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Sample records for abbn-90 constant system

  1. Critical experiments analysis by ABBN-90 constant system

    The ABBN-90 is a new version of the well-known Russian group-constant system ABBN. Included constants were calculated based on files of evaluated nuclear data from the BROND-2, ENDF/B-VI, and JENDL-3 libraries. The ABBN-90 is intended for the calculation of different types of nuclear reactors and radiation shielding. Calculations of criticality safety and reactivity accidents are also provided by using this constant set. Validation of the ABBN-90 set was made by using a computerized bank of evaluated critical experiments. This bank includes the results of experiments conducted in Russia and abroad of compact spherical assemblies with different reflectors, fast critical assemblies, and fuel/water-solution criticalities. This report presents the results of the calculational analysis of the whole collection of critical experiments. All calculations were produced with the ABBN-90 group-constant system. Revealed discrepancies between experimental and calculational results and their possible reasons are discussed. The codes and archives INDECS system is also described. This system includes three computerized banks: LEMEX, which consists of evaluated experiments and their calculational results; LSENS, which consists of sensitivity coefficients; and LUND, which consists of group-constant covariance matrices. The INDECS system permits us to estimate the accuracy of neutronics calculations. A discussion of the reliability of such estimations is finally presented. 16 figs

  2. Critical experiments analysis by ABBN-90 constant system

    Tsiboulia, A.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Golubev, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The ABBN-90 is a new version of the well-known Russian group-constant system ABBN. Included constants were calculated based on files of evaluated nuclear data from the BROND-2, ENDF/B-VI, and JENDL-3 libraries. The ABBN-90 is intended for the calculation of different types of nuclear reactors and radiation shielding. Calculations of criticality safety and reactivity accidents are also provided by using this constant set. Validation of the ABBN-90 set was made by using a computerized bank of evaluated critical experiments. This bank includes the results of experiments conducted in Russia and abroad of compact spherical assemblies with different reflectors, fast critical assemblies, and fuel/water-solution criticalities. This report presents the results of the calculational analysis of the whole collection of critical experiments. All calculations were produced with the ABBN-90 group-constant system. Revealed discrepancies between experimental and calculational results and their possible reasons are discussed. The codes and archives INDECS system is also described. This system includes three computerized banks: LEMEX, which consists of evaluated experiments and their calculational results; LSENS, which consists of sensitivity coefficients; and LUND, which consists of group-constant covariance matrices. The INDECS system permits us to estimate the accuracy of neutronics calculations. A discussion of the reliability of such estimations is finally presented. 16 figs.

  3. ZEMO system for generating group constants

    The code system ZEMO for generating 26 group and 140-group constant sets for fast breeder reactors neutronics is considered. Group constant libraries, calculational techniques, formats of generated group constant sets and code control parameters are described. Results of one-dimensional model calculations for some critical assemblies and results of investigation of sodium void reactivity effect calculational error caused by 26-group approximation for two-dimensional model of BN-800 are presented. 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  4. Electromechanical systems generating constant frequency alternating current

    Т.А. Мазур

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  In the article we consider the usage of electromechanical drivers of constant speed rotation, which is based on many stepped electrodynamic reduction unit, in onboard main systems of electric supply of alternative current with constant frequency.

  5. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles. 1250...; constant temperature bottles. (a) The water system, whether of the pressure or gravity type, shall be... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and...

  6. New multitarget constant modulus array for CDMA systems

    Zhang Jidong; Zheng Baoyu

    2006-01-01

    A new multitarget constant modulus array is proposed for CDMA systems based on least squares constant modulus algorithm. The new algorithm is called pre-despreading decision directed least squares constant modulus algorithm (DDDLSCMA). In the new algorithm, the pre-despreading is first applied for multitarget arrays to remove some multiple access signals, then the despreaded signal is processed by the algorithm which united the constant modulus algorithm and decision directed method. Simulation results illustrate the good performance for the proposed algorithm.

  7. An automatic system for crystal growth studies at constant supersaturation

    March, J. G.; Costa-Bauzá, A.; F. Grases; Söhnel, O.

    1992-01-01

    An automatic system for growing crystals from seeded supersaturated solutions at constant supersaturation is described. Control of burettes and data acquisition are controlled by computer. The system was tested with a study of the calcium oxalate kinetics of crystal growth.

  8. A new version of the unified constant system package

    A unified constant retrieval system called OKS has been developed for convenient access to the constant systems ARAMAKO-2F, ARAMAKO-G, DENSTY, TERMAC and others, in calculating radiation transport, value functions and various functionals. Since the system was first developed in 1980 both its language and its functional contents have been improved and added to. In this paper the input language and performance of the new version are described. (author)

  9. Constant depression fan system a novel glovebox ventilation system

    In a conventional glovebox ventilation system the depression within the glovebox under normal operation is controlled by instrumentation. In the event of a breach the pressure within the box rises to atmospheric pressure, this pressure rise is detected by instrumentation which in turn operates a quick opening damper in a high depression extract to achieve a 1 metre/sec (200 fpm) inflow through the breach, which can take up to 2 seconds to establish. This system, although widely used, suffers from two distinct drawbacks: It takes a finite time to achieve the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec. It relies upon instrumentation to achieve its objectives. A new glovebox ventilation system has been developed by AWE to overcome these drawbacks. This is the Constant Depression Fan System (CDFS) which is based on an extract fan with a flat characteristic. This achieves all the requirements for the ventilation of gloveboxes and has the advantages that: It has only one moving part - the extract fan. It requires NO INSTRUMENTATION to achieve its objectives. It achieves the containment velocity of 1 metre/sec in the shortest possible time - approximately 0.2 seconds - and tests have shown that containment is maintained under breach conditions. Thus the CDFS is SAFER, SIMPLER and MORE RELIABLE

  10. Fission Product Fast Reactor Constants System of JNDC

    The Fission Product Fast Reactor Constants System of JNDC has been developed for providing the FP group constants set rather automatically from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL). In the present version, the evaluation by JNDC was adopted for the 28 important nuclides and the evaluation by Cook was supplementally used for the other nuclides to obtain the lumped group constants. The burn-up time dependence of the lumped constants were examined. The change of capture cross sections are about 5% between 60 days and 720 days of burn-up for any type of fast reactors. The 28 important nuclides take more than 80% of total capture by fission products and cover 40% of elastic scattering and 60% of inelastic scattering. The JNDC FP lumped constants were compared with those based on Cook's evaluation and on the ENDF/B-4. The discrepancies among the three are 15% for capture and 10% for both of elastic and inelastic scattering. A benchmark test was performed using the integral measurements made in RCN, Petten, the Netherlands, in order to check the reliability of the JNDC FP group constants. The JNDC constants give better agreements than the Cook and ENDF/B-4 constants with the experiments both for FP mixtures and for separated isotopes. (auth.)

  11. Assessment of fast radiographic systems by the constant exposure technique

    The constant exposure technique was applied to compare the radiographic image quality and relative speed of different fast radiographic systems. Conventional industrial X-ray films, exposed with lead intensifying screens, special fast film with fluorometallic screens as well as different brands of radiographic paper exposed both with fluorescent as well as fluorometallic screens were tested and compared. ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters were used together with 30-mm aluminium and 10-mm steel plates. For all the fast radiographic systems wire sensitivity better than 2 per cent was obtained. The constant exposure technique proved to be adequate for the assessment of fast radiographic systems. (author)

  12. Constant-space P systems with active membranes

    A. Leporati; Manzoni, L; Mauri, G; Porreca, A; Zandron, C

    2014-01-01

    We show that a constant amount of space is sufficient to simulate a polynomial-space bounded Turing machine by P systems with active membranes. We thus obtain a new characterisation of PSPACE, which raises interesting questions about the definition of space complexity for P systems. We then propose an alternative definition, where the size of the alphabet and the number of membrane labels of each P system are also taken into account. Finally we prove that, when less than a logarithmic number ...

  13. PARALLEL EVALUATION OF CONSTANT AND DIURNAL FLOW TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    Pilot plant studies were performed to evaluate the effects of an imposed diurnal flow pattern on a conventional activated sludge treatment plant. These results were compared against data generated on a similar system treating a constant flow. Effects on primary clarifier and fina...

  14. Research of digital constant fraction discriminator in PET system

    The research on digital constant fraction discriminator of spike pulse signal in PET detector is introduced. Based on FPGA technique, rapid signal's time information is extracted via DCFD algorithm after a high-speed ADC digitization. Experiment results show that time resolution of DCFD is 772 ps, which meets the requirement of time measurement in PET system well. (authors)

  15. Constant-Space P Systems with Active Membranes

    Leporati, Alberto; Manzoni, Luca; Mauri, Giancarlo; Porreca, Antonio E.; Zandron, Claudio; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2014-01-01

    We continue the investigation of the computational power of space- constrained P systems. We show that only a constant amount of space is needed in order to simulate a polynomial-space bounded Turing machine. Due to this result, we propose an alternative de nition of space complexity for P systems, where the amount of information contained in individual objects and membrane labels is also taken into ac- count. Finally, we prove that, when less than a logarithmic number of membr...

  16. Spectral Gap and Logarithmic Sobolev Constant for Continuous Spin Systems

    Mu Fa CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the spectral gap and the logarithmic Sobolev constant for continuous spin systems. A simple but general result for estimating the spectral gap of finite dimensional systems is given by Theorem 1.1, in terms of the spectral gap for one-dimensional marginals. The study of this topic provides us a chance, and it is indeed another aim of the paper, to justify the power of the results obtained previously. The exact order in dimension one (Proposition 1.4), and then the precise leading order and the explicit positive regions of the spectral gap and the logarithmic Sobolev constant for two typical infinite-dimensional models are presented (Theorems 6.2 and 6.3). Since we are interested in explicit estimates, the computations become quite involved. A long section (Section 4) is devoted to the study of the spectral gap in dimension one.

  17. Bifurcation in a Discrete-Time Piecewise Constant Dynamical System

    Chenmin Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of recurrent neural networks with piecewise constant transition or control functions has attracted much attention recently because they can be used to simulate many physical phenomena. A recurrent and discontinuous two-state dynamical system involving a nonnegative bifurcation parameter is studied. By elementary but novel arguments, we are able to give a complete analysis on its asymptotic behavior when the parameter varies from 0 to . It is hoped that our analysis will provide motivation for further results on large-scale recurrent McCulloch-Pitts-type neural networks and piecewise continuous discrete-time dynamical systems.

