerg; Nierhaus, Axel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Braune, Stephan A; Frings, Daniel P; Vashist, Yogesh; Izbicki, Jakob R; Kluge, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The prognoses of critically ill patients with a requirement for emergency laparotomy and severe respiratory and/or hemodynamic instability precluding transport to the operating room (OR) are often fatal without surgery. Attempting emergency surgery at the bedside might equally result in an adverse outcome. However, risk factors and predictors that could support clinical decision making have not been identified so far. This study describes the clinical characteristics, indicative ...

  2. Abbreviations

    2013-01-01

    "AB" The official French logo for certified organic produce ("Agriculture Biologique") CF Conventional farming EF Ecological farming IFS Integrated farming systems LIF Low-input farming OF Organic farming OFgc Organic farming under group certification AFSAA Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (French food safety agency) AMAP Association pour le Maintien d'une Agriculture Paysanne (Association for the maintenance of small-scale farming – there is a network of such associations ...

  3. Abbreviations

    2013-01-01

    ACAME Association des centrales d’achat de médicaments essentiels (Association of central medical stores for essential generic drugs) AMPOT Association malienne pour la promotion des ophtalmologues traditionnels (Malian association for the promotion of traditional ophthalmologists) CT Cicatricial (scar) trachoma DALY Disability Adjusted Life-Years DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DMT Department of traditional medicine DOTS Directly Observed Therapy Short Course FT Follicular trachoma GIS G...

  4. Abbreviations

    2013-01-01

    ADEGE Agence nationale pour la démoustication et la gestion des espaces démoustiqués CAREC Caribbean Epidemiology Center CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention CIRE Cellule interrégionale d'épidémiologie Antilles-Guyane DHF Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever DSDS Direction de la santé et du développement social DSS Dengue Shock Syndrome EDEN European Association of Public Operators for Mosquito Control FDAs French Départements of America (refers to Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana) IGR I...

  5. Abbreviations used in scientific and technical reports

    Reports contain a large number of abbreviations which have not yet been included in the current specialized dictionaries or lists of abbreviations. It is therefore often time-consuming or even fruitless to search for such abbreviations. The present alphabetical list of more than 4,000 abbreviations gathered from the report inventory of the Central Library of the KFA Juelich in the period from 1982-1986, taking into consideration all the scientific and technical disciplines, is intended to remedy a deficiency and to offer assistance which will undoubtedly be welcomed by scientists and engineers. (orig./HP)

  6. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Body packing: from seizures to laparotomy.

    Janczak, Joanna M; Beutner, Ulrich; Hasler, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25883813

  8. 40 CFR 86.090-3 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.... GC—Gas chromatograph. HPLC—High-pressure liquid chromatography. MeOH—Methanol (CH3OH)....

  9. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    Tolman, B.J. [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  10. Intestinal mantle cell lymphoma recurring at laparotomy scar region

    Ray Amitabh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a moderately aggressive variety of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Extranodal presentation of MCL is well known, the intestine being a common site. The incidence of colorectal involvement is relatively rare. Moreover, the recurrence of the disease at laparotomy scar site is even more rare. We report an unusual case of incision line recurrence in a case of colonic MCL occuring three years after initial treatment.

  11. Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors

    Mathew G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Primary conservative surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy have resulted in high cure ratesin malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A significant proportion of advanced tumors may have post-chemotherapyresidue and it is important to distinguish necrosis or fibrosis without viable tumor from persistent viable tumorand teratoma. Aims : To evaluate the role of laparotomy in assessing the nature of post-chemotherapy residue in ovariangerm cell tumors. Materials and Methods : Eighty-three patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors seen at Cancer Institute,Chennai between 1992 and 2002 were studied. Sixty-eight patients completed combination chemotherapywith cisplatin regimes, of whom 35 had radiological residual masses. Twenty-nine out of these 35 patientsunderwent laparotomy to assess the nature of the residue. Results : On laparotomy, three patients had viable tumor, seven immature teratoma, three mature teratomaand 16 only necrosis or fibrosis. None of our patients with dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, absence ofteratoma element in the primary tumor and radiological residue of < 5 cm had viable tumor whereas all patientswith tumors containing teratoma component initially had residual tumor. Absence of viable disease was higherin patients who had normalization of serum markers by two cycles of chemotherapy. Conclusion : Our study suggests that patients with absence of teratoma element initially, radiological residue of< 5 cm and normalization of serum markers after two cycles of chemotherapy do not require surgery to assessthe nature of post-chemotherapy residue. However, laparotomy should be performed in patients with tumorsthat initially contain teratoma element and in those with sluggish tumor marker response after two cycles ofchemotherapy since they have a high chance of having viable postchemotherapy residue.

  12. A Study of Abbreviations in Clinical Notes

    Xu, Hua; Stetson, Peter D.; Friedman, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Various natural language processing (NLP) systems have been developed to unlock patient information from narrative clinical notes in order to support knowledge based applications such as error detection, surveillance and decision support. In many clinical notes, abbreviations are widely used without mention of their definitions, which is very different from the use of abbreviations in the biomedical literature. Thus, it is critical, but more challenging, for NLP systems to correctly interpret...

  13. Generating abbreviations using Google Books library

    Solovyev, Valery D.; Bochkarev, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the original method of creating a dictionary of abbreviations based on the Google Books Ngram Corpus. The dictionary of abbreviations is designed for Russian, yet as its methodology is universal it can be applied to any language. The dictionary can be used to define the function of the period during text segmentation in various applied systems of text processing. The article describes difficulties encountered in the process of its construction as well as the ways to over...

  14. Abbreviation definition identification based on automatic precision estimates

    Kim Won; Comeau Donald C; Sohn Sunghwan; Wilbur W John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The rapid growth of biomedical literature presents challenges for automatic text processing, and one of the challenges is abbreviation identification. The presence of unrecognized abbreviations in text hinders indexing algorithms and adversely affects information retrieval and extraction. Automatic abbreviation definition identification can help resolve these issues. However, abbreviations and their definitions identified by an automatic process are of uncertain validity. ...

  15. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • General Safety Requirements; • International Commission on Radiological Protection; • Intensive Contamination Survey Area; • International Experts Meeting; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of the Environment; • Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation; • Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; • Special Decontamination Area; • Specific Safety Requirements; • technical cooperation; • Three Mile Island; • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

  16. Acute peritoneal dialysis in a Jehovah's Witness post laparotomy.

    Appalsawmy, Usha Devi; Akbani, Habib

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old man who was a Jehovah's Witness with an advanced directive against autologous procedures developed acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy while he was intubated and ventilated on the intensive care unit. He was being treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. He also had a healing laparotomy wound, having undergone a splenectomy less than a month ago following a road traffic accident. His hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis were refractory to medical treatment. As he became oligoanuric, decision was taken to carry out acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) by inserting a Tenckhoff catheter in his abdomen using peritoneoscopic technique. The patient was started on automated PD without any complications. His urine output gradually improved, and his renal function eventually recovered. On discharge from hospital, his renal function was within normal range, and he had no abdominal complications from the acute PD. PMID:27581233

  17. Abdominal injury patterns in patients with seatbelt signs requiring laparotomy

    Seema Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We analyzed our series of patients with seatbelt signs (bruising that underwent laparotomy in order to correlate injury pattern with clinical course and outcome. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with seatbelt signs presenting to the level 1 Trauma Unit between 2005 and 2010 was performed. We evaluated the nature of injuries during laparotomy associated with seatbelt signs and their treatment and complications. Results: There were 41 patients, 25 (61% male, with a median age of 26 years. Median injury severity score (ISS was 25 (range 6-66 and overall mortality was 10% (four patients. Patients were classified into three groups according to time from injury to surgery. Median time to surgery for the immediate group (n = 12 was 1.05 h, early group (n = 22 was 2.7 h, and delayed group (n = 7 was 19.5 h. Patients in the immediate group tended to have solid organ injuries; whereas, patients in the delayed group had bowel injury. Patients with solid organ injuries were found to be more seriously injured and had higher mortality (P < 0.01 and morbidity compared with patients with the "classic" bowel injury pattern associated with a typical seatbelt sign. Conclusion: Our data suggest that there is a cohort of patients with seatbelt injury who have solid organ injury requiring urgent intervention. Solid organ injuries associated with malpositioned seatbelts lying higher on the abdomen tend to result in hemodynamic instability necessitating immediate surgery. They have more postoperative complications and a greater mortality. Seatbelt signs should be accurately documented after any car crash.

  18. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ....403-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations....

  19. 40 CFR 600.203-77 - Abbreviations.

    2010-07-01

    ....203-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.203-77 Abbreviations....

  20. Predictive Potential of Heart Rate Complexity Measurement: An Indication for Laparotomy Following Solid Organ Injury

    Foroutan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV has been recently used as a predictor of prognosis in trauma patients. Objectives We applied nonlinear analysis of HRV in patients with blunt trauma and intraperitoneal bleeding to assess our ability to predict the outcome of conservative management. Patients and Methods An analysis of electrocardiography (ECG from 120 patients with blunt trauma was conducted at the onset of admission to the emergency department. ECGs of 65 patients were excluded due to inadequacy of noise-free length. Of the remaining 55 patients, 47 survived (S group and eight patients died in the hospital (Non-S group. Nineteen patients were found to have intra-abdominal bleeding, eight of which ultimately underwent laparotomy to control bleeding (Op group and 11 underwent successful non-operative management (non-Op. Demographic data including vital signs, glasgow coma scale (GCS, arterial blood gas and injury severity scores (ISS were recorded. Heart rate complexity (HRC methods, including entropy, were used to analyze the ECG. Results There were no differences in age, gender, heart rate (HR and blood pressure between the S and Non-S groups. However, approximate entropy, used as a method of HRC measurement, and GCS were significantly higher in S group, compared to the Non-S group. The base deficit and ISS were significantly higher in the Non-S group. Regarding age, sex, ISS, base deficit, vital signs and GCS, no difference was found between Op and Non-Op groups. Approximate entropy was significantly lower in the Op group, compared to the Non-Op group. Conclusions The loss of HRC at the onset of admission may predict mortality in patients with blunt trauma. Lower entropy, in recently admitted patients with intra-abdominal bleeding, may indicate laparotomy when the vital signs are stable.

  1. Detecting Abbreviations in Discharge Summaries using Machine Learning Methods

    WU, YONGHUI; Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Denny, Joshua C.; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A.; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts man...

  2. Nasogastric intubation causes gastroesophageal reflux in patients undergoing elective laparotomy.

    Manning, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The routine use of nasogastric tubes in patients undergoing elective abdominal operation is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative fever, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that nasogastric tubes have no significant effect on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux or on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that nasogastric intubation in patients undergoing laparotomy reduces lower esophageal sphincter pressure and promotes gastroesophageal reflux in the perioperative period. METHODS: A prospective randomized case-control study was undertaken in which 15 consenting patients, admitted electively for bowel surgery, were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 underwent nasogastric intubation after induction of anesthesia, and Group 2 did not. All patients had manometry and pH probes placed with the aid of endoscopic vision at the lower esophageal sphincter and distal esophagus, respectively. Nasogastric tubes, where present, were left on free drainage, and sphincter pressures and pH were recorded continuously during a 24-hour period. Data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The mean number of reflux episodes (defined as pH < 4) in the nasogastric tube group was 137 compared with a median of 8 episodes in the group managed without nasogastric tubes (P =.006). The median duration of the longest episode of reflux was 132 minutes in Group 1 and 1 minute in Group 2 (P =.001). A mean of 13.3 episodes of reflux lasted longer than 5 minutes in Group 1, with pH less than 4 for 37.4% of the 24 hours. This was in contrast to Group 2 where a mean of 0.13 episodes lasted longer than 5 minutes (P =.001) and pH less than 4 for 0.2% of total time (P =.001). The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressures were lower in Group 1. CONCLUSIONS. These findings demonstrate that patients undergoing elective laparotomy with routine nasogastric tube placement have significant gastroesophageal

  3. Emergency surgery

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely......National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...

  4. Laparotomy for peritonitis: primary or delayed primary closure

    Background: Although literature does not provide a level-1 evidence to support either method of closure, various studies have shown a reduced frequency of superficial surgical site infection with delayed primary closure (DPC) as opposed to primary closure (PC). Nevertheless, PC is still preferred by most. surgeons to avoid a second procedure. This study was conducted with the objective to compare the frequency of wound infection and duration of hospitalization among patients undergoing primary and delayed primary closure of the skin wound following laparotomy for peritonitis. Method: A randomized controlled trial comprising 70 patients: Thirty-five patients underwent PC (Group-A) and 35 DPC (Group-B). Frequency of wound infection during follow up period and duration of hospital stay was noted in both groups. Results: In group-A, 18 (51.43 percentage) patients showed wound infection while in group-B, it was 9 (25.71 percentage) with p=0.027. Mean hospital stay recorded in group-A was 7.03 days ± 1.81, and for group-B, it was 6.34 days±4.14 (p=0.372). Conclusion: DPC for surgical wounds is better than PC technique as it decreases the frequency of wound infection during follow-up period without any significant increase in duration of hospital stay. (author)

  5. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  6. Imaging of a retained laparotomy towel that migrated into the colon lumen

    Retention of surgical instruments, most commonly small laparotomy sponges, is a known complication of surgery. Such retained instruments may remain silent or may cause a variety of complications. We report a case in which a retained laparotomy towel migrated into the colon. This is an infrequently reported complication. We were able to document the passage of the towel through the colon on plain radiographs. The USG and MRI findings are also described

  7. The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Morphine and Paracetamol in the Patients Undergoing Laparotomy, Using PCA Method

    Yaghoubi, Siamak; Pourfallah, Reza; Barikani, Ameneh; Kayalha, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: postoperative pain increases the activity of the sympathetic system, causes hypermetabolic conditions, retains salt and water, increases glucose, fatty acid lactate and oxygen consumption, weakens the immunity system which delays wound healing. Our object was comparison of the analgesic effect of morphine and paracetamol in the patients undergoing laparotomy, using PCA method. Method: Seventy patients who had undergone laparotomy were studied using double blind randomized clinical ...

  8. 7 CFR 4274.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    2010-01-01

    ..., which is a problem solving activity. The Agency will determine whether a specific activity qualifies as... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 4274.302 Section 4274... Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.302 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) General definitions. The...

  9. The use of abbreviations in surgical note keeping

    B. Collard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations are used to improve the speed of note keeping and to simplify patient notes. However studies have shown that they can reduce clarity, increase mistakes and cause confusion in management plans. Our review highlights the misuse of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

  10. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  11. 40 CFR 310.4 - What abbreviations should I know?

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution Contingency Plan also known as the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR part 300). NRC—National... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What abbreviations should I know? 310... RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES General Information § 310.4 What abbreviations should I know?...

  12. Sequenced Contractions and Abbreviations for Model 2 Reading.

    Cronnell, Bruce

    The nature and use of contractions and abbreviations in beginning reading is discussed and applied to the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program, a four-year program (K-3) for teaching reading skills to primary-grade children. The contractions and abbreviations are listed and sequenced for the reading program. The results of…

  13. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 516.3 Section 516.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.3 Explanation of abbreviations and terms. (a)...

