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Sample records for abbott hcv eia

  1. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Results: Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. Conclusion: The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required. PMID:26649001

  2. A multicenter evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV genotype II assay

    Marco Ciotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral genotype is an important determinant of the therapeutical outcome of the chronic hepatitis C and is useful in clinical practice to determine the duration of treatment1.While the viral type shows a clear association with therapeutic success, there is currently no evidence to that effect for HCV subtype, whose value is thus confined to epidemiological studies.The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay, through the use of Minor Groove Binder probes (MGB is able to distinguish genotypes 1 to 6 (target 5’-UTR region and subtypes 1a and 1b (NS5B region. In four different Italian centers a comparison between the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay and the Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LIPA has been performed.A total of 143 non selected samples with the request of HCV genotyping have been analysed. 141/143 samples (98.6% have provided reportable results with both tests (2 indeterminates with LIPA. Concordance at the type level was 96.5% (136/141. Considering the 136 concordant samples, the distribution was as follows: type 1 = 61 (44.9%, 2 = 36 (26.5%, 3 = 21 (15.4%, 4 = 17 (12.5% 5 = 1 (0.7%. Both assays assigned subtype in 56/61 (91.8% samples of genotype 1 (3 and 2 samples only provided the type for LIPA and Abbott, respectively and 50/56 (89.3% had concordant subtype. It is worth to note that 4 of the 5 samples with discordant subtype Abbott 1a/LiPA 1b came from the only center that used for LIPA the 5-UTR amplicon, loosing the benefit of the core region which has been introduced in the version 2 of the test to improve the accuracy in distinguishing between 1a and 1b.There was only one discordant sample at type level (Abbott 4, LIPA 1b which after sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was resolved as type 4. Four mixed infections were detected, 3 with the Abbott test (two 1a+4 and one 1b+3 and 1 with the LIPA test (1a+3. In all cases the comparison test showed a single genotype 1 infection. The new Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay showed a

  3. [Investigation of the correlation between anti-HCV levels (S/Co) with HCV-RNA in the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection].

    Şanlıdağ, Tamer; Akçalı, Sinem; Ecemiş, Talat; Süer, Kaya; Erbay Dündar, Pınar; Arıkan, Ayşe; Güvenir, Meryem; Güler, Emrah

    2016-07-01

    Detection of borderline and/or low positive anti-HCV results by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) leads to severe problems in routine laboratories and needs confirmation with nucleic acid amplification tests which can increase the cost. In EIA tests, if the ratio of sample to cut-off (S/Co) is ≥ 1, the sample is accepted as positive according to the manufacturers' instructions. Although over the last decade the application of S/Co values have also applied to HCV-RNA readings, the current study aims to determine whether the S/Co value is adequate and applicable for the anti-HCV EIA test, and to determine whether a correlation exists between HCV-RNA and HCV infections. A total of 658 cases (402 female, 256 male; mean age: 49.4 ± 17.0 years) who were found anti-HCV positive between January 2011-July 2013 were included in the study. Anti-HCV tests were performed by chemiluminescent EIA (Architect i2000SR, Abbott, USA and LiaisonXL Murex, DiaSorin, Italy) and HCV-RNA by real-time PCR (Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche, USA). The mean S/Co value of the cases was 7.3 ± 4.8 (range: 1.00-17.59) and mean HCV-RNA value was 2.3x105 ± 2.1x106 copies/ml. When the anti-HCV S/Co value of varying ranges was compared with HCV-RNA readings a particular trend was noted. In the anti-HCV S/Co values of 1.0-4.0; 4.1-7.0; 7.1-10.0; 10.1-13.0; 13.1-16.0 and ³16.1, HCV-RNA positivity rates were detected as 1.9%, 24.7%,37.1%, 46.7%, 56.4% and 75%, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated an intermediate positive correlation (r= 0.454) between anti-HCV ve HCV-RNA readings (p= 0.000). An adequate S/Co value was accepted as 5.0 based on the ROC analysis, and this value gave a performance confidence level of 95.6% when determining whether a patient is HCV positive. Based on the data of this study it became evident that further EIA testing is not required if the S/Co value is ≥ 5.0, however if the S/Co value is less than 5.0, then further clinical analysis and revaluation of the patient

  4. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen in nasal washings by Abbott TestPack enzyme immunoassay.

    Wren, C G; Bate, B J; Masters, H B; Lauer, B A

    1990-01-01

    We compared the new Abbott TestPack (TP) respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with cell culture and two commercial RSV EIAs (from Abbott Diagnostics and Kallestad Laboratories) by using split samples of fresh nasal washings from children with suspected RSV disease. Two tubes of HEp-2 cells were inoculated and observed for cytopathic effect for 14 days, and isolates were confirmed by immunofluorescence. The TP EIA was performed by following the manufacturer's instructions...

  5. A clinical, epidemological, laboratorial, histological and ultrasonographical evaluation of anti-HCV EIA-2 positive blood donors Avaliação clínica, epidemiológica, laboratorial, histológica e ultrassonográfica de doadores de sangue anti-HCV EIA-2 positivos

    Fernando L. GONÇALES JR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1992 and 1997, 790 blood donors with anti-HCV EIA-2 strongly reagent (relationship between the sample optical density/cut-off > 3 detected at the blood bank serological screening, were evaluated in ambulatory environment. They were all negative for Chagas disease, syphilis, hepatitis B (HBsAg and AIDS. Blood samples were collected at the first ambulatorial evaluation, for hemogram, biochemical tests and new serological tests for HCV (anti-HCV EIA-2. In blood samples of 226 repeatedly reagent anti-HCV EIA-2 blood donors, supplementary "immunoblot" test for HCV (RIBA-2 was used. In 209 donors, the presence of HCV-RNA was investigated by the PCR test. The abdominal ultrasonography was realized in 366 donors. In 269 patients liver biopsy was performed for the histopathological study. The follow-up of blood donors showed that 95.6% were repeatedly EIA-2 reagent, 94% were symptomless and denied any hepatitis history, with only 2% mentioning previous jaundice. In 47% of this population at least one risk factor has been detected for the HCV transmission, the use of intravenous drugs being the main one (27.8%. Blood transfusion was the second factor for HCV transmission (27.2%. Hepatomegaly was detected in 54% of the cases. Splenomegaly and signs of portal hypertension have seldom been found in the physical examination, indicating a low degree of hepatic compromising in HCV. Abdominal ultrasound showed alterations in 65% of the subjects, being the steatosis the most frequent (50%. In 83.5% of the donors submitted to the liver biopsy, the histopathological exam showed the presence of chronic hepatitis, usually classified as active (89% with mild or moderate grade in most of the cases (99.5%. The histopathological exam of the liver was normal in 1.5% of blood donors. The RIBA-2 test and the HCV-RNA investigation by PCR were positive in respectively 91.6 and 75% of the anti-HCV EIA-2 reagent donors. The HCV-RNA research was positive in 82% of the

  6. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  7. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott Realtime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    M. Schutten (Martin); D. Peters (D.); N. Back (Nicole); A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); B. Beuselinck (B.); V. Foulongne (V.); A.M. Geretti (Anna Maria); L. Pandiani (L.); M. Tiemann; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche

  8. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    Schutten, M; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMa

  9. Technology evaluation: ABT-510, Abbott.

    Westphal, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    ABT-510 is a small peptide thrombospondin-1 mimetic angiogenesis inhibitor under development by Abbott Laboratories for the potential treatment of solid tumors. ABT-510 is undergoing phase II clinical trials.

  10. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  11. Technology evaluation: adalimumab, Abbott laboratories.

    Lorenz, Hanns M

    2002-04-01

    Adalimumab (D2E7), a human monoclonal antibody that binds to and neutralizes TNFa, is being developed by Abbott (formerly Knoll), under license from Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT), for the potential treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease. It is also being investigated for the potential treatment of coronary heart disease. Phase II studies for Crohn's disease and phase III for RA were ongoing throughout 2001. Limited data are only available for RA. In January 2002, it was reported that phase III trials of adalimumab for RA had been completed, but details have not been published in the primary literature so far. At this time CAT and Abbott expected to file for US approval in the second quarter of 2002 with a launch date anticipated for 2003. Phase III data are expected to be presented at the European League Against Rheumatism meeting in June 2002. In November 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted a US launch in June 2002 with peak US sales of $600 million in 2007 and a launch in non-US markets in 2003 with peak sales in these markets of $300 million in 2008. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted regulatory clearance in the second half of 2003. The probability of adalimumab reaching the market is estimated to be 70%. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted a 2003 launch, with estimated sales of pounds sterling 3.65 million in that year rising to pounds sterling 30.14 million in 2010. In March 2001, ABN AMRO predicted sales of $73 million in 2003 rising to $392 million in 2007. PMID:12044041

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and HCV genotypes of hemodialysis patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

    Silva L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has been identified as the major cause of chronic liver disease among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD, despite the important reduction in risks obtained by testing candidate blood donors for anti-HCV antibodies and the use of recombinant erythropoietin to treat anemia. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotypes among HD patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Anti-HCV seroprevalence was determined by ELISA in 1243 HD patients from all ten different dialysis centers of the city. HCV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anti-HCV seroprevalence among HD patients was 10.5% (95% CI: 8.8-12.3 (Murex anti-HCV, Abbott Murex, Chicago, IL, USA. Blood samples for qualitative HCV detection and genotyping were collected from 125/130 seropositive HD patients (96.2%. HCV-RNA was detected in 92/125 (73.6% of the anti-HCV-positive patients. HCV genotype 1 (77.9% was the most prevalent, followed by genotype 3 (10.5% and genotype 2 (4.6%. Mixed infections of genotypes 1 and 3 were found in 7.0% of the total number of patients. The present results indicate a significant decrease in anti-HCV prevalence from 23.8% detected in a study carried out in 1994 to 10.5% in the present study. The HCV genotype distribution was closely similar to that observed in other hemodialysis populations in Brazil, in local candidate blood donors and in other groups at risk of transfusion-transmitted infection.

  13. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    2010-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New... (sibutramine hydrochloride (HCl)) oral capsules held by Abbott Laboratories, Inc. (Abbott), 100 Abbott Park Rd., Abbott Park, IL 60064. Abbott has voluntarily requested that approval of this application be...

  14. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories,...

  15. Multicenter Evaluation of the New Abbott RealTime Assays for Quantitative Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus RNA▿

    Schutten, M.; Peters, D.; Back, N.K.T.; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K.; Foulongne, V.; Geretti, A.-M.; Pandiani, L.; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMan assays. Two different protocols used during the testing period with and without a pre-m1000 RNA isolation spin were compared. The difference proved to be nonsignificant. A uracil-N-glycosylase (U...

  16. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on February 24, 2011, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories... location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division. The Department has determined that these...

  17. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA in blood donors

    Felicidade Mota Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany, the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Results: Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102 were positive, 57.8% (59/102 were negative and 3.9% (4/102 were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102 of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43, negative in 9.3% (4/43 and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43 of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23, 3 (17.4%, 4/23 and 2 (4.3%, 1/23. All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL. Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14 were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10 of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10 were negative. Conclusions: In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.

  18. Berenice Abbott (1898-1991, photographies

    Juliette Mélia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available C’est la première fois que Berenice Abbott est exposée à Paris. Les cent vingt images et trente documents présentés au Jeu de Paume sont regroupés en quatre grandes séries, qui correspondent aux quatre grandes phases de sa carrière photographique. La première partie retrace son œuvre de portraitiste, qui commence à Paris au début des années 1920, où elle photographie des anonymes, mais aussi beaucoup d’artistes et d’écrivains tels que Marcel Duchamp, Jean Cocteau, James Joyce, ou encore Djuna...

  19. Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott yeast identification system.

    Cooper, B. H.; Prowant, S; B. Alexander; Brunson, D H

    1984-01-01

    The Abbott yeast identification system (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Irving, Tex.) is a 24-h, instrumental method for identifying medically important yeasts, based on matrix analysis of 19 biochemical reactions and the germ tube test. The system was evaluated in two clinical laboratories by using 179 coded isolates, which included a high percentage of the less frequently encountered species. Based upon results with these coded isolates and from previously obtained laboratory dat...

  20. Multisite Analytical Evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT Cyclosporine Assay.

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Maine, Gregory,; Berg, Keith; Rosiere, Thomas; Marquet, Pierre; Aimo, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Young, Juliana; Wonigert, Kurt; Krestchmer, Robert; Wermuth, Bendicht; Schmid, Rainer,

    2010-01-01

    International audience The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Cyclosporine (CsA) immunoassay in 7 clinical laboratories in comparison to liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), Abbott TDx, Cobas Integra 800, and the Dade Dimension Xpand immunoassay. The ARCHITECT assay uses a whole blood specimen, a pretreatment step with organic reagents to precipitate proteins and extract the drug, followed by a 2-step automated i...

  1. Analýza marketingové komunikace divize Abbott Diabetes Care, spol. Abbott Laboratories, s.r.o.

    Iblová, Mirka

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the analysis of marketing communication within Abbott Laboratories Ltd. division of Abbott Diabetes Care, which carry business within the market of pharmaceutical industry. Prior to the analysis, the focus is on the theoretical part of the traditional components of the communication mix. In the practical part, the theoretical knowledge is then applied to the chosen example of the company. On the basis of performed analysis, recommendations are proposed in order to ...

  2. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  4. 76 FR 4283 - Foreign-Trade Zone 153-San Diego, CA; Application for Manufacturing Authority; Abbott...

    2011-01-25

    ...; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. (Cardiovascular Device Manufacturing); Riverside County, CA An.... (Abbott), located in Riverside County, California. The application was submitted pursuant to the... sourced from abroad (representing 5% of the value of the finished product) include: resins, plastic...

  5. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    2012-12-21

    ..., Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, IL, Area Abbott Laboratories, Inc. (Abbott) and AbbVie, Inc. (AbbVie) submitted a notification for expanded production... (Board Order 611, 12/ 14/1991, 57 FR 61045, 12/14/1992) and authority was later expanded in 1999 and...

  6. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... on-site at the Santa Clara, California location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology... International, reporting to Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site...

  7. The Instructional Guide for Abbott Skills Enhancement Classes. Revised Edition.

    Ballinger, Ronda; Gee, Mary Kay

    This guide, which integrates adult basic education (ABE) curriculum, job skills for Abbott Laboratories, and work-related foundation skills, is designed for an instructional program in the skill areas of reading, writing, oral communications, mathematics, and problem solving. In addition to creating a uniform process and product to promote…

  8. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  9. 77 FR 16039 - Abbott Laboratories et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of 35 New Drug Applications and 64 Abbreviated...

    2012-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Abbott Laboratories et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of 35 New... Application No. Drug Applicant NDA 005545 Dicumarol Tablets... Abbott Laboratories, PA77/Bldg. AP30-1E, 200...)) Injection Preservative Free. NDA 010021 Placidyl Abbott Laboratories, (ethchlorvynol) 200 Abbott...

  10. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  11. Avoidance of generic competition by Abbott Laboratories' fenofibrate franchise.

    Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2012-05-14

    The ongoing debate concerning the efficacy of fenofibrate has overshadowed an important aspect of the drug's history: Abbott Laboratories, the maker of branded fenofibrate, has produced several bioequivalent reformulations that dominate the market, although generic fenofibrate has been available for almost a decade. This continued use of branded formulations, which cost twice as much as generic versions of fenofibrate, imposes an annual cost of approximately $700 million on the US health care system. Abbott Laboratories maintained its dominance of the fenofibrate market in part through a complex switching strategy involving the sequential launch of branded reformulations that had not been shown to be superior to the first-generation product and patent litigation that delayed the approval of generic formulations. The small differences in dose of the newer branded formulations prevented their substitution with generics of older-generation products. As soon as direct generic competition seemed likely at the new dose level, where substitution would be allowed, Abbott would launch another reformulation, and the cycle would repeat. Based on the fenofibrate example, our objective is to describe how current policy can allow pharmaceutical companies to maintain market share using reformulations of branded medications, without demonstrating the superiority of next-generation products. PMID:22493409

  12. The epidemiologic feature of HCV prevalence in Fujian

    Ling Fen Li; Yong Zhou; Sheng Xia; Li Lai Zhao; Zi Xin Wang; Cheng Qin Wang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the epidemiological features of HCV prevalence, a seroepidemiological survey on HCVinfection has been carried out in Fujian since 1992.METHODS Using stratified multistage random cluster sampling, 3809 serum samples collected from 1237families in the diseases surveillance points were tested by UBI HCV EIA kit.RESULTS The results showed that the prevalence rate was 3.99%. The rate in male and female was3.63% and 4.25%, and in urban and rural 3.12% and 4.6% respectively (P>0.05). There was lower ratein children aged under 10 years. The highest rate was in 20 - 24 years old. The rates in different areas wereranged from 1.39% to 6.08% (P<0.05). The intrafamilial transmission was not important, indicating nointrafamilial aggregation. The superinfection of HCV with HAV, HBV and HEV were existed. The HCVinfection was slightly correlated with the history of hepatitis and transfusion.CONCLUSION It suggests that the HCV transmission among the population in Fujian is mainly sporadicinfection.

  13. Effect of combined siRNA of HCV E2 gene and HCV receptors against HCV

    Ashfaq Usman Alli A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major threat as almost 3% of the world's population (350 million individual and 10% of the Pakistani population is chronically infected with this virus. RNA interference (RNAi, a sequence-specific degradation process of RNA, has potential to be used as a powerful alternative molecular therapeutic approach in spite of the current therapy of interferon-α and ribavirin against HCV which has limited efficiency. HCV structural gene E2 is mainly involved in viral cell entry via attachment with the host cell surface receptors i.e., CD81 tetraspanin, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1, and Claudin1 (CLDN1. Considering the importance of HCV E2 gene and cellular receptors in virus infection and silencing effects of RNAi, the current study was designed to target the cellular and viral factors as new therapeutic options in limiting HCV infection. Results In this study the potential of siRNAs to inhibit HCV-3a replication in serum-infected Huh-7 cells was investigated by combined treatment of siRNAs against the HCV E2 gene and HCV cellular receptors (CD81 and LDLR, which resulted in a significant decrease in HCV viral copy number. Conclusion From the current study it is concluded that the combined RNAi-mediated silencing of HCV E2 and HCV receptors is important for the development of effective siRNA-based therapeutic option against HCV-3a.

  14. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    2013-04-18

    ..., Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc., submitted a notification for expanded... FTZ Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77...

  15. Multicentric performance analysis of HCV quantification assays and its potential relevance for HCV treatment.

    Wiesmann, F; Naeth, G; Berger, A; Hirsch, H H; Regenass, S; Ross, R S; Sarrazin, C; Wedemeyer, H; Knechten, H; Braun, P

    2016-06-01

    An accurate quantification of low viremic HCV RNA plasma samples has gained importance since the approval of direct acting antivirals and since only one single measurement predicts the necessity of a prolonged or shortened therapy. As reported previously, HCV quantification assays such as Abbott RealTime HCV and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV version 2 (CTM v2) may vary in sensitivity and precision particularly in low-level viremia. Importantly, substantial variations were previously demonstrated between some of these assays compared to the Roche High Pure System/COBAS TaqMan assay (HPS) reference assay, which was used to establish the clinical decision points in clinical studies. In this study, the reproducibility of assay performances across several laboratories was assessed by analysing quantification results generated by six independent laboratories (3× RealTime, 3× CTM v2) in comparison with one HPS reference laboratory. The 4th WHO Standard was diluted to 100, 25 and 10 IU/ml, and aliquots were tested in triplicates in 5 independent runs by each assay in the different laboratories to assess assay precision and detection rates. In a second approach, 2 clinical samples (GT 1a & GT 1b) were diluted to 100 and 25 IU/ml and tested as described above. While the result range for WHO 100 IU/ml replicates across all laboratories was similar in this analysis, the CVs of each laboratory ranged from 19.3 to 25.6 % for RealTime laboratories and were lower than CVs of CTM v2 laboratories with a range of 26.1-47.3 %, respectively, and also in comparison with the CV of the HPS reference laboratory (34.9 %). At WHO standard dilution of 25 IU/ml, 24 replicates were quantified by RealTime compared to 8 replicates with CTM v2. Results of clinical samples again revealed a higher variation of CTM v2 results as compared to RealTime values. (CVs at 100 IU/ml: RealTime: 13.1-21.0 % and CTM v2: 15.0-32.3 %; CVs at 25 IU/ml: RealTime 17.6-34.9 % and CTM v2 28

  16. HCV and HCC molecular epidemiology

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    iHepatitis C virus (HCV is a member of the family Flaviviridae, responsible for the majority of the non-A non-B post-transfusion hepatitis before 1990. Around 170 millions persons in the world are thought to be infected with this virus. A high number of HCV-infected people develop cirrhosis and from these, a significant proportion progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Six HCV genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and the Middle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. HCC accounts for approximately 6% of all human cancers. Around 500,000 to 1 million cases occur annually worldwide, with HCC being the fifth common malignancy in men and the ninth in women. HCC is frequently a consequence of infection by HBV and HCV. The first line of evidences comes from epidemiologic studies. While HBV is the most frequent cause of HCC in many countries of Asia and South America, both HBV and HCV are found at similar frequencies, and eventually HCV at a higher frequency than HBV, among HCC patients in Europe, North America, and Japan. The cumulative appearance rate of HCC might be higher for HCV

  17. HCV counselling in haemophilia care.

    Miller, R; Telfer, P

    1996-01-01

    The many areas of uncertainty about HCV make counselling patients with haemophilia and HCV a challenge. In this review a brief summary is made of the current understanding of the natural history of hepatitis C infection, the modes of transmission, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options available. This forms a necessary background to counselling patients and their contacts. Some difficulties are highlighted and counselling guidelines about the disease with patients are suggested. PMID:27213897

  18. Rheumatoid Case with HCV Infection

    Bita Behnava

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation:A 46-year-old woman referred to our center due to abnormality in aminotransferase level during check up. She had a history of blood transfusion 12 years ago. Anti-HCV Ab by ELISA method and HCV RNA by RT-PCR were positive. HCV RNA by Amplicor HCV monitor test counted 800,000 IU/ml and the genotype was 3a by Specific Primer-Targeted Region Core method. Laboratory evaluation revealed: Hb 11.9 mg/dl, WBC 5000 /ml, platelet count 190,000/ ml, ALT 70 IU/ml, AST 65 IU/ml, Alk phosphatase 210, PT 13 second, total protein 7.2 g/dl, albumin 4 g/dl, gama globulin 1.6 g/dl, HBsAg negative and RF positive. She had a history of symmetrical polyarthritis of small joints of upper extremities and morning stiffness for 3 years ago and had been managed as rheumatoid arthritis (RA since then. She was managed with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Are there any relations between RA disease and HCV infection?HCV-related ArthritisRheumatologic complications of HCV infection are common and include mixedcryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, Sjogren’s syndrome, arthritis and fibromyalgia(1, 2. There is a welldefined picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia that consists of an intermittent mono or oligoarticular,nondestructive arthritis affecting large and mediumsize joints(1. 2% to 20% of HCV-infected patients experience arthritis and as 50% experience arthralgia(3Clinical ManifestationsHCV-related arthritis (HCVra commonly presents as rheumatoid-like, symmetrical inflammatory polyarthritis involving mainly small joints or less commonly as mono- or oligoarthritis of large joints. The joints involved in HCV-related arthritis are similar to RA(4. In about two thirds of the affected individuals, morning stiffness may be severe, resolving after more than an hour(5. Clinical picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia in patients with HCV infection consists of an intermittent, mono or

  19. EIA screening in Denmark

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  20. EIA publications directory, 1991

    Enacted in 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act established the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as the Department's independent statistical and analytical agency, with a mandate to collect and publish data and prepare analyses on energy production, consumption, prices, and resources, and projections of energy supply and demand. This edition of the EIA Publications Directory contains titles and abstracts of periodicals and one-time reports produced by the EIA from January through December 1991. This edition supplements EIA Publications Directory 1977--1989 and EIA Publications Directory 1990. The body of the Directory contains citations and abstracts arranged by broad subject categories, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas and subcategories such as reserves, produces and byproducts, and marketing and economics. All reports are indexed alphabetically by subject and title and numerically by report number

  1. Evaluation of hepatitis C virus kits.

    Chaudhary, R K; Frenette, S; Mo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies were detected in 85.9% of the samples by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. Most EIA-positive samples were reactive (80%) by the RIBA HCV test (Ortho Diagnostics). Samples with optical density values greater than or equal to 2.0 were mostly reactive (87%) by RIBA HCV test, in contrast to those with values less than or equal to 1.0 (6.6%). Samples which were indeterminate by the RIBA HCV test were positive (88.4%) by HCV neutralization EIA (Abbott Labo...