  18. Controllability and Observability Criteria for Linear Piecewise Constant Impulsive Systems

    Hong Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive differential systems are an important class of mathematical models for many practical systems in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and information science that exhibit impulsive dynamical behaviors due to abrupt changes at certain instants during the dynamical processes. This paper studies the controllability and observability of linear piecewise constant impulsive systems. Necessary and sufficient criteria for reachability and controllability are established, respectively. It is proved that the reachability is equivalent to the controllability under some mild conditions. Then, necessary and sufficient criteria for observability and determinability of such systems are established, respectively. It is also proved that the observability is equivalent to the determinability under some mild conditions. Our criteria are of the geometric type, and they can be transformed into algebraic type conveniently. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the utility of our criteria.

  19. Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation

    The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)

  20. Solar System motions and the cosmological constant: a new approach

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use the corrections to the Newton-Einstein secular precessions of the perihelia of some planets (Mercury, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) of the Solar System, phenomenologically estimated as solve-for parameters by the Russian astronomer E.V. Pitjeva in a global fit of almost one century of data with the EPM2004 ephemerides, in order to put on the test the expression for the perihelion precession induced by an uniform cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (or Kottler) space-time. We compare such an extra-rate to the estimated corrections to the planetary perihelion precessions by taking their ratio for different pairs of planets instead of using one perihelion at a time for each planet separately, as done so far in literature. The answer is neatly negative, even by further re-scaling by a factor 10 (and even 100 for Saturn) the errors in the estimated extra-precessions of the perihelia released by Pitjeva. However, caution is advised because it would be relevant to repe...

  1. A Piecewise-Conserved Constant of Motion for a Dissipative System

    Burko, Lior M.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a piecewise-conserved constant of motion for a simple dissipative oscillatory mechanical system. The system is a harmonic oscillator with sliding (dry) friction. The piecewise-conserved constant of motion corresponds to the time average of the energy of the system during one half-period of the motion, and changes abruptly at the turning points of the motion. At late times the piecewise-conserved constant of motion degenerates to a constant of motion in the usual sense.

  2. One-dimensional relativistic dissipative system with constant force and its quantization

    López, Gustavo; López, Xaman-Ek; Hernández, Hector

    2005-01-01

    For a relativistic particle under a constant force and a linear velocity dissipation force, a constant of motion is found. Problems are shown for getting the Hamiltoninan of this system. Thus, the quantization of this system is carried out through the constant of motion and using the quantization of the velocity variable. The dissipative relativistic quantum bouncer is outlined within this quantization approach.

  3. Constant of Motion for One-Diemnsional Non Autonomous Linear Systems and Harmonic Oscillator

    Lopez, Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    For a one-dimensional motion, a constant of motion for non autonomous an linear system (position and velocity) is given from the constant of motion associated to its autonomous system. This approach is used in the study of the harmonic oscillator with an additional time depending force.

  4. The FOND-2.2 evaluated neutron data library (Russian library of evaluated neutron data files for generating sets of constants in the ABBN constants system)

    A short description is given of the Russian evaluated neutron data library FOND-2.2. The main purpose of FOND-2.2 is to provide sets of constants for the ABBN constants system. A history of its compilation and the sources of the neutron data are given. The contents of FOND-2.2 are presented with brief comments. (author)

  5. Comment on "Global Positioning System Test of the Local Position Invariance of Planck's Constant"

    Berengut, J C

    2012-01-01

    In their Letter, Kentosh and Mohageg [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 110801 (2012)] seek to use data from clocks aboard global positioning system (GPS) satellites to place limits on local position invariance (LPI) violations of Planck's constant, h. It is the purpose of this comment to show that discussing limits on variation of dimensional constants (such as h) is not meaningful; that even within a correct framework it is not possible to extract limits on variation of fundamental constants from a single type of clock aboard GPS satellites; and to correct an important misconception in the authors' interpretation of previous Earth-based LPI experiments.

  6. Decay constants of a subcritical system by two-group diffusion theory

    The effects of a neutronic pulse applied to a subcritical multiplicative medium are analyzed on the basis of the diffusion theory for one and two groups. The decay constants of the system were determined from the experimental data, for various values geometric buckling. A natural uranium light-water configuration was pulsed employing a Texas Nuclear 9905 neutron generator. The least square method was employed in the data reduction procedures to determine the decay constants. The separation of the decay constants associated with thermal and epithermal fluxes are verified through two groups formulation. (Author)

  7. Decay constants of subcritical system by diffusion theory for two groups

    The effects of a neutronic pulse applied to a subcritical multiplicative medium are analysed on the basis of the diffusion theory for one and two groups. The decay constants of the system for various values of geometric buckling were determined from the experimental data. A natural uranium-light water lattice was pulsed employing a Texas Nuclear 9905 neutron generator. The least square method was employed in the data reduction procedures to determine the decay constants. The separation of the decay constants associated with thermal and epithermal fluxes is attempted through two groups formulation. (author)

  8. ℋ∞ constant gain state feedback stabilization of stochastic hybrid systems with Wiener process

    E. K. Boukas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stabilization problem of the class of continuous-time linear stochastic hybrid systems with Wiener process. The ℋ∞ state feedback stabilization problem is treated. A state feedback controller with constant gain that does not require access to the system mode is designed. LMI-based conditions are developed to design the state feedback controller with constant gain that stochastically stabilizes the studied class of systems and, at the same time, achieve the disturbance rejection of a desired level. The minimum disturbance rejection is also determined. Numerical examples are given to show the usefulness of the proposed results.

  9. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach. PMID:23564972

  10. Perturbation approach and the constant of motion for on-dimensional dynamical systems

    A perturbation technic is used to find the constant of motion of a one-dimensional autonomous system. The convergence of the method is discussed through some examples. In addition, the approach is extended to one-dimensional non-autonomous systems where some examples are given

  11. The Measurement of the Hubble Constant H_0 in the Solar System

    Anderson, Allen Joel

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology necessary to measure the Hubble constant Ho to a high degree of accuracy based upon Doppler tracking of spacecraft in the solar system. Using this methodology with available published data we determine a model independent value of the Hubble constant for the current epoch in the solar system to be Ho = 2.59 \\pm 0.05 x 10^-18 (s^-1) or as 79.8 \\pm 1.7 (km/s/Mpc). We calculate the direct effect of the Cosmic Redshift on Doppler tracking of spacecraft in the ...

  12. The generalized Weierstrass system inducing surfaces of constant and nonconstant mean curvature in Euclidean three space

    Bracken, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The generalized Weierstrass (GW) system is introduced and its correspondence with the associated two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model is reviewed. The method of symmetry reduction is systematically applied to derive several classes of invariant solutions for the GW system. The solutions can be used to induce constant mean curvature surfaces in Euclidean three space. Some properties of the system for the case of nonconstant mean curvature are introduced as well.

  13. One operational amplifier simulator for third order systems with a leading time constant

    L. K. Wadhwa

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a method for the simulation of third order linear systems with only one operational amplifier. A particular class of the general third order systems, that is, systems with a leading time constant is considered in this paper. A basic circuit consisting of one operational amplifier, four capacitors and five resistors is presented. The circuit is a analyzed and the conditions of physical reliability discussed and obtained. The design formulae and procedure are also given.

  14. The Control System Simulation of Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency Wind Turbine

    窦金延; 曹娜

    2010-01-01

    <正>In general,Variable-Speed Constant Frequency (VSCF)Wind generation system is controlled by stator voltage orientation method which based on the mathematic model of VSCF Wind generation system and discussed the control strategy.Present the whole dynamic control model of variable-speed wind generator system in MATLAB/ Simulink,and the simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  15. Design and development of a solution growth system based on constant temperature and constant supersaturation technique for rapid growth of KD P Crystals

    A one-vessel crystal growth system has been built to grow KD P crystals of up to 10 cm in length. The process is based on transfer of saturated solution under constant temperature-constant supersaturation. Ca ry 17 D X spectrophotometer transmission spectra from (100) planes of the grown crystals show 89% transmission in the visible region. The system provides a reduction in capping time and growth rate of 25 mm/day for the first day and 1.5 mm/day for the 7th day

  16. Optimal Control of Production-Inventory Systems with Constant and Compound Poisson Demand

    Germs, Remco; Foreest, Nicky D. van

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a production-inventory systems with finite production capacity and fixed setup costs. The demand process is modeled as a mixture of a compound Poisson process and a constant demand rate. For the backlog model we establish conditions on the holding and backlogging costs such t

  17. Library of neutron reaction cross-sections in the ABBN-93 constant system

    The library of neutron reaction group cross-sections in the ABBN-93 constant set is described. The format used for data representation, the content and purpose of the sub-libraries and their practical application in the SCALE criticality safety estimation system are discussed. (author)

  18. Dynamical System Analysis of Cosmologies with Running Cosmological Constant from Quantum Einstein Gravity

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a mechanism that induces a time-dependent vacuum energy on cosmological scales. It is based on the instability induced renormalization triggered by the low energy quantum fluctuations in a Universe with a positive cosmological constant. We employ the dynamical systems approach to study the qualitative behavior of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies where the cosmological constant is dynamically evolving according with this nonperturbative scaling at low energies. It will be shown that it is possible to realize a "two regimes" dark energy phases, where an unstable early phase of power-law evolution of the scale factor is followed by an accelerated expansion era at late times.

  19. The model of the variable speed constant frequency closed-loop system operating in generating state

    Ding, Daohong

    1986-10-01

    The variable speed constant frequency (USCF) electrical power system is a new type of aircraft power supply, which contains an alternating generator and a cycloconverter. This sums up the work of the cycloconverter and obtains four fundamental classes of circuit construction of the closed-loop system, which have twelve operating models. A mathematical model for each fundamental class of the circuit construction is introduced. These mathematical models can be used in digital simulation.