  14. Comparison of abdominopelvic CT results and findings at second-look laparotomy in ovarian carcinoma patients

    Restaging in epithelial ovarian carcinoma after primary therapy has proven difficult by standard noninvasive methods and commonly requires second-look laparotomy. In the authors' study to date preoperative abdominopelvic CT (CBT) results and operative findings have been compared in 24 patients (25 studies) with ovarian adenocarcinoma currently clinically free of disease originally graded as FIGO stage III or IV, except for one patient with stage IC, undergoing second-look laparotomy to determine tumor status. There were ten true-negative, three false-negative, 12 true-positive, and no false-positive CBTs. Negative studies were associated with positive findings at laparotomy, including microscopic foci, in only 12% of all cases; thus, CBT in the series has shown a better correlation with surgery than in previous studies. Currently the authors are combining monoclonal antibody scanning with the CBT results with the goal of possibly avoiding second-look surgery in certain patients

  15. THE ISSUES OF LATIN ABBREVIATIONS IN THE DIPLOMATICES DOCUMENTS

    Иван Балта

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of Latin abbreviations in the diplomatic documents are a very complex problem in the diplomatic word processing and deciphering the historiography documents. Abbreviations originated from Latin letters caused a favorable advantage for the scribe, but created difficulties for the reader, since they were complicated and questionable at the time. The Romans called the Latin abbreviations notae-or-sigla, using them just to save space and materials on which the letters were written. Increased use of abbreviations in medieval manuscripts emphasized a need for a manual in both the Code and Charter, specifying the form of abbreviations and centuries which they belonged to. Steffens divided the abbreviations of the Roman epoch according to the chronological development into the five ways of shortening: suspension, notes Tironianae, contraction, notes iuris, and signs for numbers, which were retained and added new shortcuts in the Middle Ages, especially in the territory of today's Pannonia and the Eastern Adriatic coast. Punctuation, which was alike the abbreviations, had a long process of development, which began as an antique-scriptura continua, trying to clarify the meaning of putting points in various positions between the individual words. Abbreviations differed not only by the type of Latin letters, but also by the territory in which they evolved, at different time periods. Abbreviations of Latin letters from the Beneventan East Adriatic coast were specific, were formed gradually, could be used as a criterion for dating, and were carried out with more ways of shortening the letters. Schiaparelli probably entered the deepest essence of the development of Latin minuscule in which he noted that the Frankish influences were much stronger in the first period of the development of the Beneventan East Adriatic coast. However, perhaps no other medieval script was developed better than a system of abbreviations in the Gothic style, especially in

  16. Minimal laparotomy management of a giant ovarian cystic teratoma in adolescence

    Toshihiro Yasui; Tatsuya Suzuki; Fujio Hara; Shunsuke Watanabe; Hirokazu Tomishige; Naoko Uga; Atsuki Naoe

    2015-01-01

    Giant ovarian cysts in adolescents are very rare. Those treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery is discussed with gynecologists and pediatric surgeons because its limited working space and risk of rupture and malignancy. We present a case of minimal laparotomy management of a giant ovarian cystic teratoma in adolescent. A 13-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and constipation. A CT scan showed a giant simple ovarian cystic tumor in her abdomen measuring 29 × 13 × 24 cm. We ma...

  17. Conventional laparotomy for management of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a case report

    Nilesh C. Mhaske

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the rates of caesarean deliveries has led to a concurrent rise in the number of caesarean scar ectopic pregnancies (CSEP. With recent advances, diagnosis can be made at an early gestational age, hence facilitating a prompt intervention. With the varied treatment options available, choosing the right one may possess a clinical dilemma. However, in a low resource setting, conventional laparotomy may be the only option feasible. A case of CSEP managed with laparotomy is presented. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1581-1584

  18. Transfusion practice and complications after laparotomy - an observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Meyhoff, C S; Johansson, P I;

    2012-01-01

    Background  Transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBC) may be associated with side effects. This study aimed to assess whether an association could be detected between transfusion practice and the occurrence of complications after laparotomy. Study design and methods  This study is an observ...

  19. 7 CFR 1945.5 - Abbreviations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 103-354. (l) LFAC—Local Food and Agriculture Council. (m) NASS—State Statistical Office of the USDA.... (e) EM—Emergency. (f) EOH—USDA Emergency Operations Handbook. (g) FAC—Food and Agriculture Council... Administration. (p) SFAC—USDA State Food and Agriculture Council. (q) USDA—United States Department...

  20. Detecting abbreviations in discharge summaries using machine learning methods.

    Wu, Yonghui; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts manually annotated abbreviations in seventy discharge summaries, which were randomly broken into a training set (40 documents) and a test set (30 documents). We implemented and evaluated several ML algorithms using the training set and a list of pre-defined features. The subsequent evaluation using the test set showed that the Random Forest classifier had the highest F-measure of 94.8% (precision 98.8% and recall of 91.2%). When a voting scheme was used to combine output from various ML classifiers, the system achieved the highest F-measure of 95.7%. PMID:22195219

  1. Application of abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score in fatal cases with abdominopelvic injuries.

    Subedi, Nuwadatta; Yadav, Bishwanath; Jha, Shivendra

    2014-12-01

    In forensic casework, investigation of injury severity is important in evaluating the mortality, occasionally in terms of the adequacy of clinical management. The study was conducted with an objective to study the relationship of severity of the injuries using Abbreviated Injury Scale and Injury Severity Score (ISS) with survival period and place of death among fatal cases with abdominopelvic trauma.The total number of cases studied was 80. The injuries in all the body parts were allotted using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008, and the ISS was calculated. The male/female ratio was 4:1, and the mean (SD) age was 30.76 (15.2) years. The cause of trauma was road traffic accidents in 82.5% of the cases. The median duration of survival was 2 hours. The mean (SD) ISS was 38.90 (14.89). Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of 5 and 4 were the most common in the region. With increase in the ISS, the survival period was decreased. There was a highly significant difference between the mean ISS of the victims who died prehospital and that of who died in the emergency department (P < 0.005). The mean ISS of the victims who died in the emergency department and of those who died in the ward, intensive care unit, or after discharge was also significantly different (P < 0.05).Although the cases with more severe injuries died sooner, there should be provision of treatment on the spot without delay. More time taken to start the treatment increases the fatalities. PMID:25354224

  2. Abdominal damage control surgery and reconstruction: world society of emergency surgery position paper

    Godat, Laura; Kobayashi, Leslie; Costantini, Todd; Coimbra, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Damage control laparotomy was first described by Dr. Harlan Stone in 1983 when he suggested that patients with severe trauma should have their primary procedures abbreviated when coagulopathy was encountered. He recommended temporizing patients with abdominal packing and temporary closure to allow restoration of normal physiology prior to returning to the operating room for definitive repair. The term damage control in the trauma setting was coined by Rotondo et al., in 1993. ...

  3. [Should routine exploratory laparotomy be performed in the presence of an abdominal wound? Discussion apropos of 176 cases].

    Guiberteau, B; Kohen, M; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C; Le Neel, J C

    1992-10-01

    Management of abdominal wounds is presently the subject of discussion between the partisans of routine laparotomy and those preferring "armed" surveillance. Results of study of a series of 176 abdominal wounds subjected to surgical dogma showed: that the diagnosis of non penetrating wounds (17.6%) was not always evident, due either to their anatomical localization (frontier region wounds) or to insufficient local exploration in urgent cases (6.6% of false-negatives), that the existence of serious clinical signs (50 cases) was always associated with one or more visceral lesions, requiring urgent laparotomy with a morbidity of 20% and a mortality of 8% (4 cases), that in the case of asymptomatic penetrating wounds (96 cases), routine laparotomy did nevertheless allow the diagnosis of visceral lesions in 50 cases (including 23 major lesions) but was of no utility in 46 cases (31.5% of blind laparotomies for the total series). The elevated proportion of useless laparotomies (30% in the literature), the result of a dogmatic attitude, or the risk of a delayed intervention (5 to 8%) in the series practising the selective method, led to a modification in the authors' attitude. The existence of serious signs should obviously result in a laparotomy. In their absence, and when confronted with a penetrating or doubtful (frontier region) wound, an exploratory celioscopy is proposed to ensure complete abdominal exploration, to confirm the presence or absence of penetration, to treat minimal lesions and to perform a classical laparotomy in case of evident necessity. PMID:1294583

  4. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT FOR A RARE CASE OF LOEYS-DIETZ SYNDROME FOR LAPAROTOMY

    Premalatha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS is an autosomally dominant connective tissue disorder characterised by vascular and skeletal manifestations. It is caused by mutations in the TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2 or SMAD3 genes. There are four types of which type I is the most common accounting for more than 75% of the cases. Here we report the anaesthetic management of a case of LDS type I who presented with abdominal pain with suspected twisted ovarian cyst for laparotomy.

  5. Second look laparotomy in the management of epithelial cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    Mead, G. M.; Williams, C. J.; MacBeth, F. R.; Boyd, I. E.; Whitehouse, J M

    1984-01-01

    Case histories from 20 patients undergoing postchemotherapy "second look" laparotomy for metastatic epithelial cell carcinoma of the ovary were reviewed in an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure and its likely impact on patient survival. The patient population comprised 18 patients treated with a combination of cisplatin, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (PACe) and 2 patients treated with chlorambucil. The findings at second look were often predictable, and related to the adeq...

  6. Comparison of polydioxanone (PDS and polyamid (nylon sutures complications in abdominal midline repair (laparotomy surgery

    F.Eshghi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite progresss in the techniques of surgery, there is still a lot of controversy about selection of the best technique and suture material. Many post operation complications such as infection, wound dehiscence, pain and sinus formation are related to the type of the suture used. In this study we compared the complications due to the absorbent suture (PDS with a non absorbent suture (nylon in laparotomy operation.Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 120 patients referring to Imam Khomeini hospital, Sari, 2003-2005 for laparotomy. They were randomly divided in tow groups of equal number. The incision was repaired with PDS sutures in case and with nylon suture in control group. All patients under study were followed up for one year. Data about chronic pain,wound dehiscence, infection, hernia and sinus formation were recorded and analyzed using SPSS software and Chi- square test.Results: In this study 120 patients (60 in case and 60 in control groups were enrolled. After laparotomy, the incidence of chronic pain and sinus formation in case group was significantly less than the control group. There were no significant differences between the rate of infection, hernia and wound dehiscence in the two groups.Conclusion: No significant differences in the rate of infection, hernia and wound dehiscence between two types of suture materials were observed. However, application of PDS leads to less pain and sinus formation. Therefore, it can be a better choice in surgical incisions.

  7. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    M. F. Ulum; D. R. Setiadi; B. Panjaitan; M. Noordin; Amrozi .

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickne...

  8. Sourcing archaeological obsidian by an abbreviated NAA procedure

    An abbreviated NAA procedure has been developed to fingerprint obsidian artifacts in the Mesoamerican region. Despite the large number of available sources, an NAA procedure, which relies on producing short-lived isotopes, has been applied with a success rate greater than 90 percent. The abbreviated NAA procedure is rapid and cost competitive with the XRF technique more often applied in obsidian sourcing. Results from the analysis of over 1,200 obsidian artifacts from throughout Mesoamerica are presented. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Hodgkin's disease in children: Treatment with MOPP and low-dose, extended field irradiation without laparotomy. Late results and toxicity

    The 10 year results of a trial of bimodal treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children with 6 cycles of MOPP and low-dose extended field irradiation, without staging laparotomy, were for 57 children in all stages as follows: survival 85%, relapse-free survival 80%, and survival-free of second relapse 86%. There were three fatal toxic events, two due to viral infection and one to a second malignant tumor (NHL). Three other patients developed a second malignant tumour, and one developed a thyroid adenoma. No patient developed acute leukemia. These results are compared with the results of treatment of surgically staged children by extended field irradiation alone, with bimodal treatment reserved for relapse or advanced disease at diagnosis. Initial bimodal treatment improved the overall 10 year survival free from a second relapse rate by 20% (86% vs. 66%). No major difference in treatment toxicity between these two groups has emerged during the first 10 years of follow-up. We conclude that, except for favourable CS-1 presentations, children with Hodgkin's disease confined to the lymphatic system should be given bimodal treatment, but that the least morbid effective combination remains to be determined

  10. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  11. 40 CFR 205.155 - Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle class and manufacturer...) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.155 Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation. (a) Motorcycles must be grouped into classes determined...

  12. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  13. Predicting Chinese Abbreviations from Definitions: An Empirical Learning Approach Using Support Vector Regression

    Xu Sun; Hou-Feng Wang; Bo Wang

    2008-01-01

    In Chinese, phrases and named entities play a central role in information retrieval. Abbreviations, however,make keyword-based approaches less effective. This paper presents an empirical learning approach to Chinese abbreviation prediction. In this study, each abbreviation is taken as a reduced form of the corresponding definition (expanded form),and the abbreviation prediction is formalized as a scoring and ranking problem among abbreviation candidates, which are automatically generated from the corresponding definition. By employing Support Vector Regression (SVR) for scoring,we can obtain multiple abbreviation candidates together with their SVR values, which are used for candidate ranking.Experimental results show that the SVR method performs better than the popular heuristic rule of abbreviation prediction.In addition, in abbreviation prediction, the SVR method outperforms the hidden Markov model (HMM).

  14. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 1/5

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 1/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • accident management; • accident management guideline; • auxiliary operator; • abnormal operating procedure; • air operated value; • alarm pocket dosimeter; • all rods in; • containment atmospheric monitoring system; • containment cooling system; • control rod; • core spray; • condensate storage tank; • diesel driven fire pump; • dry well; • emergency core cooling system; • emergency diesel generator; • emergency operating procedure; • Emergency Response Centre; • fire protection; • high pressure coolant injection; • heating, ventilating and air-conditioning; • isolation condenser; • loss of off-site power; • metal clad switch gear; • motor control centre; • main control room; • Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; • motor operated valve; • measuring point/monitoring post; • main steam isolation valve; • make-up water condensate; • Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Regulatory Authority; • power centre; • primary containment isolation signal; • primary containment vessel; • reactor building; • reactor core isolution cooling; • residual heat removal; • residual heat removal and cooling seawater; • reactor pressure vessel; • station blackout; • suppression chamber; • self-contained breathing apparatus; • spent fuel pool; • standby gas treatment system; • standby liquid control; • standby liquid control system; • safety relief valve; • top of active fuel; • turbine building; • Tokyo Electric Power Company; • wide range

  15. Computed tomography, lymphography, and staging laparotomy: correlations in initial staging of Hodgkin disease

    Castellino, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Blank, N.; Young, S.W.; Neumann, C.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-07-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated Hodgkin disease underwent abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scanning and bipedal lymphography. These studies were followed by staging laparotomy, which included biopsy of the liver, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes, and splenectomy. Correlation of the results of the imaging studies with the histopathologic diagnoses revealed a small - but significant - increased accuracy of lymphography compared with CT in assessing the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The theoretical advantages of CT scanning in detecting lymphomatous deposits in lymph nodes about the celiac axis and the mesentery, or in the liver and spleen, were not confirmed.

  16. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome required decompression laparotomy during minimally invasive mitral valve repair.