  2. Evaluation of the Abbott LCx Assay for Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Endocervical Swab Specimens from Females

    Kehl, Sue C.; Georgakas, Kristina; Swain, Geoffrey R.; Sedmak, Gerald; Gradus, Stephen; Singh, Ajaib; Foldy, Seth

    1998-01-01

    The Abbott LCx Neisseria gonorrhoeae assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.) uses a ligase chain reaction (LCR) amplification in the LCx probe system for detection of a specific nucleotide sequence in the Opa-encoding gene of N. gonorrhoeae. We evaluated the LCx assay in a comparison with conventional culture employing modified Thayer-Martin media for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae from female endocervical specimens obtained from patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clini...

  3. EIA publications directory 1994

    NONE

    1995-07-20

    Enacted in 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act established the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as the Department`s independent statistical and analytical agency, with a mandate to collect and publish data and prepare analyses on energy production, consumption, prices, resources, and projections of energy supply and demand. This edition of the EIA Publications Directory contains titles and abstracts of periodicals and one-time reports produced by EIA from January through December 1994. The body of the Directory contains citations and abstracts arranged by broad subject categories: metadata, coal, oil and gas, nuclear, electricity, renewable energy/alternative fuels, multifuel, end-use consumption, models, and forecasts.

  4. Liver Fibrosis in HCV Monoinfected and HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients: Dysregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Their Tissue Inhibitors TIMPs and Effect of HCV Protease Inhibitors

    Latronico, Tiziana; Mascia, Claudia; Pati, Ilaria; Zuccala, Paola; Mengoni, Fabio; Marocco, Raffaella; Tieghi, Tiziana; Belvisi, Valeria; Lichtner, Miriam; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) may contribute to liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) infection. We measured the circulating levels of different MMPs and TIMPs in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients and evaluated the potential for anti-HCV therapy to modulate MMP and TIMP levels in HCV subjects. We analyzed 83 plasma samples from 16 HCV monoinfected patients undergoing dual or triple anti-HCV ...

  5. Cethromycin: A-195773, A-195773-0, A-1957730, Abbott-195773, ABT 773.

    2007-01-01

    Cethromycin [ABT 773, A-195773, Abbott-195773, A-1957730, A-195773-0] is a once-daily ketolide antibiotic that originated from Abbott Laboratories' research into next-generation compounds to the macrolide antibacterial, clarithromycin. The aim of the research programme was to maintain the positive attributes of clarithromycin and to add the property of efficacy against macrolide-resistant organisms. Cethromycin acts by binding to the 23S molecule of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Advanced Life Sciences is conducting multinational, pivotal phase III trials of cethromycin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia, phase II/III trials for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, as well as preclinical trials for the treatment of anthrax. Advanced Life Sciences plans to advance discussions with prospective commercialisation partners for cethromycin during 2006. Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical entered a collaboration to develop and commercialise new macrolide antibacterials in October 1997. Each company brought its existing macrolides into the collaboration and both companies were to jointly develop novel new macrolides. Abbott was to have exclusive marketing, manfacturing and supply rights worldwide (except in Japan) to any compounds resulting from this collaboration. Taisho was to receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the two companies were to co-market any resulting macrolide antibacterials. This agreement extended to the development of cethromycin; however, the agreement was suspended in April 2004 and appears to have been terminated. Abbott exclusively licensed cethromycin to Advanced Life Sciences worldwide excluding Japan in December 2004. Advanced Life Sciences initiated commercial manufacturing agreements for cethromycin with DSM and Cardinal Health in May 2006. In March 2006, Advanced Life Sciences completed private placement of $US36 million from which the net proceeds will be used

  6. EIA publications directory, 1990

    Enacted in 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act established the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as the Department's independent statistical and analytical agency, with a mandate to collect and publish data and prepare analyses on energy production, consumption, prices, and resources, and projections of energy supply and demand. This edition of the EIA Publications Directory contains titles and abstracts of periodicals and one-time reports produced by the EIA from January through December 1990. This edition supplements EIA Publications Directory 1977--1989. The body of the Directory contains citations and abstracts arranged by broad subject categories, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas and subcategories such as reserves, products and byproducts, and marketing and economics. All reports are indexed alphabetically by subject and title and numerically by report number

  7. EIA publications directory 1996

    This edition of the EIA Publications Directory contains titles and abstracts of periodicals and one-time reports produced by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) from January through December 1996. The body of the Directory contains citations and abstracts arranged by broad subject categories; metadata, coal, oil and gas, nuclear, electricity, renewable and energy/alternative fuels, multifuel, end-use consumption, models, and forecasts

  8. EIA Publications Directory 1995

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for individual issues of semiannual, annual, biennial, and triennial Energy Information Administration (EIA) periodicals, analysis reports, Service Reports, and model documentations. This edition covers periodicals and one-time reports produced by EIA from January through December 1995. The citations and abstracts are arranged by broad subject categories: metadata, coal, oil/gas, nuclear, electricity, renewable energy/alternative fuels, multifuel, end-use consumption, models, and forecasts. Indexes are provided.

  9. HBV And HCV Molecular Evolution

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    hepatitis C virus (HCV. Six genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described for this member of the Flaviviridae family. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotype 1b has also been more frequently associated with a more severe liver disease. However, this association seems to be due to the fact that individuals infected with this genotype have a longer mean duration of infection. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution and display an apidemic pattern of distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and theMiddle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. These last genotypes display an endemic pattern of distribution. In addition, a change in the frequency of the prevailing genotypes has been described in several countries: in general, HCV genotype 1b is being displaced by genotypes 3a and/or 2. Coalescent studies have allowed to describe the epidemic pattern of dissemination of some HCV subtypes in specific countries, generally around 100 years ago. The origin of this virus is still an open question, but several studies traces it diversification only around 1,000 years ago.

    The replication of HCV is dependent on a RNA-polymerase RNA dependent which lacks proofreading activity, which confers to this virus a high rate of variability. This virus circulates as a quasispecies. This population dynamic inside a single strain confers to this virus the ability to

  10. An Evaluation of the Main Performance of the Abbott Axsym System%美国Abbott Axsym免疫分析仪性能初步评价

    王红旗; 金晶; 成军; 孙长贵; 孙关忠

    2003-01-01

    目的对Abbott Axsym免疫分析仪性能进行评价.方法通过检测HBsAg,对Abbott Axsym免疫分析仪的灵敏度、特异性、正确检测率(可检测性)、重复性、线性及与ELISA检测HBsAg的相关性等指标进行测定.结果Abbott Axsym免疫分析仪的灵敏度达到0.16 μg/L,特异性为100%,正确检测率(可检测性)为99.72%,不同参比血清的总CV值在5.4%~9.4%之间波动,在0.1~100μg/L范围内线性良好(r=0.994 9),与ELISA比较,两法的符合率为97%,结论该仪器设计科学合理,检测快速方便,结果准确可靠,是大、中型医院临床实验室比较理想的免疫分析仪之一.

  11. Early Childhood Education: The Sustainability of the Benefits of Preschool Participation in Abbott Districts

    Fernandez, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The landmark New Jersey Supreme Court school funding case, "Abbott v. Burke", established the availability of preschool for all three- and four-year-olds living within the state's thirty-one poorest districts as a means of eradicating the effects of poverty. Longitudinal studies have shown the value of high quality preschool programs for improving…

  12. 75 FR 340 - Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular...

    2010-01-05

    ...- 17-09); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 8052... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expansion of Subzone 22F, Abbott Molecular, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Molecular Diagnostic Products), Chicago, IL, Area Pursuant to its authority under the...

  13. Reproducibility Problems with the Abbott Laboratories LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Gronowski, Ann M.; Copper, Susan; Baorto, David; Murray, Patrick R.

    2000-01-01

    This study demonstrates that significant reproducibility problems can occur during routine use of the Abbott Laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These problems can go undetected by the quality control procedures outlined in the manufacturer's package insert. We outline here procedures for detecting and preventing contamination and reproducibility problems.

  14. The Labour Process of Teaching at John Abbott College (Part One).

    Johnson, Walter

    This survey was conducted at John Abbott College to gauge teachers' responses to issues concerning their job satisfaction, interaction with colleagues, perceptions of student abilities, and perceptions concerning union negotiating priorities and areas of conflict within the institutional environment. Of the 75 teachers contacted, 47 returned…

  15. Occult HCV in Egyptian volunteer blood donors

    Mostafa A. Amin 1, Kouka S. E. Abdel-Wahab 2 and Adel A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aims to investigate the risk of post-transfusion transmission of hepatitis c virus (HCV in the circumstances of occult HCV when anti-HCV is undetectable by ELISA and HCV-RNA is detected by RT-PCR in the plasma and or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of donor blood and the recipients are immunocompromised. Patients & methods: The study covered 18 chronic renal failure patients (CRF [12 males (66.7% their age ranged from 28 to 65 years and 6 females (33.3 % their age ranged from 15 to 55 years] undergoing hemodialysis in Nile Hospital as part of their therapy have to receive blood transfusions (275 blood units for the first time. Commercial ELISA kits for anti-HCV and nested-RT-PCR (N-RT-PCR kits were used. Results: Anti-HCV was positive in one serum from the eighteen (5.5% poly transfused CRF patients at the end of the study while the seventeen sera were negative. This serum was also positive for HCV RNA by N-RT-PCR. Out of the 20 transfused blood units, one blood unit (three components were tested by blood banking anti-HCV negative by ELISA, were positive for HCV RNA by N-RT-PCR. The collective markers of this blood unit represent an occult HCV. The risk of acquiring post-transfusion HCV infection from an occult HCV blood unit is 5%. Real time PCR showed variation in the viral load of the serum of the infected CRF patient, the plasma of blood unit, the PBMCs of this blood unit whether activated by PHA-M or not.

  16. A Nucleotide Binding Motif in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS4B Mediates HCV RNA Replication

    Einav, Shirit; Elazar, Menashe; Danieli, Tsafi; Glenn, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis. There is no effective therapy for most patients. We have identified a nucleotide binding motif (NBM) in one of the virus's nonstructural proteins, NS4B. This structural motif binds and hydrolyzes GTP and is conserved across HCV isolates. Genetically disrupting the NBM impairs GTP binding and hydrolysis and dramatically inhibits HCV RNA replication. These results have exciting implications for the HCV life cycle and novel antiviral s...

  17. A Nucleotide Binding Motif in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS4B Mediates HCV RNA Replication

    Einav, Shirit; Elazar, Menashe; Danieli, Tsafi; Glenn, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis. There is no effective therapy for most patients. We have identified a nucleotide binding motif (NBM) in one of the virus's nonstructural proteins, NS4B. This structural motif binds and hydrolyzes GTP and is conserved across HCV isolates. Genetically disrupting the NBM impairs GTP binding and hydrolysis and dramatically inhibits HCV RNA replication. These results have exciting implications for the HCV life cycle and novel antiviral strategies. PMID:15452248

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Kristen L Hess

    Full Text Available New rapid point-of-care (POC tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California.Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA, rapid plasma reagin (RPR, HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and HIV-1/2 EIA.A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8.The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  19. EIA Publications Directory 1993

    1994-07-18

    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for EIA publications released in the above time period. The abstracts are arranged by broad subject category such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power. A comprehensive subject index, a title index, and a report number index are included. Each entry gives the title, report number, publication frequency, date, number of pages, and ordering information.

  20. EIA publications directory, 1992

    1993-06-24

    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for EIA publications. The abstracts are arranged by broad subject category such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power. A comprehensive subject index, a title index, and a report number index are included. Each entry gives the title, report number, publication frequency, date, number of pages, and ordering information. Publication began with the 1979 edition.

  1. EIA Publications Directory 1993

    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for EIA publications released in the above time period. The abstracts are arranged by broad subject category such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power. A comprehensive subject index, a title index, and a report number index are included. Each entry gives the title, report number, publication frequency, date, number of pages, and ordering information

  2. EIA publications directory, 1992

    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for EIA publications. The abstracts are arranged by broad subject category such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power. A comprehensive subject index, a title index, and a report number index are included. Each entry gives the title, report number, publication frequency, date, number of pages, and ordering information. Publication began with the 1979 edition

  3. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    Jungkind, D. L.; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  4. Clinical laboratory evaluation of the Abbott MS-2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system: report of a collaborative study.

    Thornsberry, C; Anhalt, J P; Washington, J A; McCarthy, L R; Schoenknecht, F D; Sherris, J. C.; Spencer, H J

    1980-01-01

    The MS-2 system (Abbott Diagnostics, Division of Abbott Laboratories, Dallas, Tex.) was evaluated for its efficacy in determining the susceptibilities of both clinical and selected challenge (nonfastidious, facultative, and aerobic) isolates. The MS-2 results were compared with standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and microdilution results by using fresh clinical isolates. For gram-positive isolates other than enterococci, overall agreement between MS-2 and reference results was 93 to 98%. Wit...

  5. Evaluation of the Abbott TESTPACK RSV enzyme immunoassay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

    Swierkosz, E M; Flanders, R; Melvin, L; Miller, J D; Kline, M W

    1989-01-01

    The Abbott TESTPACK RSV assay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), a rapid (20-min) enzyme immunoassay, was compared with culture and direct immunofluorescence (DFA) of nasopharyngeal cells for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens, collected from 234 infants, were placed in viral transport medium. Portions of specimen in transport medium were used for each test. Of 234 specimens, 70 (30%) were culture positiv...

  6. Frequency of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV in pregnant women and/or patients with gynecologic diseases in a tertiary hospital

    Tülay Özlü

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are viruses that can be transmitted to the health care workers by infected body fluids and from mother to the baby before, during or after delivery. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg, hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV, and HIV antibodies (anti-HIV in pregnant women and/or patients with gynecologic diseases that admit to a university hospital in Bolu.Methods: HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV results of the pregnant women and/or patients with gynecologic diseases that admitted to the obstetrics and gynecology clinics between January 2006 and June 2012 were retrospectively investigated. All markers were tested in the microbiology laboratory of our hospital by using macro ELISA method (Axsyme and Architect i2000SR systems, Abbott Diagnostics, Chicago, IL, USA.Results: The frequency of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and antiHIV positivity were 1.8%, 0.5%, and 0% in pregnant women and 1.9%, 1.1%, and 0% in patients with gynecologic diseases, respectively.Conclusion: The frequencies detected in our hospital are at low levels as seen in developed countries. Since there is no effective method of prevention especially from HCV, awareness of this serologic result before high risk procedures will enable the doctors and the health care workers to take extensive measures to prevent the transmission of the disease. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (2: 166-170Key words: anti-HCV, anti-HIV, HBsAg, pregnant women, gynecology

  7. Revisiting Abbott Thayer: non-scientific reflections about camouflage in art, war and zoology

    Behrens, Roy R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849–1921), an American painter and naturalist whose pioneering writings on animal camouflage addressed shared concerns among artists, zoologists and military tacticians. It discusses his beliefs about camouflage (both natural and military) in the context of his training as an artist, with particular emphasis on three of his major ideas: countershading, ruptive (or disruptive) coloration and background picturing.

  8. Automation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test by using the Abbott MS-2 microbiology system.

    Jorgensen, J H; Alexander, G A

    1981-01-01

    A rapid, automated method for the performance of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate endotoxin assay has been developed by using the Abbott MS-2 Microbiology System. This instrument automatically determines sequential changes in the optical density of up to 176 samples at 1- or 5-min increments during a 1-h assay period. Graphic representation of optical density changes can be viewed on a cathode-ray tube or reproduced by using a hard-copy printer. Limulus amoebocyte lysate preparations that were o...

  9. Abbott Wave-Triggered Runaway in Line-Driven Winds from Stars and Accretion Disks

    Feldmeier, Achim; Shlosman, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Line-driven winds from stars and accretion disks are accelerated by scattering in numerous line transitions. The wind is believed to adopt a unique critical solution, out of the infinite variety of shallow and steep solutions. We study the inherent dynamics of the transition towards the critical wind. A new runaway wind mechanism is analyzed in terms of radiative-acoustic (Abbott) waves which are responsible for shaping the wind velocity law and fixing the mass loss. Three different flow type...

  10. HCV genotyping using statistical classification approach

    Norris Ellie D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genotype of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV strains is an important determinant of the severity and aggressiveness of liver infection as well as patient response to antiviral therapy. Fast and accurate determination of viral genotype could provide direction in the clinical management of patients with chronic HCV infections. Using publicly available HCV nucleotide sequences, we built a global Position Weight Matrix (PWM for the HCV genome. Based on the PWM, a set of genotype specific nucleotide sequence "signatures" were selected from the 5' NCR, CORE, E1, and NS5B regions of the HCV genome. We evaluated the predictive power of these signatures for predicting the most common HCV genotypes and subtypes. We observed that nucleotide sequence signatures selected from NS5B and E1 regions generally demonstrated stronger discriminant power in differentiating major HCV genotypes and subtypes than that from 5' NCR and CORE regions. Two discriminant methods were used to build predictive models. Through 10 fold cross validation, over 99% prediction accuracy was achieved using both support vector machine (SVM and random forest based classification methods in a dataset of 1134 sequences for NS5B and 947 sequences for E1. Prediction accuracy for each genotype is also reported.

  11. Genotyping Pattern Among Iranian HCV Positive Patients

    A Sarafnejad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful treatment to eliminate HCV RNA depends on the identified genotype. In the present study, we compared the frequency of different HCV genotypes, during four years study (2004 till 2008.Methods: Sera specimens were received from 16 provinces of Iran. We used High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Purification kit for extraction and samples were tested with improved form of RT-PCR technique. HCV genotypes were determined using Amplisense PCR kit and Amplicor HCV Monitoring Version 2 test utilized a reverse transcription (RT-PCR approach to quantitative HCV RNA. Two hundreds six HCV positive specimens were entered to the study out of 389 tested samples.Results: Type 3a was the most frequent type (46.6%, followed by type 1 (including 1a and 1b with 25.73% and 17.47% for each respectively with 43.2%. Looking through collected results of the four years study confirmed the rate of HCV infection in those single genotypes 1b, 3a were slightly increased from 12.22% and 38.88% in the first year to 18.66 and 46.51% in the fourth year of the study period.Conclusion: The analyzed data proved that some patients were infected with two different types. High viral load was also more correlated to genotype 1 than other types.

  12. No requirement of HCV 5'NCR for HCV-like particles assembly in insect cells

    Wei Zhao; Guo-Yang Liao; Yah-Jun Jiang; Shu-De Jiang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To express all three HCV structural proteins in the presence or absence of HCV 5'NCR to investigate the requirement of 5'NCR for the assembly of HCV-like particles in insect cells.METHODS: HCV structural protein encoding sequences CE1E2 and 5'NCR-CE1E2 were amplified with PCR.Recombinant baculovirus were constructed with recombinant DNA techniques. HCV structural proteins expressed in insect cells were analyzed by immunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE.Immunoprecipitation experiment of insect cell lysates with anti-E2 monodonal antibody (Mab) was carried out and the immunoprecipitated proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with anti-C, anti-E2 Mabs and HCV positive serum. The virus-like particles in insect cells were visualized by electron microscopy (EM). The HCV-like particles were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and identified by EM and immune aggregation EM.RESULTS: The recombinant baculovirus reBV/CE1E2containing HCV C, E1, E2 genes and reBV/CS containing the same structural protein genes plus 5'NCR were constructed. The insect cells infected with either reBV/CE1E2or reBV/CS expressed HCV C, E1 and E2 proteins with a molecular weight of 20 kD, 35 kD and 66 kD respectively.The results of immunoprecipitation and the immunoblotting revealed the coimmunoprecipitation of C, E1, and E2proteins, indicating the interaction of HCV structural proteins expressed in insect cells. Electron microscopy of insect cells infected with reBV/CE1E2 or reBV/CS demonstrated spherical particles (40 to 60 nm in diameter)similar to the HCV virions from sera or hepatic tissues of HCV infected humans. The HCV-like particles were partially purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and the purified VLPs showed immuno-reactivity with anti-HCV antibodies.CONCLUSION: HCV 5'NCR is not required for the assembly of HCV-like particles in insect cells, HCV core and envelope proteins are sufficient for viral particle formation.