  20. A STUDY ON CONTROL AFFINE SYSTEMS WITH POSITIVE HOMOGENEOUS COST AND NO CONSTANT RANK OF DISTRIBUTION*

    Assoc. Prof. Popescu Liviu Ph.D

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of a drift less control affine system with positive homogeneous cost of Randers type in the case of bracket generating distribution of no constant rank. We use the Pontryagin Maximum Principle in order to find the general solution. In the particular case of quadratic cost the optimal trajectories of the distributional system are the geodesics of the so called sub-Riemannian geometry.

  1. A new constant-pressure molecular dynamics method for finite system

    Sun, D. Y.; Gong, X. G.

    2001-01-01

    In this letter, by writing the volume as a function of coordinates of atoms, we present a new constant-pressure molecular dynamics method with parameters free. This method is specially appropriate for the finite system in which the periodic boundary condition does not exist. Simulations on the carbon nanotube and the Ni nanoparticle clearly demonstrate the validity of the method. By using this method, one can easily obtain the equation of states for the finite system under the external pressure.

  2. Limiting vibration in systems with constant amplitude actuators through command preshaping. M.S Thesis - MIT

    Rogers, Keith Eric

    1994-01-01

    The basic concepts of command preshaping were taken and adapted to the framework of systems with constant amplitude (on-off) actuators. In this context, pulse sequences were developed which help to attenuate vibration in flexible systems with high robustness to errors in frequency identification. Sequences containing impulses of different magnitudes were approximated by sequences containing pulses of different durations. The effects of variation in pulse width on this approximation were examined. Sequences capable of minimizing loads induced in flexible systems during execution of commands were also investigated. The usefulness of these techniques in real-world situations was verified by application to a high fidelity simulation of the space shuttle. Results showed that constant amplitude preshaping techniques offer a substantial improvement in vibration reduction over both the standard and upgraded shuttle control methods and may be mission enabling for use of the shuttle with extremely massive payloads.

  3. Experimental investigation of a variable speed constant frequency electric generating system from a utility perspective

    Herrera, J. I.; Reddoch, T. W.; Lawler, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    As efforts are accelerated to improve the overall capability and performance of wind electric systems, increased attention to variable speed configurations has developed. A number of potentially viable configurations have emerged. Various attributes of variable speed systems need to be carefully tested to evaluate their performance from the utility points of view. With this purpose, the NASA experimental variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) system has been tested. In order to determine the usefulness of these systems in utility applications, tests are required to resolve issues fundamental to electric utility systems. Legitimate questions exist regarding how variable speed generators will influence the performance of electric utility systems; therefore, tests from a utility perspective, have been performed on the VSCF system and an induction generator at an operating power level of 30 kW on a system rated at 200 kVA and 0.8 power factor.

  4. Constant current loop impedance measuring system that is immune to the effects of parasitic impedances

    Anderson, Karl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A constant current loop measuring system is provided for measuring a characteristic of an environment. The system comprises a first impedance positionable in the environment, a second impedance coupled in series with said first impedance and a parasitic impedance electrically coupled to the first and second impedances. A current generating device, electrically coupled in series with the first and second impedances, provides a constant current through the first and second impedances to produce first and second voltages across the first and second impedances, respectively, and a parasitic voltage across the parasitic impedance. A high impedance voltage measuring device measures a voltage difference between the first and second voltages independent of the parasitic voltage to produce a characteristic voltage representative of the characteristic of the environment.

  5. Determination of relaxation constants of multi-level quadrupole spin-system

    Possibility to determine relaxation constants of multi-level spin-system all single-quantum transitions under two-frequency effect is studied. By means of two-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance one determines the times of relaxation for all single-quantum transitions of multi-level quadrupole spin-system on the basis of data on one transition. In this case, the accuracy of determination is equal to the accuracy of measurement of the relaxation times under single-frequency excitation of transition that is taken as a base one. Paper presents data on measurement and determination of relaxation constants using NQR technique in KReO4, NaReO4, as well as, in SbCl3, SbBr3 and in their complexes under various temperatures

  6. Second order sliding power control for a variable speed-constant frequency energy conversion system

    This paper presents a decoupled active and reactive power control for a variable speed-constant frequency generation system based on a brushless doubly fed reluctance machine. The control design is approached using multi-input second order sliding techniques which are specially appropriate to deal with nonlinear system models in presence of external disturbances and model inaccuracies. The controller synthesized through this theoretical framework presents very good robustness features, a finite reaching time and a chattering-free behavior. The performance of the closed loop system is assessed through representative computer simulations.

  7. Stochastic resonance in a periodic potential system under a constant force

    An overdamped particle moving in a periodic potential, and subject to a constant force and a stochastic force (i.e., χ = -sin(2πχ) + B + Γ(t),Γ(t) is a white noise) is considered. The mobility of the particle, d/dt, is investigated. The stochastic resonance type of behaviour is revealed. The study of the SR problem can thus be extended to systems with periodic force. (author). 13 refs

  8. SINR evaluation of OFDM-CDMA systems with constant timing offset: asymptotic analysis

    Nasser, Youssef; des Noes, Mathieu; Ros, Laurent; Jourdain, Geneviève

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the impact of a constant timing error on the performance of a downlink 2 dimensional spreading OFDM-CDMA system. This impact is measured by the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) degradation after equalization and despreading. Using random matrix theory, an asymptotic evaluation of the SINR is obtained. It is independent of the value of users' spreading code while taking into account their orthogonality. Simulation results are provided to evaluate and discuss...

  9. Efficient Disengaging Hooks System Based on Constant-Power Speed Regulation of Frequency Converter

    Jianjian Wang; Rongbo Zhu; Chenliang Qian

    2013-01-01

    In the traditional port, disengaging hook system adopts a three-phase power frequency power to drive a three-phase asynchronous motor. The operation is simple and the maintenance is convenient. However, it still keeps the speed of mooring lines constant. Under the light-load condition, the work efficiency could be affected because of the low speed. To solve this problem, we start the research in speed control of disengaging hook. By using variable frequency control technology to transform the...

  10. TIMS-PGG: a code system for producing group constants in fast neutron energy region

    The TIMS-PGG code system has been developed for calculating group constants in fast neutron energy region by processing the nuclear data files compiled with the ENDF/B-IV format. In this code system, the group constant for light and medium weight nuclei and for the smooth cross sections of heavy nuclei are calculated by weighting either ''1/E and fission spectra'' or ''collision density spectrum'', using the PROF.GROUCH.GIIR/code. For resonant nuclei, the TIMS-1 code which solves exactly the neutron slowing down equation is used. The calculated infinitely dilute cross sections, resonance shielding factors, scattering transfer matrices and fission spectra are weitten to ''Master file'' with the PDS format. From the Master file, depending on user's object, a user library is produced by using the utility code LIBMAKE. The present report describes the user's manual of the TIMS-PGG code system and the generation method of group constants library. Moreover, the user's manual of the code is described for fast reactor benchmark tests. (author)

  11. Efficient Disengaging Hooks System Based on Constant-Power Speed Regulation of Frequency Converter

    Jianjian Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional port, disengaging hook system adopts a three-phase power frequency power to drive a three-phase asynchronous motor. The operation is simple and the maintenance is convenient. However, it still keeps the speed of mooring lines constant. Under the light-load condition, the work efficiency could be affected because of the low speed. To solve this problem, we start the research in speed control of disengaging hook. By using variable frequency control technology to transform the original system and using frequency converter to carry on the constant-power speed regulation, technicians also adopt vector control algorithm with PG to achieve adjustable speed of cable volume. The motor is under no load or light load state with high-speed after starting and turns into low-speed through full load. It makes motor stay in constant-power state when it works. This design solves the low-efficiency of disengaging hook in the past and makes system achieve adjustable motor speed. In this design and application, not only can technicians reduce the initial cost, but also they can reduce operating costs markedly by adopting energy-saving control equipment at the same time.

  12. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  13. The measurement system of birefringence and Verdet constant of optical fiber

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Li; Guo, Qiang; Pang, Fufei; Wen, Jianxiang; Shang, Yana; Wang, Tingyun

    2013-12-01

    The Faraday magneto-optical effect of optical fiber has many applications in monitoring magnetic field and electric current. When a linearly polarized light propagates in the direction of a magnetic field, the plane of polarization will rotate linearly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field, which following the relationship of θF =VBl. θF is the Faraday rotation angle, which is proportional to the magnetic flux density B and the Verdet constant V . However, when the optical fiber contains the effect of linear birefringence, the detection of Faraday rotation angle will depend on the line birefringence. In order to determine the Verdet constant of an optical fiber under a linear birefringence, the fiber birefringence needs to be accurately measured. In this work, a model is applied to analyze the polarization properties of an optical fiber by using the Jones matrix method. A measurement system based on the lock-in amplifier technology is designed to test the Verdet constant and the birefringence of optical fiber. The magnetic field is produced by a solenoid with a DC current. A tunable laser is intensity modulated with a motorized rotating chopper. The actuator supplies a signal as the phase-locked synchronization reference to the signal of the lock-in amplifier. The measurement accuracy is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is optimized. In this measurement system, the Verdet constant of the SMF-28 fiber was measured to be 0.56±0.02 rad/T·m at 1550nm. This setup is well suitable for measuring the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity for lock-in amplifier at a low magnetic field strength.

  14. An alternative method to Mariotte reservoir system for maintaining constant hydraulic pressure

    Some studies being done to evaluate the suitability of the Yucca Mountain area as a potential radioactive waste repository require the application of a constant water pressure as a boundary condition to study water flow through porous media. The Mariotte reservoir system is commonly used to supply such a boundary condition. Several problems with the Mariotte reservoir system were discovered when it was used to apply a constant water pressure as a boundary condition for a prolonged period. The constant-pressure boundary condition is required for some lab. experiments to study water flow through porous media. The observed problems were caused by temperature and barometric-pressure fluctuations while the flow rates were very small and caused erroneous water flow-rate measurements. An alternative method was developed and used where the water pressure is controlled by regulating its level by using water-level sensing electrodes. The new method eliminated the effects of temperature and barometric-pressure fluctuations and maintained an acceptable accuracy of the estimated water flow rate without compromising the advantage of the Mariotte reservoir

  15. High-Performance Constant Power Generation in Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    An advanced power control strategy by limiting the maximum feed-in power of PV systems has been proposed, which can ensure a fast and smooth transition between maximum power point tracking and Constant Power Generation (CPG). Regardless of the solar irradiance levels, high-performance and stable...... operation are always achieved by the proposed control strategy. It can regulate the PV output power according to any set-point, and force the PV systems to operate at the left side of the maximum power point without stability problems. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed CPG...