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Saito, Tetsuya; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-12-01

    We treated a 77-year-old patient with secondary abdominal compartment syndrome that caused failure to maintain cardiopulmonary bypass while undergoing elective minimally invasive right mini-thoracotomy mitral valve and tricuspid valve repair procedures. During the operation, a decompression laparotomy was needed to relieve elevated intraabdominal pressure that caused instability of the cardiopulmonary bypass. Due to poor oxygenation and the long cardiopulmonary bypass time, the patient required peripheral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation before recovery. We alert surgeons to this rare complication that can occur even in patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery with a right mini-thoracotomy. PMID:26943679

  17. Review of Subcutaneous Wound Drainage in Reducing Surgical Site Infections after Laparotomy

    B. Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Surgical site infections (SSIs remain a significant problem after laparotomies. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence on the efficacy of subcutaneous wound drainage in reducing SSI. Methods. MEDLINE database was searched. Studies were identified and screened according to criteria to determine their eligibility for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and a fixed effects model. Results. Eleven studies were included with two thousand eight hundred and sixty-four patients. One thousand four hundred and fifty patients were in the control group and one thousand four hundred and fourteen patients were in the drain group. Wound drainage in all patients shows no statistically significant benefit in reducing SSI incidence. Use of drainage in high risk patients, contaminated wound types, and obese patients appears beneficial. Conclusion. Using subcutaneous wound drainage after laparotomy in all patients is unnecessary as it does not reduce SSI risk. Similarly, there seems to be no benefit in using it in clean and clean contaminated wounds. However, there may be benefit in using drains in patients who are at high risk, including patients who are obese and/or have contaminated wound types. A well designed trial is needed which examines these factors.

  18. COMPARISON OF SURGICAL STRESS RESPONSE UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN OPEN LAPAROTOMY VS LAPAROSCOPIC ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Gopal Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The stress response is the name given to the hormonal and metabolic changes which follow injury or trauma. The systemic reactions to surgical injury encompass a wide range of endocrinological, immunological and haematological effects. The ability of anaesthetic agents modifies the endocrine and metabolic responses have been studied enthusiastically. This research describes the endocrine and metabolic changes which occur during different types of surgical techniques, effects of anaesthetic and analgesic regimens to modify their responses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of stress response on blood glucose levels and hemodynamics in patients undergoing open Laparotomy surgeries v/s laparoscopic surgeries. METHODS: Sixty surgical patients were enrolled in this clinical trial. The pulse, BP records were taken and blood sugar levels were tested peri-operatively. RESULTS: The results were analyzed and found that raise pulse rate, blood pressure and blood sugar levels due to stress in proportionate to surgical trauma, and duration of surgery under anaesthesia. Blood sugar levels gradually increased 90.5±4.88 to 115±7.18 and at post op119.4±6.93 in laparotomy group when compared to 91.07±4.93 to 118.33±5.06 and at post-op120.1±4.51 in laparoscopy group. CONCLUSION: Lap surgery causes minimum tissue injury and less stress response more so during postoperative period.

  19. A comparative study of outcome of the absorbable suture polydioxanone and nonabsorbable suture polypropylene in laparotomy wound closure

    Kiran Shankar H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal wound closure is one of the common operations for a general surgeon. Prevention of complications is important to reduce post-operative morbidity and mortality. Post-operative wound pain, wound infection, wound dehiscence, suture sinus formation; palpable knots and incisional hernia are the parameters are to be studied. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare polydioxanone and polypropylene suture material for abdominal fascial closure regarding morbidity in terms of post-operative wound complications. Methods: Patients admitted in the department of surgery, who undergo laparotomy operations, with midline abdominal incisions were included in the study. The recruited subjects were divided into Group-A, whom abdominal incisions are closed with non-absorbable suture material polypropylene and Group-B whom abdominal incisions are closed with absorbable suture material polydioxanone. Data was expressed as percentages. Results: The incidence of wound pain was observed in all the patients in both immediate and delayed post-operative period in the polypropylene suture material compared to polydioxanone. The incidence of wound infection was higher in polypropylene (24% compared to PDS (2%. There were 4% cases of wound dehiscence in the present study. The incidence of suture sinus formation was higher in the polypropylene suture material (9% compared to the polydioxanone suture material (2% in the delayed postoperative period. The incidence of palpable knots was higher in the polypropylene suture material (23% compared to the polydioxanone suture material. No cases of incisional hernia were reported with polydioxanone suture material. Conclusions: The overall morbidity from abdominal closure was considerably reduced in the Polydioxanone group. We encountered reduction in wound complications like burst abdomen, wound infection, wound pain, suture sinus formation, palpable knots and incisional hernia. Therefore

  20. Implantation of peritoneal catheters by laparotomy: nephrologists obtained similar results to general surgeons

    Restrepo CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cesar A Restrepo, Carlos Alberto Buitrago, Cielo Holguin Division of Nephrology, Department of Health Sciences, Caldas University, Caldas, ColombiaPurpose: To analyze the complications and costs of minilaparotomies performed by a nephrologist (group A compared with conventional laparotomies performed by a surgeon (group B for peritoneal catheter implantation.Setting: Two university hospitals (Santa Sofia and Caldas in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.Methods: The study included stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients, with indication of renal replacement therapy, who were candidates for peritoneal dialysis and gave informed consent for a peritoneal catheter implant. Minilaparotomies were performed by a nephrologist in a minor surgery room under local anesthesia. Conventional laparotomies were performed by a surgeon in an operating room under general anesthesia.Results: Two nephrologists inserted 157 peritoneal catheters, and seven general surgeons inserted 185 peritoneal catheters. The groups had similar characteristics: the mean age was 55 years, 49.5% were men, and the primary diagnoses were diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and unknown etiology. The implant was successful for 98.09% of group A and 99.46% of group B. There was no procedure-related mortality. The most frequent complications in the first 30 days postsurgery in group A versus group B, respectively, were: peritonitis (6.37% versus 3.78%, exit-site infection (3.82% versus 2.16%, tunnel infection (0% versus 0.54%, catheter entrapment by omentum (1.27% versus 3.24%, peritoneal effluent spillover (1.91% versus 2.16%, draining failure (4.46% versus 6.49%, hematoma (0% versus 1.08%, catheter migration with kinking (3.18% versus 2.70%, hemoperitoneum (1.27% versus 0%, and hollow viscera accidental puncture (1.91% versus 0.54%. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of complications between groups. In 2013, the cost of a surgeon-implanted peritoneal

  1. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    M. F. Ulum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickness showed that in all groups of does were similar and not different statistically. The thickness of oblique external and oblique internal abdominal muscles increased in the pregnant does as compared to non-pregnant does (P<0.05.

  2. Computed tomography, primary laparotomy and 'second-look' operation for ovarian carcinoma

    The value of computed tomography for staging and for observing the course of ovarian carcinomas was analysed in 56 patients in whom the diagnosis has been verified by laparotomy. CT achieved correct staging in 85% of cases. The ability of CT to demonstrate a variety of abnormalities varies; ascites and pleural effusions were shown in 100%, lymph node metastases in 90%, infiltration of the recto-sigmoid and terminal ileum in 70-80%, subcapsular liver metastases in 70%, involvement of the omentum in 70%, of the peritoneum in 65% and of the mesentery in 35%. A ''second-look'' operation remains necessary in order to confirm complete remission after chemotherapy, since CT is only rarely able to show residual tumours smaller than 1.5-2 cm. (orig.)

  3. The laparotomy incision: a technique to facilitate capsulorhexis in microincision cataract surgery.

    O'Connor, Jeremy C; O'Connell, Eamon D; Sciscio, Andrea; Mulhern, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    Microincision cataract surgery is a new technique in the development of cataract surgery and is not without difficulties. Creation of the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis as performed in conventional coaxial phacoemulsification surgery does not apply as readily. The authors describe a method for initiating the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (the laparotomy incision) using only an inexpensive 25-gauge bent needle cystototome. The technique involves a long linear incision in the anterior capsule down the belly of the lens as a means of initiating the capsulorhexis. Advantages of the technique include the creation of a large capsular flap, which allows easier completion of the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through a smaller range of movement, avoiding "oar locking" in the small incision and creation of striae in the cornea. It also allows better maintenance of anterior chamber depth, minimizing risk of radial tears. PMID:19065989

  4. Laparotomy enables retrograde dilatation and stent placement for malignant esophago-respiratory fistula

    Iskender Özcan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant esophageal stenosis with complete obstruction and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF is difficult to treat with standard endoscopic techniques. Case presentation We report a patient in whom with local recurrence of esophageal carcinoma an esophagotracheal fistula occurred. Initially the patient had undergone esophageal resection with interposition of a gastric tube. Due to complete obstruction of the lumen by recurrent tumor conventional transoral stent placement failed. For retrograde dilatation a laparotomy was performed. Via a duodenal incision endoscopic access to the gastric tube was achieved. Using a guidewire the esophageal obstruction was traversed and dilated. Then it was possible to place an esophageal stent via an antegrade approach. Conclusion Open surgery enables a safe access for retrograde endoscopic therapy in patients who had undergone esophageal resection with gastric interposition.

  5. Lactobacillus Sepsis following a Laparotomy in a Preterm Infant: A Note of Caution.

    Brecht, Marcus; Garg, Alka; Longstaff, Karen; Cooper, Celia; Andersen, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics for preterm infants have been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in a recent meta-analysis. It has been argued, however, that some of these results may not be applicable to specific subgroups, e.g. infants with a birth weight of probiotics in improving health outcomes in preterm and term infants following intestinal surgery is not well defined. We report a case of a premature infant diagnosed with late-onset sepsis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus following a laparotomy. We review pertinent published cases. This case highlights the importance of considering preterm infants as being at a higher risk of systemic probiotic infection following intestinal surgery. PMID:26780534

  6. Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon

    Saul Shiffman; Helene Cotton; Christina Jessurun; Sembower, Mark A.; Steve Pype; Jerry Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150) reported use and interp...

  7. Use of abbreviations in the nursing records of a teaching hospital

    Sylvia Miranda Carneiro; Herica Silva Dutra; Fernanda Mazzoni da Costa; Simone Emerich Mendes; Cristina Arreguy-Sena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the use of abbreviations in nursing records of a teaching hospital and describing their profile in different sectors, work shifts and professional nursing categories. Methods: documentary study that analyzed 627 nursing records in 24 patient charts using a systematic observation script. Results: we identified 1,792 abbreviations, and 35.8% were nonstandard. The incidence of abbreviations was higher in the Intensive Care Unit, used by nurses and in the night shift. Concl...

  8. Unlocking Runes? Reading Anglo-Saxon Runic Abbreviations in Their Immediate Literary Context

    Birkett, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Runic abbreviations appear sporadically in a number of Old English manuscripts, including three of the four major poetic codices. A convincing rational for the apparently erratic deployment of these unusual abbreviations has yet to be proposed. In this article I identify the immediate literary context as an important factor influencing the distribution of Anglo-Saxon runic abbreviations, noting in particular that the runic brevigraphs often appear in passages which deal with unlocking. To ill...

  9. New bilingual version of the VGB abbreviation catalogue for power plant technology released

    Hantschel, Jochen; Seiffert, Joerg [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Froehner, Joerg [ct.e Controltechnology Engineering GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the VGB Standard for power plant technology VGB-S-891-00 (abbreviation catalogue) is to regulate the systematic creation of abbreviations. The determination of abbreviations for terms related to power plants provides a common basis for planners, erectors, and operators of power plants and their systems. In combination with VGB-B 108 ''Rules for the creation of denominations and their application for power plant engineering'' the abbreviation catalogue is the basis for the creation of denominations.

  10. Exploratory laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions in children: A review of 10 years of experience with 334 cases

    Ghritlaharey Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to review 10 years of experience in the management of children with acute intestinal conditions requiring exploratory laparotomy. Patients and Methods : This retrospective study included 334 children (244 boys and 90 girls who underwent laparotomy for acute intestinal conditions between Jan 1, 2000 to Dec 31, 2009. Patients were grouped into two categories: group A (n = 44 included patients who needed laparotomy with terminal ileostomy and group B (n = 290 included patients who needed laparotomy without terminal ileostomy. We excluded neonates and patients with jejunoileal and colonic atresias, anorectal malformations, congenital pouch colon, neonatal necrotising enterocolitis, Hirschsprung′s disease, appendicitis, abdominal trauma and gastrointestinal tumours. Results : During the last 10 years, 334 laparotomies were performed in children under 12 years: 59.88% for intestinal obstruction and 40.11% for perforation peritonitis. Causes in order of frequency were: ileal perforations 34.13%; intussusceptions 26.34%; Meckel′s obstruction 10.17%; congenital bands and malrotation 6.88%; postoperative adhesions 5.98%; miscellaneous peritonitis 5.68%; miscellaneous intestinal obstructions 4.79%; abdominal tuberculosis 4.19% and roundworm intestinal obstruction 1.79%. Ileostomy closures (n = 39 was tolerated well by all except one. The mortalities were 28 (8.38% in group B and 6 (1.79% in group A. Conclusions: The need for re-exploration not only increases the morbidity but also increases mortality as well. Diverting temporary ileostomy adds little cumulative morbidity to the primary operation and is a safe option for diversion in selected cases. The best way to further reduce the mortality is to create ileostomy at first operation.

  11. Evaluation of sub-fascial lidocaine infusion in post-operative pain management following laparotomy

    F. Eshghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractBackground and Purpose: One of the important problems of major abdominal surgery is post-operative pain control. There are different modalities to control the pain after surgery, such as oral, local or intravenous analgesic drugs, regional nerve block, epidural catheters and pain killer pumps with their own benefits and complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous peritoneal infusion of lidocaine by a pain killer pump for post-operative pain management following laparotomy.Materials and Methods: This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on 76 patients (38 cases and 38 controls who underwent laparotomy with midline incision, in Imam Hospital, Sari, Iran, in 2008. Two groups were matched in age and sex. After surgery a catheter infusion pump was prepared for all patients. In case group, 2% lidocaine (20mg/kg/day and for control, normal saline infused for 24 hours. Pain score (Visual Analog Scale, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature and analgesic requirement was evaluated in 4, 10, 16 and 24 hours after surgery. Results analyzed by means of SPSS (15 software and chi-square, t test and repeated measurement. The p value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant statistically.Results: 76 patients, 39 (51.3% females and 37 (48.7% males, with mean age of 47.03±15.2 years were studied. There was no significant difference in age, sex and weight between two groups. The mean of admission days was 5.03±0.6 in case and 5.29±1.3 in control, with no significant difference between them. Mean of opiod consumption was 16.05±13.05 mg and 25.39±11.4 mg in case and control respectively (P= 0.002. Mean of VAS score, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature in case group was less than control group and the difference was significant statistically. Pain severity changes during 4, 10, 16 and 24 hours following surgery were significantly different in two

  12. Etoricoxib - preemptive and postoperative analgesia (EPPA in patients with laparotomy or thoracotomy - design and protocols

    Hatz Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Our objective was to report on the design and essentials of the Etoricoxib protocol- Preemptive and Postoperative Analgesia (EPPA Trial, investigating whether preemptive analgesia with cox-2 inhibitors is more efficacious than placebo in patients who receive either laparotomy or thoracotomy. Design and Methods The study is a 2 × 2 factorial armed, double blinded, bicentric, randomised placebo-controlled trial comparing (a etoricoxib and (b placebo in a pre- and postoperative setting. The total observation period is 6 months. According to a power analysis, 120 patients scheduled for abdominal or thoracic surgery will randomly be allocated to either the preemptive or the postoperative treatment group. These two groups are each divided into two arms. Preemptive group patients receive etoricoxib prior to surgery and either etoricoxib again or placebo postoperatively. Postoperative group patients receive placebo prior to surgery and either placebo again or etoricoxib after surgery (2 × 2 factorial study design. The Main Outcome Measure is the cumulative use of morphine within the first 48 hours after surgery (measured by patient controlled analgesia PCA. Secondary outcome parameters include a broad range of tests including sensoric perception and genetic polymorphisms. Discussion The results of this study will provide information on the analgesic effectiveness of etoricoxib in preemptive analgesia and will give hints on possible preventive effects of persistent pain. Trial registration NCT00716833

  13. Can Clinical Findings Prevent Negative Laparotomy in Parasitosis Mimicking Acute Appendicitis?

    Musa Zorlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Rates of negative laparotomy (NL for acute appendicitis have been reported as 15% and parasitosis contributed to 2%. This study was planned to reduce the rates of NL by preoperative determination of parasitosis. Methods. In retrospective examination of 2730 appendectomy specimens in Hitit University Department of General Surgery between 2008 and 2012, 55 patients were determined with parasitosis and compared with 102 age-matched randomly selected patients with lymphoid hyperplasia. Results. The parasite group comprised 63.6% females with a mean age of 15.1 years. The number of patients in the parasitosis group increased from city centre to rural areas of towns and villages (p2.2% was determined as a diagnostic value. Conclusion. It is important to determine parasitosis to prevent NL. When acute appendicitis is considered for young patients living in rural areas, the observation of high eosinophil together with negative sonographic findings should bring Enterobius vermicularis parasitosis to mind and thereby should prevent NL.