  13. HIV, HCV & Leprosy co-infection.

    George, A; Kanish, B

    2014-01-01

    In the era where Hansen's disease has achieved elimination status in India, co-infection with HIV can possibly cause a resurgence of this disease. A young intravenous drug abuser was found to have triple affliction, where HIV and HCV infection were discovered on testing after the patient was clinically diagnosed to have Hansen's disease. To our knowledge, there has been no case reported where leprosy was seen with HIV and HCV infection. We are reporting a patient with lepromatous Hansen's disease in type 2 reaction in whom HIV and HCV was incidentally diagnosed. PMID:26118224

  14. Screening of HBsAg and anti HCV from tertiary care, private and public sector hospitals

    Objectives: To find out the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies in patients referred from a tertiary care public sector hospital, other public sector and private hospitals of Karachi. Settings and duration: Pakistan Medical Research Council's Specialized Research Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi from January to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted where patients were referred from different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (tertiary care public sector hospital), other public sector hospitals, private hospitals and clinics for the screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Three ml blood was collected from each patient, serum separated and tested for HBsAg and Anti HCV using Abbott Murex fourth Generation ELISA kits. Results: A total of 2965 cases were referred in a year. Overall sero prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV was 5.9% and 12.8% respectively. HBsAg positivity in patient referred from public sector hospitals was 5.8%, those from private hospitals/clinics were 7.2%, and self-referred patients was 5.6%. Anti HCV positivity rates amongst these cases were 12.5%, 16.7% and 8.5% respectively. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus was seen in 0.9, 2.5 and 1.4% cases respectively. Breakdown of viral positivity within different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi showed HBsAg positivity of 7.1% in Medical department, 5.2% in Surgical department, 5.0% in Gynaecology department, 6.6% in other departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre while, only 1.7% were positive from Pakistan Railway, hospital Anti HCV positivity was maximally (20.3%) seen in medical department followed by 14% in other departments, 10.9% in surgical department, 7.9% in gynaecology and 5.1% in railway hospital. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was seen in 2% cases referred from medical department, while rest of the

  15. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed effici...

  16. Critical factors for EIA implementation

    Zhang, Jasmine; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    After decades of development, the gap between expectations of Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and their practical performance remains significant. Research has been done to identify the critical factors for an effective implementation of EIA. However, this research, to a large extent, has...... between different critical factors and how they relate to different stages in the EIA and thus influence the decision making process. After reviewing 33 refereed journal articles published between 1999 and 2011, we identified 203 notions of critical factors. Of these, 102 related to different stages...... defined in our comprehensive EIA implementation model, and 101 were identified as general factors related to the whole EIA system. The number of notions of stage factors and general factors is thus about equal. An overlap between stage factors and general factors was found, which demonstrates...

  17. Is HCV core antigen a reliable marker of viral load? An evaluation of HCV core antigen automated immunoassay

    Hadziyannis, Emilia; Minopetrou, Martha; Georgiou, Anastasia; Spanou, Fotini; Koskinas, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C viral (HCV) load detection and quantification is routinely accomplished by HCV RNA measurement, an expensive but essential test, both for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). HCV core antigen (Ag) testing has been suggested as an attractive alternative to molecular diagnostics. The aim of the study was to evaluate an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) for HCV core Ag measurement in comparison to quantitative HCV RNA determination. Methods...

  18. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Highlights: ► PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. ► PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. ► HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. ► INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  19. Synthetic lipophilic antioxidant BO-653 suppresses HCV replication.

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Sudoh, Masayuki; Arai, Masaaki; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-02-01

    The influence of the intracellular redox state on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is poorly understood. This study demonstrated the anti-HCV activity of 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2,2-dipentyl-4,6-di-tert-butylbenzofuran (BO-653), a synthetic lipophilic antioxidant, and examined whether BO-653's antioxidant activity is integral to its anti-HCV activity. The anti-HCV activity of BO-653 was investigated in HuH-7 cells bearing an HCV subgenomic replicon (FLR3-1 cells) and in HuH-7 cells infected persistently with HCV (RMT-tri cells). BO-653 inhibition of HCV replication was also compared with that of several hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. BO-653 suppressed HCV replication in FLR3-1 and RMT-tri cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The lipophilic antioxidants had stronger anti-HCV activities than the hydrophilic antioxidants, and BO-653 displayed the strongest anti-HCV activity of all the antioxidants examined. Therefore, the anti-HCV activity of BO-653 was examined in chimeric mice harboring human hepatocytes infected with HCV. The combination treatment of BO-653 and polyethylene glycol-conjugated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) decreased serum HCV RNA titer more than that seen with PEG-IFN alone. These findings suggest that both the lipophilic property and the antioxidant activity of BO-653 play an important role in the inhibition of HCV replication. PMID:23192857

  20. Subsurface damage distribution characterization of ground surfaces using Abbott-Firestone curves

    Measurement of subsurface damage (SSD) induced by grinding process is of major interest in the development of high laser damage fused silica optical components manufacturing processes. Most SSD measurements methods give only access to the peak to peak value. We herein report on the benefit of using Abbott-Firestone curves to get an insight of the SSD distribution inside the optical material. We evidence on various diamond wheel ground fused silica substrates that such an approach is complementary to a classical SSD peak to peak measurement and bring useful information to optimize a grinding process. (authors)

  1. Quantitation of human chorionic gonadotropin with the Abbott IMx immunochemistry analyzer.

    van Oers, R J; Leerkes, B; Bertschi, I

    1990-01-01

    The analytical performance of the Abbott IMx automated system was studied and initial results from the human chorionic gonadotropin assay are presented: Within run and between day precision was good, the majority of all CVs lying between 3 and 5%; Patient results showed excellent comparability with our routine method; No significant specimen-related carry-over was detected; The automated IMx dilution protocol was found to be superior to the manual procedure; The usefulness of the instrument in routine use and as a "Stat" analyzer was very good. PMID:2179460

  2. Autophagy in HCV Infection: Keeping Fat and Inflammation at Bay

    Tiziana Vescovo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. Viral persistence and pathogenesis rely mainly on the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, including lipid metabolism and innate immunity. Recently, autophagy has emerged as a cellular pathway, playing a role in several aspects of HCV infection. This review summarizes current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that link the HCV life cycle with autophagy machinery. In particular, we discuss the role of HCV/autophagy interaction in dysregulating inflammation and lipid homeostasis and its potential for translational applications in the treatment of HCV-infected patients.

  3. Liver Fibrosis in HCV Monoinfected and HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients: Dysregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and Their Tissue Inhibitors TIMPs and Effect of HCV Protease Inhibitors

    Tiziana Latronico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs may contribute to liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C (HCV infection. We measured the circulating levels of different MMPs and TIMPs in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients and evaluated the potential for anti-HCV therapy to modulate MMP and TIMP levels in HCV subjects. We analyzed 83 plasma samples from 16 HCV monoinfected patients undergoing dual or triple anti-HCV therapy, 15 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with undetectable HIV load, and 10 healthy donors (HD. Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured by a SearchLight Multiplex Immunoassay Kit. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were the highest expressed MMPs among all the analyzed samples and their levels significantly increased in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected subjects compared to HD. TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in HCV and HIV/HCV subjects compared to HD and were correlated with liver stiffness. These findings raise the possibility of using circulating TIMP-1 as a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis in HCV infection. A longitudinal study demonstrated that MMP-9 levels significantly decreased (40% reduction from baseline in patients receiving dual as well as triple direct-acting antivirals (DAA anti-HCV therapy, which had no effect on MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. As the dysregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may reflect inflammatory processes in the liver, the decrease of MMP-9 following HCV protease inhibitor treatment suggests a positive effect on the reduction of liver inflammation.

  4. Liver Fibrosis in HCV Monoinfected and HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients: Dysregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Their Tissue Inhibitors TIMPs and Effect of HCV Protease Inhibitors.

    Latronico, Tiziana; Mascia, Claudia; Pati, Ilaria; Zuccala, Paola; Mengoni, Fabio; Marocco, Raffaella; Tieghi, Tiziana; Belvisi, Valeria; Lichtner, Miriam; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria

    2016-01-01

    An imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) may contribute to liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) infection. We measured the circulating levels of different MMPs and TIMPs in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients and evaluated the potential for anti-HCV therapy to modulate MMP and TIMP levels in HCV subjects. We analyzed 83 plasma samples from 16 HCV monoinfected patients undergoing dual or triple anti-HCV therapy, 15 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with undetectable HIV load, and 10 healthy donors (HD). Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured by a SearchLight Multiplex Immunoassay Kit. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were the highest expressed MMPs among all the analyzed samples and their levels significantly increased in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected subjects compared to HD. TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in HCV and HIV/HCV subjects compared to HD and were correlated with liver stiffness. These findings raise the possibility of using circulating TIMP-1 as a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis in HCV infection. A longitudinal study demonstrated that MMP-9 levels significantly decreased (40% reduction from baseline) in patients receiving dual as well as triple direct-acting antivirals (DAA) anti-HCV therapy, which had no effect on MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. As the dysregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may reflect inflammatory processes in the liver, the decrease of MMP-9 following HCV protease inhibitor treatment suggests a positive effect on the reduction of liver inflammation. PMID:27023536

  5. New Insights in Recurrent HCV Infection after Liver Transplantation

    Shih-Hsien Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a small-enveloped RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Since first identified in 1989, HCV has been estimated to infect 170 million people worldwide. Mostly chronic hepatitis C virus has a uniform natural history, from liver cirrhosis to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The current therapy for HCV infection consists of a combination of Pegylated interferon and ribavirin. On the other hand, HCV-related liver disease is also the leading indication for liver transplantation. However, posttransplant HCV re-infection of the graft has been reported to be universal. Furthermore, the graft after HCV re-infection often results in accelerated progression to liver failure. In addition, treatment of recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation is often compromised by enhanced adverse effects and limited efficacy of interferon-based therapies. Taken together, poor outcome after HCV re-infection, regardless of grafts or recipients, poses a major issue for the hepatologists and transplant surgeons. The aim of this paper is to review several specific aspects regarding HCV re-infection after transplant: risk factors, current therapeutics for HCV in different stages of liver transplantation, cellular function of HCV proteins, and molecular mechanisms of HCV entry. Hopefully, this paper will inspire new strategies and novel inhibitors against recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation and greatly improve its overall outcome.

  6. Development of the Abbott MATRIX Aero assay for the measurement of specific IgE.

    Lindberg, R E; Anawis, M A; Bailey, M; Mangat, D; Frank, P M; Hrusovsky, I G; Hooyman, L; Putterman, C; Defreese, J D

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the quantitation of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in human serum to a panel of allergens. The assay system, called the Abbott MATRIX Aero, includes an instrument, reagents and test cell disposables. Each test cell contains fourteen airborne allergens individually localized on a nitrocellulose solid phase. Individual calibration curves for each allergen are established by the manufacturer and included in barcode form with each test kit. Stable factory calibration eliminates the need to establish a calibration curve with each assay run. The instrument automatically incubates, washes, and reads the test cell and prints each result, which ensures assay reproducibility and provides ease-of-use. Analysis of test results shows good agreement with another in vitro assay for specific IgE. The Abbott MATRIX Aero is a sensitive, reproducible and easy-to-use system for the measurement of specific IgE to a panel of fourteen allergens simultaneously using a single, small volume of serum. PMID:1806584

  7. Abbott Wave-Triggered Runaway in Line-Driven Winds from Stars and Accretion Disks

    Feldmeier, A; Feldmeier, Achim; Shlosman, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Line-driven winds from stars and accretion disks are accelerated by scattering in numerous line transitions. The wind is believed to adopt a unique critical solution, out of the infinite variety of shallow and steep solutions. We study the inherent dynamics of the transition towards the critical wind. A new runaway wind mechanism is analyzed in terms of radiative-acoustic (Abbott) waves which are responsible for shaping the wind velocity law and fixing the mass loss. Three different flow types result, depending on the location of perturbations. First, if the shallow solution is perturbed sufficiently far downstream, a single critical point forms in the flow, which is a barrier for Abbott waves, and the solution tends to the critical one. Second, if the shallow solution is perturbed upstream from this critical point, mass overloading results, and the critical point is shifted inwards. This wind exhibits a broad, stationary region of decelerating flow and its velocity law has kinks. Third, for perturbations eve...

  8. Prevalence of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes among recently diagnosed dialysis patients with HCV infection

    Mohammed A Al Balwi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is considered a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multiple (mixed HCV genotypes in Saudi patients recently diagnosed with HCV infection and their association with various clinical risk factors. We examined a total of 1,292 newly diagnosed HCV-positive cases between January 2006 and July 2009 at the Molecular Pathology Laboratory, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The clinical and laboratory data of the study patients were collected. The HCV-RNA viral load and its genotyping were carried out with RT-PCR technology to assist in the follow-up and management of HCV-infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Twenty-two patients (1.7% were found to have mixed HCV genotypes; of them, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-4 were seen in 19 patients (86%, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were found in 68.4%, with genotype-3 in 26.3% and with genotype-2 in 5.3%. Additionally, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were seen in three cases (13.6%; they were associated with genotype-2 in two (66.7% and with genotype-5 in one patient (33.3%. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of mixed HCV genotypes in the cohort of the newly infected Saudi patients was 1.7%, with genotype-4 being the most frequent genotype encountered.

  9. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Soriano, V;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA cle...... RNA during follow-up. Our findings underline the importance of maintaining focus on preventive measures to reduce IDU and sharing of contaminated needles. Clinicians should maintain a high degree of vigilance to identify patients with new HCV infection early.......OBJECTIVES: Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA...... clearance in the EuroSIDA cohort. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with documented prior spontaneous HCV clearance, and at least one subsequently collected plasma sample, were examined. The last sample was tested for HCV RNA and those with HCV RNA ≥ 615 IU/mL were defined as having HCV recurrence and...

  10. Ever closer to a prophylactic vaccine for HCV

    Swadling, Leo; Klenerman, Paul; Barnes, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With 3 – 4 million new infections occurring annually, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global health problem. There is increasing evidence to suggest that HCV will be highly amenable to a vaccine approach, and despite advances in treatment, a vaccine remains the most cost-effective and realistic means to significantly reduce the worldwide mortality and morbidity associated with persistent HCV infection. Areas covered In this review we discuss immune responses to HCV during natu...

  11. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    Caval, Vincent [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Piver, Eric [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France); Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc [LaboRetro, ENS-Lyon INSERM, U758, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon (France); Pages, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.pages@univ-tours.fr [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  12. An assessment of EIA system in India

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in India based on the Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986. But formally it came in to effect, when Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has passed a major legislative measure under EPA in January 1994 for Environmental Clearance (EC) known as EIA Notification, 1994. Subsequently, EIA processes have been strengthened by MoEF by a series of amendments. The current practice is adhering to EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments. The pieces of evidence collected and analysis in the present assessment suggest that, despite a sound legislative, administrative and procedural set-up EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in India. An appraisal of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on discussions with various stakeholders, EIA expert committee members, approval authorities, project proponents, NGOs and consulting professionals, reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor quality EIA reports, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. While shortcomings are challenging, Government of India is showing a high degree of commitment. The EIA system in the country is undergoing progressive refinements by steadily removing the constraints. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current circumstances for strengthening the EIA process. - Highlights: ► An assessment has been carried out on Environmental Clearance under EIA Notification, 2006, MoEF, Government of India. ► EIA system is appraised against systematic evaluation criteria proposed by Ahmad and Wood (2002), Wood (2003), Fuller (1999). ► The analysis reveals reveals various drawbacks of the EIA system. ► The paper identifies

  13. 第4代Murex HCV Ag/Ab联合检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用价值%Study on the possibility of the application of Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination (version 4.0) assay in blood

    冷婵; 邱艳; 修冰水; 龚晓燕; 郑静; 查祎; 王全立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of the Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination (version 4.0) assay for blood screening. Methods 987 HCV-Ab reactive and gray zone samples were collected from routine blood screening and detected by both the Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination assay and Murex HCV Ab reagent. And verification test were carried out by RIBA and HCV NAT test. Results The positive rate of Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination assay and the Murex HCV Ab assay was 73.3% and 75.4% respectively, the negative rate was 95.8% and 90.8% and the final total positive rate was 85.8% and 84.0% respectively. The positive compliance rate between Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination and Murex HCV Ab assay was 76.7%, the negative compliance rate was is 94.5% and the total compliance rate was 87.6%. Among 123 inconsistent samples, 5 were RIBA negative /RNA positive,Murex HCV Ag/Ab positive for 4 samples (including confirmed window period sample); Murex HCV Ab was positive in only one sample; for 15 RIBA positive and RNA negative samples, 5 samples were positive by Murex HCV Ag/Ab and 10 samples were positive by Murex HCV Ab. Conclusions The RIBA negative and RNA positive samples could be efficiently detected out by Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination assay. Because the low compliance rate between Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination and Murex HCV Ab assay and the low detection rate of both system, we recommend the conjunction application of Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination and the Murex HCV Ab assay for blood screening. The double -check for HCV EIA blood screening strategy can help to reduce the possibility of transfusion transmitted infectious diseases.%目的 探讨第4代Murex HCV Ag/Ab联合检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用价值.方法 应用Murex HCV Ag/Ab联合检测试剂与Murex HCV Ab检测试剂,对987份血液筛查中HCV抗体初筛阳性和灰区标本及1份确认窗口期标本进行比较检测,应用RIBA、病毒核酸检测试剂进行补充验证实验,并对结

  14. Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients

    Matera Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV positive patients (index cases, recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 ± 15.2 years, and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with non-parametric tests (χ2, Yates correction, Fisher exact test, and a p value Results Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004 and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005. The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01 – 184.94, the retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17 – 11.98, the time of the relationship (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11 and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00 – 60.20. Conclusion The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work could be related to both a long-term relationship with an index case and past exposure to common risk factors.

  15. HCV encephalopathy - an artefact due to medical care?

    Weissenborn, K; Tillmann, H L

    2016-08-01

    Anti-HCV positive individuals frequently complain about chronic disabling fatigue, mood alterations and deficits in concentration and memory. Several data provide evidence that such alterations are unrelated to hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia. Thus, merely being exposed to HCV in the past may be sufficient to trigger, but the HCV exposure itself. This commentary reviews the available data upon this topic with special reference to the paper by Lowry and colleagues published in this issue of the Journal of Viral hepatitis. We will carefully discuss scientific reasons, why HCV may be directly involved in the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms independent from ongoing detectable viremia, as suggested by epidemiological data. PMID:27225063

  16. Molecular Virology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: 2006 Update

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fascinating progress in the understanding of the molecular biology of hepatitis C virus (HCV was achieved recently. The replicon system revolutionized the investigation of HCV RNA replication and facilitated drug discovery. Novel systems for functional analyses of the HCV glycoproteins allowed the validation of HCV receptor candidates and the investigation of cell entry mechanisms. Most recently, recombinant infectious HCV could be produced in cell culture, rendering all steps of the viral life cycle, including entry and release of viral particles, amenable to systematic analysis. In this review, we summarize recent advances and discuss future research directions.

  17. Abbott AXSYM免疫分析仪几种节约试剂方法

    徐忠玉; 梁声强; 邓小军

    2006-01-01

    Abbott AXSYM免疫分析仪是目前比较理想的全自动免疫分析仪器,但该仪器所用的试剂昂贵也是实际。因此如何在不影响检测结果的基础上,节约成本、减少浪费是值得关注的问题。我们在使用过程中,摸索和总结了几种节约试剂用量和利用剩余试剂的方法,现介绍如下,供参考。

  18. 美国Abbott Axsym免疫分析仪性能初步评价

    成军; 袁兴旺; 金晶; 王国政; 孙长贵; 孙关忠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 随着国内临床免疫学实验室自动化程度的不断提高,全自动免疫分析仪逐步得到普及和应用[1],本文以检测乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)为例,对美国Abbott Axsym免疫分析仪微粒子酶免疫分析(MEIA)技术的灵敏度、可检测性、特异性、重复性、线性、干扰试验及与酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测HBsAg的相关性等指标进行了检测,以评价其性能.

  19. 巧用AbbottC8000的Retest功能进行试剂比对

    刘风华

    2013-01-01

    目的通过AbbottC8000本身具有的“RetestRule”功能进行试剂间的比对,观察同一仪器同一项目不同试剂间的检测结果是否具有可比性。方法在Abbott(;8000上调试同一项目两种试剂(bun)参数,并设定“RetestRule”。结果通过对比对数据的统计学分析,得到两系统间相关性良好,R2=0.9991。结论运用Ab—bottC8000的“RetestRule”功能可以简便、快捷的完成比对实验,值得推广。

  20. Frequency of active HCV infection among anti-HCV positive patients in selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Sajid Ali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine frequency of active HCV infection among confirmed anti-HCV positive subjects of KPK in order to help the infected subjects decide about anti-viral treatment options. Methods: Blood samples (3075 samples were collected from patients in selected districts of KPK and were transported to Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Diagnostic laboratory, University of Peshawar. These patients were already screened for anti-HCV by ICT (Immuno Chromatographic Technique and ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay in the local laboratories of the concern districts. Subsequently, viral RNA was isolated from serum sample and subjected to Real-time PCR. The frequency of the results was calculated for the HCV-RNA positive and negative samples. Results:Out of 3075 confirmed anti-HCV samples, HCV-RNA positive and negative samples were 2055 (66.6% and 1020 (33.3% respectively. The frequency of male and female HCV-RNA positive samples was 57.6% and 42.4% respectively. Rate of false anti-HCV positivity was 33.3%. Moreover, rate of active HCV infection was found more in district Bunir followed by districts Dir and Mardan. Comparatively less positive percent frequency of active HCV infection was found in districts Swabi, Peshawar and Kohat, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that viremia is present in more than 50% of confirmed anti-HCV positive patients. Anti-HCV positive, but HCV-RNA negative samples represent either false- positivity of anti-HCV or a spontaneous clearance of HCV.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 199-202

  1. CD81 and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection

    Lucie Fénéant

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection is a global public health problem affecting over 160 million individuals worldwide. Its symptoms include chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is an enveloped RNA virus mainly targeting liver cells and for which the initiation of infection occurs through a complex multistep process involving a series of specific cellular entry factors. This process is likely mediated through the formation of a tightly orchestrated complex of HCV entry factors at the plasma membrane. Among HCV entry factors, the tetraspanin CD81 is one of the best characterized and it is undoubtedly a key player in the HCV lifecycle. In this review, we detail the current knowledge on the involvement of CD81 in the HCV lifecycle, as well as in the immune response to HCV infection.