  16. BLIND EQUALIZATION OF MIMO SYSTEMS BASED ON ORTHOGONAL CONSTANT MODULUS ALGORITHM

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates adaptive blind source separation and equalization for Multiple Input Mul-tiple Output (MIMO) systems. To effectively recover input signals, remove Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)and suppress Inter-User Interference (IUI), the array input is first transformed into the signal subspace, thenwith the derived orthogonality between weight vectors of different input signals, a new orthogonal ConstantModulus Algorithm (CMA) is proposed. Computer simulation results illustrate the promising performance ofthe proposed method. Without channel identification, the proposed method can recover all the system inputssimultaneously and can be adaptive to channel changes without prior knowledge about signals.

  17. Stabilization criteria for continuous linear time-invariant systems with constant lags

    M. De La Sen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Some criteria for asymptotic stability of linear and time-invariant systems with constant point delays are derived. Such criteria are concerned with the properties of robust stability related to two relevant auxiliary delay-free systems which are built by deleting the delayed dynamics or considering that the delay is zero. Explicit asymptotic stability results, easy to test, are given for both the unforced and closed-loop systems when the stabilizing controller for one of the auxiliary delay-free systems is used for the current time-delay system. The proposed techniques include frequency domain analysis techniques including the use of H∞ norms.

  18. Non-constant positive steady-states of a diffusive predator-prey system in homogeneous environment

    Ko, Wonlyul; Ryu, Kimun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and non-existence of non-constant positive steady-states of a diffusive predator-prey interaction system under homogeneous Neumann boundary condition. In homogeneous environment, we show that the predator-prey model with Leslie-Gower functional response has no non-constant positive solution, but the system with a general functional response may have at least one non-constant positive steady-state under some conditions.

  19. Rare events in many-body systems: reactive paths and reaction constants for structural transitions

    This PhD thesis deals with the study of fundamental physics phenomena, with applications to nuclear materials of interest. We have developed methods for the study of rare events related to thermally activated structural transitions in many body systems. The first method involves the numerical simulation of the probability current associated with reactive paths. After deriving the evolution equations for the probability current, a Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is implemented in order to sample this current. This technique, called Transition Current Sampling was applied to the study of structural transitions in a cluster of 38 atoms with Lennard-Jones potential (LJ-38). A second algorithm, called Transition Path Sampling with local Lyapunov bias (LyTPS), was then developed. LyTPS calculates reaction rates at finite temperature by following the transition state theory. A statistical bias based on the maximum local Lyapunov exponents is introduced to accelerate the sampling of reactive trajectories. To extract the value of the equilibrium reaction constants obtained from LyTPS, we use the Multistate Bennett Acceptance Ratio. We again validate this method on the LJ-38 cluster. LyTPS is then used to calculate migration constants for vacancies and divacancies in the α-Iron, and the associated migration entropy. These constants are used as input parameter for codes modeling the kinetic evolution after irradiation (First Passage Kinetic Monte Carlo) to reproduce numerically resistivity recovery experiments in α-Iron. (author)

  20. Constant Power Generation of Photovoltaic Systems Considering the Distributed Grid Capacity

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    increased maintenances introduce new obstacles. In view of this concern, the DSOs starts to reduce PV installations in order to avoid an extension of the power infrastructure. Besides, another alternative solution is to limit the maximum feed-in power of the existing PV systems to a certain level. It can...... contribute to a weakened requirement of grid expansion and at the same time an increased penetration level. Therefore, to meet the need of this emerging ancillary service provided by future PV systems, a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control concept of PV inverters is proposed in this paper. Accordingly......With an imperative demand of clean and reliable electricity generation in some countries, the increasing adoption of new photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to expand the transmission/distributed lines. However, the potential cost brought by such extensions and...

  1. Optimal Control of Production-Inventory Systems with Constant and Compound Poisson Demand

    Germs, Remco; Foreest, Nicky D. van

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a production-inventory systems with finite production capacity and fixed setup costs. The demand process is modeled as a mixture of a compound Poisson process and a constant demand rate. For the backlog model we establish conditions on the holding and backlogging costs such that the average-cost optimal policy is of (s, S)-type. The method of proof is based on the reduction of the production-inventory problem to an appropriate optimal stopping problem and the analysis ...

  2. Gravitational Waves from Isolated Systems: Surprising Consequences of a Positive Cosmological Constant.

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice; Kesavan, Aruna

    2016-02-01

    There is a deep tension between the well-developed theory of gravitational waves from isolated systems and the presence of a positive cosmological constant Λ, however tiny. In particular a generalization of Einstein's 1918 quadrupole formula that would allow a positive Λ is not yet available. We first explain the principal difficulties and then show that it is possible to overcome them in the weak field limit. These results also provide concrete hints for constructing the Λ>0 generalization of the Bondi-Sachs framework for full, nonlinear general relativity. PMID:26894695

  3. Gravitational waves from isolated systems: The phantom menace of a positive cosmological constant

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    There is a deep tension between the well-developed theory of gravitational waves from isolated systems and the presence of a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, however tiny. In particular, even the post-Newtonian quadrupole formula, derived by Einstein in 1918, has not been generalized to include a positive $\\Lambda$. We first explain the principal difficulties and then show that it is possible to overcome them in the weak field limit. These results also provide concrete hints for constructing the $\\Lambda >0$ generalization of the Bondi-Sachs framework for full, non-linear general relativity.

  4. Gravitational Waves from Isolated Systems: Surprising Consequences of a Positive Cosmological Constant

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice; Kesavan, Aruna

    2016-02-01

    There is a deep tension between the well-developed theory of gravitational waves from isolated systems and the presence of a positive cosmological constant Λ , however tiny. In particular a generalization of Einstein's 1918 quadrupole formula that would allow a positive Λ is not yet available. We first explain the principal difficulties and then show that it is possible to overcome them in the weak field limit. These results also provide concrete hints for constructing the Λ >0 generalization of the Bondi-Sachs framework for full, nonlinear general relativity.

  5. Permanent Magnet System for MRI with Constant Gradient mechanically adjustable in Direction and Strength

    Blümler, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A design for a permanent magnet system is proposed that generates spatially homogeneous, constant magnetic field gradients, thus creating conditions suitable for MRI without gradient coils and amplifiers. This is achieved by superimposing a weak Halbach quadrupole on a strong Halbach dipole. Rotation of either the quadrupole or the entire magnet assembly can be used to generate 2D images via filtered back-projection. Additionally, the mutual rotation of two quadrupoles can be used to scale the resulting gradient. If both gradients have identical strength the gradient can even be made to vanish. The concept is demonstrated by analytical considerations and FEM-simulations.

  6. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    Salinas-Rodriguez, Sergio G.

    2015-02-18

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) constant flux is a significant development with respect to assessing the fouling potential of RO feed water. This research investigates (1) the variables influencing the MFI-UF test at constant flux filtration (membrane pore size, membrane material, flux rate); and (2) the application of MFI-UF into pre-treatment assessment and RO fouling estimation. The dependency of MFI on flux, means that to assess accurately particulate fouling in RO systems, the MFI should be measured at a flux similar to a RO system (close to 20 L/m2/h) or extrapolated from higher fluxes. The two studied membrane materials showed reproducible results; 10% for PES membranes and 6.3% for RC membranes. Deposition factors (amount of particles that remain on the surface of membrane) were measured in a full-scale plant ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. The concept of “safe MFI” is presented as a guideline for assessing pre-treatment for RO systems.

  7. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  8. Cosmological variation of the MOND constant: secular effects on galactic systems

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2014-01-01

    The proximity of the MOND acceleration constant with cosmological accelerations -- for example, a0~ cH0/2pi -- points to its possibly decreasing with cosmic time. I begin to consider the secular changes induced in galactic systems by such presumed variations, assumed adiabatic. It is important to understand these effects, in isolation from other evolutionary influences, in order to identify or constrain a0 variations by detection of induced effects, or lack thereof. I find that as long as the system is fully in the deep-MOND regime -- as applies to many galactic systems -- the adiabatic response of the system obeys simple scaling laws. For example, in a system that would be stationary for fixed a0, the system expands homologously as a0^{-1/4}, while internal velocities decrease uniformly as a0^{1/4}. If a0 is proportional to cH at all relevant times, this change amounts to a factor of ~ 2.5 since redshift 10. For a system stationary in a rotating frame, the angular frequency decreases as a0^{1/2}. The acceler...

  9. Thermomagnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system having constant intensity laser beam control

    Lewicki, G. W.; Guisinger, J. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is developed for maintaining the intensity of a laser beam at a constant level in a thermomagnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system in which an isotropic film is heated along a continuous path by the laser beam for recording. As each successive area of the path is heated locally to the vicinity of its Curie point in the presence of a controlled magnetic field, a magneto-optic density is produced proportional to the amplitude of the controlled magnetic field. To play back the recorded signal, the intensity of the laser beam is reduced and a Faraday or Kerr effect analyzer is used, with a photodetector, as a transducer for producing an output signal.

  10. Quantum logic gates from time-dependent global magnetic field in a system with constant exchange

    Nenashev, A. V., E-mail: nenashev@isp.nsc.ru; Dvurechenskii, A. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zinovieva, A. F. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Gornov, A. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, T. S. [Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-21

    We propose a method that implements a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation in a system of coupled electron pairs with constant non-diagonal exchange interaction. In our proposal, suppression of the exchange interaction is performed by the continual repetition of single-spin rotations. A small g-factor difference between the electrons allows for addressing qubits and avoiding strong magnetic field pulses. Numerical experiments were performed to show that, to implement the one- and two-qubit operations, it is sufficient to change the strength of the magnetic field by a few Gauss. This introduces one and then the other electron in a resonance. To determine the evolution of the two-qubit system, we use the algorithms of optimal control theory.