  14. Efek Oksigen Konsentrasi Tinggi Pascaoperasi Laparotomi pada Peritonitis terhadap Tingkat Infeksi Luka Operasi

    Wildan Djaya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple method to improve oxygen pressure to tissue perfusion adequately is by increasing the concentration of inspired oxygen.We therefore tested the hypothesis that the supplemental administration of oxygen during the post-operative period decreases the incidence of wound infection.We randomly assigned 102 patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital who underwent exploratory laparotomy due to local and diffuse peritonitis to receive 30 percent or 80 percent inspired oxygen for two hours post-operation. The 30% oxygen was obtained from the nasal canule and 3 litres of oxygen whereas 80% oxygen was obtained from non-rebreathing mask and 10 litres of oxygen. Using the single-blind protocol, wounds were evaluated before the patients were discharged or 7 days post-operative and then two weeks after surgery. The clinical trial was performed at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung between October 2009–May 2010. From the 51 patients who received 80% oxygen, 2 (4% had surgical-wound infections, whereas from the 51 patients given 30 percent oxygen, 9 (18% had surgical-wound infections. The length of hospital stay for both groups were the same. In conclusion that post-operative administration of high concentration ofoxygen can reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infections.

  15. 21 CFR 314.92 - Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted.

    2010-04-01

    ... offered for sale by its manufacturer, a person who wishes to submit an abbreviated new drug application... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted. 314.92 Section 314.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  16. Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Acronyms and Abbreviations in Clinical Texts

    Moon, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    The use of acronyms and abbreviations is increasing profoundly in the clinical domain in large part due to the greater adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and increased electronic documentation within healthcare. A single acronym or abbreviation may have multiple different meanings or senses. Comprehending the proper meaning of an…

  17. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications. 314.100 Section 314.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for...

  18. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  19. 49 CFR 1500.3 - Terms and abbreviations used in this chapter.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms and abbreviations used in this chapter. 1500.3 Section 1500.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPLICABILITY, TERMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS §...

  20. Compression and the origins of Zipf's law of abbreviation

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R; Seguin, C

    2015-01-01

    Languages across the world exhibit Zipf's law of abbreviation, namely more frequent words tend to be shorter. The generalized version of the law, namely an inverse relationship between the frequency of a unit and its magnitude, holds also for the behaviors of other species and the genetic code. The apparent universality of this pattern in human language and its ubiquity in other domains calls for a theoretical understanding of its origins. We generalize the information theoretic concept of mean code length as a mean energetic cost function over the probability and the magnitude of the symbols of the alphabet. We show that the minimization of that cost function and a negative correlation between probability and the magnitude of symbols are intimately related.

  1. Dictionary of International Abbreviations - Environment and Natural Sciences

    The dictionary comprises about 3000 acronyms and abbreviations, with explanations in German and English. Subjects: Chemistry, medicine, geology, air, water, soil, waste, air pollution and noise abatement, chemicals and pollutants, agriculture and food, conservation and landscaping, energy, immission protection, radiation protection and nuclear safety, industry and biotechnology, environmental pollution, waste management and recycling. It is intended as a working and communication tool for a wide range of users in industry, administration, universities, scientists and students, journalists, translators and interested laymen. There is an appendix with supplementary information, i.e. mass, volume, SI units, chemical compounds and formulas, occupational pollutant exposure, food additives, environmental disasters, environmental laws, regulations and specifications, international programmes and organisations for environmental protection, and guidelines of environmental and international law. (orig.)

  2. Influence of transfusion of lymphokine-activated T killer cells on inflammatory responses in dogs after laparotomy.

    Mie, Keiichiro; Tomihari, Mizuki; Hoshi, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Miyahara, Kazuro; Shimada, Terumasa

    2016-05-01

    The influence of transfusion of lymphokine-activated T killer cells (T-LAK) on inflammatory responses was examined in dogs after laparotomy. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level, cell numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and mRNA expression levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured in dogs with (T-LAK group) or without (control group) a single T-LAK administration immediately after laparotomy. The plasma CRP level initially increased and then decreased to the normal range at 7 days after laparotomy in the T-LAK group, which was earlier than in the control group. The expression level of IL-10 mRNA showed a marked postoperative increase and was significantly higher than the preoperative level on day 7 (Pimmunity related to cytokine production by PBMCs. PMID:26727638

  3. Emergency presurgical visit

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.

  4. Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon

    Saul Shiffman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150 reported use and interpretation of candidate abbreviations Ac and Acm. Pharmacists (n = 150 interpretations of prescription orders using the candidate abbreviations APAP, Ac, Ace and Acm in typed, handwritten or spoken form, were judged for critical confusions likely to cause patient harm. Critical confusion was rare, except for omission by pharmacists of the acetaminophen dose for Hydrocodone/APAP prescriptions (10%. Ac was in common use to indicate “before meals”, and was interpreted as such, but some physicians (8% said they use Ac to indicate anticoagulant drugs. Most pharmacists (54% interpreted Ace as acetaminophen, and none interpreted it as referring to ACE-inhibitors. Acm was rarely used in prescriptions, had no common interfering meanings, and was often (63% interpreted as acetaminophen, especially when prescribed in combination with an opiate (85%. The data validated concerns about abbreviations in prescribing: all abbreviations resulted in some misinterpretations. However, Acm was rarely misinterpreted, was readily associated with “acetaminophen”, and seemed appropriate for use in a graphic icon to help consumers/patients identify acetaminophen medications.

  5. Penatalaksanaan Anestesi pada Pasien dengan Sick Sinus Syndrome yang Menjalani Laparotomi Ec Perforasi Gaster

    Radian Ahmad Halimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SA node dysfunction, or known as Sick Sinus Syndrome is the common cause of disrythmia and can be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the SA node. The diagnose performed by the occurrence of bradi- takhikardia episode and the clinical symptoms, could be syncope, palpitation, or maybe asymptomatic. Some of the literature defined that the perioperative management of sick sinus syndrome is preoperative insertion of pacemaker (transcutaneal or transvenous pacing. A 75 years old man underwent laparotomy with diffuse peritonitis caused by gastric perforation. In preoperative clinical evaluation the patients revealed full awake ( compos mentis, with history of uncontrolled hypertension. In physical exammination a severe bradicardia was found with pulse of 31x/minute, and the blood pressure was 190/100 mmHg. In this rural hospital there was no fascility to insert the pace-maker. The organ perfusion was considered to be optimal from clinical evaluation ( proved by the wakefullness, SpO2 99%, and diuresis 1cc/kgBW after optimalization . The chest X’ray showed a cardiomegali without the sign of pulmonary congestion. The laboratory test were within normal limit including the renal function test ( creatinin; 0,97 mg/dl, and ureum 82,6 mg/dl. We decided to perform general anesthesia in this procedure. Before the induction while patient still awake, fentanyl 2µg/kgBW was given intravenously. Fifteen menue after fentanyl administration induction of anesthesia performed and initiated with propofol intravenous injection slowly until patients felt asleep, than intubated after muscle relaxant intravenous reached the onset After intubation the pulse / heart rate of patients rose to 44 – 90x/minute. While the pulse was 90/ minute the heart rythm of the patients became irregular, a multifocal ventricular extra systole occured, and it was reversible when the heart rate back to 44x/ minute. We decided to maintain the heart rate between 35 – 40dmitted to

  6. [Interest in several surgeries for serious abdominal trauma].

    Chosidow, D; Lesurtel, M; Sauvat, F; Paugam, C; Johanet, H; Marmuse, J P; Benhamou, G

    2000-01-01

    Abbreviated laparotomy and planned reoperation(s) is a new concept in severely injured patients with multivisceral failure by hemorrhagic shock, coagulopathy and hypothermia. The aim of an abbreviated laparotomy is to control hemorrhage, prevent digestive contamination and close the abdominal wall without tension. After a delay for reanimation during 24 to 96 hours, discovery of unknown lesions and anatomic reconstruction will be possible through planned reoperation in better conditions. Emergency reoperation for hemorrhage and abdominal hyperpression severely worsens prognosis. PMID:10921187

  7. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  8. The Abbreviated Injury Scale: application to autopsy data.

    Adams, V I; Carrubba, C

    1998-09-01

    Twenty autopsy reports, comprising 1 fall, 1 cutting, 1 burn, 1 drowning, 1 strangulation, 3 gunshot wound, and 13 traffic fatalities, were scored by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The codes were adequate for wounds of skin and long bones, and for most wounds of viscera. The autopsy descriptions were more detailed than the coding criteria for craniocerebral, cervicovertebral and muscular trauma, and less detailed for thoracoabdominal visceral, and long bone trauma. Lung contusions and rib fractures received scores that seemed unduly high, possibly reflecting the greater sensitivity of autopsy diagnosis over clinical diagnosis for these lesions. Complete hinge fractures of the skull base scored 4 (severe), which does not reflect the almost universally lethal nature of the accompanying cerebral concussion, which was itself not codeable. AIS scores were low and did not seem to reflect the lethal outcome when the lethal mechanism was purely physiologic and without a striking morphologic derangement, as in instances of cerebral or cardiac concussion, compression of the neck, occlusive airway hemorrhage, and visceral herniation into an adjacent body cavity. The scores were similarly low when therapy was delayed or adverse. Low AIS and ISS scores in a fatality from blunt or penetrating trauma may be useful retrospective clues to the presence of purely physiologic death mechanisms or therapeutic problems. PMID:9760090

  9. Emergency Thoracotomy- Isolated Internal Thoracic Artery Injury

    Islam S; Shah J; Narayn Singh V

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A tension haemothorax is an uncommon injury after penetrating chest trauma. Presentation of a Case: We present a case in which a 55 year old man sustained multiple thoracic stab wounds. He had emergency right antero-lateral thoracotomy and laparotomy. A massive haemothorax secondary to complete disruption of right internal mammary artery and a laceration to middle lobe of right lung was noticed. Conclusion: Penetrating thoracic injury with isolated internal mammary injury is a very rare ...

  10. Combining Corpus-derived Sense Profiles with Estimated Frequency Information to Disambiguate Clinical Abbreviations

    Xu, Hua; Stetson, Peter D.; Friedman, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Abbreviations are widely used in clinical notes and are often ambiguous. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) for clinical abbreviations therefore is a critical task for many clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Supervised machine learning based WSD methods are known for their high performance. However, it is time consuming and costly to construct annotated samples for supervised WSD approaches and sense frequency information is often ignored by these methods. In this study, we prop...

  11. An abbreviated task-oriented assessment (Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation).

    Mann, W C; Huselid, R

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore development of an abbreviated version of the Task-Oriented Assessment component of the Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation (BaFPE). The BaFPE is widely used by occupational therapists practicing in mental health, but therapists have requested an instrument that could be administered and scored more quickly. Both a subjective and objective analysis support the development of an abbreviated version of the Task-Oriented Assessment. PMID:8470740

  12. Value of computed Tomography in re-staging patients undergoing second-look laparotomy for ovarian cancer

    Twenty-five patients with ovarian carcinoma who had been operated and treated with chemotherapy underwent clinical examination and CT before reintervention (second-look laparotomy) to detect the presence of eventual recurrences. The prediction of recurrence based on CT and clinical findings was compared with the surgical findings at reintervention. CT proved to be more accurate than clinical examination in detecting recurrences; this was especially true for masses in the abdominal cavity, with the exception of small peritoneal nodules. The authors suggest the use of CT for staging the patients candidate to reintervention. This might help to avoid reintervantion in patients with persistent disease and to plan treatment

  13. Supra-transumbilical laparotomy (STL approach for small bowel atresia repair: Our experience and review of the literature

    Ernesto Leva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supra-Transumbilical Laparotomy (STL has been used in paediatric surgery for a broad spectrum of abdominal procedures. We report our experience with STL approach for small bowel atresia repair in newborns and review previous published series on the topic. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients with small bowel atresia were treated via STL approach at our Institution over a 5-year period and their charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results: STL procedure was performed at mean age of 3.1 day. No malrotation disorders were detected with pre-operative contrast enema. Eight patients (54.1% presented jejunal atresia, five (35.7% ileal atresia, and one (7.1% multiple ileal and jejunal atresias. Standard repair with primary end-to-back anastomosis was performed in all but one patient. In the newborn with multiple atresia, STL incision was converted in supra-umbilical transverse incision due to difficulty of exposition. After surgery, one patient developed anastomotic stricture, and another developed occlusion due to adhesions: Both infants required second laparotomy. No infections of the umbilical site were recorded, and cosmetic results were excellent in all patients. Conclusions: Increasing evidence suggests that STL approach for small bowel atresia is feasible, safe and provides adequate exposure for small bowel atresia surgery. When malrotation and colonic/multiple atresia are pre-operatively ruled out, STL procedure can be choosen as first approach.

  14. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  15. Combining corpus-derived sense profiles with estimated frequency information to disambiguate clinical abbreviations.