  2. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories. PMID:26071001

  3. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Kuroki, Misao [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ariumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ariumi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto [Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Shimotohno, Kunitada [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8516 (Japan); Kato, Nobuyuki [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  4. Deborah Abbott: Out in the Redwoods, Documenting Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender History at the University of California, SAnta Cruz, 1965-2003

    Reti, Irene H.; Brashear, Regan; Abbott, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Deborah Abbott is a writer, health activist, teacher, river guide and current director of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Resource Center at UCSC. Since assuming her position in November of 1997, she has given new shape and direction to the Center. As an American studies major, I was eager to interview  Deb Abbott. Deb Abbott to learn more about the queer history of UCSC, as well as about her work within two local feminist health organizations: the Santa Cruz Women's Health Collect...

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection in HIV infected individuals in south India and characterization of HCV genotypes

    Ponamgi SPD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine anti-HCV antibodies and genomic subtype of HCV in 1487 confirmed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive samples. Methods: A total of 1487 confirmed HIV-positive samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies by using a third generation ELISA kit (Ortho 3.0 and by RT PCR for HCV. HIV and HCV coinfected samples were selected for HCV genotyping by RFLP and subtyping with NS5-type specific primers. Results: A total of 1487 HIV-infected serum samples were screened for HCV infection, of which, a 1443 (97.04% were negative and 45 (3.02% were coinfected. HIV-HCV coinfection was predominant in the age group 41-50 years (51.1%. HCV genotyping and subtyping was done for the 45 HCV RNA-positive specimens of which genotype 1 was observed in 31 (68.8% and genotype 3 was observed in 14 (31.1% subjects. Further subtyping analysis showed the genotype 1b in 23 (51.1%, 1a in eight (17.7%, 3a in 10 (22.2% and 3b in four (8.8% subjects. Conclusion: HIV and HCV seroprevalence is higher in South India, and the most prevalent genotype in coinfection was genotype 1b.

  6. Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive and the EIA decision in Turkey

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive first entered into force in the United States in 1969, and began to be implemented in many other countries by 1990. The first Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive in Turkey was published on February 7, 1993, under the Environmental Law No. 2872. The EIA Directive was revised seven times on June 23, 1997, June 6, 2002, December 16, 2003, July 17, 2008, October 3, 2013, and November 25, 2014. Several amendments were made during this process. The first EIA Directive dated 1993 was narrow in scope and its procedure was long, while the amendments in 2003, 2008, 2013, and 2014 widened the scope of the EIA, and shortened the EIA assessment procedures. In this study, the amendments to the Turkish EIA Directive were analysed, and their effect on the number of EIA decisions made was addressed. It was concluded that the uncertainties in EIA procedures were removed, procedures were shortened, and as a result, the number of EIA decisions increased thanks to the revisions made in line with harmonisation with European Union (EU) acquis. - Highlights: • Demonstrates the Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Turkey. • Demonstrates the application of the EIA in Turkey by sector. • Demonstrates the amendments of the EIA by-laws in Turkey. • Demonstrates the changes in EIA practices and EIA decisions

  7. Clinical relevance of HCV antiviral drug resistance.

    Welsch, C; Zeuzem, S

    2012-10-01

    The approval of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease revolutionized antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C. They mark the beginning of an era with drugs designed to inhibit specific viral proteins involved in the virus life cycle rather than the nonspecific antiviral activity of interferon. Upcoming generations of antivirals are expected that lead to viral eradication in most patients who undergo treatment with hope held for years that HCV can be cured without interferon. Antiviral drug resistance plays a key role in DAA-treatment failure. Knowledge on molecular escape mechanisms of resistant variants, their time to wild-type reversal and potential persistence is of upmost importance to design treatment strategies for patients with previous DAA-treatment failure. PMID:23006585

  8. Immune biomarker differences and changes comparing HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV spontaneously cleared patients.

    Lauren E Kushner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune biomarkers are implicated in HCV treatment response, fibrosis, and accelerated pathogenesis of comorbidities, though only D-dimer and C-reactive protein have been consistently studied. Few studies have evaluated HIV/HCV co-infection, and little longitudinal data exists describing a broader antiviral cytokine response. METHODS: Fifty immune biomarkers were analyzed at baseline (BL and HCV end of treatment follow-up(FU time point using the Luminex 50-plex assay in plasma samples from 15 HCV-cleared, 24 HCV mono- and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment, who either did or did not receive pegylated-interferon/ribavirin HCV treatment. Biomarker levels were compared among spontaneous clearance patients, mono- and co-infected, untreated and HCV-treated, and sustained virologic responders (SVR and non-responders (NR at BL and FU using nonparametric analyses. A Bonferroni correction, adjusting for tests of 50 biomarkers, was used to reduce Type I error. RESULTS: Compared to HCV patients at BL, HIV/HCV patients had 22 significantly higher and 4 significantly lower biomarker levels, following correction for multiple testing. There were no significantly different BL levels when comparing SVR and NR in mono- or co-infected patients; however, FU levels changed considerably in co-infected patients, with seven becoming significantly higher and eight becoming significantly lower in SVR patients. Longitudinally between BL and FU, 13 markers significantly changed in co-infected SVR patients, while none significantly changed in co-infected NR patients. There were also no significant changes in longitudinal analyses of mono-infected patients achieving SVR or mono-infected and co-infected groups deferring treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clear differences exist in pattern and quantity of plasma immune biomarkers among HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV-cleared patients; and with SVR in co-infected patients treated

  9. Stability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels among interferon-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Reekie, J; Soriano, V; Kirk, O; Knysz, B; Suetnov, O; Lazzarin, A; Ledergerber, B; Rockstroh, J K; Mocroft, A

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals.......Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals....

  10. Targeting HCV Entry For Development of Therapeutics

    Jeffrey F. McKelvy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in defining the molecular mechanisms of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV entry affords the opportunity to exploit new viral and host targets for therapeutic intervention. Entry inhibitors would limit the expansion of the infected cell reservoir, and would complement the many replication inhibitors now under development. The current model for the pathway of entry involves the initial docking of the virus onto the cell surface through interactions of virion envelope and associated low density lipoproteins (LDL with cell surface glycosaminoglycans and lipoprotein receptors, followed by more specific utilization with other hepatocyte membrane proteins: Scavenger Receptor Class B type 1 (SR-BI, CD81, Claudin 1 (CLDN1 and Occludin (OCLN. The use of blockers of these interactions, e.g. specific antibodies, suggests that inhibition of any one step in the entry pathway can inhibit infection. Despite this knowledge base, the tools for compound screening, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp and cell culture virus (HCVcc, and the ability to adapt them to industrial use are only recently available and as a result drug discovery initiatives are in their infancy. Several therapies aiming at modulating the virus envelope to prevent host cell binding are in early clinical testing. The first test case for blocking a cellular co-receptor is an SR-BI modulator. ITX 5061, an orally active small molecule, targets SR-BI and has shown potent antiviral activity against HCVpp and HCVcc. ITX 5061 has exhibited good safety in previous clinical studies, and is being evaluated in the clinic in chronic HCV patients and patients undergoing liver transplantation. Entry inhibitors promise to be valuable players in the future development of curative therapy against HCV.

  11. HCV-Related Nervous System Disorders

    Salvatore Monaco; Sergio Ferrari; Alberto Gajofatto; Gianluigi Zanusso; Sara Mariotto

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a wide spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations, affecting different organ systems. Neurological complications occur in a large number of patients and range from peripheral neuropathy to cognitive impairment. Pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for nervous system dysfunction are mainly related to the upregulation of the host immune response with production of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and cryoglobulins. Alternative mecha...

  12. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  13. Aktuelles Management der HIV/HCV-Koinfektion

    Payer BA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Die HIV/HCV-Koinfektion findet sich sehr häufig bei HIV-Patienten mit intravenösem Drogenabusus. In dieser Patientengruppe stellt die HCV-assoziierte chronische Lebererkrankung heute auch die wichtigste Todesursache dar, da die HIV-Infektion meist sehr gut kontrolliert werden kann, die Hepatitis C aber oft nicht behandelt wird. Dabei sind die Therapieprinzipien sowohl für die HIV- als auch für die HCV-Infektion in der Zwischenzeit gut etabliert und auch allgemein akzeptiert: Eine retrovirale Therapie (cART sollte bei Koinfektion immer und unabhängig vom Immunstatus durchgeführt werden, da dies die Progression der Lebererkrankung positiv beeinflusst. Und die Hepatitis C sollte durch Standardtherapie mit Peginterferon plus Ribavirin therapiert werden, wobei in absehbarer Zeit auch bei Koinfektion die Dreifachtherapie mit den Proteaseinhibitoren Boceprevir und Telaprevir zum Einsatz kommen wird. Die Beachtung von Medikamenteninteraktionen wird dabei allerdings eine große Rolle spielen.

  14. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS Feature on Clinical Laboratory Efficiencies of Abbott RealTime Assays for Detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflo...

  15. HCV Transmission between serodiscordant couples through sexual route

    To determine the rate of transmission of HCV between n spouses through sexual route. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. It was conducted over a period of 4 years from June 2009 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty eight consecutive patients confirmed to have HCV infection by PCR for HCV RNA were enrolled in the study. Their spouses were also included in the study, and it was established through PCR for HCV RNA that the spouses were not suffering from HCV infection. All couples were inducted in the study within the first two months of starting the study. Therefore, the maximum and minimum follow-up time was 48 months and 46 months, respectively. The spouses were questioned for HCV risk factors and were tested for HCV antibodies six monthly. Once spouses were found to be anti-HCV positive, their HCV status was confirmed with PCR for HCV RNA. Results: Out of 168 patients, 90 (53.57%) were males and 78 (46.43%) were females. PCR for HCV RNA was found to be positive in 4 of 168 (2.38%) spouses. All the se 4 couples in whom HCV transmission was found had genotype 3a. Out of the 4 spouses who tested positive for HCV RNA PCR, 3 (75%) were females and 1 (25%) was male. So HCV infection was transmitted in 3 out of 90 (3.33 %) and 1 out of 78 (1.28%) female and male spouses, respectively. In PCR for HCV RNA positive and negative spouses, the duration of marriage was 202 +- 53 and 199 +- 49 weeks; and the number of total sexual intercourses was 171 +- 93 and 169 +- 89, respectively. Conclusion: HCV transmission among serodiscordant couples in our setup did occur. The overall rate of transmission was 2.38%. The rate of transmission from male to female (3.33%) was higher than female to male (1.28%). However, a large scale study conducted over a longer duration of time is needed to recommend protected sex in serodiscordant couples if either partner is suffering

  16. Spontaneous viral clearance, viral load, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV antibodies in Europe

    Soriano, Vincent; Mocroft, Amanda; Rockstroh, Juergen;

    2008-01-01

    , respectively. A greater HCV RNA level was associated with a greater chance of being infected with HCV genotype 1 (aOR, 1.60 per 1 log higher [95% CI, 1.36-1.88]). CONCLUSIONS: More than three-quarters of the HIV- and HCV Ab-positive patients in EuroSIDA showed active HCV replication. Viremia was more frequent......BACKGROUND: Variables influencing serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels and genotype distribution in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well known, nor are factors determining spontaneous clearance after exposure to HCV in this population. METHODS: All HCV...... antibody (Ab)-positive patients with HIV infection in the EuroSIDA cohort who had stored samples were tested for serum HCV RNA, and HCV genotyping was done for subjects with viremia. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance and HCV genotype 1. RESULTS: Of...

  17. Collaborative evaluation of the Abbott Avantage system for identification of frequently isolated nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli.

    Jorgensen, J H; Dyke, J W; Helgeson, N G; Cooper, B. H.; Redding, J S; Crawford, S. A.; Andruszewski, M T; Prowant, S A

    1984-01-01

    The capability of the Abbott Avantage system to identify 10 species of commonly isolated glucose nonfermentative or oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli in a 5-h test period was evaluated in a collaborative study. The Avantage nonenteric data base uses 20 biochemical test reactions performed in an expanded Abbott bacterial identification cartridge plus the results of a manual oxidase test. The species included in the Avantage data base are Acinetobacter anitratus, Acinetobacter Iwoffi, Aero...

  18. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

    Maria Carla Liberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  19. Minimal residual HIV viremia: verification of the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay sensitivity

    Alessandra Amendola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the HIV-1 infection, the increase in number of CD4 T lymphocytes and the viral load decline are the main indicators of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. On average, 85% of patients receiving effective treatment has a persistent suppression of plasma viral load below the detection limit (<50 copies/mL of clinically used viral load assays, regardless of treatment regimen in use. It is known, however, that, even when viremia is reduced below the sensitivity limit of current diagnostic assays, the virus persists in “reservoirs” and traces of free virions can be detected in plasma.There is a considerable interest to investigate the clinical significance of residual viremia. Advances in molecular diagnostics allows nowadays to couple a wide dynamic range to a high sensitivity.The Abbott Real-time HIV-1 test is linear from 40 to 107 copies/mL and provides, below 40 copies/mL, additional information such as “<40cp/mL, target detected” or “target not detected”. The HIV-1 detection is verified by the max-Ratio algorithm software.We assessed the test sensitivity when the qualitative response is considered as well. Methods: A ‘probit’ analysis was performed using dilutions of the HIV-1 RNA Working Reagent 1 for NAT assays (NIBSC code: 99/634, defined in IU/mL and different from that used by the manufacturer (VQA,Virology Quality Assurance Laboratory of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group for standardization and definition of performances.The sample input volume (0.6 mL was the same used in clinical routine. A total of 196 replicates at concentrations decreasing from 120 to 5 copies/mL, in three different sessions, have been tested.The ‘probit’ analysis (binomial dose-response model, 95% “hit-rate” has been carried out on the SAS 9.1.3 software package. Results: The sensitivity of the “<40cp/mL, target detected” response was equal to 28,76 copies/mL, with 95% confidence limits between 22,19 and 52,27 copies

  20. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae▿

    Gaydos, C A; Cartwright, C P; Colaninno, P.; Welsch, J.; Holden, J; Ho, S. Y.; Webb, E. M.; Anderson, C.; Bertuzis, R.; Zhang, L.; Miller, T; Leckie, G.; Abravaya, K.; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal s...

  1. Evaluation of the Abbott LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Human Samples

    Garrino, M. G.; Glupczynski, Gerald; Degraux, J; Nizet, H; Delmée, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Seven hundred thirty-seven clinical samples from 460 patients were processed for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a semiautomated ligase chain reaction commercial assay, the LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay (LCx assay) from Abbott Laboratories. Results were compared to those of direct microscopy and standard microbiological culture. Of 26 patients (5.7%) with a culture positive for M. tuberculosis, 22 (84.6%) were found positive by the LCx assay. The sensitivity o...

  2. Evaluation of an Automated Liquid-Handling System (Tecan Genesis RSP 100) in the Abbott LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis

    Hanson, Kevan L.; Cartwright, Charles P.

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of automating the specimen-pipetting component of sample preparation in the LCx Chlamydia assay (LCx-CT assay; Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Ill.) by using a commercially available liquid-handling system (Tecan Genesis RSP100; Tecan Inc., Research Triangle Park, N.C.). The Tecan instrument proved to be comparable in both precision and accuracy to a manual multipipettor (Eppendorf model 4850; Eppendorf Scientific, Westbury, N.Y.). The Tecan instru...

  3. Survey of US Correctional Institutions for Routine HCV Testing

    Beckwith, Curt G.; Kurth, Ann E.; Bazerman, Lauri; Solomon, Liza; Patry, Emily; Rich, Josiah D.; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain HCV testing practices among US prisons and jails, we conducted a survey study in 2012, consisting of medical directors of all US state prisons and 40 of the largest US jails, that demonstrated a minority of US prisons and jails conduct routine HCV testing. Routine voluntary HCV testing in correctional facilities is urgently needed to increase diagnosis, enable risk-reduction counseling and preventive health care, and facilitate evaluation for antiviral treatment.

  4. Survey of US Correctional Institutions for Routine HCV Testing.

    Beckwith, Curt G; Kurth, Ann E; Bazerman, Lauri; Solomon, Liza; Patry, Emily; Rich, Josiah D; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain HCV testing practices among US prisons and jails, we conducted a survey study in 2012, consisting of medical directors of all US state prisons and 40 of the largest US jails, that demonstrated a minority of US prisons and jails conduct routine HCV testing. Routine voluntary HCV testing in correctional facilities is urgently needed to increase diagnosis, enable risk-reduction counseling and preventive health care, and facilitate evaluation for antiviral treatment. PMID:25393180

  5. Endothelial Dysfunction Correlates with Liver Fibrosis in Chronic HCV Infection

    Michele Barone; Maria Teresa Viggiani; Annabianca Amoruso; Serafina Schiraldi; Annapaola Zito; Fiorella Devito; Francesca Cortese; Michele Gesualdo; Natale Brunetti; Alfredo Di Leo; Pietro Scicchitano; Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can exert proatherogenic activities due to its direct action on vessel walls and/or via the chronic inflammatory process involving the liver. Aims. To clarify the role of HCV in atherosclerosis development in monoinfected HCV patients at different degrees of liver fibrosis and with no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods. Forty-five patients were included. Clinical, serological, and anthropometric parameters, liver fibrosis (transient...

  6. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The narrow host range of infection and lack of suitable tissue culture systems for the propagation of hepatitis B and C viruses are limitations that have prevented a more thorough understanding of persistent infection and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease.

    Despite decades of intensive research and significant progresses in understanding of viral hepatitis, many basic questions and clinical problems still await to be resolved. For example, the HBV cellular receptor and related mechanisms of viral entry have not yet been identified. Little is also known about the function of certain non-structural viral products, such as the hepatitis B e antigen and the X protein, or about the role of excess hepadnavirus subviral particles circulating in the blood stream during infection. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the role of the immune system in determining the fate of infection are not fully understood.

    The reason for these drawbacks is essentially due to the lack of reliable cell-based in vitro infection systems and, most importantly, convenient animal models.

    This lack of knowledge has been partially overcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV, by the discovery and characterization of HBV-like viruses in wild animals while for hepatitis C virus (HCV, related flaviviruses have been used as surrogate systems.

    Other laboratories have developed transgenic mice that express virus gene products and/or support virus replication. Some HBV transgenic mouse models

  7. Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 subtype identification in new HCV drug development and future clinical practice.

    Stéphane Chevaliez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the development of new specific inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV enzymes and functions that may yield different antiviral responses and resistance profiles according to the HCV subtype, correct HCV genotype 1 subtype identification is mandatory in clinical trials for stratification and interpretation purposes and will likely become necessary in future clinical practice. The goal of this study was to identify the appropriate molecular tool(s for accurate HCV genotype 1 subtype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large cohort of 500 treatment-naïve patients eligible for HCV drug trials and infected with either subtype 1a or 1b was studied. Methods based on the sole analysis of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR by sequence analysis or reverse hybridization failed to correctly identify HCV subtype 1a in 22.8%-29.5% of cases, and HCV subtype 1b in 9.5%-8.7% of cases. Natural polymorphisms at positions 107, 204 and/or 243 were responsible for mis-subtyping with these methods. A real-time PCR method using genotype- and subtype-specific primers and probes located in both the 5'NCR and the NS5B-coding region failed to correctly identify HCV genotype 1 subtype in approximately 10% of cases. The second-generation line probe assay, a reverse hybridization assay that uses probes targeting both the 5'NCR and core-coding region, correctly identified HCV subtypes 1a and 1b in more than 99% of cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of new HCV drug development, HCV genotyping methods based on the exclusive analysis of the 5'NCR should be avoided. The second-generation line probe assay is currently the best commercial assay for determination of HCV genotype 1 subtypes 1a and 1b in clinical trials and practice.

  8. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Energy List for 2013; Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA). Energielijst 2013

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) is a tax system by means of which the Dutch government supports companies with investments in energy-saving equipment and renewable energy. This brochure explains the assets eligible for EIA and how the scheme works [Dutch] De Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA) is een fiscale regeling waarmee de overheid ondersteuning biedt voor bedrijven bij investeringen in energiebesparende bedrijfsmiddelen en duurzame energie. In deze brochure wordt uitgelegd welke bedrijfsmiddelen in aanmerking komen voor EIA en hoe de regeling werkt.

  9. Modeling HCV Disease in Animals: Virology, Immunology and Pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B Infections

    Cordelia eManickam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has become a global public health burden costing billions of dollars in health care annually. Even with rapidly advancing scientific technologies, this disease still looms large due to a lack of vaccines and affordable treatment options. The immune correlates of protection and predisposing factors towards chronicity remain major obstacles to development of HCV vaccines and immunotherapeutics due, at least in part, to lack of a tangible infection animal model. This review discusses the currently available animal models for HCV disease, with a primary focus on GB virus B (GBV-B infection of New World primates that recapitulates the dual hepacivirus phenotypes of acute viral clearance and chronic pathologic disease. HCV and GBV-B are also closely phylogenetically related, and advances in characterization of the immune systems of New World primates have already led to the use of this model for drug testing and vaccine trials. Herein, we discuss the benefits and caveats of the GBV-B infection model and discuss potential avenues for future development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies.

  10. Drug treatment program patients' hepatitis C virus (HCV education needs and their use of available HCV education services

    Osborne Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the disproportionate prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among drug users, many remain uninformed or misinformed about the virus. Drug treatment programs are important sites of opportunity for providing HCV education to their patients, and many programs do, in fact, offer this education in a variety of formats. Little is known, however, about the level of HCV knowledge among drug treatment program patients, and the extent to which they utilize their programs' HCV education services. Methods Using data collected from patients (N = 280 in 14 U.S. drug treatment programs, we compared patients who reported that they never injected drugs (NIDUs with past or current drug injectors (IDUs concerning their knowledge about HCV, whether they used HCV education opportunities at their programs, and the facilitators and barriers to doing so. All of the programs were participating in a research project that was developing, implementing, and evaluating a staff training to provide HCV support to patients. Results Although IDUs scored higher on an HCV knowledge assessment than NIDUs, there were many gaps in HCV knowledge among both groups of patients. To address these knowledge gaps, all of the programs offered at least one form of HCV education: all offered 1:1 sessions with staff, 12 of the programs offered HCV education in a group format, and 11 of the programs offered this education through pamphlets/books. Only 60% of all of the participating patients used any of their programs' HCV education services, but those who did avail themselves of these HCV education opportunities generally assessed them positively. In all, many patients were unaware that HCV education was offered at their programs through individual sessions with staff, group meetings, and books/pamphlets, (42%, 49%, and 46% of the patients, respectively, and 22% were unaware that any HCV education opportunities existed. Conclusion Efforts especially need

  11. Molecular epidemiology of HCV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection in injection drug users in Liuzhou, Southern China.