  11. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    strategies based on: 1) a power control (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking of the......With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... active power control methods are required. As a cost-effective solution to avoid overloading, a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control scheme by limiting the feed-in power has been introduced into the currently active grid regulations. In order to achieve a CPG operation, this paper proposes three CPG...

  12. Super-Chandrasekhar dynamical friction in a constant-density spherical star system

    Zelnikov, M. I.; Kuskov, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    N-body modelling of massive body motion in constant density-cores shows deviations in the dynamical friction force from Chandrasekhar's formula. When the body orbit falls within the core, the body experiences a stage of enhanced friction after which the friction force becomes very low or zero. This effect takes place for circular as well as radial and elliptic orbits of the massive perturber. Previously developed perturbative treatment of dynamical friction in spherical systems cannot be directly applied to constant density cores because of the importance of non-linear resonant effects in this case. This feature is caused by the full resonance of the moving body with all the stars in the harmonic potential. There has been a successful attempt at semi-analytical treatment of the problem, but there remains a lack of any analytical description of this phenomenon. We study the motion of a massive point-like object in a strictly constant density sphere analytically and obtain a formula for the energy decay rate of the object at the stage of super-Chandrasekhar friction. We show that the dynamical friction force at this stage is half an order in Mobject/Mcore stronger than in Chandrasekhar's case. Our numerical simulations for both circular and radial orbits of the perturber reveal the stage of enhanced friction and the stalling stage afterwards. Dependence of the decay time at the super-Chandrasekhar stage on the perturber mass confirms our analytical relationship. We compare our analytical formula with N-body results of other authors for the enhanced friction stage and find good agreement.

  13. Hall normalization constants for the Bures volumes of the n-state quantum systems

    Slater, Paul B.

    1999-11-01

    We report the results of certain integrations of quantum-theoretic interest, relying, in this regard, upon recently developed parametrizations of Boya et al (1998 Preprint quant-ph/9810084) of the n × n density matrices, in terms of squared components of the unit (n - 1)-sphere and the n × n unitary matrices. Firstly, we express the normalized volume elements of the Bures (minimal monotone) metric for n = 2 and 3, thereby obtaining `Bures prior probability distributions' over the two- and three-state systems. Then, as a first step in extending these results to n>3, we determine that the `Hall normalization constant' (Cn) for the marginal Bures prior probablity distribution over the (n - 1)-dimensional simplex of the n eigenvalues of the n × n density matrices is, for n = 4, equal to 71 680/icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/>2. Since we also find that C3 = 35/icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/>, it follows that C4 is simply equal to 211C3/icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/>. (C2 itself is known to equal 2/icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/>.) The constant C5 is also found. It too is associated with a remarkably simple decomposition, involving the product of the eight consecutive prime numbers from 3 to 23. We also preliminarily investigate several cases n>5, with the use of quasi-Monte Carlo integration. We hope that the various analyses reported will prove useful in deriving a general formula (which evidence suggests will involve the Bernoulli numbers) for the Hall normalization constant for arbitrary n. This would have diverse applications, including quantum inference and universal quantum coding.

  14. Hall normalization constants for the Bures volumes of the n-state quantum systems

    We report the results of certain integrations of quantum-theoretic interest, relying, in this regard, upon recently developed parametrizations of Boya et al (1998 Preprint quant-ph/9810084) of the nxn density matrices, in terms of squared components of the unit (n-1)-sphere and the nxn unitary matrices. Firstly, we express the normalized volume elements of the Bures (minimal monotone) metric for n=2 and 3, thereby obtaining 'Bures prior probability distributions' over the two- and three-state systems. Then, as a first step in extending these results to n>3, we determine that the 'Hall normalization constant' (Cn) for the marginal Bures prior probability distribution over the (n-1)-dimensional simplex of the n eigenvalues of the nxn density matrices is, for n=4, equal to 71 680/π2. Since we also find that C3=35/π, it follows that C4 is simply equal to 211C3/π. (C2 itself is known to equal 2/π.) The constant C5 is also found. It too is associated with a remarkably simple decomposition, involving the product of the eight consecutive prime numbers from 3 to 23. We also preliminarily investigate several cases n>5, with the use of quasi-Monte Carlo integration. We hope that the various analyses reported will prove useful in deriving a general formula (which evidence suggests will involve the Bernoulli numbers) for the Hall normalization constant for arbitrary n. This would have diverse applications, including quantum inference and universal quantum coding. (author)

  15. Model predictive control of servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system in injection molding process based on neurodynamic optimization

    Yong-gang PENG; Jun WANG; Wei WEI

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high energy consumption and low response speed of the traditional hydraulic system for an injection molding machine, a servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system is designed for a precision injection molding process, which uses a servo motor, a constant pump, and a pressure sensor, instead of a common motor, a constant pump, a pressure pro-portion valve, and a flow proportion valve. A model predictive control strategy based on neurodynamic optimization is proposed to control this new hydraulic system in the injection molding process. Simulation results showed that this control method has good control precision and quick response.

  16. Effects of magnetic dipolar interactions on the specific time constant in superparamagnetic nanoparticle systems

    Iacob, N.; Schinteie, G.; Bartha, C.; Palade, P.; Vekas, L.; Kuncser, V.

    2016-07-01

    A quantitative treatment of the effects of magnetic mutual interactions on the specific absorption rate of a superparamagnetic system of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid is reported. The nanoparticle concentration of the considered ferrofluid samples varied from a very low (0.005) to a medium (0.16) value of the volume fraction, whereas the amplitude of the exciting AC magnetic field ranged from 14–35 kA m‑1. It was proved that a direct effect of the interparticle interactions resides in the regime of the modified superparamagnetism, dealing, besides the usual increase in the anisotropy energy barrier per nanoparticle, with the decrease in the specific time constant {τ0} of the relaxation law, usually considered as a material constant. Consequently, the increase in the specific absorption rate versus the volume fraction is significantly diminished in the presence of the interparticle interactions compared to the case of non-interacting superparamagnetic nanoparticles, with direct influence on the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency.

  17. Development of a constant dilution sampling system for particulate and gaseous pollutant measurements

    This paper presents a new concept of a partial flow sampling system (PFSS), involving a two-stage diluter which operates on the principle of underpressure, while exhaust is sampled through a capillary. Due to the low flowrate through the capillary, the diluter may be sampling from a freely exhausting tailpipe and is not prone to pressure variations in the exhaust line. In addition, the PFSS operates at constant pressure conditions even upstream of diesel particle filters that increase the backpressure in the tailpipe. As a result, the PFSS offers a constant dilution ratio (DR) over any engine or vehicle operation condition. This study presents the diluter concept and a straightforward model developed to calculate the DR, depending on the dilution air flowrate and the diluter underpressure. The model is validated using CO2 as a trace gas, and very good agreement is demonstrated between the calculated and the measured DR values. Following validation, the PFSS is combined with aerosol measurement instruments to measure the exhaust particle concentration of a diesel engine operating at different steady-state modes. For demonstrating the stability of the DR and applicability of the PFSS, measurements are conducted with both heavy duty and light duty diesel exhaust gases. Future applications of this device include gas and particle exhaust measurements both in laboratory environments and on-board vehicles. (paper)

  18. ACTIVITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION ON PROVISION OF CONSTANT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE QUALITY SYSTEM

    Sabahudin Jašarević

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many authors agree in the statement that acquiring of certificate for introduced quality system is easier phase than from the phases which will follow. After acquiring of certificate the organizations have relaxation time and somewhere the time of easy dream. And when we wake up, control audits come fast and it is time to show to auditors what we have done in past period. So, maintenance and continuity in development of the quality system present next phases which many auditors estimate as more significant ones and more difficult from the phase of introduction of the quality system itself. By the appearance of standards from years of 2000 (ISO 9001:2000 and 2008 the concept of "continuous improvements" has been introduced in the practice of certification and maintenance of the quality system. Without such improvements and without work on them the quality system as well as all other things in real life would very soon come to the phase of collapse, i.e. quality characteristic s would start falling on all levels. This work will present results of researches conducted in 204 organizations with introduced quality sy stem as well as their activities carried out or to be carried out in the purpose of provision of constant improvements in their organizations. The work will also present comparison of different views seen by persons responsible for quality (manager for quality in organization as well as by managers of organization (directors.

  19. Symplectic reduction of holonomic open-chain multi-body systems with constant momentum

    Chhabra, Robin; Emami, M. Reza

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a two-step symplectic geometric approach to the reduction of Hamilton's equation for open-chain, multi-body systems with multi-degree-of-freedom holonomic joints and constant momentum. First, symplectic reduction theorem is revisited for Hamiltonian systems on cotangent bundles. Then, we recall the notion of displacement subgroups, which is the class of multi-degree-of-freedom joints considered in this paper. We briefly study the kinematics of open-chain multi-body systems consisting of such joints. And, we show that the relative configuration manifold corresponding to the first joint is indeed a symmetry group for an open-chain multi-body system with multi-degree-of-freedom holonomic joints. Subsequently using symplectic reduction theorem at a non-zero momentum, we express Hamilton's equation of such a system in the symplectic reduced manifold, which is identified by the cotangent bundle of a quotient manifold. The kinetic energy metric of multi-body systems is further studied, and some sufficient conditions are introduced, under which the kinetic energy metric is invariant under the action of a subgroup of the configuration manifold. As a result, the symplectic reduction procedure for open-chain, multi-body systems is extended to a two-step reduction process for the dynamical equations of such systems. Finally, we explicitly derive the reduced dynamical equations in the local coordinates for an example of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator mounted on a spacecraft, to demonstrate the results of this paper.

  20. Table 5.1. Exchange current densities and rate constants in aqueous systems

    Holze, R.

    This document is part of Volume 9 `Electrochemistry', Subvolume A, of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. This document lists the exchange current densities and the electrode reaction rate constants of the following metallic electrodes in aqueous systems for various electrolyte reactions: silver (Ag), aluminium (Al), gold (Au), bismuth (Bi), carbon (C), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), gallium (Ga), mercury (Hg), indium (In), iridium (Ir), potassium (K), lithium (Li), molybdenum (Mo), natrium (Na), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rubidium (Rb), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), antimony (Sb), tin (Sn), tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V), tungsten (W), zinc (Zn). For each electrolyte reaction the electrolyte solution, the educt, product and concentration are specified along with the temperature of determination of the given values.