    Xu, Hua; Stetson, Peter D; Friedman, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Abbreviations are widely used in clinical notes and are often ambiguous. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) for clinical abbreviations therefore is a critical task for many clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Supervised machine learning based WSD methods are known for their high performance. However, it is time consuming and costly to construct annotated samples for supervised WSD approaches and sense frequency information is often ignored by these methods. In this study, we proposed a profile-based method that used dictated discharge summaries as an external source to automatically build sense profiles and applied them to disambiguate abbreviations in hospital admission notes via the vector space model. Our evaluation using a test set containing 2,386 annotated instances from 13 ambiguous abbreviations in admission notes showed that the profile-based method performed better than two baseline methods and achieved a best average precision of 0.792. Furthermore, we developed a strategy to combine sense frequency information estimated from a clustering analysis with the profile-based method. Our results showed that the combined approach largely improved the performance and achieved a highest precision of 0.875 on the same test set, indicating that integrating sense frequency information with local context is effective for clinical abbreviation disambiguation. PMID:23304376

  16. Using Genetic Algorithms in a Large Nationally Representative American Sample to Abbreviate the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire

    Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Scrucca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are robust machine learning approaches for abbreviating a large set of variables into a shorter subset that maximally captures the variance in the original data. We employed a GA-based method to shorten the 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) by half without much loss of information. Experiential avoidance or the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences is a key target of many psychological interventions and its measurement is an important issue in psychology. The 62-item MEAQ has been shown to have good psychometric properties, but its length may limit its use in most practical settings. The recently validated 15-item brief version (BEAQ) is one short alternative, but it reduces the multidimensional scale to a single dimension. We sought to shorten the 62-item MEAQ by half while maintaining fidelity to its six dimensions. In a large nationally representative sample of Americans (N = 7884; 52% female; Age: M = 47.9, SD = 16), we employed a GA method of scale abbreviation implemented in the R package, GAabbreviate. The GA-derived short form, MEAQ-30 with five items per subscale, performed virtually identically to the original 62-item MEAQ in terms of inter-subscales correlations, factor structure, factor correlations, and zero-order correlations and unique latent associations of the six subscales with other measures of mental distress, wellbeing and personal strivings. The two measures also showed similar distributions of means across American census regions. The MEAQ-30 provides a multidimensional assessment of experiential avoidance whilst minimizing participant burden. The study adds to the emerging literature on the utility of machine learning methods in psychometrics. PMID:26941672

  17. The Use of Abbreviations in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Paper Titles: A Problematic Issue

    David I. Méndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we carry out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of abbreviations in 300 randomly collected research paper titles published in the most prestigious European and US-based Astrophysics journals written in English. Our main results show that the process of shortening words and groups of words is one of the most characteristic and recurrent features in Astrophysics research paper titling construction. In spite of the convenience of abbreviations as a mechanism for word-formation, some of them may pose certain difficulties of understanding and/or misinterpretation because of their specificity, ambiguity, or overlapping. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a series of options which with no doubt would lead to a better interaction among the different branches of Astrophysics in particular and of science in general and would definitely improve how research is currently performed and communicated.Keywords: Abbreviations; Astrophysics; English; Research Papers

  18. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  19. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    Mango, Victoria L., E-mail: vlm2125@columbia.edu [Columbia University Medical Center, Herbert Irving Pavilion, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); David Dershaw, D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Abramson, Andrea, E-mail: abramsoa@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles, E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); New York Medical College, 40 Sunshine Cottage Rd, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Hughes, Mary, E-mail: hughesm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Kaplan, Jennifer, E-mail: kaplanj@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S., E-mail: jochelsm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  20. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    2010-04-01

    ... from sale for safety or effectiveness reasons under § 314.161, or the reference listed drug has been... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application. 314.127 Section 314.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Abbreviated Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire

    Moore, E. Whitney G.; Brown, Theresa C.; Fry, Mary D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an abbreviated version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (PMCEQ-A) to provide a more practical instrument for use in applied exercise settings. In the calibration step, two shortened versions' measurement and latent model values were compared to each other and the original…

  2. Improving Discrete Trial Instruction by Paraprofessional Staff Through an Abbreviated Performance Feedback Intervention

    Leblanc, Marie-Pierre; Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated an abbreviated performance feedback intervention as a training strategy to improve discrete trial instruction of children with autism by three paraprofessional staff (assistant teachers) at a specialized day school. Feedback focused on 10 discrete trial instructional skills demonstrated by the staff during teaching sessions. Following…

  3. Text-Message Abbreviations and Language Skills in High School and University Students

    De Jonge, Sarah; Kemp, Nenagh

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of text-message abbreviations (textisms) in Australian adolescents and young adults, and relations between textism use and literacy abilities. Fifty-two high school students aged 13-15 years, and 53 undergraduates aged 18-24 years, all users of predictive texting, translated conventional English sentences into…

  4. Symbolic Capital in a Virtual Heterosexual Market: Abbreviation and Insertion in Italian iTV SMS

    Herring, Susan C.; Zelenkauskaite, Asta

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes gender variation in nonstandard typography--specifically, abbreviations and insertions--in mobile phone text messages (SMS) posted to a public Italian interactive television (iTV) program. All broadcast SMS were collected for a period of 2 days from the Web archive for the iTV program, and the frequency and distribution of…

  5. Evaluating an Abbreviated Version of the Paths Curriculum Implemented by School Mental Health Clinicians

    Gibson, Jennifer E.; Werner, Shelby S.; Sweeney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    When evidence-based prevention programs are implemented in schools, adaptations are common. It is important to understand which adaptations can be made while maintaining positive outcomes for students. This preliminary study evaluated an abbreviated version of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum implemented by…

  6. A dictionary of nuclear power and waste management with abbreviations and acronyms

    This book provides defined terms from the nuclear power and radioactive waste management industries. It includes abbreviations and acronyms associated with nuclear power and the sister industry of waste management, for example, NIMBY (not in my backyard). Technical definitions from other sciences which are related to the subject of nuclear waste management have also been included

  7. Effect of early endoscopic therapy and therapeutic laparotomy on serum markers of severe acute biliary pancreatitis patients

    Yan-Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of early endoscopic therapy and therapeutic laparotomy on serum markers of severe acute biliary pancreatitis patients. Methods: 80 cases of patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and divided into endoscopic group and open group. 3 d after treatment, serum was collected and contents of inflammation related molecules, liver and kidney function indicators and signaling pathway molecules were detected. Results: (1) inflammation related molecules: compared with open group, contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, PCT, HMGB-1 and MCP-1 in serum of endoscopic group were lower; contents of anti-inflammatory cytokines sTNF-1R and sTNF-2R were higher; (2) liver and kidney function indicators: compared with open group, contents of ALT, AST, OCT, GLDH, Cys C and Hcy in serum of endoscopic group were lower;(3) pancreatitis related signaling pathways: compared with open group, mRNA contents of JNKK2, SAPK, c-Jun, Elk-1, Smad2, Smad3, ERK and p38 in serum of endoscopic group were lower. Conclusion: Early endoscopic therapy is helpful to relieve inflammatory response, prevent liver and kidney function injury and inhibit activation of pancreatitis related signaling pathways; it’s an ideal method in treating severe acute biliary pancreatitis.

  8. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  9. The impact of listening to music on analgesic use and length of hospital stay while recovering from laparotomy.

    Vaajoki, Anne; Kankkunen, Päivi; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kokki, Hannu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain management is based on the use of analgesics; however, music may alleviate pain either by direct analgesic effects or by relaxing and distracting the mind from pain and unpleasant feelings. Conflicting results have been presented about how listening to music affects analgesic use and length of hospital stay after surgery. We assessed the effect of music listening on analgesic use, length of hospital stay, and adverse effects in adult patients having laparotomy, using a prospective design with two parallel groups. Patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery (n = 168) were assigned to either a music group (n = 83) operated on odd weeks or a control group (n = 85) operated on even weeks. The music group listened to music 7 times for 30 minutes at a time during the first 3 postoperative days. The control group did not listen to the music. The hypotheses that patients in the music group will need less analgesic, have a shorter length of hospital stay, and experience less adverse effects than those in the control group were not supported by the data, although patients recovering from surgery enjoyed listening to music. Music listening may enhance quality of hospital stay and recovery in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and could be a useful tool to relieve the patient's pain experience. PMID:22847288

  10. The Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST): A Preliminary Assessment of Test Validity.

    Vanhove, Adam J; Harms, P D; DeSimone, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    The 24-item Abbreviated Character Strengths Test (ACST) was developed to efficiently measure character strengths (Peterson, Park, & Castro, 2011 ). However, its validity for this purpose has not yet been sufficiently established. Using confirmatory factor analysis to test a series of structural models, only a modified bifactor model showed reasonably acceptable fit. Further analyses of this model failed to demonstrate measurement invariance between male and female respondents. Relationships between ACST dimension and Big Five personality trait scores were generally weak-to-moderate, and support for hypotheses regarding each ACST virtue's expected correspondence with specific Big Five dimensions was mixed. Finally, scores on ACST dimensions accounted for a combined 12% of the variance in satisfaction with life scores, after controlling for socially desirability. Although an abbreviated measure of character strengths represents a practical need, considerable improvements to the ACST are needed for it to adequately meet this purpose. PMID:26983465

  11. McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI: Proposal of an abbreviate version

    Chamarrita Farkas Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.

  12. Evaluation of an abbreviated abdominal-pelvic CT blunt trauma protocol

    In an attempt to expedite computed tomographic (CT) imaging in patients who have suffered multiple blunt trauma, an abbreviated abdominal-pelvic CT protocol was designed and tested. From 30 cases of abnormal full, 1.0-cm abdominal-pelvic scans, only post-contrast scans were selected for blind review at 1.0-cm increments through the spleen, 2.0-cm increments through the liver, and 3.0-cm increments to the symphysis pubis. Results and receiver operating characteristic curves were correlated with formal scan results and medical records. Preliminary results suggest that with adequate plain film spine and pelvic evaluation abbreviated abdominal -pelvic CT scanning may be effective in evaluating solid organ injury and in establishing trauma imaging protocols for the victim of multiple blunt trauma

  13. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale

    Farahman Farrokhi; Shahram vahedi

    2011-01-01

    "nObjective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. "nMethod: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. "nResults: As expected,...

  14. Lung Emergencies

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  15. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  16. Laparoscopy versus mini-laparotomy peritoneal catheter insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    He, Mingliang; Ouyang, Leping; Wang, Shengwen; Zheng, Meiguang; Liu, Anmin

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment is the main treatment method for hydrocephalus. The traditional operative approach for peritoneal catheter insertion is mini-laparotomy. In recent years, laparoscopy-assisted insertion has become increasingly popular. It seems likely that use of an endoscope could lower the incidence of shunt malfunction. However, there is no consensus about the benefits of laparoscopy-assisted peritoneal catheter insertion. METHODS A systematic search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases. A manual search for reference lists was conducted. The protocol was prepared according to the interventional systematic reviews of the Cochrane Handbook, and the article was written on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. RESULTS Eleven observational trials and 2 randomized controlled trials were included. Seven operation-related outcome measures were analyzed, and 3 of these showed no difference between operative techniques. The results of the meta-analysis are as follows: in the laparoscopy group, the rate of distal shunt failure was lower (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25-0.67; p = 0.0003), the absolute effect is 7.11% for distal shunt failure, the number needed to treat is 14 (95% CI 8-23), operative time was shorter (mean difference [MD], -12.84; 95% CI -20.68 to -5.00; p = 0.001), and blood loss was less (MD -9.93, 95% CI -17.56 to -2.31; p = 0.01). In addition, a borderline statistically significant difference tending to laparoscopic technique was observed in terms of hospital stay (MD -1.77, 95% CI -3.67 to 0.13; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS To some extent, a laparoscopic insertion technique could yield a better prognosis, mainly because it is associated with a lower distal failure rate and shorter operative time, which would be clinically relevant. PMID:27581319

  17. Identification of the high risk emergency surgical patient: Which risk prediction model should be used?

    Stephen Stonelake; Peter Thomson; Nigel Suggett

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: National guidance states that all patients having emergency surgery should have a mortality risk assessment calculated on admission so that the ‘high risk’ patient can receive the appropriate seniority and level of care. We aimed to assess if peri-operative risk scoring tools could accurately calculate mortality and morbidity risk. Methods: Mortality risk scores for 86 consecutive emergency laparotomies, were calculated using pre-operative (ASA, Lee index) and post-operative ...

  18. Site and number of liver tumors recorded at angiography and computed tomography compared with the findings at laparotomy and of resected liver specimens

    Angiography and computed tomography (CT) were performed in 96 patients before laparotomy for an intended liver resection. Of these, 73 patients underwent liver resection, from a local excision to a trisegmentectomy. The accuracy of angiography in tumor localization was 77% when the results were compared with the findings at laparotomy and from resected specimens. With CT the accuracy was 85%. In 47 patients an analysis of the number of tumor nodules was possible. There were 76 nodules, and 42 (55%) were correctly identified by angiography and 58% (76%) byCT. Thirty-four tumor nodules were not seen at angiography, with the majority of these situated in the left liver lobe. At CT, 18 nodules were not observed, about equal numbers in right and left lobes. Five lesions thought to be present at angiography (9 at CT), could not be verified upon inspecting the resected specimens. Neither angiography nor CT seems to be reliable enough for an accurate prediction of resectability of liver tumors prior to laparotomy. (orig.)

  19. BUSINESS ENGLISH OUTSIDE THE BOX. BUSINESS JARGON AND ABBREVIATIONS IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

    Pop Anamaria-Mirabela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business English is commonly understood language, yet Harvard Business Review called business jargon “The Silent Killer of Big Companies”. As we all have been taught in school, we are aware of the fact that in communication we must comply with linguistic rules so that our message gets across succinctly. Yet, there is one place where all these rules can be omitted (at least in the recent decades: the corporate office. Here, one can use euphemisms and clichés, can capitalize any word that is considered important, the passive voice is used wherever possible and abbreviations occur in every sentence. The worst part is that all of these linguistic enormities are carried out deliberately. The purpose of this paper is to analyse to what extent business jargon and abbreviations have affected business communication (which most of the time, it is filled with opaque language to mask different activities and operations and the reasons for which these linguistic phenomena have become so successful in the present. One of the reasons for the research is that in business English, jargon can be annoying because it overcomplicates. It is frequently unnecessary and it can transform a simple idea or instruction into something very confusing. It is true that every field has its jargon. Education, journalism, law, politics, medicine, urban planning – no filed is immune. Yet, it seems that business jargon has been described as “the most annoying”. Another reason is that jargon tends to be elitist. Those who do not understand the terms feel confused and uncertain. The paper starts with defining these two concepts, business jargon and abbreviations, and then it attempts to explain the “unusual” pervasion of these, both in business communication and in everyday communication. For this, the paper includes a list with the most common business jargon and abbreviations. In this view, the authors have accessed different economic blogs and specialty journals

  20. Abbreviations list

    2013-01-01

    Adege National Agency for Mosquito Destruction and Management of Mosquito-controlled Areas(Agence nationale pour la démoustication et la gestion des espaces naturels démoustiqués) AFD French Development Agency(Agence française de développement) Afssa French Agency for Health Security of Food(Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments) Afsset French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Safety(Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l’environnement et du travail) Anaes French Na...

  1. USAGE OF ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NAMES OF WORKPLACES İŞ YERİ ADLARINDA KISALTMALARIN KULLANIMI

    Gülnaz ÇETINOĞLU BERBEROĞLU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations take an important place in the names of workplaces which have the feature of showing the service type that is giving by the workplace as separating its similars and have the characteristic of a kind of identity. In being formed of abbreviations some apprehensions like being conspicuous, being different from similar, keeping in mind easily and euphony become prominence as well as the thougt of save time and effort. Therefore, attempt to comply with the rules of language while the abbreviations are being formed is ignored. The abbreviations are formed casually and as being ignored the rules of language is concluded by the evaluation of data. So, it is determined that an order can’t be found and it can’t be connected to the rules. Verilen hizmet türünü benzerlerinden ayırarak gösterme özelliğine sahip, bir çeşit kimlik niteliği taşıyan iş yeri adlarında kısaltmalar, büyük yer tutar. Kısaltmaların oluşturulmasında zamandan ve emekten tasarruf etme düşüncesinin yanı sıra dikkat çekme, benzerlerinden farklı olma, akılda kolay kalma ve kulağa hoş gelme gibi kaygılar öne çıkmaktadır. Bu nedenle, yapılan kısaltmalarda dilin kurallarına uyma çabası göz ardı edilmektedir. Verilerin değerlendirilmesiyle, kısaltmaların dil kuralları göz ardı edilerek gelişigüzel oluşturulduğu sonucuna varılmış; dolayısıyla bir düzen sağlanamayacağı ve kurala bağlanamayacağı saptanmıştır.

  2. An abbreviated version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS

    MD Yasuhiro Kaneda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A short version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS was derived. Methods: We calculated the corrected item-total correlation (CITC for each test score relative to the composite score, and then computed the proportion of variance that each test shares with the global score excluding that test (Rt² = CITCt² and the variance explained per minute of administration time for each test (Rt²/mint. Results and Conclusions: The 3 tests with the highest Rt²/mint, Symbol Coding, Digit Sequencing, and Token Motor, were selected for the Abbreviated BACS.

  3. Abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms frequently used by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.. Second edition

    Miller, J.T.