    Yi Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU. Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations. Access to harm reduction measures is opening up opportunities for improving the HIV/HCV profiling of IDU in China, where IDUs account for a significant proportion of the two infections especially in the southern part of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Through the Liuzhou Methadone Clinic, a total of 117 injection drug users (IDUs were recruited from Guangxi, Southern China. A majority of the IDUs (96% were HCV antibody positive, of which 21% were HIV infected. Unlike HCV monoinfection, there was spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of HIV/HCV coinfection, the latter also characterized by a higher prevalence of needle-sharing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was predominant in the study population. There were shorter genetic distances among the 6a sequences compared to the other HCV subtypes-1a, 3a, and 3b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that HIV and HCV were introduced at around the same time to the IDU populations in Southern China, followed by their differential spread as determined by the biologic characteristics of the virus and the intensity of behavioural risk. This pattern is different from that in other South East Asian countries where HCV infections have probably predated HIV.

  12. Permissiveness of human hepatoma cell lines for HCV infection

    Sainz Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although primary and established human hepatoma cell lines have been evaluated for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in vitro, thus far only Huh7 cells have been found to be highly permissive for infectious HCV. Since our understanding of the HCV lifecycle would benefit from the identification of additional permissive cell lines, we assembled a panel of hepatic and non-hepatic cell lines and assessed their ability to support HCV infection. Here we show infection of the human hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B with cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc, albeit to lower levels than that achieved in Huh7 cells. To better understand the reduced permissiveness of PLC and Hep3B cells for HCVcc infection, we performed studies to evaluate the ability of each cell line to support specific steps of the viral lifecycle (i.e. entry, replication, egress and spread. Results We found that while the early events in HCV infection (i.e. entry plus replication initiation are cumulatively equivalent or only marginally reduced in PLC and Hep3B cells, later steps of the viral life cycle such as steady-state replication, de novo virus production and/or spread are impaired to different degrees in PLC and Hep3B cultures compared to Huh7 cell cultures. Interestingly, we also observed that interferon stimulated gene (i.e. ISG56 expression was significantly and differentially up-regulated in PLC and Hep3B cells following viral infection. Conclusions We conclude that the restrictions observed later during HCV infection in these cell lines could in part be attributed to HCV-induced innate signaling. Nevertheless, the identification of two new cell lines capable of supporting authentic HCVcc infection, even at reduced levels, expands the current repertoire of cell lines amendable for the study of HCV in vitro and should aid in further elucidating HCV biology and the cellular determinants that modulate HCV infection.

  13. The role of HCV proteins on treatment outcomes.

    Kumthip, Kattareeya; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the standard of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a combination of pegylated interferon alpha (Peg-IFN-α) and ribavirin for 24-48 weeks. This treatment regimen results in a sustained virologic response (SVR) rate in about 50% of cases. The failure of IFN-α-based therapy to eliminate HCV is a result of multiple factors including a suboptimal treatment regimen, severity of HCV-related diseases, host factors and viral factors. In recent years, advances in HCV cell culture have contributed to a better understanding of the viral life cycle, which has led to the development of a number of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) that target specific key components of viral replication, such as HCV NS3/4A, HCV NS5A, and HCV NS5B proteins. To date, several new drugs have been approved for the treatment of HCV infection. Application of DAAs with IFN-based or IFN-free regimens has increased the SVR rate up to >90% and has allowed treatment duration to be shortened to 12-24 weeks. The impact of HCV proteins in response to IFN-based and IFN-free therapies has been described in many reports. This review summarizes and updates knowledge on molecular mechanisms of HCV proteins involved in anti-IFN activity as well as examining amino acid variations and mutations in several regions of HCV proteins associated with the response to IFN-based therapy and pattern of resistance associated amino acid variants (RAV) to antiviral agents. PMID:26666318

  14. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in selected countries

    Bruggmann, P; Berg, T; Øvrehus, A L H;

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained...

  15. HCV-related liver cancer in people with haemophilia

    Meijer, K.; Haagsma, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    . The topic of this monograph is liver cancer associated with chronic HCV infection. We start with some background information on chronic HCV infection and its long-term sequelae, one of which is liver cancer. The rest of the article is concerned with liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  16. Humanized-VHH Transbodies that Inhibit HCV Protease and Replication

    Surasak Jittavisutthikul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for safe and broadly effective anti-HCV agents that can cope with genetic multiplicity and mutations of the virus. In this study, humanized-camel VHHs to genotype 3a HCV serine protease were produced and were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (PEN. Human hepatic (Huh7 cells transfected with the JFH-1 RNA of HCV genotype 2a and treated with the cell penetrable nanobodies (transbodies had a marked reduction of the HCV RNA intracellularly and in their culture fluids, less HCV foci inside the cells and less amounts of HCV core antigen in culture supernatants compared with the infected cells cultured in the medium alone. The PEN-VHH-treated-transfected cells also had up-regulation of the genes coding for the host innate immune response (TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B and IFN-β, indicating that the cell penetrable nanobodies rescued the host innate immune response from the HCV mediated-suppression. Computerized intermolecular docking revealed that the VHHs bound to residues of the protease catalytic triad, oxyanion loop and/or the NS3 N-terminal portion important for non-covalent binding of the NS4A protease cofactor protein. The so-produced transbodies have high potential for testing further as a candidate for safe, broadly effective and virus mutation tolerable anti-HCV agents.

  17. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients - risk and prognosis

    Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  18. A Practical Approach to Managing Patients with HCV Infection

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major worldwide public health concern. It is a common cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV antibody and HCV RNA testing are available diagnostic studies that offer high degree of accuracy. Current standard therapy includes a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Response rate is approximately 40% for genotype 1 and 80% for genotypes 2 and 3, respectively. Successful treatment can stop the progression of chronic liver disease, reduce the need for liver transplantation, and possibly decrease the risk for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Evaluating for potential treatment candidacy is an important initial step in the management of chronic HCV infection as not all individuals may need or qualify for the treatment. Understanding the natural history, the different diagnostic modalities, the current therapeutic options and, the treatment response and adverse effect profiles can help the practitioners better manage chronic HCV infection.

  19. Interferon-λ in HCV Infection and Therapy  

    Michael D. Robek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is associated with significant liver disease and is therefore an important public health problem. The current standard-of-care therapy for chronic HCV infection consists of a combination of pegylated (PEG interferon (IFN-α and ribavirin. Although this therapy effectively generates a sustained viral response in approximately half of treated individuals, it is associated with significant hematological and neurological side effects. A new family of IFN-related proteins (IFN-λ1, 2, and 3; or alternately, IL-29, 28A, 28B, respectively possesses properties that may make these cytokines superior to PEG-IFN-α for HCV therapy. Genetic studies have also implicated these proteins in both the natural and therapy-induced resolution of HCV infection. This review summarizes the basic aspects of IFN-λ biology, the potential role of these cytokines in HCV infection, and the outlook for their therapeutic application.

  20. Recent advances in the anti-HCV mechanisms of interferon

    Menghao Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN in combination with ribavirin has been the standard of care (SOC for chronic hepatitis C for the past few decades. Although the current SOC lacks the desired efficacy, and 4 new direct-acting antiviral agents have been recently approved, interferons are still likely to remain the cornerstone of therapy for some time. Moreover, as an important cytokine system of innate immunity, host interferon signaling provides a powerful antiviral response. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HCV infection controls interferon production, and how interferons, in turn, trigger anti-HCV activities as well as control the outcome of HCV infection remain to be clarified. In this report, we review current progress in understanding the mechanisms of IFN against HCV, and also summarize the knowledge of induction of interferon signaling by HCV infection.

  1. An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to high degree of strain variation. The current treatment of care, Pegylated interferon α in combination with ribavirin is costly, has significant side effects and fails to cure about half of all infections. In this review, we summarize molecular virology, replication and immune responses against HCV and discussed how HCV escape from adaptive and humoral immune responses. This advance knowledge will be helpful for development of vaccine against HCV and discovery of new medicines both from synthetic chemistry and natural sources.

  2. Efficacy of enteroclysis through Miller-Abbott tube for decompression in patients with postoperative intestinal obstruction

    The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of enteroclysis through the previously inserted Miller-Abbott (M-A) tube for decompression in the postoperative intestinal obstruction. This study includes twenty patients who has intestinal obstruction symptoms after operation for benign(12) or malignant(8) abdominal lesions. Small amount of barium was introduced to M-A tube for enteroclysis. We evaluated the presence, level, degree, and causes of obstruction on enteroclysis, compared with surgical(11) and clinical(9) findings. Obstruction was seen in 18 cases including the two cases in which the level of obstruction was not clear. There was no obstruction in two cases. Obstruction on enteroclysis was demonstrated in all 11 operated cases(100% accuracy, 11/11). The level of obstruction on enteroclysis were jejunum in three cases, ileum in seven, and colon in one case. The levels of obstruction on enteroclysis were matched with those in operation field in 10 cases. There were two cases of nonobstruction on enteroclysis were jejunum in three cases, ileum in seven, and colon in one case. The levels of obstruction on enteroclysis were matched with those in operation field in 10 cases. There were two cases of nonobstruction, nine cases of low-grade partial obstruction, and nine cases of high-grade partial obstruction. We analyzed the findings on enteroclysis regarding causes of obstruction in 16 patients with the findings of adhesive bands of extrinsic cause(9), cancer recurrence of intrinsic cause(6), and bezoar of intraluminal cause(1). Misinterpreted cases were two cases(87.7% accuracy, 14/16). The cause, for nonvisualization of obstruction site on enteroclysis in four patients included technical failure such as inadequate location of tube(1) and bowel overlapping(1), minimal obstruction(1), and nonexistent obstruction(1), in spite of diffuse edematous mucosa. Enteroclysis through the M-A tube for decompression in patients with postoperative intestinal obstruction

  3. The HCV Synthesis Project: Scope, methodology, and preliminary results

    Scheinmann Roberta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV is hyper-endemic in injecting drug users. There is also excess HCV among non-injection drug users who smoke, snort, or sniff heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine. Methods To summarize the research literature on HCV in drug users and identify gaps in knowledge, we conducted a synthesis of the relevant research carried out between 1989 and 2006. Using rigorous search methods, we identified and extracted data from published and unpublished reports of HCV among drug users. We designed a quality assurance system to ensure accuracy and consistency in all phases of the project. We also created a set of items to assess study design quality in each of the reports we included. Results We identified 629 reports containing HCV prevalence rates, incidence rates and/or genotype distribution among injecting or non-injecting drug user populations published between January 1989 and December 2006. The majority of reports were from Western Europe (41%, North America (26%, Asia (11% and Australia/New Zealand (10%. We also identified reports from Eastern Europe, South America, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. The number of publications reporting HCV rates in drug users increased dramatically between 1989 and 2006 to 27–52 reports per year after 1998. Conclusion The data collection and quality assurance phases of the HCV Synthesis Project have been completed. Recommendations for future research on HCV in drug users have come out of our data collection phase. Future research reports can enhance their contributions to our understanding of HCV etiology by clearly defining their drug user participants with respect to type of drug and route of administration. Further, the use of standard reporting methods for risk factors would enable data to be combined across a larger set of studies; this is especially important for HCV seroconversion studies which suffer from small sample sizes and low power to examine risk

  4. EIA modelling for CZM applications. Part 1

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_84.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_84.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  5. EIA of anthropogenic activities on marine macrobenthos

    Govindan, K.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Mgmt_Coastal_Zone_Trg_Manual_158.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Mgmt_Coastal_Zone_Trg_Manual_158.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content...-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation

  7. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    Christensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument...

  8. EIA data index: an abstract journal

    The individual tables, graphs, and formatted data presented in the statistical publications of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) are abstracted and indexed. Included are a complete subject index and a report number listing for all EIA publications as well as complete ordering information for these publications. The abstracts of the tables and graphs are arranged by broad subject categories (e.g., coal, petroleum, natural gas, energy analysis and modeling) with further division occurring by subcategories (e.g., reserves, drilling and production, processing). Included here are those publications and their statistical contents which were released by the EIA from its formation in October 1977 through approximately the first half of 1980. Updates will be on a semiannual basis. The EIA Data Index is a companion volume to the EIA Publications Directory: A User's Guide (DOE/EIA-0149), which provides abstracts and indexes to all EIA publications at the document level. Both of these publications are generated from the Federal Energy Data Index (FEDEX) data base which has been developed by the EIA in cooperation with the Technical Information Center of the US Department of Energy

  9. HCV subtype characterization among injection drug users: implication for a crucial role of Zhenjiang in HCV transmission in China.

    Chiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. However, the transmission route of HCV in Eastern China remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of Zhenjiang city of Jiangsu province, an important transportation hub linking Shanghai with other regions of China, in HCV transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 141 whole blood samples were collected from injection drug users (IDUs in Zhenjiang and then tested for HCV infection. Of them, 115 HCV positive plasmas were subjected to RNA extraction, RT-PCR amplification, and sequencing. The subtype characterization and the evolutionary origin of HCV strains circulating in Zhenjiang were determined using polygenetic or phylogeographic analyses. Seven HCV subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6e and 6n were detected among Zhenjiang IDUs, showing a complex HCV epidemic. The most predominant subtypes were 3a (38% and 1b (26.8%. Among these subtypes, subtypes 3b, 6n and 6e originated from Southwestern China (i.e., Yunnan and/or Guangxi, subtypes 2a and 6a from Southern China (i.e., Guangdong, subtype 1b from Central (i.e., Henan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China, and subtype 3a from Southwestern (i.e., Yunnan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China. From Zhenjiang, subtypes 1b and 2a were further spread to Eastern (i.e., Shanghai and Northern (i.e., Beijing China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mixing of seven HCV subtypes in Zhenjiang from all quarters of China indicates that as an important middle station, Zhenjiang plays a crucial role in HCV transmission, just as it is important in population migration between other regions of China and Eastern China.

  10. Signal to cut-off (S/CO ratio and detection of HCV genotype 1 by real-time PCR one-step method: is there any direct relationship?

    Guilherme Albertoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods play an essential role in providing data related to diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. EIA results are reported as ''reactive'' or ''non reactive'' and EIA S/CO ratio may also be reported as ''high'' or ''low.'' This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a real-time RT-PCR and assess whether there is relationship between S/CO and PCR results. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sera from blood donors were analyzed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and RT-PCR assay to detect HCV infection. RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay to genotypes 1a/b showed an acceptable linear response in serial dilutions. The samples were divided into two groups based on their serological results: group A - S/CO ratio 3 (41 samples. Viral loads were confirmed positive in group B samples in 90%, and in group A samples were confirmed positive in only 13% by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: The methodology used was able to detect the presence of RNA-HCV genotype I in 90% of the samples serologically positive in group B. All negative samples were sent to search for other genotypes of HCV (genotypes 2-6 and were confirmed as negative. These data suggests that these negative samples may have HCV RNA viral load below the detection limit of our test (310 IU/ mL, or a false positive result in serological test, or spontaneous viral clearance occurred.

  11. Expression and immunoreactivity of HCV/HBV epitopes

    Xin-Yu Xiong; Xiao Liu; Yuan-Ding Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop the epitope-based vaccines to prevent Hepatitis C virus (HCV)/Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections.METHODS: The HCV core epitopes C1 STNPKPQRKTKRNTNRRPQD (residuals aa2-21) and C2 VKFPGGGQIVGGVYLLPRR (residuals aa22-40), envelope epitope E GHRMAWDMMMNWSP (residuals aa315-328) and HBsAg epitope S CTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNC (residuals aa124-147) were displayed in five different sites of the flock house virus capsid protein as a vector, and expressed in E. coli cells (pET-3 system).Immunoreactivity of the epitopes with anti-HCV and anti-HBV antibodies in the serum from hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients were determined.RESULTS: The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E (two times), L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E could react with anti-HCV antibodies. The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HBV epitopes S, I3S could react with anti-HBs antibodies. The expressed chimeric proteins carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E plus HBV epitope S, L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E-I3S could react with antiHCV and anti-HBs antibodies.CONCLUSION: These epitopes have highly specific and sensitive immunoreaction and are useful in the development of epitope-based vaccines.

  12. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier

  13. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    Mao, Xianqiang, E-mail: maoxq@bnu.edu.cn [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Song, Peng, E-mail: songpeng_ee@163.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, B1-04, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Corsetti, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.corsetti@gmail.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  14. Addressing HCV infection in Europe: reported, estimated and undiagnosed cases.

    Merkinaite, Simona; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Gore, Charles

    2008-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence, high rate of onward transmission and health complications. As many as 85% of people infected with HCV may go on to become chronic carriers of the disease with the risk of developing liver cancer or cirrhosis. At present, it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in a number of countries, with an estimated 250,000 people dying annually from HCV-related causes. Despite the magnitude of the problem, the virus does not receive adequate attention from either the general public or from health policy-makers. This study assesses HCV prevalence from both estimated totals and undiagnosed cases in selected European countries. Secondary sources were assessed and experts in 17 European countries were interviewed about HCV prevalence, reporting strategies and transmission. Available data suggest that only between 10% and 40% of people with HCV in Europe are aware of their infection (up to 90% of the prevalent pool are undiagnosed in such countries as Germany or Poland). Though the virus affects people of all ages, races and backgrounds, in Europe, between 20% and 90% of new HCV cases have been identified among past or current injecting drug users (IDUs). It is of the utmost importance to improve both public awareness and access to early testing and counselling, with the goal of prevention of further infections, maintenance of health and provision of treatment to avoid cirrhosis and liver cancer. Additionally, as previous studies in central and eastern Europe show, evidence-based measures to prevent and manage HCV among IDUs, where most current transmission is concentrated, remain limited. Therefore, there is a strong need for intensified advocacy to put HCV higher on both public health and harm reduction agendas. PMID:18935772

  15. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  16. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  17. Addressing HCV infection in Europe: reported, estimated and undiagnosed cases

    Merkinaite, Simona; Lazarus, Jeff; Gore, Charles

    2008-01-01

    . At present, it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in a number of countries, with an estimated 250,000 people dying annually from HCV-related causes. Despite the magnitude of the problem, the virus does not receive adequate attention from either the general public...... or from health policy-makers. This study assesses HCV prevalence from both estimated totals and undiagnosed cases in selected European countries. Secondary sources were assessed and experts in 17 European countries were interviewed about HCV prevalence, reporting strategies and transmission. Available...

  18. Comparison of the Abbott m2000 HIV-1 Real-Time and Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 HIV-1 assays on plasma specimens from Rakai, Uganda

    Ssebugenyi, I.; Kizza, A; Mpoza, B; Aluma, G.; Boaz, I.; Newell, K.; Laeyendecker, O; Shott, J P; Serwadda, D; Reynolds, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The need for viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings (RLS) has become apparent with studies showing the limitations of immunological monitoring. We compared the Abbott m2000 Real-Time (Abbott) HIV-1 assay with the Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 (Roche) HIV-1 assay over a range of VL concentrations. Three hundred and eleven plasma samples were tested, including 164 samples from patients on ART ≥ six months and 147 from ART-naï...

  19. Abbott Aeroset全自动生化分析仪安装调试故障浅析

    苏娜; 胡远明

    2002-01-01

    @@ 我科于2001年11月28日安装了一台Abbott Aeroset全自动生化分析仪,在安装和调试期间出现的几例典型故障及其排除方法介绍如下,以供同行在使用该型号或同等档次的全自动生化分析仪时参考. Abbott Aeroset出厂时虽以整机装箱,在实验室安装时,安装部件只有近水管、4根废液管和2根加样针、4根试剂针加上搅拌器和比色杯以及工作站SCC,容易被工程师忽略整机中的其他部件,这就会导致一些很难觉察的故障.

  20. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-01-01

    screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved......The number of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screenings in Denmark has increased dramatically since 2000. This is a consequence of increased pig production as well as the concentration of production on larger farms. In the same period, EIA rules have developed primarily due to an increased...

  1. Affinity-Based Screening Technology and HCV Drug Discovery

    LI Bin

    2003-01-01

    @@ NS5A is one of the non-structural gene products encoded by Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses that are essential for viral replication. The amino acid sequence of NS5A is conserved between different HCV genotypes and the primary amino acid sequence of NS5A is unique to HCV and closely related viruses. Importantly, NS5A is unrelated to any human protein. This indicates that drugs designed to block the actions of NS5A could inhibit the replication of HCV without showing toxic side effects in human host cells, thus making NS5A inhibitors ideal anti-viral drugs. However, there are presently no functional assays for this essential viral protein. Therefore, conventional high throughput screening (HTS) approaches can not be used to discover antiviral drugs against NS5A.

  2. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in 373 Italian children with HCV infection: changing distribution and correlation with clinical features and outcome

    Bortolotti, F; Resti, M; Marcellini, M; Giacchino, R.; Verucchi, G.; Nebbia, G; Zancan, L; Marazzi, M G; Barbera, C; Maccabruni, A; Zuin, G.; Maggiore, G; Balli, F.; Vajro, P; Lepore, L

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim: Little is known of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in HCV infected children. This retrospective, multicentre study investigated genotype distribution and correlation with clinical features and outcome in a large series of Italian children.

  3. Cryoglobulinemia in elderly patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis

    Francesco; Giuseppe; Foschi; Anna; Chiara; Dall’Aglio; Arianna; Lanzi; Giorgio; Marano; Sara; Savini; Pietro; Andreone; Mauro; Bernardi; Giuseppe; Francesco; Stefanini

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection affects about 3% of the world’s population and often leads to chronic liver disease.In some industrialized countries,HCV prevalence increases with age,but the optimal management of older patients has not been accurately defined.HCV infection can also lead to lymphoproliferative disorders,the most common being mixed cryoglobulinemia(MC),and also for this condition that frequently affects elderly patients,the optimal therapeutic strategy is still debated.We report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman with HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cutaneous manifestations consisting of urticaria and pruritus related to MC resistant to antihistamines.The patient underwent a treatment with interferon and ribavirin.Such a treatment led to early biochemical and virological response associated with the resolution of cryoglobulinemia and cutaneous symptoms.After the end of treatment,HCV replication relapsed,but cryoglobulinemia and cutaneous symptoms did not recur.In the absence of definite treatment guidelines in this particular context,our experience suggests that the presence of symptoms related to HCV-infection that deeply affect patient quality of life warrants antiviral therapy even beyond the age limits that currently exclude patients from treatment.