  1. Constant-Power Engines in Flights to L4 point of the Earth-Moon System

    Mircea DUMITRACHE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfer is studied in the context of the classical Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem. The initial state is on a geosinchronous orbit and the terminal state is the L4 triangular Lagrangian point. The use of controllable acceleration engine by minimization of a time integral of the squared engine acceleration, the optimization problem is separated into two sub-problems: dynamical and parametric ones. Initial mass to constant output power ratio variation is mainly studied, depending on the transfer duration and initial thrust acceleration for fixed power jet (specific impulse is within the limits of the VASIMR magneto-plasma engine. The Two Point Boundary Value Problem is solved when the startup speed is circular or when the initial thrust acceleration is given. Time variation of the obtained state and control variables is represented relative to Earth in geocentric equatorial inertial system.

  2. ADAPTIVE STEP-SIZE CONSTANT MODULUS ALGORITHM FOR BLIND MULTIUSER DETECTION IN DS-CDMA SYSTEMS

    Sun Liping; Hu Guangrui

    2004-01-01

    Blind Adaptive Step-size Constant Modulus Algorithm (AS-CMA) for multiuser detection in DS-CDMA systems is presented. It combines the CMA and the concept of variable step-size, uses a second LMS algorithm for the step size. It adjusts the step-size according to the minimum output-energy principle within a specified range, thus overcomes the problems of bad effect of fixed step-size LMS algorithm. Compared with Adaptive Step-size LMS (AS-LMS) algorithm, through simulations, this algorithm can adapt the changes of the environment, suppress multiple access interference in the dynamic environment and the stability of Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) is superior to that of AS-LMS.

  3. On the Global Asymptotic Stability of Switched Linear Time-Varying Systems with Constant Point Delays

    A. Ibeas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the asymptotic stability of switched linear time-varying systems with constant point delays under not very stringent conditions on the matrix functions of parameters. Such conditions are their boundedness, the existence of bounded time derivatives almost everywhere, and small amplitudes of the appearing Dirac impulses where such derivatives do not exist. It is also assumed that the system matrix for zero delay is stable with some prescribed stability abscissa for all time in order to obtain sufficiency-type conditions of asymptotic stability dependent on the delay sizes. Alternatively, it is assumed that the auxiliary system matrix defined for all the delayed system matrices being zero is stable with prescribed stability abscissa for all time to obtain results for global asymptotic stability independent of the delays. A particular subset of the switching instants is the so-called set of reset instants where switching leads to the parameterization to reset to a value within a prescribed set.

  4. Modulo-p Addition Based Constant Weight Variable Length Prime Codes for SAC-OCDMA Systems

    Malleswari.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel prime code family called constant weight and variable length prime code (CWVLPC is presented. The CWVL prime code is constructed from the basic prime codes which are generated using modulo-p addition. Since the proposed code family possesses very good correlation property (cross correlation equal to zero, the system eliminates the phase induced intensity noise (PIIN and multi user interference (MUI completely. In addition, for any given prime number p, we can generate p number of code families with different length. Further, the weight of the proposed code is kept always equal to one independent of the prime number p and the p number of code families; thus it can simplify the design of encoder/decoder structures of the proposed SAC-OCDMA system. Also, bit error rate performance of the developed code is much better than the commonly used MQC code. To illustrate, for p=17 and an acceptable bit error rate of 10-9, the proposed coding system supports 225 simultaneous users with code length of 289 at an effective source power of -5 dBm.

  5. GRUCAL: a program system for the calculation of macroscopic group constants

    Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy-averaged neutron physical data in order to decribe the interaction between neutrons and isotopes. The multigroup cross section code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given material compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but are read in from an instruction file. This makes it possible to adapt GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts

  6. Energy Method of Finding Distribution Constants of an Antiferromagnetic Vector for an Antidot System in a Two-sublattice Antiferromagnet

    V.V. Kulish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the antiferromagnetic vector distribution in an antiferromagnetic film with a system of antidots. A static distribution of the antiferromagnetic vector is written and a method – based on the minimization of the antiferromagnet energy – that allows reducing the number of boundary conditions required for finding the constants of this distribution is proposed. Equations for the distribution constants are obtained for the both cases of minimizing the antiferromagnet energy by one and by two distribution constants that enter the expression for the antiferromagnet energy. The method is illustrated on a system of one isolated antidot. For such system, one additional condition – for the case when two boundary conditions on the surface of the antidot are given – and two additional conditions – for the case when one boundary condition on the surface of the antidot is given – on the distribution constants are written.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of ionization constants of 8-hydroxyquinoline in EtOH and MeOH-water solvent system

    The dissociation constants (pKa) and Gibb's free energies of 8-hydroxyquinoline have been determined in MeOH-water and EtOH-water solvents with percent variation from 10 to 50 % at the interval of 5 percent using UV-Spectrophotometer equipped with a temperature control accuracy of +- 0.1 degree centigrade. This compound gives two dissociation constants. The first basic thermodynamic dissociation constant pKa-t is 5.087 +- 0.011 at 20 degree centigrade which is not possible to be determine spectrophotometrically. The second thermodynamic dissociation constant pKa -t determined by spectrophotometrically varies from 9.853 +-0.010 to 9.310+-0.010 and 9.901+-0.011 to 9,413 +-0.010 in EtOH - water and MeOH - water solvent systems respectively at 25 degree centigrade. The related delta G's of thermodynamic dissociation constants very from -14.025 +- 0.013 to -12.610 +-0.014 kcal/mol for both solvents at 25 degree centigrade. The curve of pKa versus temperature is a distorted parabola. The ionization constant values decrease with increasing the temperature. The significance of relative magnitudes of the values is discussed and some useful generalization constants. A computer program in GW-BASIC has been used to calculate the /values of dissociation constants. From the pKa values Gibb's free energies are computed and discussed. (author)

  8. Cold leg injection reflood test results in the SCTF Core-I under constant system pressure

    The Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) was constructed to investigate two-dimensional thermal-hydrodynamics in the core and the interaction in fluid behavior between the core and the upper plenum during the last part of blowdown, refill and reflood phases of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The present report describes the analytical results on the system behavior observed in the SCTF Core-I cold leg injection tests, S1-14 (Run 520), S1-15 (521), S1-16 (522), S1-17 (523), S1-20 (530), S1-21 (531), S1-23 (536) and S1-24 (537), performed under constant system pressure condition during transient. Major discussion items are: (1) steam binding, (2) U-tube oscillations, (3) bypass of ECC water (4) core cooling behavior, (5) effect of vent valve and (6) other parameter effects. These results give us very useful information and suggestion on reflood behavior. (author)

  9. New upper limit on the cosmological constant from solar system dynamics

    The cosmological constant Λ is the simplest model for explaining the dark energy which supposedly drives the observed accelerated expansion rate of the Universe. Together with the concept of cold dark matter, it satisfactorily accommodates a wealth of observations related to cosmology. Due to its assumed constancy throughout the Universe, Λ might also affect the dynamics of the planets in the solar system, although with extremely small effects. However, modern high-precision ephemerides provide a promising tool for constraining it. Using the supplementary advances in the perihelia provided by current INPOP10a and EPM2011 ephemerides, we obtain a new upper limit on Λ in the solar system when the Lense-Thirring effect due to the Sun's angular momentum and the uncertainty of the Sun's quadrupole moment are properly taken into account. These two factors were mostly absent in previous works dealing with Λ. We find that INPOP10a yields an upper limit of Λ = (0.26 ± 1.45) × 10−43 m−2 and EPM2011 gives Λ = (−0.44 ± 8.93) × 10−43 m−2. Such bounds are about 10 times less than previously estimated results

  10. Standard practice for verification of constant amplitude dynamic forces in an axial fatigue testing system

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the dynamic verification of cyclic force amplitude control or measurement accuracy during constant amplitude testing in an axial fatigue testing system. It is based on the premise that force verification can be done with the use of a strain gaged elastic element. Use of this practice gives assurance that the accuracies of forces applied by the machine or dynamic force readings from the test machine, at the time of the test, after any user applied correction factors, fall within the limits recommended in Section 9. It does not address static accuracy which must first be addressed using Practices E 4 or equivalent. 1.2 Verification is specific to a particular test machine configuration and specimen. This standard is recommended to be used for each configuration of testing machine and specimen. Where dynamic correction factors are to be applied to test machine force readings in order to meet the accuracy recommended in Section 9, the verification is also specific to the c...

  11. New self-excited variable speed constant frequency generator for wind power systems

    Metwally, H.M.B. [Zagazig University (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-09-01

    In this work, the possibility of using a new single-phase commutator machine as a stand-alone self-excited generator is investigated. The performance of this generator is tested under variable speed operation to simulate the practical case of variable wind turbine speed. The generator is self-excited through a resonance capacitor. The effect of varying the capacitance of this capacitor on the generated voltage and its frequency is studied. Load tests under a wide range of operating conditions are conducted to explore the capability of this type of generator. It has been found that this machine can operate as a variable speed constant frequency generator simply by varying the capacitance of the excitation capacitor. This important property makes this type of generator suitable for use in wind driven power systems. Finally, a mathematical model for the generator is obtained and a simulation program is developed to predict the performance of the generator. Close agreement between the simulation and the experimental results is obtained. (author)

  12. Units Based on Constants: The Redefinition of the International System of Units

    Stenger, J.; Ullrich, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Recent decisions of the General Conference on Weights and Measures of the Metre Convention have opened the door to a fundamental change of the International System of Units, the SI, in 2018. The revised SI will be based on fixing the numerical values of seven defining constants corresponding to the seven traditional base units. This will bring about basic modifications in the definition of the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, and the mole and will have consequences for units derived from them. In contrast, the second, the meter, and the candela will not be affected. This paper describes the motivation and rationale behind this endeavor, introduces the new definitions, and reviews the requirements for the redefinitions as well as the status of the experiments that are currently being carried out to fulfill them. Benefits and a wide-reaching impact for the realization and dissemination of the units are anticipated because innovative technologies with ever-increasing accuracy will emerge, enabling the direct realization over widespread measurement ranges without the definitions themselves having to be changed.