    1994-09-01

    Guidelines are given for using abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms (AAIs) in documents prepared by US Department of Energy facilities managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The more than 10,000 AAIs listed represent only a small portion of those found in recent documents prepared by contributing editors of the Information Management Services organization of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document expands on AAIs listed in the Document Preparation Guide and is intended as a companion document

  4. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • Agency for Natural Resources and Energy; • essential service water; • International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale;• Integrated Regulatory Review Service; • Japan Atomic Energy Agency; • Japan Atomic Energy Commission; • Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp; • Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization; • low head safety injection; • low level radioactive waste; • Madras Atomic Power Station; • main control room; • Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of International Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Foreign Affairs; • Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency; • Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation; • Nuclear Safety Technology Centre; • Onahama Port; • pressurized water reactor; • Science and Technology Agency; • Tokyo Electric Power Company

  5. Investigation of abbreviated 4 and 8 item versions of the PTSD Checklist 5.

    Price, Matthew; Szafranski, Derek D; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Gros, Daniel F

    2016-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant public health concern associated with marked impairment across the lifespan. Exposure to traumatic events alone, however, is insufficient to determine if an individual has PTSD. PTSD is a heterogeneous diagnosis such that assessment of all 20 symptoms is problematic in time-limited treatment settings. Brief assessment tools that identify those at risk for PTSD and measure symptom severity are needed to improve access to care and assess treatment response. The present study evaluated abbreviated measures of PTSD symptoms derived from the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) - a 20-item validated measure of PTSD symptoms - across two studies. In the first, using a community sample of adults exposed to a traumatic event, 4-and 8-item versions of the PCL-5 were identified that were highly correlated with the full PCL-5. In the second, using a sample of combat veterans, the 4-and 8-item measures had comparable diagnostic utility to the total-scale PCL-5. These results provide support for an abbreviated measure of the PCL-5 as an alternative to the 20-item total scale. PMID:27137973

  6. Diabetic Emergencies

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  7. Emergency Thoracotomy- Isolated Internal Thoracic Artery Injury

    Islam S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A tension haemothorax is an uncommon injury after penetrating chest trauma. Presentation of a Case: We present a case in which a 55 year old man sustained multiple thoracic stab wounds. He had emergency right antero-lateral thoracotomy and laparotomy. A massive haemothorax secondary to complete disruption of right internal mammary artery and a laceration to middle lobe of right lung was noticed. Conclusion: Penetrating thoracic injury with isolated internal mammary injury is a very rare cause of massive haemothorax and associated with high mortality. Emergent thoracotomy can be life-saving for these patients. Introduction: Anterior thoracic penetrating injuries may result in life-threatening complications. One of these is massive tension haemothorax with pericardial tamponade as a result of stab wounds to the internal mammary artery.

  8. Oncologic emergencies. Analysis of surgical outcomes

    Selecting the optimal treatment strategy for oncologic emergencies requires appropriate condition assessment. In the present study, we report on an algorithm which we developed for such cases. Preoperative pathological conditions, clinical course and prognosis were analyzed using abdominal X-ray and computed tomography images from 11 patients (male: n=8; age range, 42 to 73 years median age, 57 years; female: n=3; age range, 53 to 90 years; median age, 54 years) with oncologic emergencies who underwent laparotomy at our department between January 2003 and December 2007. The carcinoma type comprised seven cases of colon and rectum cancer, and one each of esophageal, intrahepatic cholangiocellular, hepatocellular and cervical cancers. The eight patients with residual tumors died, while the three without residual tumors (all with colon cancer) remained alive over the 26-month follow-up period. We conclude that patients with colon cancer without residual tumors have a greater rate of recurrence-free survival. (author)

  9. Perioperative nutritional management of patients undergoing laparotomy Cuidados nutricionales perioperatorios en pacientes sometidos a laparotomía

    M. I. Toulson Davisson Correia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lack of routine patient's nutritional assessment and prescription of long fasting periods throughout the perioperative period are still widely prevalent despite the advances in surgical care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess nutritional routines in two surgical wards. Methods: Adult patients undergoing laparotomy at two distinct units (gastrointestinal and gynecologic in two public hospitals (one of them a university were enrolled. Patients were divided in minor and major (groups A and B procedures and were nutritionally assessed at admission. Daily diet intake and a 24 hour recall were performed. Patients rated the quality of the meals, as well asregistered the reasons for not ingesting it fully. Results: Patients in group B presented with poorer nutritional status. Group A patients resumed oral diets on the first post operative day and most of them received regular diets (85.5%. In group B, only 4.7% were allowed a regular diet on the first PO day, 7.0% received soft diets, 30.2% full liquid diets, 27.9% clear liquids and the remaining 30.2% were on NPO. Patients in this group had a slower progression of diets from liquid to regular solid meals, with 7% of them still on NPO on the fifth PO day. Contrary to group B, patients in group A did not present with cumulative caloric and protein deficits throughout the postoperative period. Overall tolerance of the early diet was good. Conclusion: Malnutrition is still high among major surgical patients. Early oral nutrition can be feasible and well tolerated with few side effects, when prescribed.Objetivos: La falta de la valoración nutricional rutinaria del paciente y la prescripción de largos periodos de ayuno durante el periodo perioperatorio siguen siendo muy prevalentes a pesar de los avances en los cuidados quirúrgicos. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las rutinas de valoración nutricional en dos guardias quirúrgicas. Métodos: Se reclutaron

  10. Rest improves performance, nature improves happiness: Assessment of break periods on the abbreviated vigilance task.

    Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-05-01

    The abbreviated vigilance task can quickly generate vigilance decrements, which has been argued is due to depletion of cognitive resources needed to sustain performance. Researchers suggest inclusion of rest breaks within vigilance tasks improve overall performance (Helton & Russell, 2015; Ross, Russell, & Helton, 2014), while different types of breaks demonstrate different effects. Some literature suggests exposure to natural movements/stimuli helps restore attention (Herzog, Black, Fountaine, & Knotts, 1997; Kaplan, 1995). Participants were randomly assigned to one experimental condition: dog video breaks, robot video breaks, countdown breaks or continuous vigilance. We assessed task performance and subjective reports of stress/workload. The continuous group displayed worst performance, suggesting breaks help restore attention. The dog videos did not affect performance, however, decreased reports of distress. These results support the importance of rest breaks and acknowledge the benefit of natural stimuli for promoting wellbeing/stress relief, overall suggesting performance and wellbeing may be independent, which warrants future studies. PMID:27089530

  11. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. RESULTS: We found, that a cut-off of 3 on the screen correctly identified the presence of comorbid personality disorder in 73.1% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.80 and 0.70, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The findings cannot......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently...

  12. Fabrication of Nanodot Decorated Sapphire Substrates for Abbreviated Growth Mode Deposition of Gallium Nitride

    Biser, Jeffrey M.

    The overarching theme of this body of work is the development and demonstration of sapphire substrates with sub-micron scale surface features laid out in arrays with controlled shape, size, and distribution. The key contributions of the work are: (1) the collaborative demonstration that such substrates enable novel GaN fabrication options like the Abbreviated Growth Mode (AGM) approach that can lead to lower cost, higher quality LED devices, (2) the proof-of-concept demonstration that large scale surface patterning with the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is a feasible approach for creating low-cost patterns that should be compatible with AGM, and (3) that the Aluminum-to-sapphire conversion process used to fabricate the surface structures has distinct zones of behavior with regard to feature size and temperature that can be used to suggest an optimized set of process conditions.

  13. 78 FR 25749 - Submission of New Drug Application/Abbreviated New Drug Application Field Alert Reports: Notice...

    2013-05-02

    ... Application Field Alert Reports: Notice of Form FDA 3331--Automated Pilot Program AGENCY: Food and Drug... submit new drug application (NDA) and abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) Field Alert Reports (FARs... program should be sent to district Drug Field Alert Monitors (contact information for each of...

  14. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  15. Txt Msg N School Literacy: Does Texting and Knowledge of Text Abbreviations Adversely Affect Children's Literacy Attainment?

    Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Bell, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies which investigated the relationship between children's texting behaviour, their knowledge of text abbreviations and their school attainment in written language skills. In Study One, 11-12-year-old children provided information on their texting behaviour. They were also asked to translate a standard English…

  16. 76 FR 26307 - Guidance for Industry on the Submission of Summary Bioequivalence Data for Abbreviated New Drug...

    2011-05-06

    ... the Federal Register in January 2009 (74 FR 2849, January 16, 2009). The final rule requires ANDA... announced the availability of the draft version of this guidance (74 FR 17872). The public comment period... Bioequivalence Data for Abbreviated New Drug Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  17. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Groen, Aard J.; Sijde, van der Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies an

  18. Emergency contraception

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing ...

  19. Fatores predisponentes das complicações incisionaisde laparotomias medianas em eqüinos Predisposal factors to incisional complications of ventral midline laparotomies in horses

    Geane Maciel Pagliosa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available As complicações incisionais após laparotomia mediana em eqüinos têm prevalência de 35 a 87,5% e levam a aumento no período de convalescença ou mesmo ao óbito. Os fatores predisponentes destas complicações são pouco abordados na literatura médica eqüina e são inerentes ao paciente, ao ato cirúrgico, à anestesia e ao período pós-operatório. Considerações sobre os cuidados no pré-operatório, tamanho da incisão, roupa do cirurgião, escolha do fio cirúrgico e as condições clínicas e comportamentais do eqüino são salientadas entre os fatores predisponentes que, quando bem conhecidos, podem ser melhor administrados, no sentido de minimizar as complicações incisionais na laparotomia mediana.Incisional complications after equine midline laparotomy have an incidence of 35 to 87.5% and lead an increase in the convalescence period or to death. Predisposed factors to these complications are little approached in the equine medicine literature and consist of inherent factors to the patient, surgery, anesthesia and postoperative period. Preoperative cares, size of the incision, surgeon clothes, the choice of the suture material and equine clinical and behaviour conditions may be considered and well known in order to decrease the incisional complications after the midline laparotomy.

  20. Portal and systemic serum growth factor and acute-phase response after laparotomy or partial hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases : A prognostic role for C-reactive protein and hepatocyte growth factor

    de Jong, KP; Hoedemakers, RMJ; Fidler, [No Value; Bijzet, J; Limburg, PC; Peeters, PMJG; de Vries, EGE; Slooff, MJH

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play a role in wound healing and tumour growth. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) and laparotomy on serum levels of growth factors and acute-phase proteins in patients with colorectal liver metastases and to correlate these levels

  1. The Convergent, Discriminant, and Concurrent Validity of Scores on the Abbreviated Self-Leadership Questionnaire

    Faruk Şahin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the psychometric properties of a short measure of self-leadership in the Turkish context: the Abbreviated Self-Leadership Questionnaire (ASLQ. The ASLQ was examined using two samples and showed sound psychometric properties. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that nine-item ASLQ measured a single construct of self-leadership. The results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the one-factor model of the ASLQ in relation to the 35-item Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire and General Self-Efficacy scale, respectively. With regard to internal consistency and test-retest reliability, the ASLQ showed acceptable results. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that scores on the ASLQ positively predicted individual's self-reported task performance and self-efficacy mediated this relationship. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Turkish version of the ASLQ is a reliable and valid measure that can be used to measure self-leadership as one variable of interest in the future studies.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging. Sequence acronyms and other abbreviations in MR imaging

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in clinical routine is still increasing. The large number of possible MR acquisition schemes reflects the variety of tis ue-dependent parameters that may influence the contrast within the image. Those schemes can be categorized into gradient echo and spin echo techniques. Within hese groups, further sorting can be done to differentiate between single-echo, ulti-echo, and single-shot techniques. Each of these techniques can be combined with preparation schemes for modifying the longitudinal magnetization. Hybrids re found between the groups, which are those techniques that utilize spin echoe as well as gradient echoes. Academic groups as well as vendors often have diff rent sequence acronyms for the same acquisition scheme. This contribution will ort these sequence acronyms into the previously mentioned scheme. The basic pri nciple of the data acquisition is elaborated on and hints are given for potentia clinical applications. Besides the sequence-specific acronyms, new abbreviations have surfaced recently in conjunction with ''parallel acquisition techniques.'' The latter means the utilization of multiple surface coils where the position a d the sensitivity profile of the coils provide additional spatial information, allowing the application of reduced matrixes leading to a shorter measurement ti e. (orig.)

  3. ‘LOL’, ‘OMG’ and Other Acronyms and Abbreviations : A study in the creation of initialisms

    Lundell, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Marchand (1969) claims that abbreviations and acronyms, which are also known as ‘initialisms’, are used to create “names of new scientific discoveries, trade-names, names of organizations, new foundations or offices, but occasionally, and chiefly in American English, personal and geographical names are also coined in this way” (Marchand, 1969: 452). However, initialisms that originate from netspeak, such as ‘LOL’, are different from the initialisms Marchand (1969) describes. These initialisms...

  4. The effectiveness of an abbreviated training program for health workers in breast cancer awareness: innovative strategies for resource constrained environments

    Mutebi, Miriam; Wasike, Ronald; Mushtaq, Ahmed; Kahie, Aideed; Ntoburi, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is characterized by late presentation and significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Breast screening aids in early detection of breast cancer. Nurses are uniquely placed to provide advocacy and screening in a resource limited environment. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of an abbreviated training program in breast cancer awareness on nurses at a tertiary hospital, in a resource constrained environment. Methods Using a statistical tool, the So...

  5. Diagnostic per-patient accuracy of an abbreviated hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance.

    Marks, Robert M; Ryan, Andrew; Heba, Elhamy R; Tang, An; Wolfson, Tanya J; Gamst, Anthony C; Sirlin, Claude B; Bashir, Mustafa R

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the per-patient diagnostic performance of an abbreviated gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI protocol for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review identified 298 consecutive patients at risk for HCC enrolled in a gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI-based HCC surveillance program. For each patient, the first gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was analyzed. To simulate an abbreviated protocol, two readers independently read two image sets per patient: set 1 consisted of T1-weighted 20-minute hepatobiliary phase and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) images; set 2 included diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and images from set 1. Image sets were scored as positive or negative according to the presence of at least one nodule 10 mm or larger that met the predetermined criteria. Agreement was assessed using Cohen kappa statistics. A composite reference standard was used to determine the diagnostic performance of each image set for each reader. RESULTS. Interreader agreement was substantial for both image sets (κ = 0.72 for both) and intrareader agreement was excellent (κ = 0.97-0.99). Reader performance for image set 1 was sensitivity of 85.7% for reader A and 79.6% for reader B, specificity of 91.2% for reader A and 95.2% for reader B, and negative predictive value of 97.0% for reader A and 96.0% for reader B. Reader performance for image set 2 was nearly identical, with only one of 298 examinations scored differently on image set 2 compared with set 1. CONCLUSION. An abbreviated MRI protocol consisting of T2-weighted SSFSE and gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase has high negative predictive value and may be an acceptable method for HCC surveillance. The inclusion of a DWI sequence did not significantly alter the diagnostic performance of the abbreviated protocol. PMID:25714281

  6. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated ...

  7. Emergency Checklist

    ... Prevention Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call ... may save you from a visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you ...

  8. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    Leontjevas, R.; Evers-Stephan, A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Thewissen, V.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPAN

  9. The use of a subfascial vicryl mesh buttress to aid in the closure of massive ventral hernias following damage-control laparotomy.