  4. Small molecule inhibitors of HCV replication from Pomegranate

    Reddy, B. Uma; Mullick, Ranajoy; Kumar, Anuj; Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Das, Saumitra

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of end-stage liver disease. Recent advances in the last decade in anti HCV treatment strategies have dramatically increased the viral clearance rate. However, several limitations are still associated, which warrant a great need of novel, safe and selective drugs against HCV infection. Towards this objective, we explored highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors, the ellagitannins, from the crude extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit peel. The pure compounds, punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid isolated from the extract specifically blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activity in vitro. Structural analysis using computational approach also showed that ligand molecules interact with the catalytic and substrate binding residues of NS3/4A protease, leading to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Further, punicalagin and punicalin significantly reduced the HCV replication in cell culture system. More importantly, these compounds are well tolerated ex vivo and`no observed adverse effect level' (NOAEL) was established upto an acute dose of 5000 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. Additionally, pharmacokinetics study showed that the compounds are bioavailable. Taken together, our study provides a proof-of-concept approach for the potential use of antiviral and non-toxic principle ellagitannins from pomegranate in prevention and control of HCV induced complications.

  5. He'eia Stream Contaminants Study

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Potential risk to ecological receptors in He’eia Stream and Wetland was characterized through the use of a food-web model to predict effects to the Hawaiian stilt,...

  6. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Areas with a High Prevalence of HCV in the Republic of Korea in 2013

    Sohn, Hae-Sook; Kim, Jang Rak; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Youn-Jae; Lee, Myeong Jin; Min, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jun; Choi, Hwa Young; Song, Yeong Jun; Ki, Moran

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Busan, Gyeongnam, and Jeonnam Provinces in Korea is more than twice the national average. This study aimed to examine whether demographic and lifestyle characteristics are associated with HCV infection in these areas. Methods A case control study was performed at three study hospitals. HCV cases were matched with two controls for sex and age. Patient controls were selected from non-HCV patients at the same hospital. Health...

  7. Single Clinical Practice's Report of Testing Initiation, Antibody Clearance, and Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Infants of Chronically HCV-Infected Mothers.

    Bal, Aswine; Petrova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Perinatally acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main source of pediatric HCV infection. However, the best time for initiation of screening and follow up of these infants is still unknown. Analysis of the clinical data of infants born to HCV-infected mothers, transmission rates, and pathway of HCV testing could be important for optimization of their management. Methods.  Children of mothers with chronic HCV infection, who were observed between 1998 and 2013 at the pediatric infectious disease clinic for the first 18 months of their life, were eligible for enrollment. We analyzed the factors influencing initiation of HCV testing in these children and rate of HCV transmission as demonstrated by consecutive HCV antibody and HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) amplification testing. Results.  One hundred and forty-two mother-infant pairs were enrolled. The majority of mothers were intravenous drug users, had carried to term, and delivered vaginally. A high proportion of infants had at least 1 positive anti-HCV antibody assay without viremia. True HCV infection and intermittent viremia were recorded in 3.5% and 1.4% of infants, respectively. Initiation of HCV testing after 10 months of age was associated with a significant decline in the probability of obtaining a positive HCV antibody of maternal origin. Conclusions.  The low likelihood for detection and confirmation of true HCV transmission before 10 months of age could challenge the early initiation of HCV screening of infants exposed to maternal HCV infection but may affect the parental need for early monitoring and counseling. PMID:26985444

  8. Factors associated with liver biopsy performance in HCV-HIV coinfected injecting drug users with HCV viremia: Results from a five-year longitudinal assessment

    Rey, Dominique; Carrieri, Maria-Patrizia; Spire, Bruno; Loubière, Sandrine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Gallais, Hervé; Cassuto, Gilles-Patrice; Gastaut, Jean-Albert; Obadia, Yolande

    2004-01-01

    The last international consensus conference about hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment emphasized the importance of treatment for persons coinfected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As liver biopsy precedes treatment, we aimed to identify factors associated with the performance of liver biopsy among HIV-HCV coinfected drug users during a 5-year follow-up to study their access to HCV treatment. Of the 296 patients followed in the HIV hospital departments of Nice and Marseilles and...

  9. Expression of core antigen of HCV genotype 3a and its evaluation as screening agent for HCV infection in Pakistan

    Rehman Irshad U; Saleem Zafar; Idrees Muhammad; Yousaf Muhammad Z; Ali Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pakistan is facing a threat from hepatitis C infection which is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the country. More specific and sensitive screening assays are needed to timely and correctly diagnose this infection. Methods After RNA extraction from specimen (HCV-3a), cDNA was synthesized that was used to amplify full length core gene of HCV 3a. After verification through PCR, DNA sequencing and BLAST, a properly oriented positive recombinant plasmid for core gene ...

  10. Comparison of Perceptions of "Preparedness" of John Abbott C.E.G.E.P. Nursing Graduates: Prior to Graduation and After.

    Iton, Carmen; Sabiston, Judy

    A study of John Abbott College's nursing graduates was conducted to determine how well prepared for their professional responsibilities the graduates saw themselves just prior to graduation and later after working in the nursing field. A sample of 98 nursing students who graduated between 1986 and 1988 was surveyed, with 93% responding to the…

  11. Systemic Cytokine and Interferon Responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV Mono and Co-Infections

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV+/HCV+), HCV mono-infected (HIV−/HCV+), HIV mono-infected (HIV+/HCV−) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV−/HCV−) who had en...

  12. HBV-DNA in hemodialysis patients infected by HCV

    Arababadi Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD patients are at risk for both hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, and they may coexist. To de-termine the prevalence and clinical impact of HBV and HCV infection, we studied poly chain reaction (PCR and reverse transcription (RT-PCR on the blood samples of 90 HD patients in Kerman, Iran. ELISA test was used to detect anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBsAg. We found that 30 out of 90 (33.3% patients were PCR-RT-PCR positive for HCV-RNA. No HBV-DNA (0% was detected through the PCR study in both positive and negative HCV-RNA patient groups. Though none of the samples was HBsAg positive, 10 (33.3% HCV-RNA positive patients were anti-HBc positive, and 12 (40.7% were anti-HBs positive. We conclude that prevalence of hepatitis C infection is high in HD patients in our region, but not associated with active HBV infection.

  13. HBV-DNA in hemodialysis patients infected by HCV

    End-stage renal disease patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk for both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and they may coexist. To determine the prevalence and clinical impact of HBV and HCV infection, we studied poly chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR on the blood samples of 90 HD patients in Kerman, Iran. ELISA test was used to detect anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBs Ag. We found that 30 out of 90 (33.3%) patients were PCR-RT-PCR positive for HCV-RNA. No HBV-DNA (0%) was detected through the PCR study in both positive and negative HCV-RNA patient groups. Though none of the samples was HBsAg positive, 10 (33.3%) HCV-RNA positive patients were anti-HBc positive, and 12 (40.7%) were anti-HBs positive. We conclude that prevalence of hepatitis C infection is high in HD patients in our region, but not associated with active HBV infection. (author)

  14. Role of HCV Core gene of genotype 1a and 3a and host gene Cox-2 in HCV-induced pathogenesis

    Ahmad Waqar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV Core protein is thought to trigger activation of multiple signaling pathways and play a significant role in the alteration of cellular gene expression responsible for HCV pathogenesis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, the exact molecular mechanism of HCV genome specific pathogenesis remains unclear. We examined the in vitro effects of HCV Core protein of HCV genotype 3a and 1a on the cellular genes involved in oxidative stress and angiogenesis. We also studied the ability of HCV Core and Cox-2 siRNA either alone or in combination to inhibit viral replication and cell proliferation in HCV serum infected Huh-7 cells. Results Over expression of Core gene of HCV 3a genotype showed stronger effect in regulating RNA and protein levels of Cox-2, iNOS, VEGF, p-Akt as compared to HCV-1a Core in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh-7 accompanied by enhanced PGE2 release and cell proliferation. We also observed higher expression levels of above genes in HCV 3a patient's blood and biopsy samples. Interestingly, the Core and Cox-2-specific siRNAs down regulated the Core 3a-enhanced expression of Cox-2, iNOS, VEGF, p-Akt. Furthermore, the combined siRNA treatment also showed a dramatic reduction in viral titer and expression of these genes in HCV serum-infected Huh-7 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated a differential response by HCV 3a genotype in HCV-induced pathogenesis, which may be due to Core and host factor Cox-2 individually or in combination. Conclusions Collectively, these studies not only suggest a genotype-specific interaction between key players of HCV pathogenesis but also may represent combined viral and host gene silencing as a potential therapeutic strategy.

  15. Is EIA part of the wind power planning problem?

    Smart, Duncan Ewan; Stojanovic, Timothy A., E-mail: tas21@st-andrews.ac.uk; Warren, Charles R.

    2014-11-15

    This research evaluates the importance and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) within wind farm planning debates, drawing on insights from case studies in Scotland. Despite general public support for renewable energy on the grounds that it is needed to tackle climate change and implement sustainable development, many proposed wind farms encounter significant resistance. The importance of planning issues and (EIA) processes has arguably been overlooked within recent wind farm social acceptability discourse. Through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, the characteristics of EIA are assessed in terms of its perceived purpose and performance. The data show that whilst respondents perceive EIA to be important, they express concerns about bias and about the inability of EIA to address climate change and wind farm decommissioning issues adequately. Furthermore, the research identifies key issues which impede the effectiveness of EIA, and reveals differences between theoretical and practical framings of EIA. The paper questions the assumption that EIA is a universally applicable tool, and argues that its effectiveness should be analysed in the context of specific development sectors. The article concludes by reviewing whether the recently amended EIA Directive (2014/52/EU) could resolve identified problems within national EIA practice. - Highlights: • Evaluation of EIA for onshore wind farm planning in Scotland. • EIA is important for multiple aspects of onshore wind farm planning. • Multiple substantive deficiencies of relevance to wind farm planning exist in EIA. • Further research into EIA effectiveness for specific development types is required. • Directive 2014/52/EU may improve EIA effectiveness within wind farm planning.

  16. Is EIA part of the wind power planning problem?

    This research evaluates the importance and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) within wind farm planning debates, drawing on insights from case studies in Scotland. Despite general public support for renewable energy on the grounds that it is needed to tackle climate change and implement sustainable development, many proposed wind farms encounter significant resistance. The importance of planning issues and (EIA) processes has arguably been overlooked within recent wind farm social acceptability discourse. Through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, the characteristics of EIA are assessed in terms of its perceived purpose and performance. The data show that whilst respondents perceive EIA to be important, they express concerns about bias and about the inability of EIA to address climate change and wind farm decommissioning issues adequately. Furthermore, the research identifies key issues which impede the effectiveness of EIA, and reveals differences between theoretical and practical framings of EIA. The paper questions the assumption that EIA is a universally applicable tool, and argues that its effectiveness should be analysed in the context of specific development sectors. The article concludes by reviewing whether the recently amended EIA Directive (2014/52/EU) could resolve identified problems within national EIA practice. - Highlights: • Evaluation of EIA for onshore wind farm planning in Scotland. • EIA is important for multiple aspects of onshore wind farm planning. • Multiple substantive deficiencies of relevance to wind farm planning exist in EIA. • Further research into EIA effectiveness for specific development types is required. • Directive 2014/52/EU may improve EIA effectiveness within wind farm planning

  17. [Consequences of extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C viral infection (HCV)].

    Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a primarily hepatotropic virus. However, numerous extrahepatic symptoms are observed in patients chronically infected with HCV, e.g. cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, kidney diseases, disturbances of the central and peripheral nervous system, thyroid gland, pancreas, lymph nodes and pituitary gland, that develop at various times after the infection. Complex mechanisms underlie these processes, both molecular, related to direct effects of the virus on cells or tissues and indirect mechanisms, resulting from the response of the immune system to infection (via cytokines or oxidative stress), and from the antiviral treatment used. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute to the definition of new prognostic factors, important for the early diagnosis of the infection, which in turn may improve treatment efficacy. This paper is a review of the incidence of selected extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection and their underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors. PMID:27117111

  18. The HCV care continuum among people who use drugs: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Reed, Jennifer R.; Jordan, Ashly E.; Perlman, David C.; Smith, Daniel J; Hagan, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The diagnosis, management, and treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (the “HCV care continuum”) have improved in recent years. People who use drugs (PWUD) have a prevalence of HCV infection from 30 to 70 %, yet rates of testing, engagement in care, and treatment for HCV are disproportionately low compared to other populations. Delineating the progression of PWUD through the steps in the HCV care continuum in the USA is important in informing efforts to improve HCV outco...

  19. HCV Animal Models: A Journey of More than 30 Years

    Philip Meuleman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s and 1980s it became increasingly clear that blood transfusions could induce a form of chronic hepatitis that could not be ascribed to any of the viruses known to cause liver inflammation. In 1989, the hepatitis C virus (HCV was discovered and found to be the major causative agent of these infections. Because of its narrow ropism, the in vivo study of this virus was, especially in the early days, limited to the chimpanzee. In the past decade, several alternative animal models have been created. In this review we review these novel animal models and their contribution to our current understanding of the biology of HCV.

  20. HCV animal models: a journey of more than 30 years.

    Meuleman, Philip; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2009-09-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s it became increasingly clear that blood transfusions could induce a form of chronic hepatitis that could not be ascribed to any of the viruses known to cause liver inflammation. In 1989, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered and found to be the major causative agent of these infections. Because of its narrow tropism, the in vivo study of this virus was, especially in the early days, limited to the chimpanzee. In the past decade, several alternative animal models have been created. In this review we review these novel animal models and their contribution to our current understanding of the biology of HCV. PMID:21994547

  1. Evaluation of Risk Factors of HCV infection in Lahore, (Pakistan

    Rao Muhammad Ijaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection is rapidly growing disease in world in general and in Pakistan in particular. In Pakistan more than 10 million persons have HCV +ve signs. Risk factors for this fatal disease included main, historic and demographic factors. Some researchers segregated few independent factors but other, include them in the category of depends. We have collected the data for Lahore (Pakistan and analyzed this data by considering the aforesaid factors. Some results of this research do not match with the existing theories. We recommended that interaction effects of associated factors should also be considered in evaluation.

  2. Angiogenic output in viral hepatitis, C and B, and HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Mohamed A. Abdel Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The increased hepatic angiogenesis in chronic HCV and HBV could provide the molecular basis for liver carcinogenesis and contribute to the increased risk of HCC in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV and/or HBV.

  3. Systemic cytokine and interferon responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV mono and co-infections.

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-11-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(+)), HCV mono-infected (HIV(-)/HCV(+)), HIV mono-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(-)) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV(+)/HCV(+) women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV(+)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV(+)/HCV(+) group compared with HIV(-)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV(+)/HCV(+) individuals. PMID:24955730

  4. Ways and intensity of vertical transfer of the HCV from infected mothers to children

    Idelbay Shuratov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ways and intensity of vertical transfer HCV have been studied before sorts in 29 lying-in women, positive on HCV-RNA. Among newborns from these mothers in serum of blood of umbilical cord at the moment of birth, HCV-RNA is found in 6.8%. The infection of newborns from HCV-RNA positive mother occurs through a placenta and at the time of delivery.

  5. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

    Chris R. Kenyon; Robert Colebunders

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individ...

  6. Effect of route of delivery on heterologous protection against HCV induced by an adenovirus vector carrying HCV structural genes

    Guan Jie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective vaccine and new therapeutic methods for hepatitis C virus (HCV are needed, and a potent HCV vaccine must induce robust and sustained cellular-mediated immunity (CMI. Research has indicated that adenoviral and vaccinia vectors may have the ability to elicit strong B and T cell immune responses to target antigens. Results A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector, rAd5-CE1E2, and a recombinant Tian Tan vaccinia vector, rTTV-CE1E2, were constructed to express the HCV CE1E2 gene (1-746 amino acid HCV 1b subtype. Mice were prime-immunised with rAd5-CE1E2 delivered via intramuscular injection (i.m., intranasal injection (i.n., or intradermal injection (i.d. and boosted using a different combination of injection routes. CMI was evaluated via IFN-γ ELISPOT and ICS 2 weeks after immunisation, or 16 weeks after boost for long-term responses. The humoral response was analysed by ELISA. With the exception of priming by i.n. injection, a robust CMI response against multiple HCV antigens (core, E1, E2 was elicited and remained at a high level for a long period (16 weeks post-vaccination in mice. However, i.n. priming elicited the highest anti-core antibody levels. Priming with i.d. rAd5-CE1E2 and boosting with i.d. rTTV-CE1E2 carried out simultaneously enhanced CMI and the humoral immune response, compared to the homologous rAd5-CE1E2 immune groups. All regimens demonstrated equivalent cross-protective potency in a heterologous surrogate challenge assay based on a recombinant HCV (JFH1, 2a vaccinia virus. Conclusions Our data suggest that a rAd5-CE1E2-based HCV vaccine would be capable of eliciting an effective immune response and cross-protection. These findings have important implications for the development of T cell-based HCV vaccine candidates.

  7. A multicenter evaluation of the Biotest legionella urinary antigen EIA

    Harrison, Timothy; Uldum, Søren; Alexiou-Daniel, Stella;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To undertake a multicenter study to evaluate the Biotest legionella urinary antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performance against those EIAs already in use in 14 European laboratories. METHODS: Each laboratory examined urine specimens from appropriate patients using both their current...... laboratories' current EIAs, and in 94.6% of those specimens which were positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. CONCLUSION: The Biotest EIA is simple to use and specific and the results obtained in different laboratories show excellent agreement. The assay compares well existing EIAs, at least for L...

  8. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M;

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant and...

  9. Endothelial dysfunction correlates with liver fibrosis in chronic HCV infection.

    Barone, Michele; Viggiani, Maria Teresa; Amoruso, Annabianca; Schiraldi, Serafina; Zito, Annapaola; Devito, Fiorella; Cortese, Francesca; Gesualdo, Michele; Brunetti, Natale; Di Leo, Alfredo; Scicchitano, Pietro; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can exert proatherogenic activities due to its direct action on vessel walls and/or via the chronic inflammatory process involving the liver. Aims. To clarify the role of HCV in atherosclerosis development in monoinfected HCV patients at different degrees of liver fibrosis and with no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods. Forty-five patients were included. Clinical, serological, and anthropometric parameters, liver fibrosis (transient liver elastometry (fibroscan) and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI)), carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) were assessed. Patients were divided into 3 tertiles according to fibroscan values. Results. Patients in the third tertile (fibroscan value >11.5 KPa) showed FMD values were significantly lower than second and first tertiles (4.7 ± 1.7% versus 7.1 ± 2.8%, p = 0.03). FMD values were inversely related to liver elastomeric values. c-IMT values were normal. The risk for endothelial dysfunction development in the third tertile (p = 0.02) was 6.9 higher than the first tertile. A fibroscan value >11.5 KPa had a positive predictive power equal to 79% for endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions. HCV advanced liver fibrosis promotes atherosclerosis by inducing endothelial dysfunction independently of common cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26000012

  10. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Annual report 2012; Energie-Investeringsaftrek (EIA). Jaarverslag 2012

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    By means of the Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) the Ministry of Economic Affairs supports investments of businesses, industrial associations and other parties in accelerating innovative, energy saving sustainable initiatives and technologies. In this report the results for 2012 are presented [Dutch] Met de EIA ondersteunt het Ministerie van Economische Zaken bedrijven bij het investeren in innovatieve, energiebesparende en duurzame technieken. In dit verslag over 2012 worden resultaten weergegeven.

  11. The association of syringe type and syringe cleaning with HCV infection among IDUs in Budapest, Hungary.

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Mitchell, Mary M; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2009-03-01

    We assessed whether syringe type, syringe cleaning and distributive syringe sharing were associated with self-reported and laboratory-confirmed HCV infection among Hungarian IDUs. Injecting drug users (N=215) were recruited from non-treatment settings in Budapest, Hungary between October 2005 and December 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models identified correlates of self-report of being HCV infected and testing positive for HCV. While 37% tested positive for HCV, 14% of the total (39% of those who tested positive) self-reported being HCV infected. Using any two-piece syringes was significantly associated with self-reported HCV infection, while distributive syringe sharing was not associated with self-report of being HCV infected. Engaging in receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes but always cleaning before reuse was not associated with testing HCV positive, while any receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes and not always cleaning before reuse was significantly associated with testing HCV positive. Sharing cookers and squirting drugs from one syringe into another syringe were not associated with testing HCV positive. The high percent of those HCV infected who did not know they were infected highlights the need to provide better access to confidential testing and counseling services. Counseling should emphasize secondary prevention of HCV among HCV infected IDUs. Our findings also indicate that syringe type and syringe cleaning practices may play a role in HCV transmission. Ethnographic research should identify the reasons why IDUs may use two-piece syringes and suggest means to reduce their use. Thorough cleaning of one-piece syringes when sterile syringes are unavailable may be an efficient way to reduce the risk of HCV infection. PMID:19058925

  12. Abbott RealTime HIV-1 m2000rt viral load testing: Manual extraction versus the automated m2000sp extraction

    Scott, Lesley E.; Crump, John A.; Msuya, Emma; Morrissey, Anne B.; Venter, Willem F.; Stevens, Wendy S.

    2010-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay is a real-time nucleic acid amplification assay available for HIV-1 viral load quantitation. The assay has a platform for automated extraction of viral RNA from plasma or dried blood spot samples, and an amplification platform with real time fluorescent detection. Overall, this study found no clinically relevant differences in viral load, if samples were extracted manually.

  13. Efficient Quantification of HIV-1 in Heparin Plasma Spiked with Cultured HIV-1 by the Roche Cobas TaqMan and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Tests

    Jagodzinski, Linda L; Weston, Holly R.; Liu, Ying; O'Connell, Robert J.; Peel, Sheila A

    2012-01-01

    The current automated real-time HIV-1 viral load assays, the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan test and the Abbott RealTime test, are FDA cleared for use with EDTA plasma. We show that both real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) tests reliably quantify HIV-1 RNA in heparin plasma specimens spiked with HIV-1 isolate MN.