  13. Calculations on the hyperfine constants of the ground states for lithium-like system

    Wu Xiao-Li; Yu Kai-Zhi; Gou Bing-Cong; Zhang Meng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a relativistic many-body perturbation calculation is performed to calculate the hyperfine constants of the ground states for lithium-like isoelectronic sequence. Zeroth-order hyperfine constants are calculated with Dirac-Fock wavefunctions, and the finite basis sets of the Dirac-Fock equations are constructed by B splines. With the finite basis sets, the core polarization and the correlation effect are evaluated.

  14. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  15. Current status of Russian Evaluated Neutron Data Libraries

    The status of Russian Evaluated Data Libraries is discussed. The last modifications of the BROND-2 files and their relations to the additional files of the FOND library and the ABBN-90 group constants are considered. The main characteristics of new libraries for the photoneutron data, dosimetry and activation reaction cross sections and transmutation cross sections for intermediate energies are described briefly. (author)

  16. Application of the theory of dynamical systems to the Boltzmann equation for gas mixtures with constant collision frequencies

    This thesis looks into some qualitative properties, of dynamical systems occurring as ordinary differential equations. Essential information about the structure of the solution can be obtained without explicitly solving a linear system of differential equations with constant coefficients. This can be achieved by decomposing the operator of such a system into a semisimple and a nilpotent part. Fundamental theorems, concerning the existence of the solutions are discussed as well as the problem of stability of equilibrium points in dynamical systems (Liapunov's theorem). Gradient systems, special forms of dynamical systems, have particular properties that simplify the analysis of their flow. Finally, by applying the theory of dynamical systems to the Boltzmann equation with constant collision frequencies an investigation of equilibrium points is carried out. A mixture of three gases consisting of particles that interact through different collision mechanisms serves as the physical model. (Suda)

  17. Design of high-linear CMOS circuit using a constant transconductance method for gamma-ray spectroscopy system

    We propose a novel circuit to be applied to the front-end integrated circuits of gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. Our circuit is designed as a type of current conveyor (ICON) employing a constant-gm (transconductance) method which can significantly improve the linearity in the amplified signals by using a large time constant and the time-invariant characteristics of an amplifier. The constant-gm method is obtained by a feedback control which keeps the transconductance of the input transistor constant. To verify the performance of the propose circuit, the time constant variations for the channel resistances are simulated with the TSMC 0.18μm transistor parameters using HSPICE, and then compared with those of a conventional ICON. As a result, the proposed ICON shows only 0.02% output linearity variation and 0.19% time constant variation for the input amplitude up to 100 mV. These are significantly small values compared to a conventional ICON's 1.39% and 19.43%, respectively, for the same conditions.

  18. The TENDL neutron data library and the TEND1038 38-group neutron constant system

    The library contains neutron data for 103 nuclei - i.e. for 38 actinide nuclei (from 232Th to 249Cm), 26 fission fragment nuclei and 39 nuclei in structural and technological materials. The 38-group constants were obtained from TENDL. The high-energy group boundary is 20 MeV. The energy range below 1.2 eV contains 11 groups. Temperature and resonance effects were taken into account. The delayed neutron parameters for 6 groups and the yields of 40 fission fragments were obtained (light and heavy, stable and non-stable). The fast neutron features of spherical critical assemblies were calculated using constants from TEND1038. (author)

  19. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  20. A comparative study of constant-order and variable-order fractional models in characterizing memory property of systems

    Sun, H. G.; Chen, W.; Wei, H.; Chen, Y. Q.

    2011-03-01

    How to characterize the memory property of systems is a challenging issue in the modeling and analysis of complex systems. This study makes a comparative investigation of integer-order derivative, constant-order fractional derivative and two types of variable-order fractional derivatives in characterizing the memory property of systems. The advantages and potential applications of two variable-order derivative definitions are highlighted through a comparative analysis of anomalous relaxation process.

  1. Constant pressure mode extended simple gradient liquid chromatography system for micro and nanocolumns

    Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1350, Jul (2014), s. 68-71. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : constant pressure HPLC * gradient elution * simple liquid chromatograph Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0233990

  2. Dielectric constant and its role in the long range coherence in biological systems

    Paul, R. (Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry); Chatterjee, R. (Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Physics)

    1984-07-01

    An expression for the dielectric constant has been derived for the Froehlich model of long-range coherence in biological cells. These theoretical expressions are employed to interpret the observed rouleaux formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is concluded that this unusual behaviour of the erythrocytes can be interpreted satisfactorilly by the extended Froehlich model developed by us.

  3. The dielectric constant and its role in the long range coherence in biological systems

    An expression for the dielectric constant has been derived, for the Froehlich model of long-range coherence in biological cells. These theoretical expressions are employed to interpret the observed rouleaux formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is concluded that this unusual behaviour of the erythrocytes can be interpreted satisfactorilly by the extended Froehlich model developed by us. (Author)

  4. Making Method of the Data Processing System in the Experiment of the Planck Constant Measuring with Photoelectric Effect

    JIANG Xing-fang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Planck constant is an important constant inmodern physics. Its experimental verification isgenerally by the experiment of photoelectric effect.The data processing is very complex. In order tosimplify the complex question the intelligent system“Measuring of the Planck constant withphotoelectric effect” had been developed withmultimedia authoring tool Multimedia ToolBook. Theexperimental data was of large number that obtainedby user after the leakage current between electrodesand the anode current had been compensated. Whenthe data had been filled the corresponding fields, theintelligent system could display dynamically thevolt-ampere curve and the speed displayed could beadjusted. Especially when the user only completed the3 or 4 filters experiments and the number of the clampvoltages was 3 or 4, the intelligent experimental dataprocessing system could display the slope of the fittingstraight line and the Planck constant. In laboratory itprovided five filters. The intelligent system used thetechnologies such as the statistics method of “Nonzero plus one”, “the least square method”,“rounding off”, “The uncertainty had a bit and itwas aligned as the last bit of the significant figure”.After the arbitrarily 3 or 4 values of the clamp voltageor all 5 values of the clamp voltage had been filled inthe fields, the slope of the fitting straight line could becalculated and be drawn, and the Planck constant andits uncertainty could be calculated and be displayed.The fitting straight line was the relationship betweenthe clamp voltages and the incident light frequencies.The Planck constant was obtained by multiplying theslope of the fitting straight line with the electroniccharge. These methods could be applied to developvarious intelligent experimental data processingsystems

  5. Varying Constants

    Barrow, J D

    2005-01-01

    We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that are consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying-alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints.

  6. Coupling constant metamorphosis as an integrability-preserving transformation for general finite-dimensional dynamical systems and ODEs

    Sergyeyev, Artur, E-mail: Artur.Sergyeyev@math.slu.cz [Mathematical Institute, Silesian University in Opava, Na Rybníčku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-04

    In the present Letter we extend the multiparameter coupling constant metamorphosis, also known as the generalized Stäckel transform, from Hamiltonian dynamical systems to general finite-dimensional dynamical systems and ODEs. This transform interchanges the values of integrals of motion with the parameters these integrals depend on but leaves the phase space coordinates intact. Sufficient conditions under which the transformation in question preserves integrability and a simple formula relating the solutions of the original system to those of the transformed one are given. -- Highlights: ► We consider the multiparameter coupling constant metamorphosis (MCCM). ► The latter is also known as the generalized Stäckel transform. ► This transform is extended to general (non-Hamiltonian) finite-dimensional dynamical systems. ► The extended transform preserves integrability just as the original MCCM. ► A simple formula for transforming solutions under MCCM is given.

  7. Coupling constant metamorphosis as an integrability-preserving transformation for general finite-dimensional dynamical systems and ODEs

    In the present Letter we extend the multiparameter coupling constant metamorphosis, also known as the generalized Stäckel transform, from Hamiltonian dynamical systems to general finite-dimensional dynamical systems and ODEs. This transform interchanges the values of integrals of motion with the parameters these integrals depend on but leaves the phase space coordinates intact. Sufficient conditions under which the transformation in question preserves integrability and a simple formula relating the solutions of the original system to those of the transformed one are given. -- Highlights: ► We consider the multiparameter coupling constant metamorphosis (MCCM). ► The latter is also known as the generalized Stäckel transform. ► This transform is extended to general (non-Hamiltonian) finite-dimensional dynamical systems. ► The extended transform preserves integrability just as the original MCCM. ► A simple formula for transforming solutions under MCCM is given.

  8. Critical evaluation of equilibrium constants involving 8-hydroxyquinoline and its metal chelates critical evaluation of equilibrium constants in solution : part b : equilibrium constants of liquid-liquid distribution systems

    Stary, J

    1979-01-01

    Critical Evaluation of Equilibrium Constants Involving 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Its Metal Chelates presents and evaluates the published data on the solubility, dissociation, and liquid-liquid distribution of oxine and its metal chelates to recommend the most reliable numerical data. This book explores the dissociation constants of oxine in aqueous solutions.Organized into four chapters, this book begins with an overview of the characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine). This text then examines the total solubility of oxine in aqueous solution at different pH values. Other chapters consider th

  9. Decay constants and mixing parameters in a relativistic model for q\\barQ system

    Ahmady, M. R.; Mendel, R. R.; Talman, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    We extend our recent work, in which the Dirac equation with a ``(asymptotically free) Coulomb + (Lorentz scalar $\\gamma_0\\sigma r$) linear '' potential is used to obtain the light quark wavefunction for $q\\bar Q$ mesons in the limit $m_Q\\to \\infty$, to estimate the decay constant $f_P$ and the mixing parameter $B$ of the pseudoscalar mesons. We compare our results for the evolution of $f_P$ and $B$ with the meson mass $M_P$ to the non-relativistic formulas for these quantities and show that t...