    Tobias, Adam M; Low, David W

    2003-09-01

    Damage control laparotomy for life-threatening abdominal conditions has gained wide acceptance in the management of exsanguinating trauma patients as well as septic patients with acute abdomen. Survivors considered too ill to undergo definitive abdominal wall closure are temporized, often with skin grafting on granulated viscera. These maneuvers compromise the integrity of the anterior abdominal wall and result in a subset of patients with loss of abdominal domain and massive, debilitating ventral hernias. A retrospective review was conducted of 21 such patients (16 men, five women) who underwent elective abdominal wall reconstruction at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between November of 1998 and October of 2000. The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experience with these complex abdominal wall reconstructions. A double-layer, subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress was used in all repairs to aid in reestablishing abdominal wall integrity. The mean hernia size was 813 cm2 (range, 75 to 1836 cm2), and the average interval to definitive repair was 24.4 months (range, 3 weeks to 11 years). Mean follow-up was 13.5 months (range, 1 month to 40 months). Twenty patients (95 percent) had successful ventral hernia repair. Four patients with massive hernias (924 to 1836 cm2) required submuscular Marlex mesh implantation. Two patients (10 percent) developed abdominal compartment syndrome that required surgical decompression. One patient (5 percent) developed an incisional hernia at a prior colostomy site. Four patients (19 percent) had superficial skin dehiscence that healed secondarily with daily wound care. There were no mesh infections. In most cases, successful single-stage repair of large ventral hernias following damage control laparotomy can be achieved using a subfascial Vicryl mesh buttress in combination with other established reconstructive techniques. Massive defects exceeding 900 cm2 typically require permanent mesh implantation to achieve

  10. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  11. Towards a Theory and View of Teaching Compressed and Abbreviated Research Methodology and Statistics Courses

    James Carifio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the highly questionable effects of educational reform and other curriculum reshaping factors at both the high school, post-secondary and graduate levels has been the shift to teaching compressed, pared-down or abbreviated courses in still needed or required subject-matter that became de-emphasized in the current educational reformation. Research methodology, particularly the highly quantitative and experimental kind and statistics, are two still needed to some degree subject matters that has been especially affected by this demotion and compression movement at the pre-service, in-service, professional development, undergraduate, continuing education and graduate levels, even though the professional areas of education, science, business, politics and most other areas (including history have become far more quantitative and objective research oriented than in the past. Until there are more enlightened policy shifts, effective means of teaching such compressed courses need to be devised and tested, if only to lessen the negative outcomes of such critical courses. This article, therefore, analyzes compressed courses from the point of view of cognitive learning and then describes 5 methods and approaches that were tested to improve the effectiveness of research methodology and statistics courses taught in these formats. Each of the formats helped to reduce student stress and anxiety about the content and its compressed presentation and improved understanding and achievement. The theory and view developed in this article is also applicable to similar compressed courses for scientific and/or technical content which are currently prevalent in allied health and biotechnology areas.

  12. Emergency thoracotomy.

    Champion, H. R.; Danne, P D; Finelli, F.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-nine consecutive trauma patients, who were treated at one institution and received emergency thoracotomy, were studied. Although 76 (85%) of the patients had no vital signs at hospital arrival, 15 (17%) patients survived the emergency thoracotomy to progress to other hospital treatments. Ten patients were ultimately discharged, nine of whom have normal functions. Maintaining a broad set of indications for emergency thoracotomy may increase survival amongst trauma patients for whom the ...

  13. Emergency Contraception

    ... the early weeks of pregnancy to end the pregnancy. Pills used for emergency contraception cannot end a pregnancy once a fertilized ... body for up to 10 years to prevent pregnancy. After you take emergency contraceptive pills, your period may come earlier or ...

  14. Emergency Shelters

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Asholt Thomsen, Rune; Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture......The report gives all the research, teaching, seminars carried in the duration of the shelter cluster. It concludes with proposing relevant research agendas in the field of emergency architecture...

  15. 妇科开腹手术切口感染控制的PDCA管理%Gynecological Laparotomy Incision Infection Control PDCA Management

    韩淑波

    2016-01-01

    Objective Of gynecological laparotomy incision infection control PDCA management. Methods in our hospital gynecology clinic operating room in July 2013 - July 2015 2 724 cases admitted (1 223 cases before PDCA management control, the implementation of 1 501 cases after PDCA management control) patients, medical staff and select 152 (PDCA management control before 53, after the implementation of PDCA management control 99) as in this study, comparative analysis of the implementation of wound infection and health care personnel hand hygiene before and after the PDCA man-agement. Results After the implementation laparotomy wound infection rate (0.4%) was significantly lower than before (2.3%) of the difference comparison P<0.05; the medical staff hand hygiene compliance (93.9%), the passing rate of hand hygiene after the implementation (92.9%) significantly higher than the previous management control 77.4%, 69.8%, compar-ing the difference P<0.05. Conclusion Abdominal Gynecological implement PDCA management mode control wound infec-tion surgery to good effect, can effectively reduce the wound infection rate, enhance staff compliance with hand hygiene and hand hygiene qualification rate, worthy of promotion.%目的:探析妇科开腹手术切口感染控制的PDCA管理é方法选取该院妇科门诊手术室2013年7月-2015年7月收治的2724例(PDCA管理控制前1223例,实施PDCA管理控制后1501例)患者,并选择152名医护人员(PDCA管理控制前53名,实施PDCA管理控制后99名)作为此次研究对象,对比分析实施PDCA管理前后切口感染率及医护人员手卫生等情况é结果实施后开腹手术切口感染率(0.4%)明显低于实施前(2.3%),差异有统计学意义P<0.05;实施后医护人员手卫生依从性(93.9%)、手卫生合格率(92.9%)明显高于管理控制前77.4%、69.8%,差异有统计学意义P<0.05é结论妇科开腹手术患者实施PDCA管理模式控制切口感染的效果良好,可有效降

  16. Essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania

    The essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania - Brazilian city - occurred in 1987 is consequence of confront of data obtained in two distinct situations having for criterion: time, efficiency and pertinence. Besides of this, they are introduced palografic and the house-tree-person - HTP - tests. These tests aimed at the common psychological characteristics verification to radioactive accident victims' personality of Goiania and to the data existential moment for those people. Among the three tests, the one of Luscher was what obtained the best interviewees acceptance index

  17. MEMbrain. A software emergency management system

    MEMbrain is the name of the EUREKA project EU904. MEM is an abbreviation for Major Emergency Management and brain refers to computer technology. MEMbrain is a strategic European project - the consortium includes partners from six countries, covering the European continent from North to South (Finland, Norway, Denmark, France, Portugal and Greece). The strategy for the project has been to develop a dynamic decision support tool based on: information, prediction, communication, on-line training. The project's results has resulted in a set of knowledge-based software tools supporting MEM activities e.g.; public protection management, man to man communication management, environment information management, resource management, as well as an implementation of an architecture to integrate such tools. (R.P.)

  18. Emergency CT in blunt abdominal trauma of multiple injury patients

    Multiple injury patients with blunt abdominal trauma (n = 110) were examined by abdominal CT. An i.v., but not peroral, contrast medium was used, thereby eliminating the delay caused by administering peroral contrast medium and any subsequent delay in making the diagnoses and beginning operative treatment. Eighteen patients underwent emergency laparotomy after the initial CT examination. The preoperative CT findings were compared to the laparotomy findings. CT revealed all but one of the severe parenchymal organ lesions requiring surgery. The one liver laceration that went undetected had caused hemoperitoneum, which was diagnosed by CT. The bowel and mesenteric lesions presented as intra-abdominal blood, and the hemoperitoneum was discovered in every patient with these lesions. Fourteen patients also initially had positive abdominal CT findings; 10 of them underwent an additional abdominal CT within 3 days, but the repeat studies did not reveal any lesions in need of surgery. Omission of the oral contrast medium did not jeopardize making the essential diagnoses, but it did save time. (orig.)

  19. Urologic Emergencies.

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785

  20. Emergency Contraception

    ... can be used after a woman has been raped. How does EC work? Using EC does not ... used has failed, or if a woman is raped. Emergency contraception methods include progestin- only pills, ulipristal, ...

  1. Thoracic emergencies.

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  2. Ear emergencies

    Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

  3. Self efficacy for fruit, vegetable and water intakes: Expanded and abbreviated scales from item response modeling analyses

    Cullen Karen W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To improve an existing measure of fruit and vegetable intake self efficacy by including items that varied on levels of difficulty, and testing a corresponding measure of water intake self efficacy. Design Cross sectional assessment. Items were modified to have easy, moderate and difficult levels of self efficacy. Classical test theory and item response modeling were applied. Setting One middle school at each of seven participating sites (Houston TX, Irvine CA, Philadelphia PA, Pittsburg PA, Portland OR, rural NC, and San Antonio TX. Subjects 714 6th grade students. Results Adding items to reflect level (low, medium, high of self efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake achieved scale reliability and validity comparable to existing scales, but the distribution of items across the latent variable did not improve. Selecting items from among clusters of items at similar levels of difficulty along the latent variable resulted in an abbreviated scale with psychometric characteristics comparable to the full scale, except for reliability. Conclusions The abbreviated scale can reduce participant burden. Additional research is necessary to generate items that better distribute across the latent variable. Additional items may need to tap confidence in overcoming more diverse barriers to dietary intake.

  4. Emergent Modernism

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".......This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement"....

  5. TORSADES DE POINTES ASSOCIATED WITH TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY IN AN ANOREXIA NERVOSA PATIENT DURING EMERGENCE FROM GENERAL ANESTHESIA.

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Michiko; Kondo, Akio; Yamada, Yasuhito; Inoue, Masaya

    2016-06-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a disease in which the patient exhibits transient, reversible left ventricular dysfunction that is triggered by physical or emotional stress. Prolongation of QT interval, a risk factor for arrhythmia and sudden death, has been reported to be prevalent among patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and is also observed in those with severe anorexia nervosa. In this report, we describe the rare case of a 30-year-old female patient with anorexia nervosa who developed Torsades de Pointes associated with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during emergence from general anesthesia for emergency exploratory laparotomy. PMID:27487642

  6. EMERGENCY CALLS

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  7. Emerging images

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  8. Hematologic emergencies

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  9. Emerging boundaries

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    and formalization. These principles are then used to argue the case for socioconceptual emergence and causality between the lines. This causality appears only in a long-term perspective and implies that, although the development of these boundaries was chronologically displaced across northwestern......This article proposes a processual ontology for the emergence of man-made, linear boundaries across northwestern Europe, particularly in the first millennium BC. Over a significant period of time, these boundaries became new ways of organizing the landscape and settlements—a phenomenon that has...... Europe, elements of this phenomenon emerged along equivalent trajectories. At the same time, variation in the regional incorporation of these linear phenomena points toward situation-specific applications and independent development....

  10. Emergency situations

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  11. Emergency radiology

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs

  12. Nuclear emergencies

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  13. Emergency Arbitration

    Hakanen, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Viime vuosien aikana monet vÀlitysinstituutit ovat lisÀnneet vÀlityssÀÀntöihinsÀ ehtoja pikaturvaamismenettelystÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitration). Pikaturvaamismenettely tarkoittaa menettelyÀ, jossa osapuoli voi hakea vastapuolta vastaan turvaamistoimia vÀlityslautakunnan mÀÀrÀÀmÀltÀ pikavÀlimieheltÀ (engl. Emergency Arbitrator) silloin kun vÀlimiesoikeutta ei ole vielÀ muodostettu. TÀssÀ tutkielmassa tarkastellaan erityisesti Keskuskauppakamarin vÀlimieslautakunnan (FCC)...

  14. Emergence delirium

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes that...

  15. Studying Emerge

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra;

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...

  16. Emerging Materiality

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be...

  17. Emergency preparedness

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  18. Emergency Preparedness

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  19. 21 CFR 314.107 - Effective date of approval of a 505(b)(2) application or abbreviated new drug application under...

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter, but does not include transfer of the drug product for reasons other than sale within the...) application or abbreviated new drug application under section 505(j) of the act. 314.107 Section 314.107 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS...

  20. Avaliação muscular respiratória nas toracotomias e laparotomias superiores eletivas Respiratory muscle evaluation in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen

    Laryssa Milenkovich Bellinetti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe associação entre a função muscular respiratória pré-operatória abaixo dos valores previstos e a incidência de complicações pós-operatórias e o óbito, nas laparotomias superiores e toracotomias eletivas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo, no qual 70 pacientes acima de dezoito anos foram acompanhados, em dois hospitais similares. A avaliação durante a internação pré-operatória classificou-os em não expostos (50 ou expostos (20, estes quando os valores das pressões respiratórias máximas foram abaixo de 75% dos valores previstos. O acompanhamento foi feito até a alta hospitalar, verificando-se a incidência de pneumonia, insuficiência respiratória aguda, broncoespasmo, ventilação mecânica prolongada, atelectasia, derrame pleural, pneumotórax e óbito nos dois grupos. Realizou-se análise comparativa entre os grupos e cálculo do risco relativo. RESULTADOS: A incidência total de complicações pós-operatórias da amostra foi de 22,86% (16/70; no grupo exposto foi de 55% (11/20 e no grupo não exposto de 10% (5/50. Os pacientes expostos apresentaram risco relativo de 5,5 (intervalo de confiança de 95% entre 2,19 e 13,82. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que a função muscular respiratória pré-operatória abaixo do valor previsto esteve associada a um risco relativo maior de complicações pós-operatórias nas cirurgias pesquisadas.OBJECTIVE: To identify any possible relation between lower than predicted preoperative respiratory muscle function and the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications and death in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted, in which 70 patients over the age of 18 were monitored in two similar hospitals. In the preoperative evaluation performed at admission, patients were classified as presenting respiratory muscle function (as determined by measurement of maximal respiratory

  1. Emerging Multinationals

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    ) and books (e.g. Goldstein 2007; Benito and Narula 2007). This paper takes stock of the mounting trend of outward FDI from emerging economies, with special focus on a group of five countries, which are becoming increasingly economically and politically influential, viz. the ‘BRICS' countries. An ‘S......' is appended here to the conventional acronym of ‘BRIC' (Brazil, Russia, India, China) to include the largest economy on the African continent, South Africa. The five BRICS countries produced some USD25 billion of outward FDI flows in 2004, corresponding to some 3 percent of world FDI flows and well over half...... (61 percent) of total developing country outflows. OFDI from the BRICS countries has grown rapidly over the last few years, while still remaining modest compared to many developed countries. Following a brief discussion of FDI and emerging economies in general the article proceeds to hypothesise...