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of the GAMMACOAT-M CEA-RIA from Travenol-Genentech Diagnostics compared to the ABBOTT CEA-RIA monoclonal

    A new monoclonal radioimmunoassay from Travenol-Genentech Diagnostics was investigated with respect to its sensitivity and specificity and compared to the established monoclonal antibody assay of ABBOTT. Both tests revealed increased CEA plasma values in healthy smokers, whereby the elevation was dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The sensitivities as well as the cut-off levels for CEA at 90% specificity were coincident in both tests. (orig.)

  15. Knowledge of HBV and HCV and individuals' attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues: a national cross-sectional study among a working population in Japan.

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005. This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues.

  16. Effects of HCV on Basal and Tat-Induced HIV LTR Activation

    Sengupta, Satarupa; Powell, Eleanor; Kong, Ling; Blackard, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection occurs in ∼30–40% of the HIV-infected population in the US. While a significant body of research suggests an adverse effect of HIV on HCV replication and disease progression, the impact of HCV on HIV infection has not been well studied. Increasing data suggest that hepatocytes and other liver cell populations can serve as reservoirs for HIV replication. Therefore, to gain insight into the impact of HCV on HIV, the effects of the HCV Core protein and infect...

  17. HIV, HBV and HCV Coinfection Prevalence in Iran - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri; Ehsan Mostafavi; Ali Mirzazadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background worldwide, hepatitis C and B virus infections (HCV and HCV), are the two most common coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has become a major threat to the survival of HIV-infected persons. The review aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV and triple coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran. Method Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and H...

  18. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like Effector B Contributes to the Assembly of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Particles and Interacts with HCV NS5A

    Cai, Hua; Yao, Wenxia; Li, Leike; Li, Xinlei; Hu, Longbo; Mai, Runming; Peng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses components of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) pathway for assembly/release. We previously reported that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) participates in HCV assembly/release through downstream factors those participate in VLDL assembly/secretion. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB) is an important regulator of the VLDL pathway. CIDEB is required for entry of HCV particles from cell culture (HCVcc), but the effects of CIDEB on the post-entry steps of the HCV lifecycle are unclear. In the present study, we determined that CIDEB is required for HCV assembly in addition to HCVcc entry. Furthermore, CIDEB interacts with the HCV NS5A protein, and the N terminus of CIDEB and the domain I of NS5A are involved in this interaction. Moreover, CIDEB silencing impairs the association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) with HCV particles. Interestingly, CIDEB is also required for the post-entry stages of the dengue virus (DENV) life cycle. Collectively, these results indicate that CIDEB is a new host factor that is involved in HCV assembly, presumably by interacting with viral protein, providing new insight into the exploitation of the VLDL regulator CIDEB by HCV. PMID:27282740

  19. HCV triple therapy in co-infection HIV/HCV is not associated with a different risk of developing major depressive disorder

    Renata Fialho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C (HCV treatment options have changed with the development of direct activity antivirals (DAAs and the availability of triple therapies have improved HCV cure rates. A common neuropsychiatric side effect of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin treatment is major depressive disorder (MDD, however little is known about such adverse events with protease inhibitor-based triple therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of MDD in co-infected HIV HCV patients undergoing different HCV treatments. Methods: All participants were co-infected HIV HCV attending the Royal Sussex County Hospital Brighton hepatology outpatient clinic between 2010 and 2014. Participants were assessed for DSM-IV MDD and depression severity (using the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD at baseline and monthly after treatment initiation. HIV and HCV stages, genotype, reinfection and standard demographic variables were recorded. Influence of HCV stage (acute vs. chronic and type of treatment (classic vs triple, emergence of MDD and clearance outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures and logistic regression models. Results: Fifty participants with a mean age of 42.65 years (SD=10.32 were included; most were male (98%. The majority had contracted HCV genotype 1 (64% or 4 (26%. The HCV stage and treatment groups were matched for age and depression at baseline. No significant differences were found on virological outcomes considering HCV stage and treatment. From baseline to SVR, there was a significant increase in HAMD scores, F(4,36=10.09, p<.001; this was not significantly influenced by HCV stage, F(4,35=0.54, p=.708 or HCV treatment group, F(4,35=0.60, p=.664. Those with chronic HCV were more likely to transition to MDD than acute infection (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.04–29.54, p=.003. No differences were found for depression emergence by HCV treatment group (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.22–3.13, p=.787. Conclusions: HCV triple therapy was not associated with a

  20. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  1. Does diphenyl dimethyl bi carboxylate (DDB) cause healthy carrier state in HCV active patients

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility whether the DDB might induce an HCV healthy carrier state in HCV active patients. Blood samples were obtained from ten individuals with fulfilled criteria of HCV healthy carrier state; ten HCV active patients receiving no treatment, ten patients who completed 3 months course of DDB treatment and ten HCV active patients under DDB therapy. The following parameters were evaluated: the percentage of atypical lymphocytes and hyper segmented neutrophils in peripheral blood Leishmania stained film, albumin, C3 complement level, total IgM, immune complex and a-fetoprotein in serum. Prothrombin time and concentration were determined in citrated plasma. Data from the present study showed that the chronic active HCV patients experienced decreased serum albumin, atypical lymphocyte proportion, prolonged prothrombin time, increased hyper segmented neutrophils, serum total IgM and serum C3 and unchanged immune complex and a-fetoprotein when compared to those of HCV healthy carriers. DDB treatment only adjusted prothrombin time and concentration and serum C3 in HCV active patients to the HCV healthy carrier level. It had diverse or no effect on other parameters. In conclusion, DDB acts independently from causing an HCV healthy carrier state in HCV active patients

  2. Geographical variations of risk factors associated with HCV infection in drug users in southwestern China.

    Zhou, Y B; Wang, Q X; Yang, M X; Gong, Y H; Yang, Y; Nie, S J; Liang, S; Nan, L; Coatsworth, A; Yang, A H; Liao, Q; Song, X X; Jiang, Q W

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a global public health problem. Many studies have been conducted to identify risk factors for HCV infection. However, some of these studies reported inconsistent results. Using data collected from 11 methadone clinics, we fit both a non-spatial logistical regression and a geographically weighted logistic regression to analyse the association between HCV infection and some factors at the individual level. This study enrolled 5401 patients with 30·0% HCV infection prevalence. The non-spatial logistical regression found that injection history, drug rehabilitation history and senior high-school education or above were related to HCV infection; and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection. Using the spatial model, we found that Yi ethnicity was negatively related to HCV infection in 62·0% of townships, and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection in 81·0% of townships. Senior high-school education or above was positively associated with HCV infection in 55·2% of townships of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture. The spatial model offers better understanding of the geographical variations of the risk factors associated with HCV infection. The geographical variations may be useful for customizing intervention strategies for local regions for more efficient allocation of limited resources to control transmission of HCV. PMID:26542331

  3. Proteasome- and Ethanol-Dependent Regulation of HCV-Infection Pathogenesis

    Natalia A. Osna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of the catabolism of HCV and signaling proteins in HCV protection and the involvement of ethanol in HCV-proteasome interactions. HCV specifically infects hepatocytes, and intracellularly expressed HCV proteins generate oxidative stress, which is further exacerbated by heavy drinking. The proteasome is the principal proteolytic system in cells, and its activity is sensitive to the level of cellular oxidative stress. Not only host proteins, but some HCV proteins are degraded by the proteasome, which, in turn, controls HCV propagation and is crucial for the elimination of the virus. Ubiquitylation of HCV proteins usually leads to the prevention of HCV propagation, while accumulation of undegraded viral proteins in the nuclear compartment exacerbates infection pathogenesis. Proteasome activity also regulates both innate and adaptive immunity in HCV-infected cells. In addition, the proteasome/immunoproteasome is activated by interferons, which also induce “early” and “late” interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs with anti-viral properties. Cleaving viral proteins to peptides in professional immune antigen presenting cells and infected (“target” hepatocytes that express the MHC class I-antigenic peptide complex, the proteasome regulates the clearance of infected hepatocytes by the immune system. Alcohol exposure prevents peptide cleavage by generating metabolites that impair proteasome activity, thereby providing escape mechanisms that interfere with efficient viral clearance to promote the persistence of HCV-infection.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Serologic and Virologic Tests and Clinical Diagnosis of HCV-Related Liver Disease

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of serological and virological tests has become essential in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in order to diagnose infection, guide treatment decisions and assess the virological response to antiviral therapy. Virological tools include serological assays for anti-HCV antibody detection and serological determination of the HCV genotype, and molecular assays that detect and quantify HCV RNA and determine the HCV genotype. Anti-HCV antibody testing and HCV RNA testing are used to diagnose acute and chronic hepatitis C. Only patients with detectable HCV RNA should be considered for pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin therapy and the HCV genotype should be systematically determined before treatment, as it determines the indication, the duration of treatment, the dose of ribavirin and the virological monitoring procedure. HCV RNA monitoring during therapy is used to tailor treatment duration in HCV genotype 1 infection, and molecular assays are used to assess the end-of-treatment and, most importantly the sustained virological response, i.e. the endpoint of therapy.

  5. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: ► This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. ► Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. ► Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  6. Enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch cv Abbott tratadas com auxinas e boro Rooting of kiwi stem cuttings (Actinidia chinensis Planch. cv Abbott treated with auxins and boron

    E.G. Ono

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como finalidade, estudar o efeito de várias auxinas sintéticas em formulações comerciais e do boro, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv Abbott.. As estacas utilizadas continham dois nós e duas folhas cortadas ao meio, com aproximadamente 10 cm de comprimento, onde o corte basal em bisel foi realizado logo abaixo de um nó e o apical acima do outro nó. O efeito das auxinas, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi foi verificado mediante os seguintes tratamentos, aplicados sobre as bases das estacas: T1 H(20; T2 (NAA 300 ppm; T3 (IBA 300 ppm; T4 (NAA 300 ppm + B; T5 (IBA 300 ppm + B; T6 (NAA 0,5%-pó e T7 (IBA 0,5%-pó. Após o tratamento das estacas, estas foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento, contendo vermiculita pura e colocadas em câmara de nebulização, onde permaneceram por 120 dias, até a sua coleta. Para a avaliação do efeito de auxinas e do ácido bórico, sobre o enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi, foram realizadas as seguintes observações: 1. porcentagem de estacas enraizadas; 2. análise de açúcares redutores e açúcares totais (em g/100 g de matéria seca; 3. análise de triptofano (em µg/100 mg de matéria seca. Os resultados obtidos no processo de enraizamento de estacas caulinares de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. variedade Abbott, levou a concluir que o inverno e outono foram as melhores épocas de coleta dos ramos de auxinas para a confecção das estacas. O processo de enraizamento foi ainda incrementado com a aplicação exógena na base das estacas, sendo que o alto teor de açúcares redutores e totais beneficiou a maior porcentagem de enraizamento.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of some synthetical auxins and boron trade formulations in the rooting of stem cuttings of some kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch varieties. The experiment was carried out in a misty nebulization chamber in the Botany

  7. HCV seropositivity in inmates and in the general population: an averaging approach to establish priority prevention interventions

    Roux, P; Sagaon-Teyssier, L; C. Lions; Fugon, L.; Verger, P.; Carrieri, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite the fact that a considerable portion of hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive individuals are viraemic, the risk of transmitting HCV to others is context dependent. Prison is a particularly risky environment as HCV prevention tools are often unavailable. Using data from a cross-sectional study conducted in centres for HCV testing in southeastern France, we aimed to compare the patterns of risk factors in HCV-positive inmates with those in the general population. Setting 26 centr...

  8. Managing HCV infection in pediatric age group: Suggested recommendations

    Danish Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in children is different from the adult infection in many ways, like natural course of the disease; duration, therapeutic response and side effects profile of the drug therapy; and prognosis. Special considerations include consideration on what could be the appropriate time to investigate a suspected child, when to institute drug therapy and how to prevent vertical transmission. Although over the past one decade many landmark studies have greatly increased our insight on this subject, yet we are far from developing a consensus statement. In this article, a concise yet comprehensive review of HCV infection in children - diagnosis and treatment - is given, followed by suggested recommendations at the end. It is hoped that these recommendations will help develop local guidelines on this subject.

  9. Main Steps in the Dutch SEA and EIA process

    This is the fifth volume in a series which presents papers in English by the Netherlands Commission for EIA to an international audience of impact assessment practitioners. The Netherlands Commission has gained considerable experience in the execution and management of EIA and SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessments) in The Netherlands and in developing countries as an independent advisor to the relevant competent authorities. This volume contains five papers grouped into two categories: new developments and practical experience. The two papers on new developments deal with sustainability assessment and biodiversity in EIA. The three papers on practical experience focus attention on the added values of EIA in The Netherlands to decision making: transparency of the EIA process, importance of considering alternatives and independent review by the Commission for EIA and following decision making by the judiciary

  10. Review article: HCV – STAT-C era of therapy

    Lange, Christian Markus; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Numerous ?specifically targeted antiviral therapy for hepatitis C? (STAT-C) compounds are currently under development to improve treatment opportunities of chronic hepatitis C virus-(HCV)-infection. Aim: To review the potential of STAT-C agents which are currently under clinical development. Methods: Studies evaluating STAT-C compounds were identified by systematic literature search using PubMed and databases of abstracts presented in English at recent l...

  11. HCV genotype distribution and possible transmission risks in Lahore, Pakistan

    Waqar; Ahmad; Bushra; Ijaz; Fouzia; Tahir; Javed; Shah; Jahan; Imran; Shahid; Fawad; Mumtaz; Khan; Sajida; Hassan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and their association with possible transmission routes in the general population of Lahore, as the data exclusively related to this city is limited. METHODS: Complete data regarding patient's history, possible route of infection and biochemical tests was collected from the public hospital for 1364 patients. SPSS version 16 windows software was used for data analysis by univariate and multivariate techniques. RESULTS: Age range ≤ 40 yea...

  12. Prevalence of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV

    Vedat Goral; Hamza Ozkul; Selahattin Tekes; Dede Sit; Ali Kemal Kadiroglu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence and clinical effects of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV.METHODS: Fifty chronic hemodialysis patients with negative HbsAg, and positive anti-HCV were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups:HCV-RNA positive and HCV-RNA negative, based on the results of HCV-RNA PCR. HBV-DNA was studied using the PCR method in both groups.RESULTS: None of the 22 HCV-RNA positive patients and 28 HCV-RNA negative patients revealed HBV-DNA in serum by PCR method. The average age was 47.2 ± 17.0 in the HCV-RNA positive group and 39.6 ± 15.6 in the HCV-RNA negative group.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of occult HBV infection is not high in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV in our region. This result of our study has to be evaluated in consideration of the interaction between HBsAg positivity (8%-10%) and frequency of HBV mutants in our region.

  13. Genetic diversity of HCV among various high risk populations (IDAs, thalassemia, hemophilia, HD patients) in Iran

    Rafiei A; Darzyani Azizi M; Taheri S; Haghshenas MR; Hosseinian A; Makhlough A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the patterns of distribution of HCV genotypes among high risk population in north of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 135 HCV RNA-positive high risk individuals including thalassemia, hemophilia, patients under hemodialysis and intravenous drug addicts. HCV genotypes were determined based on amplification with type-specific primers methods. Results: Among the 187 anti-HCV positive samples, only 135 (72.2%) gave HCV-RNA positvity. Over all, the most identified HCV type was genotype 3a (51.1%) followed by 1a (27.4%), 1b (8.2%). Sixteen (11.9%) out of 135 HCV RNA-positive participants have infected with more than one genotype or subtypes as follow; 1a/1b in 11 (8.2%), 2/3a in 3 (2.2%), and 1a/1b/3a in 2 (1.5%). Stratification of participants revealed that HCV subtype 3a was more prominent in thalassemia, hemophilia and HD patients but 1a and 1b were frequent in intravenous drug addicts. Conclusions: This study is the first report on HCV genotypes among Iranian subjects with different exposure categories resided in Mazandaran, where genotype 3a was found to be the most frequent genotype in thalassemia, hemophilia, and hemodialysis patients but not in IDAs. Since the addiction age is decreasing in Iran and a lot of addicts are IDAs, it might change the subtype pattern of HCV in general population.

  14. Current therapeutic strategies for HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia

    F. Iannuzzella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryoglobulinemia refers to the presence in serum of immunoglobulins, that reversibly precipitate at low temperatures. Cryoglobulins are classified according to their immunochemical properties as type I, composed of a single monoclonal immunoglobulin, and types II and III, referred as mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC, composed by a mixture of monoclonal (type II and polyclonal (type III IgM that have rheumatoid factor activity and bind to polyclonal IgGs. MC is a systemic vasculitis with cutaneous and multiple organ involvement including chronic hepatitis, membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis, and peripheral neuropathy. In more than 90% of patients, MC is associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, which is considered the triggering factor of the disease. Patients with HCV-related MC may be managed by means of etiological, pathogenetic or symptomatic therapeutic modalities. The choice of the more appropriate treatment is strictly related to the assessment of disease activity, and to the extent and severity of organ involvement. This paper reviews the currently available therapeutic strategies for MC syndrome, emphasizing the importance of HCV eradication, and the safety/efficacy of new biologic therapies for selective control of cryoglobulin-producing B-cells.

  15. Rituximab-Based Treatment, HCV Replication, and Hepatic Flares

    Evangelista Sagnelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab, a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody directed to the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B lymphocytes and mature lymphocytes, causes a profound B-cell depletion. Due to its peculiar characteristics, this drug has been used to treat oncohaematological diseases, B cell-related autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and, more recently, HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis. Rituximab-based treatment, however, may induce an increased replication of several viruses such as hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, echovirus, and parvovirus B19. Recent data suggest that rituximab-based chemotherapy induces an increase in HCV expression in hepatic cells, which may become a target for a cell-mediated immune reaction after the withdrawal of treatment and the restoration of the immune control. Only a few small studies have investigated the occurrence of HCV reactivation and an associated hepatic flare in patients with oncohaematological diseases receiving R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. These studies suggest that the hepatic flares are frequently asymptomatic, but life-threatening liver failure occurs in nearly 10% of cases.

  16. Prevalence of active HCV infection among the blood donors of Khyber Pakhtunkwa and FATA region of Pakistan and evaluation of the screening tests for anti-HCV

    Khan Sanaullah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C is a fatal liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. In this study, blood donors, from various districts of the KPK province and the federally administered tribal area (FATA of Pakistan were tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA by ICT (Immuno-chromatographic test, ELISA and RT-PCR. Out of the 7148 blood donors, 224 (3.13% were positive for anti-HCV antibodies by ICT, 135 (1.89% by ELISA while 118 (1.65% blood donors had active HCV infection as detected by RT-PCR. We suggest that ELISA should be used for anti-HCV screening in public sector hospitals and health care units.

  17. Chimeric hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) subviral envelope particles induce efficient anti-HCV antibody production in animals pre-immunized with HBV vaccine.

    Beaumont, Elodie; Roingeard, Philippe

    2015-02-18

    The development of an effective, affordable prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a medical priority. The recently described chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used for this purpose, as they could be produced by industrial procedures adapted from those established for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine. We show here, in an animal model, that pre-existing immunity acquired through HBV vaccination does not influence the immunogenicity of the HCV E2 protein presented by these chimeric particles. Thus, these chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used as a booster in individuals previously vaccinated against HBV, to induce protective immunity to HCV. PMID:25596457

  18. A MULTI-VIEW EVALUATION OF THE FINNISH EIA SYSTEM: AN 18-YEAR SUCCESS STORY?

    PEKKA HOKKANEN; JORMA JANTUNEN

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews how the Finnish EIA legislation and procedures are performing in practice, and how the goals of the EIA Act are reached. The role of EIA in planning and decision-making, and the relationship between the EIA legislation and other pieces of legislation is also evaluated. Overall, the goals of the Finnish EIA legislation have been successfully reached: EIA has achieved a meaningful role as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. In addition, stakeholder...

  19. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    Patrícia L. Gonçalves

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min and stored at -70ºC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV primers 939/209 and 940/211. HCV genotyping was carried out by RFLP (using Mva I and Hinf 1 or Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes. Thirty-two out of 39 (82%; 95% CI=70-94% anti-HCV-positive patients had HCV-RNA in plasma samples. Eight out of 39 (20.5%; 95% CI=6.6-34.4% had HCV-RNA in the saliva. The HCV genotype in saliva samples from these patients matched the genotype found for plasma HCV-RNA. No significant correlation between the presence of HCV and either age, gender, HCV genotype or any risk factor for HCV infection was found. The observed prevalence (20.5% of anti HCV positive patients or 25% of the patients with HCV-RNA in plasma was lower than that previously reported from other countries. The low frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples observed in our study may be due to the use of cell-free saliva. Other authors reporting higher frequencies of HCV-RNA in saliva used whole saliva, without centrifugation.

  20. Liver Retransplantation for Recurrence of HCV-Related Cirrhosis Using Hepatitis C-Positive Allografts: A 19-Year OPTN Analysis.

    Torosian, Justin C; Leiby, Benjamin E; Fenkel, Jonathan M; Frank, Adam M; Ramirez, Carlo G; Doria, Cataldo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Liver re-transplantation (re-OLT) in hepatitis C-infected (HCV+) recipients remains a controversial life-saving procedure, as the process of allograft HCV reinfection is universal. Current literature and practice show that in primary liver transplantations (OLT) in HCV+ recipients, HCV+ grafts have equivalent graft survival as non-infected (HCV-) grafts. MATERIAL AND METHODS Standard Transplant Analysis and Research (STAR) files from the OPTN (Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network) were used to identify HCV+ patients who underwent a second transplant between 3/16/1994 and 6/30/2013. Of 33 816 HCV+ patients who underwent primary OLT during this time 2345 underwent re-OLT; of whom 2079 could be confirmed as second transplants. Out of 2079 HCV+ patients who underwent retransplantation, 75 received HCV+ grafts and 2004 received HCV- grafts. Excluding primary or secondary graft losses within 1 week of transplant, 60 HCV+ donor grafts and 1557 HCV- donor grafts at re-transplantation remained for more focused analysis. RESULTS Graft survival for these patients appeared essentially identical regardless of whether they received an HCV+ or HCV- graft. In addition, using the 33 816 HCV+ patients who underwent primary transplantation during this time, our data agreed with the results of previous studies showing that HCV+ patients who receive HCV+ grafts at first transplant have equivalent graft and patient survival rates. CONCLUSIONS Due to the equivalency of HCV graft survival in re-OLT, selecting HCV+ donor organs for hepatitis C-infected recipients appears to be appropriate. PMID:27137953

  1. Design and expression of fusion protein consists of HBsAg and Polyepitope of HCV as an HCV potential vaccine

    Gholizadeh, Monireh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Memarnejadian, Arash; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Roohvand, Farzin; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Nazemi, Ali; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Asgary, Vahid; Arezumand, Roghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health threat worldwide. Cellular immune responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), play a critical role in immune response toward the HCV clearance. Since polytope vaccines have the ability to stimulate the cellular immunity, a recombinant fusion protein was developed in this study. Materials and Methods: The designed fusion protein is composed of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), as an immunocarrier, fused to an HCV polytope sequence. The polytope containing five immunogenic epitopes of HCV was designed to induce specific CTL responses. The construct was cloned into the pET-28a, and its expression was investigated in BL21 (DE3), BL21 pLysS, BL21 pLysE, and BL21 AI Escherichia coli strains using 12% gel sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the identity of expressed fusion protein was confirmed by Western blotting using anti-His monoclonal antibody and affinity chromatography was applied to purify the expressed protein. Results: The accuracy of the construct was confirmed by restriction map analysis and sequencing. The transformation of the construct into the BL21 (DE3), pLysS, and pLysE E. coli strains did not lead to any expression. The fusion protein was found to be toxic for E. coli DE3. By applying two steps inhibition, the fusion protein was successfully expressed in BL21 (AI) E. coli strain. Conclusion: The HBsAg-polytope fusion protein expressed in this study can be further evaluated for its immunogenicity in animal models. PMID:26682209

  2. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients with...... chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...

  3. Frequency distribution of HCV genotypes among chronic hepatitis C patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Azam Sadiq; Ali Ijaz; Ali Sajid; Ahmad Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotypes frequency is important for the predication of response to therapy and duration of treatment. Despite variable response rates experienced in the case of Interferon (IFN) -based therapies, there was scarcity of data on HCV genotypes frequency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Study Design A total of 200 blood samples were collected from chronic HCV patients prior to the initiation of anti-viral therapy. The study population included patients from...

  4. Response rates of standard interferon therapy in chronic HCV patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK)

    Ahmad Bashir; Ali Sajid; Ali Ijaz; Azam Sadiq; Bashir Shumaila

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interferon based therapy is used to eradicate the Hepatitis C Virus from the bodies of the infected individuals. HCV is highly prevalent in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) that is why it is important to determine the response of standard interferon based therapy in Chronic HCV patients of the region. Study design A total of 174 patients were selected for interferon based therapy. The patients were selected from four different regions of KPK. After confirmation of active HCV infec...

  5. Seroprevalences of HBV, HCV and HIV among healthcare workers in a state hospital

    Tekin, Alicem; Deveci, Özcan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: In present study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among healthcare workers in Mardin Obstetric and Children Hospital between 2008 and 2009. Methods: In sera samples obtained from 180 healthcare workers, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and HIV antibody (anti-HIV) markers were tested by chemiluminescent immun...

  6. Seroprevalences of HBV, HCV and HIV among healthcare workers in a state hospital

    Özcan Deveci; Alicem Tekin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: In present study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among healthcare workers in Mardin Obstetric and Children Hospital between 2008 and 2009.Methods: In sera samples obtained from 180 healthcare workers, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and HIV antibody (anti-HIV) markers were tested by chemiluminescent immunoassa...

  7. Development of mouse hepatocyte lines permissive for hepatitis C virus (HCV.

    Hussein Hassan Aly

    Full Text Available The lack of a suitable small animal model for the analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has hampered elucidation of the HCV life cycle and the development of both protective and therapeutic strategies against HCV infection. Human and mouse harbor a comparable system for antiviral type I interferon (IFN induction and amplification, which regulates viral infection and replication. Using hepatocytes from knockout (ko mice, we determined the critical step of the IFN-inducing/amplification pathways regulating HCV replication in mouse. The results infer that interferon-beta promoter stimulator (IPS-1 or interferon A receptor (IFNAR were a crucial barrier to HCV replication in mouse hepatocytes. Although both IFNARko and IPS-1ko hepatocytes showed a reduced induction of type I interferons in response to viral infection, only IPS-1-/- cells circumvented cell death from HCV cytopathic effect and significantly improved J6JFH1 replication, suggesting IPS-1 to be a key player regulating HCV replication in mouse hepatocytes. We then established mouse hepatocyte lines lacking IPS-1 or IFNAR through immortalization with SV40T antigen. Expression of human (hCD81 on these hepatocyte lines rendered both lines HCVcc-permissive. We also found that the chimeric J6JFH1 construct, having the structure region from J6 isolate enhanced HCV replication in mouse hepatocytes rather than the full length original JFH1 construct, a new finding that suggests the possible role of the HCV structural region in HCV replication. This is the first report on the entry and replication of HCV infectious particles in mouse hepatocytes. These mouse hepatocyte lines will facilitate establishing a mouse HCV infection model with multifarious applications.

  8. An evaluation of current EIA system in Pakistan

    The challenge of reducing poverty and increasing economic growth has often led Pakistan to overlook environmental sustainability. Consequently, Pakistan, is suffering from severe environmental problems. This has spurred an increasing demand for and effective Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System with environmental management tools and techniques that can help the country to adequately diagnose their risks and suggest mitigation options. In the past few years Pakistan has begun implementing EIA' s as a preventive tool. However, given the judiciary, institutional and structural predicament, the outcome of the EIA process has resulted in great disparities. Given the growing regional environmental problems it is now a priority to seek an effective EIA systems, principles, and procedures in the country. This paper seeks to distinguish the Pakistan EIA strengths and weaknesses; it also focuses on identifying common positive and negative characteristics of the Pakistan EIA system. Furthermore, differences between the interested parties of the EIA system in the country were evaluated via a survey to ensure a good understanding of the factors of a comprehensive and effective EIA system. Analytical comparisons were made among the different interested parties of the EIA system in Pakistan. Statistical methods were used to analyze the data received and recommendations were made based on the outcome of the data results. These results will assist: (i) Pakistan to improve its EIA system (ii) other South Asian countries which may have a similar EIA systems in developing policy, planning and reforms and (iii) International organizations that work or invest in the region to enhance the attainment of environ- mental protection objectives on a broader, more cost effective, and realistic scale than current practices. (author)

  9. BC-5500与Abbott CD-3700全自动血细胞分析仪性能的比较分析

    吴立兵; 李德奎

    2010-01-01

    @@ 深圳迈瑞公司和美国雅培公司采用不同的检测原理分别生产了BC-5500和Abbott CD-3700血细胞分析仪,为了解这2种血细胞分析仪检测结果的准确性、精密度和一致性,本组对二者的临床检测结果进行了分析、比较.结果报告如下.

  10. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Recombinant-Antigen-Based Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M Automated Immunoassay Using the Abbott AxSYM Analyzer

    Maine, G T; Stricker, R; Schuler, M.; Spesard, J.; Brojanac, S.; Iriarte, B.; Herwig, K.; Gramins, T.; Combs, B.; Wise, J.; Simmons, H.; Gram, T.; Lonze, J.; Ruzicki, D.; Byrne, B

    2000-01-01

    A new microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Immunoglobulin M (IgM) test, was developed on the Abbott AxSYM analyzer. This test uses recombinant CMV antigens derived from portions of four structural and nonstructural proteins of CMV: pUL32 (pp150), pUL44 (pp52), pUL83 (pp65), and pUL80a (pp38). A total of 1,608 specimens from random volunteer blood donors (n = 300), pregnant women (n = 1,118), transplant recipients (n = 6), and patients with various clinical condit...

  11. Erythropoiesis: Short Report: Translation of Analysis Results between Serum Ferritin Assays, Ferritin RIA AmershamTM and Abbott AxSYMTM Ferritin.

    Milman, NILS; Byg, KELD-ERIK; Juul-Jørgensen, BIRGIT; Weis Bentzon, MICHAEL

    1999-01-01

    The serum ferritin assays, Ferritin RIA Amersham(TM) and Abbott AxSYM(TM) Ferritin were compared in order to translate values from one assay to the other. Serum ferritin was analysed with both assays in 102 samples. Logarithmic transformation of the results was performed in order to stabilize the variance. The relationship between the untransformed values was most exactly expressed by a proportionality: AxSYM Ferritin = 0.873 * RIA Ferritin. Due to this proportionality, the numerical difference between the assays increases with the ferritin concentration, although the percentage difference between the assays remains constant. PMID:11399562

  12. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  13. Active hepatitis C infection and HCV genotypes prevalent among the IDUs of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Uz Zaman Khaleeq

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs are considered as a high risk group to develop hepatitis C due to needle sharing. In this study we have examined 200 injection drug users from various regions of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province for the prevalence of active HCV infection and HCV genotypes by Immunochromatographic assays, RT-PCR and Type-specific PCR. Our results indicated that 24% of the IDUs were actively infected with HCV while anti HCV was detected among 31.5% cases. Prevalent HCV genotypes were HCV 2a, 3a, 4 and 1a. Majority of the IDUs were married and had attained primary or middle school education. 95% of the IDUs had a previous history of needle sharing. Our study indicates that the rate of active HCV infection among the IDUs is higher with comparatively more prevalence of the rarely found HCV types in KPK. The predominant mode of HCV transmission turned out to be needle sharing among the IDUs.

  14. HIV-1 Vpr increases HCV replication through VprBP in cell culture.

    Yan, Yanling; Huang, Fang; Yuan, Ting; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-09-01

    Coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs at a high frequency, in which HIV shows a promotion of HCV-derived liver diseases. However, the mechanism of how this occurs is not well understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr enhances HCV RNA replication in cell culture. Because Vpr performs most of its functions through host protein VprBP (DCAF1), the role of VprBP in the regulation of HCV by Vpr was investigated in this study. We found that the Vpr mutant Q65R, which is deficient in VprBP binding, could not enhance HCV replication. Furthermore, Vpr-mediated enhancement of HCV replication was severely diminished in VprBP knockdown cells. In addition, an inhibitor of Cullin RING E3 ligases, MLN4924, impaired the function of Vpr during HCV replication. Together, these results suggest that Vpr promotes HCV replication in a VprBP-dependent manner, and that the activity of Cullin RING E3 ligases is essential to this process. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HIV-1 Vpr makes the cellular environment more suitable for HCV replication, which might relate with the host ubiquitination system. PMID:27460548

  15. Increased microRNA-155 expression in the serum and peripheral monocytes in chronic HCV infection

    Bala Shashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV, a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chronic liver inflammation leads to progressive liver damage. MicroRNAs (miRNA regulate inflammation (miR-155, -146a and -125b as well as hepatocyte function (miR-122. Methods Here we hypothesized that microRNAs are dysregulated in chronic HCV infection. We examined miRNAs in the circulation and in peripheral monocytes of patients with chronic HCV infection to evaluate if specific miRNA expression correlated with HCV infection. Results We found that monocytes from chronic HCV infected treatment-naïve (cHCV but not treatment responder patients showed increased expression of miR-155, a positive regulator of TNFα, and had increased TNFα production compared to monocytes of normal controls. After LPS stimulation, miR-155 levels were higher in monocytes from cHCV patients compared to controls. MiR-125b, which has negative regulatory effects on inflammation, was decreased in cHCV monocytes compared to controls. Stimulation of normal monocytes with TLR4 and TLR8 ligands or HCV core, NS3 and NS5 recombinant proteins induced a robust increase in both miR-155 expression and TNFα production identifying potential mechanisms for in vivo induction of miR-155. Furthermore, we found increased serum miR-155 levels in HCV patients compared to controls. Serum miR-125b and miR-146a levels were also increased in HCV patients. Serum levels of miR-122 were elevated in cHCV patients and correlated with increased ALT and AST levels and serum miR-155 levels. Conclusion In conclusion, our novel data demonstrate that miR-155, a positive regulator of inflammation, is upregulated both in monocytes and in the serum of patients with chronic HCV infection. Our study suggests that HCV core, NS3, and NS5 proteins or TLR4 and TLR8 ligands can mediate

  16. Host APOBEC3G Protein Inhibits HCV Replication through Direct Binding at NS3

    ZHU, YAN-PING; Peng, Zong-Gen; Wu, Zhou-Yi; Jian-rui LI; Huang, Meng-Hao; Si, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts replication of certain viruses. We have previously reported that hA3G was a host restriction factor against hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication, and hA3G stabilizers showed a significant inhibitory activity against HCV. However, the molecular mechanism of hA3G against HCV remains unknown. We show in this study that hA3G’s C-terminal directly binds HCV non-structural protein NS3 at its C-terminus, which is responsible for NS3’s helic...

  17. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  18. frequency and risk factors for chronic HCV infection: a community based study

    It was a community based, cross-sectional study undertaken to assess the frequency of HCV infection and to find out the risk factors associated with its spread. Methods: Study was carried out from Oct 2004 to Mar 2005. One hundred and twenty five apparently healthy consecutive subjects not known to be infected with HBV or HCV, between the ages 13 and 60 years with equal sex distribution were selected from the population of the Village Mera Kalan near Rawalpindi. They were screened for Anti HCV antibodies using ELISA and interviewed in detail. Subjects found positive for Anti HCV Ab were tested for ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) levels and HCV RNA by PCR. Results: The frequency of HCV was found to be 53.6%. The most important risk factor associated with the transmission of HCV infection was unsafe injection therapy with contaminated equipment. Other risk factors include ear and nose piercing by unsterilized means in females and sharing of razors in males. Conclusion: The prevalence of HCV infection in our population is significantly higher than in the developed world. Public awareness programs should target the identified risk factors to prevent HCV transmission. (author)

  19. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection. PMID:27283884

  20. Phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    Roe, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    While hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses are attenuated in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients compared to those infected with HCV alone, the reasons for this remain unclear. In this study, the proportions of regulatory, naïve, and memory T cells, along with chemokine receptor expression, were measured in co-infected and mono-infected patients to determine if there is an alteration in the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in these patients. HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients had increased proportions of CD4(+) naïve cells and decreased proportions of CD4(+) effector cells when compared to HCV mono-infected patients. The proportions of CD4(+) Tregs and CD4(+) CXCR3(+) T cells were also significantly lower in co-infected patients. A decrease in CD4(+) Tregs and subsequent loss of immunosuppressive function may contribute to the accelerated progression to liver disease in co-infected individuals. Dysregulation of immune responses following reduction in the proportions of CD4(+) CXCR3(+) Th-1 cells may contribute to the reduced functional capacity of HCV-specific immune responses in co-infected patients. The findings of this study provide new information on the T-cell immunophenotype in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients when compared to those infected with HCV alone, and may provide insight into why cell-mediated immune responses are diminished during HCV infection.

  1. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in alcoholics.

    Prakash, Om; Mason, Andrew; Luftig, Ronald B; Bautista, Abraham P

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 400,000 individuals in the United States are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is likely that almost one in two of these subjects consumes alcohol. The majority of these patients suffer an accelerated course of liver disease as manifested by the onset of cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years of developing HCV infection, as well as an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is thought that chronic alcohol abuse mediates liver damage as a result of increased production of free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. In the setting of chronic HCV infection, alcohol ingestion has an additional effect of diminishing immune clearance and increasing viral burden to hasten the onset of cirrhosis and HCC. Likewise, chronic HCV and HIV-1 co-infection results in a net increase in HCV burden; higher prevalence rates of HCV transmission to sexual partners and offspring, as well as an accelerated progression to end stage liver disease as compared to individuals with HCV infection alone. Thus, the synergistic effects of alcohol abuse and HIV-1 greatly impact on the morbidity and mortality for patients with HCV coinfection. Ultimately, this cumulative disease process will require far more aggressive management with abstinence and counseling for alcohol abuse; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection and combination anti-viral therapy for HCV infection to stem the rapid progression to end stage liver disease. PMID:12086918

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion.

    Chu, Carissa E; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods.  We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results.  Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions.  Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access. PMID:27419150

  3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection & risk factors for HCV positivity in injecting & non-injecting drug users attending a de-addiction centre in northern India

    Debasish Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Injecting drug use is a major route of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in India, but there may be other risk factors also. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in injecting drug users (IDUs vs. non-IDUs (NIDUs, and to study the risk estimates for HCV seropositivity in the total sample of substance users with regard to various demographic, clinical, behavioural and personality factors. Methods: The IDUs (n = 201 and NIDUs (n = 219 were assessed for demographic, clinical and behavioural information, and were rated on instruments for severity of dependence, risk behaviour and personality profiles. Anti-HCV antibody was tested by ELISA and confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA test. Results: Almost one-third of the IDUs (64 of 201; 31.8% were positive for anti-HCV antibody, as opposed to only seven (3.2% of the NIDUs. The four risk factors strongly associated with HCV positivity in multivariate analysis were sharing syringe [Exp(B 75.04; 95%CI 18.28-307.96; P<0.001], reuse of injection accessories (16.39; 3.51-76.92; P<0.001, blood transfusion (5.88; 1.63-21.23; P=0.007 and IDU status (3.60; 1.26-10.31; P=0.017. Other variables less strongly but significantly associated with HCV positivity were multiple sex partners, opioid dependence, risk behaviour scores, impulsivity, and lower age of onset of drug use. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a high seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in IDUs. In the substance users, HCV positivity was significantly and independently associated with several clinical, behavioural, and personality risk factors.

  4. Newly released EIA-law. A palette of wishes?

    The EU-directive on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for certain public and private projects was once again amended in 2014 after controversial discussions, three previous modifications during 1985 and 2010 and an aggregation of all amendments within the EU-EIA-2011/92 directive. This newly released EU-EIA-directive 2014/52/EU (hereinafter RL 2014/52) is published within the EU-official journal EU L 124 p. 1 from 25.04.2014, came into force on 15. May 2014 and has to be adopted into international law until 16.05.2017. The modifications made are also valid, apart from certain exceptions, for licensing procedures (including decommissioning of nuclear power plants) in the field of nuclear energy, as far as they might have possible, significant environmental effects. The European EIA directive's 30th ''anniversary'' on 27.06.2015 raises the question, which substantial changes will come soon along with the newly released EU-EIA law. All in all it seems like if authorities and industry might get along with the newly released EU-EIA regulations. The responsible Federal Ministry for the Environment is already working on a first preliminary draft. It is under consideration if the EIA-regulation should be submitted additionally, beyond required amendments by EU-law, to a general revision. EIA-law remains exciting.

  5. EIA modelling for coastal zone management. Part 2

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  6. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for

  7. Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions between Antiretrovirals and HCV Direct Acting Antivirals in a Large Cohort of HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients

    Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Naqvi, Alissa; Obry-Roguet, Véronique; Valantin, Marc-Antoine; Cuzin, Lise; Billaud, Eric; Cheret, Antoine; Rey, David; Jacomet, Christine; Duvivier, Claudine; Pugliese, Pascal; Pradat, Pierre; Cotte, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Development of direct acting antivirals (DAA) offers new benefits for patients with chronic hepatitis C. The combination of these drugs with antiretroviral treatment (cART) is a real challenge in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to describe potential drug-drug interactions between DAAs and antiretroviral drugs in a cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Methods Cross-sectional study of all HIV/HCV coinfected patients attending at least one visit in 2012 in the...

  8. Optimal treatment with boceprevir for chronic HCV infection.

    Maasoumy, Benjamin; Manns, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    There are 160-170 million people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection worldwide. The marketing of protease inhibitors (PIs) has been a milestone in the history of HCV therapy. In phase III studies, up to 75% of the patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) after triple therapy with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)-α, ribavirin (RBV) and boceprevir (BOC). However, triple regimens are more expensive and associated with drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and more adverse events (AEs). According to results in 'real-world' settings, safety seems to be limited, in particular in patients with advanced liver disease. To optimize efficacy while minimizing AEs as well as costs, the optimal treatment strategy must be determined for BOC. Optimizing treatment is based on patient selection, the most efficient treatment design, management of side effects and the challenge of DDIs. Therapy-associated risks, treatment urgency and chances of SVR must all be considered for patient selection. In addition, certain differences between the two approved PIs may help identify the ideal candidates for each HCV PI. Optimal treatment design is based on the results of phase II and III studies, in which different approaches have been tested including 'lead-in' and response-guided strategies. Treatment regimens and stopping rules recommended by the FDA and EMA should normally be followed. Still, there are some cases in which more personalized strategies may be more promising. Management of side effects is a major challenge and plays a crucial role in ensuring safety and adherence. PMID:23286841

  9. HCV Animal Models: A Journey of More than 30 Years

    Philip Meuleman; Geert Leroux-Roels

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s it became increasingly clear that blood transfusions could induce a form of chronic hepatitis that could not be ascribed to any of the viruses known to cause liver inflammation. In 1989, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered and found to be the major causative agent of these infections. Because of its narrow ropism, the in vivo study of this virus was, especially in the early days, limited to the chimpanzee. In the past decade, several alternative animal models hav...

  10. Safety of interferon treatment for chronic HCV hepatitis

    D Festi; L Sandri; G Mazzella; E Roda; T Sacco; T Staniscia; S Capodicasa; A Vestito; A Colecchia

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide, In fact, chronic hepatitis C is considered as one of the primary causes of chronic liver disease, cirhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is the most common reason for liver transplantation. The primary objectives for the treatment of HCV-related chronic hepatitis is to eradicate infection and prevent progression of the disease. The treatment has evolved from the use of α-interferon (TFNα)alone to the combination of IFNα plus ribavirin, with a significant improvement in the overall efficacy, and to the newer PEG-IFNs which have further increased the virological response, used either alone or in combination with ribavirin.Despite these positive results, in terms of efficacy, concerns are related to the safety and adverse events. Many patients must reduce the dose of PEG-IFN or ribavirin, others must stop the treatment and a variable percentage of subjects are not suitable owing to intolerance toward drugs. IFNβ represents a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and in some countries it plays an important role in therapeutic protocols. Aim of the present paper was to review available data on the safety of IFNβ treatment in HCV-related chronic hepatitis.The rates of treatment discontinuation and/or dose modification due to the appearance of severe side effects during IFNβ are generally low and in several clinical studies no requirements for treatment discontinuation and/or dose modifications have been reported. The most frequent side effects experienced during IFNβ treatment are flu-like syndromes, fever, fatigue and injection-site reactions. No differences in terms of side-effect frequency and severity between responders and non-responders have been reported.A more recent study, performed to compare IFNβ alone or in combination with ribavirin, confirmed the good safety profile of both treatments. Similar trends of adverse event