  2. Emergency Contraception

    Gemzell-Danielsson K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous attempts to control fertility after unprotected sexual intercourse. From very bizarre methods like the vaginal application of Coca Cola to the more serious attempts using calcium antagonists influencing fertility parameters in sperm to hormonal methods or intrauterine devices. So far, hormonal methods preventing or delaying ovulation have proved to be the most popular starting with the combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, known as the Yuzpe regimen. The first dose had to be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, a second one 12 hours later. Later on, levonorgestrel alone, at first in a regimen similar to the Yuzpe method (2 × 0.75 mg 12 hours apart showed to be more successful, eventually resulting in the development of a 1.5 mg levonorgestrel pill that combined good efficacy with a high ease of use. It has become the standard method used up to this day in most countries. Since the mid 1970s copper IUDs have been used for emergency contraception, which show a high efficacy. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that emergency contraception is considered an off label use and that they might not be acceptable for every patient. Mifepristone in doses of 10 or 25 mg is being used successfully as an emergency contraceptive in China, but has never received any significant consideration in Western countries. The most recent development is the approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator ulipristal acetate in the dosage of 30 mg for emergency contraception up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse, combining the safe and easy application of the single dose levonorgestrel pill with an even higher efficacy. Several efficacious and easy to use methods for emergency contraception are available on the market today with the most widely spread being levonorgestrel in a single dose of 1.5 mg (given as one tablet of 1.5 mg or 2 tablets of 0.75 mg each for administration up to 3 days after

  3. Radiation emergencies

    Elaborate precautions are taken in the design, construction and operation of nuclear installations. Even then, there always remains the possibility, however small, of accidents. A radiation emergency can be defined as any abnormal situation following an incident/accident which may result in either unusually large radiation fields in any plant/area or large release of air or liquid borne radioactivity leading to widespread contamination of areas

  4. Emerging issues

    Some formal and informal mechanisms were implemented at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment that allow the identification of emerging environmental issues. The early warning is most often provided through the expertise of the personnel and their contacts. The Ministry commissioned a study to review the process, learn from the processes in place in other organizations, and implement the appropriate changes into its emerging issues procedure. The team conducting the review answered four specific questions. The first question was: What are the necessary elements of an emerging issues tool? The second question was: What are some of the best practices in other jurisdictions? It was followed by the question: How do those jurisdictions implement emerging issues models? The final question was: What implementation is appropriate for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment? The approach involved reviewing the appropriate literature and reviewing the best practices in place in other jurisdictions, both in the United States and in Europe. Senior officials in Canada and the United States were interviewed, and the procedure was identified and described. A case study concerning the acid rain problem in the 1960s and 1970s was used to test the developed procedure retroactively. This procedure involves a variation of the top-down, bottom-up input procedure at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), with a formal issues scanning process, and the prioritizing and analysis of the steps. It was noted that if the procedure had been in place in the late 1960s in Ontario, it would have been possible to identify one or more impacts from the acid rain situation ten years earlier. Preventive and remedial action could have been implemented, leading to environmental and economic benefits for the province of Ontario. The broad involvement of stakeholders is required for an open and systematic prioritization of the issues. The authors concluded the study by identifying

  5. Emerging Jets

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  6. Emerging jets

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  7. Hypertensive emergencies.

    Murphy, C

    1995-11-01

    Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon and physiologically diverse. Consequently, it is difficult for most physicians to develop a familiarity with all the different hypertensive crises and with all drugs available for treating them (Table 4). Clinicians should not agonize over which is the perfect therapeutic agent for a particular emergency, but instead, they should focus on scrupulous monitoring and familiarize themselves with a few agents that will serve in most situations. Generally, these agents will be sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin. Vigilant neurologic monitoring is mandatory in all hypertensive emergencies. The early symptoms and signs of cerebral hypoperfusion can be vague and subtle, but if recognized, serious complications of therapy can be avoided. Remember, the patient may still be hypertensive. Avoid acute (during the first hour) reductions in MAP of more than 20% whenever possible; subsequent reductions should be gradual. In patients known to have markedly elevated ICP and who need acute reductions in their BP, serious consideration should be given to direct monitoring of the ICP so that CPP can be maintained within safe limits. In general, oral agents should not be used for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Intravenous Labetalol and intravenous nicardipine are not suitable for general use in hypertensive emergencies. In special situations (e.g., perioperative hypertension and subarachnoid hemorrhage), however, they may be employed. Their role may expand with further study. Trimethaphan may be superior to nitroprusside for hypertension complicated by elevated ICP or cerebral dysfunction. Realistically, most physicians will continue to use nitroprusside. Intense neurologic monitoring is more important than the specific agent used. Nitroglycerin is the agent of choice for acute ischemic heart disease complicated by severe hypertension; if it fails, use nitroprusside. For aortic dissection, the combination of nitroprusside and IV

  8. Is it an Emergency?

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  9. CLINICAL AND ERITROLEUCOMETRIC EVALUATION OF COLIC HORSES SUBMITTED TO LAPAROTOMY AND SURVIVED OR NOT AVALIAÇÃO CLÍNICA E ERITROLEUCOGRAMA DE EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA SUBMETIDOS À LAPAROTOMIA, SOBREVIVENTES E NÃO SOBREVIVENTES

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Seventy horses were utilized, twenty healthy horses (GI and fifty colic horses which survived (GII, n=25 or not (GIII, n=25 after laparotomy. Clinical examination was carried out and blood samples were collected before laparotomy (T0 and after laparotomy (T24h-T240h. Animals from GII, at T0 and animals from GIII, at T0, T24h, T48h, T72h, T96h, T120h, T168h and T240h after laparotomy presented increase of respiratory and heart rates, tissue perfusion time, red blood cell, leukocyte, and packed cell volume. In the same moments the animals from GII and GIII presented decrease of concentration of total plasmatic proteins. The intensity and persistence of theses alterations relates negatively to the animals recuperation and were attributed the time, localization and, severity of obstruction. Laboratorial and clinical analysis in series can be useful for the prognosis of post-operative recovery after laparotomy.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, equine, haemogram. 
    Utilizaram-se setenta equinos, vinte sadios (GI e cinquenta com cólica, submetidos à laparotomia, sobreviventes (GII, n=25 e não sobreviventes (GIII, n=25. O exame clínico e a colheita das amostras de sangue foram realizados antes da laparotomia (T0 e diariamente, a partir da cirurgia, até o décimo dia após a intervenção (T24h - T10o dia. No T0, observou-se aumento dos valores da frequência cardíaca e respiratória, do tempo de perfusão tecidual, do número de hemácias, do volume globular e do número de leucócitos nos equinos dos grupos GII e GIII, que ainda se mantiveram até o décimo dia pós-operatório nos animais do grupo GIII. Nesses mesmos momentos e animais verificou-se diminuição na concentração das proteínas plasmáticas totais. A intensidade e a persistência das alterações relacionaram-se negativamente com a recuperação dos animais e foram atribuídas ao tempo, à localização e à gravidade do processo obstrutivo. A

  10. A rare case of mature cystic teratoma in the emergency department

    Zeynep Konyar; Gokhan Eyupoglu; Mehmet Tatli; Ozlem Guneysel

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors among pediatric and female patients, which originates from germ cells layers and can be located everywhere in bodies. They are diagnosed by ultrasonography (US), which was characterized by calcification and cystic anechoic view. Our aim is to attract attention to a 21-year-old female patient with complaint of acute abdominal pain diagnosed with teratoma by early radiological im-aging. The female patient admitted to the emergency department with a new onset of abdominal pain at the lower and left sides of the abdomen for a week. The suprapubic and left costovertebral angle tenderness were found in her physical examination. We firstly chose US for imaging. The US of the abdomen showed multiple cystic masses around uterus. Heterogeneous cystic and calcified lesions were detected on the patients computerized tomography scan, and considered as teratoma. A laparotomy was per-formed by gynecologists. At laparotomy, lobulated cystic masses were removed and the left ovary had been detorsioned. She has been discharged after two days of postoperative observation. For patients of young females with abdominal pain such as rare gyneco-logical diseases, teratoma and ovarian torsion, in the emergency department should be considered and early imaging should be performed.

  11. Nano Revolution--Big Impact: How Emerging Nanotechnologies Will Change the Future of Education and Industry in America (and More Specifically in Oklahoma). An Abbreviated Account

    Holley, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists are creating new and amazing materials by manipulating molecules at the ultra-small scale of 0.1 to 100 nanometers. Nanosize super particles demonstrate powerful and unprecedented electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties. This study examines how nanotechnology, as the multidisciplinary engineering of novel nanomaterials into…

  12. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  13. Choice of Operative Technique for Emergency Cases of Sigmoid Volvulus in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Gujarat

    Patel Upendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sigmoid volulus is by far the most common type of volvulus, accounting for 75 to 90 % of all volvulus. Most common presenting symptom is abdominal pain and constipation. . It may be initially managed by sigmoidoscopy or rectal tube insertion but where fear of compromised vascular supply of the sigmoid colon is associated, immediate laparotomy after resuscitation must be undertaken to avoid gangrene and septic shock. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the most suitable procedure for management of patients with sigmoid volvulus needing emergency surgery. Methodology: All patients presenting with volvulus and needing emergency operative intervention during 1 years duration from January 2010 to December 2011 were included in this study. Total 41 patients were included in the study of which 25 presented with gangrenous sigmoid colon on laparotomy and viable sigmoid colon was present in the remaining 16 cases. Comparison is done with respect to mortality and early morbidity associated with different operative procedures. Results: Highest mortality i.e. 33.3% observed among patients who underwent primary resection and anastomosis without proximal colostomy. Wound infection was more common following all forms of stoma procedure. Conclusion: Hartmann’s procedure goes a long way in decreasing mortality due to sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 226-228

  14. One of These Things Is Not Quite the Same: A Comparison of the Patent Doctrine of Equivalents with Suitability for Filing an Abbreviated New Drug Application

    Halstead, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The doctrine of equivalents as applied to chemical patents is compared to the FDA’s findings of bioequivalence in reviewing suitability petitions for filing Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs). The doctrine of equivalents provides the greatest flexibility early in the drug-development process, gradually diminishing as the product refinements become increasingly minor. Determinations of bioequivalence, however, exhibit the reverse trend as applied to analogous situatio...

  15. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    Ewalt, Darla R; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isola...

  16. Emerging technologies

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  17. Emerging memories

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  18. Emergency Contraception.

    Batur, Pelin; Kransdorf, Lisa N; Casey, Petra M

    2016-06-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception. Ulipristal acetate tends to be more efficacious in pregnancy prevention than is LNG, especially when taken later than 72 hours postcoitus. The mechanism of action of oral EC is delay of ovulation, and current evidence reveals that it is ineffective postovulation. Women who weigh more than 75 kg or have a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) may have a higher risk of unintended pregnancy when using oral LNG EC; therefore, ulipristal acetate or copper intrauterine devices are preferable in this setting. Providers are often unaware of the range of EC options or are unsure of how to counsel patients regarding the access and use of EC. This article critically reviews current EC literature, summarizes recommendations, and provides guidance for counseling women about EC. Useful tips for health care providers are provided, with a focus on special populations, including breast-feeding women and those transitioning to long-term contraception after EC use. When treating women of reproductive age, clinicians should be prepared to counsel them about EC options, provide EC appropriately, and, if needed, refer for EC in a timely manner. PMID:27261868

  19. Effect of intermediate care on mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. The InCare trial

    Vester-Andersen, Morten; Waldau, Tina; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    . The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients.Methods and design: The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing...... emergency laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome...... measure is all-cause 30-day mortality. We aim to enrol 400 patients in seven Danish hospitals. The sample size allows us to detect or refute a 34% relative risk reduction of mortality with 80% power. DISCUSSION: This trial evaluates the benefits and possible harm of intermediate care. The results may...

  20. [Emergency contraception].

    Bastianelli, C; Farris, M; Di Miscia, A

    2006-06-01

    A specific formulation has been approved for use in Italy for emergency contraception (EC) in 2000. As expected, marketing of this levonorgestrel (LNG) only formulation has been accompanied by an increased interest and, often, controversies leading to even strong opposition on the part of those ethically opposed to the use of any method that may act after fertilization. At present, several trials on the exact mechanism of action and safety have been conducted, giving good reason for simplifying access, providing it free or over the counter, in several European countries. EC, also known as ''the morning after pill'' or postcoital contraception, is a modality of preventing the establishment of an unwanted pregnancy after unprotected intercourse and thus, probably, of reducing the number of voluntary pregnancy terminations. Two different forms are available: the hormonal and the intrauterine. Hormonal estrogen only EC was first proposed in the 60s and in 1974 Yuzpe following his studies proposed for the first time his combined regimen, that showed better efficacy and lower side effects. More recently, a new regimen, consisting of LNG, administered alone at the dose of 1.5 mg, was introduced and found in clinical trials to be more effective than the Yuzpe regimen, if taken as early as possible, within 72 h, thereby replacing the latter in common use. Mechanism of action of both hormonal preparations used for EC is inhibiting or delaying ovulation, therefore a prefertilization action. No effect has been reported on the process of implantation nor on an ongoing pregnancy. The WHO have developed a third regimen based on the use of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (antiprogestin) Mifepristone and conducted trials with different dosages, reporting similar efficacy and safety compared to LNG. Intrauterine EC was first proposed by Lippes in 1976. It has the advantage of being effective if inserted within 5 days after unprotected intercourse and the disadvantage

  1. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  2. Little Rock and El Dorado 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles and adjacent areas, Arkansas: data report (abbreviated)

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series Little Rock 10 x 20 quadrangle (Cleveland, Dallas, and Howard Counties do not have stream sediment analyses); the El Dorado 10 x 20 quadrangle (only Clark County has stream sediment analyses); the western part (Lonoke and Jefferson Counties) of Helena 10 x 20 quadrangle; the southern part (Franklin, Logan, Yell, Perry, Faulkner, and Lonoke Counties) of Russellville 10 x 20 quadrangle; and the southwestern corner (Ashley County) of the Greenwood 10 x 20 quadrangle. Stream samples were collected at 943 sites in the Little Rock quadrangle, 806 sites in the El Dorado quadrangle, 121 sites in the Helena area, 292 sites in the Russellville area, and 77 in the Greenwood area. Ground water samples were collected at 1211 sites in the Little Rock quadrangle, 1369 sites in the El Dorado quadrangle, 186 sites in the Helena area, 470 sites in the Russellville area, and 138 sites in the Greenwood area. Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at nominal density of one site per 21 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Uranium concentrations in the sediments ranged from less than 0.1 ppM to 23.5 ppM with a mean of 1.7 ppM. The ground water uranium mean concentration is 0.113 ppB, and the uranium concentrations range from less than 0.002 ppB to 15.875 ppB. High ground water uranium values in the Ouachita Mountain region of the Little Rock quadrangle appear to be associated with Ordovician black shale units

  3. Emergency teams in Danish emergency departments

    Lafrenz, Thomas; Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; La Cour, Jeppe Lerche;

    2012-01-01

    The use of designated emergency teams for cardiac arrest and trauma patients is widely implemented. However, the use of designated teams in Danish emergency departments (EDs) has not been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the use and staffing of emergency teams in Danish EDs....

  4. Some Common Abbreviations

    ... Coronary artery disease A common type of heart disease CAT Computerized axial tomography A type of x-ray ... Gastrointestinal Another term for your digestive system GFR Glomerular ... that causes one type of liver disease HBV Hepatitis B virus A virus that causes ...

  5. Emergency Medical Services

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  6. Emergency Medical Services

    ... and need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people ... facilities. You may need care in the hospital emergency room (ER). Doctors and nurses there treat emergencies, ...

  7. Emergency Contraception Website

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This ...

  8. Emergency airway puncture

    Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It ... Emergency airway puncture is done in an emergency situation, when someone is choking and all other efforts ...

  9. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  10. Emerging and re-emerging infections

    Victor K E Lim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An emerging infection is defined as aninfection that has newly appeared in a population whilea re-emerging infection would be one that has existedin the past but its incidence has increased in recenttimes. The reasons for the emergence or reemergenceof an infection are not completely understood butthey are multifactorial and complex in the nature oftheir interactions. These factors may be related to theetiological organism, the host or the environment.Human activity appears to be a major driver. Malaysiahad to deal with outbreaks of several emerging infectionsover the last two decades. They include Nipah virusinfection, SARS and avian influenza. Infections likedengue, tuberculosis and leptospirosis are re-emergingin Malaysia. Both human activity and climatic changesappear to be key factors in the emergence and reemergenceof infections in Malaysia. Our countryneeds to put in place a comprehensive plan to meetthe challenge of emerging diseases. A multidisciplinaryapproach is required and the strategies involved shouldnot merely confined to medical and health strategies.