  10. Novel Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Material System Composed of Dielectrics with Different Dielectric Constants

    Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Adachi, Hiroshige; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Yasutaka; Takada, Takahiro

    2013-09-01

    We found that the co-firing low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) materials of different dielectric constants (ɛr) with Cu wiring is achievable using a novel, original design. It was confirmed that the dielectric characteristics of the dielectrics designed in this study are very suitable for the use of the dielectrics in electronic components such as filters mounted in high-speed radio communication equipment. The dielectric constants of the lower- and higher-dielectric-coefficient materials were 8.1 and 44.5, respectively, which are sufficiently effective for downsizing LTCC components. Observing the co-fired interface, it was confirmed that excellent co-firing conditions resulted in no mechanical defects such as delamination or cracks. On the basis of the results of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry (WDX) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), it was confirmed that co-firing with minimal interdiffusion was realized using the same glass for both dielectrics. It is concluded that the materials developed are good for co-firing in terms of the mechanical defects and interdiffusion that appear in them.

  11. Individual extraction constants of some divalent metal cations in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system

    From extraction experiments and ?-activity measurements, the exchange extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium M2+(aq) + Sr2+(nb) ↔ M2+(nb) + Sr2+(aq) taking part in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (M2+ = Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+; aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) were evaluated. Furthermore, the individual extraction constants of the M2+ cations in the mentioned two-phase system were calculated; they were found to increase in the following cation order: UO22+ 2+, Ni2+ 2+, Cd2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+, Fe2+ 2+ 2+ 2+. (author)

  12. Individual extraction constants of some divalent metal cations in the two-phase water-phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone system

    From extraction experiments and ?-activity measurements, the exchange extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium M2+ (aq) + Sr2+ (org) ↔ M2+ (org) + Sr2+ (aq) taking place in the two-phase water-phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (abbrev. FS 13) system (M2+ Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+; aq = aqueous phase, org = FS 13 phase) were evaluated. Furthermore, the individual extraction constants of the M2+ cations in this two-phase system were calculated; they were found to increase in the series of Mg2+, UO22+ 2+, Co2+ 2+, Ni2+ 2+ 2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ 2+ 2+. (author)

  13. Coupling constant metamorphosis as an integrability-preserving transformation for general finite-dimensional dynamical systems and ODEs

    Sergyeyev, A

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the coupling constant metamorphosis, also known as the (multiparameter generalized) St\\"ackel transform, originally introduced for Hamiltonian dynamical systems, to general finite-dimensional dynamical systems and ODEs. Roughly speaking, the transformation in question interchanges the values of integrals of motion with the parameters that these integrals contain but leaves the phase space coordinates intact. Sufficient conditions under which the said transformation preserves integrability and a simple formula relating the solutions of the original system to those of the transformed one are given.

  14. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    Rossi Passarella; Ahmad Fali Oklilas; Tarida Mathilda

    2014-01-01

    In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  15. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    Rossi Passarella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  16. Comparison of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) System in a Residential Building

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    The aim of this paper was to compare the indoor climate and the energy performance of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system of 0.5h-1 with a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system controlled by occupancy and relative humidity for a studio apartment. Furthermore the impact of building materials...... hygroscopic properties on indoor climate and energy consumption was investigated for the two systems. Dynamic simulations of the studio apartment were carried out in the program WUFI+ with weather data from Copenhagen including outside temperature end relative humidity. For the non-hygroscopic case it was...

  17. Temperature dependence of the rate constant of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuri [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mukanova, Aliya [Al’ Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuri; Barsukov, Nikolay; Tulubaev, Evgeniy [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Platacis, Erik [University of Latvia (IPUL), Riga (Latvia); Kenzhin, Ergazy [Shakarim Semey State University, Semey (Kazakhstan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The experiments with Li CPS sample were carried out at reactor IVG-1.M. • The gas absorption technique was used to study hydrogen isotope interaction with lithium CPS. • The temperature dependence of constants of interaction rate was obtained for various power rates of the reactor. • Determination of the activation energies, and pre-exponents of Arrhenius dependence. • The effect of increase of the rate constant under reaction irradiation. -- Abstract: Experiments with a sample of a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) were performed at the reactor IVG-1.M of the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the parameters of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium CPS. The absorption technique was used during the experiments, and this technique allowed the temperature dependences of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate constants with the lithium CPS to be obtained under various reactor powers. The obtained dependencies were used to determine the main interaction parameters: the activation energies and the pre-exponents of the Arrhenius dependence of the hydrogen interaction rate constants with lithium and the lithium CPS. An increase of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate with the lithium CPS was observed under reactor irradiation.

  18. Determination of the Rubidium Decay Constant by Age Comparison Against the U-Pb System

    Nebel, O.; Mezger, K.; Scherer, E. E.; Davies, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    The currently accepted Rb decay constant (λ 87Rb) was suggested by the Subcommission on Geochronology [1] is 1.42 x 10-11yr-1, and has a potential precision at the percent level at best [2]. This value has been used in most Rb-Sr studies in the last three decades. Several attempts to refine λ87Rb by different techniques yielded results that, despite excellent reported precisions, differed from the proposed value and also from each other. In a recent evaluation of published calibrations of the decay constant, Begemann et al. [2] suggested a lower value [~ 1.40 x 10-11yr-1] but also called for a re-determination of λ87Rb to check its accuracy and significantly improve the precision. Subsequent re-determinations [3,4] yielded values that differ significantly from each other and from that proposed by the Subcommission on Geochronology [1], one of which being higher [3], the other one lower [4] than the recommended value. Therefore, at present, there is no consensus on the λ87Rb to be used in Rb-Sr chronology. Here we report three individual determinations of λ87Rb by the method of age comparison. This entails solving for λ87Rb using 1) the measured slopes of high precision Rb-Sr isochrons from igneous rocks and minerals and 2) the emplacement ages of these samples as determined by the precise and presumably accurate U-Pb method. The precision of the measured 87Rb/86Sr has been improved to ~0.2% by measuring Rb concentrations by isotope dilution MC-ICPMS [5] (cf. ~1% for TIMS data). A challenging aspect of Rb-Sr studies is that of spike calibration, which is generally performed using standards prepared from salts of Rb and Sr rather than pure metals. The Rb/Sr values of individual spikes calibrated against two standard solutions made from different salts (iodide and carbonate) agree to within 0.15%, strongly suggesting that the stoichiometry of the salts, after careful dehydration, is sufficiently ideal for accurate spike calibrations. The calibration was checked

  19. Emerging the dark sector from thermodynamics of cosmological systems with constant pressure

    Aviles, Alejandro; Klapp, Jaime; Luongo, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of general fluids that have the constriction that their pressure is constant. For example, this happens in the case of pure dust matter, for which the pressure vanishes and also in the case of standard dark matter phenomenology. Assuming a finite non-zero pressure, the corresponding dynamics is richer than one naively would expect. In particular, it can be considered as a unified description of dark energy and dark matter. We first consider the more general thermodynamic properties of this class of fluids finding the important result that for them adiabatic and isothermal processes should coincide. We therefore study their behaviors in curved space-times where local thermal equilibrium can be appealed. Thus, we show that this dark fluid degenerates with the dark sector of the LCDM model only in the case of adiabatic evolution. We demonstrate that, adding dissipative processes, a phantom behavior can occur and finally we further highlight that an arbitrary decomposition of the...

  20. Bounds on performance measures for the (r, q) lost sales system with Poisson demand and constant lead time

    Johnston, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the fraction of sales lost for the (r, q) system under consideration can be conveniently bounded in a manner suitable for quick, back-of-the-envelope estimates. We assume that customer demand arises from a Poisson process with one unit demanded at a time, that all demand occurring during a stockout is lost, and that lead time is constant. In addition, we allow the situation where multiple replenishment orders may be simultaneously outstanding. We show that the difference b...

  1. Inference of Planck action constant by a classical fluctuative postulate holding for stable microscopic and macroscopic dynamical systems

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1999-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of inferring or simulating some aspects of quantum dynamics by adding classical statistical fluctuations to classical mechanics. We introduce a general principle of mechanical stability and derive a necessary condition for classical chaotic fluctuations to affect confined dynamical systems, on any scale, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic domains. As a consequence we obtain, both for microscopic and macroscopic aggregates, dimensional relations defining the minimum unit of action of individual constituents, yielding in all cases Planck action constant.

  2. Feynman formula for systems of partial differential equations with constant or rapidly decreasing coefficients

    The Cauchy problem for the system of linear pseudodifferential equations is considered. For two classes of such systems including partial differential systems with conbstant and rapidity decreasing variable coefficients a solution by series is obtained. The series is represented in the form of feynman integral in phase space of chronological exponent of operator-valued symbol of pseudodifferential operator

  3. Hemaka's constant

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    As proposed in a previous paper, the decorations of ancient objects can provide some information on the approximate evaluations of constant {\\pi}, the ratio of circumference to diameter. Here we discuss some disks found in the tomb of Hemaka, the chancellor of a king of the First Dynasty of Egypt, about 3000 BC. The discussion is based on measurements of the dimensionless ratio of lengths.

  4. MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS.

    Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor

    1971-03-01

    This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.

  5. On certain classes of solutions of the Weierstrass-Enneper system inducing constant mean curvature surfaces

    Bracken, Paul; Grundland, Alfred M.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the generalized Weierstrass-Enneper system includes the estimation of the degree of indeterminancy of the general analytic solution and the discussion of the boundary value problem. Several different procedures for constructing certain classes of solutions to this system, including potential, harmonic and separable types of solutions, are proposed. A technique for reduction of the Weierstrass-Enneper system to decoupled linear equations, by subjecting it to certain differential co...

  6. Realization of Constant-Current Mode for a Contactless Battery Charging System

    Yue Sun; Zheng-You He; Yan-Ling Li; Xin Dai

    2013-01-01

    For a contactless battery charging system based on inductively coupled power transfer technology, a generalized state-space averaging method is first introduced, which can convert the original system with the oscillating and nonlinear characteristics to a linear time-invariant system by using the low-order Fourier series to approximate the original circuit signals and nonlinear terms and then the performance weighting functions for multi-objective optimization are adjusted and chosen in the f...

  7. A new method and computer-controlled system for measuring the time constant of real thermoelectric modules

    Highlights: ► New method to precisely measure TE module and semiconductor parameters is developed. ► The new method is realized with a computer controlled apparatus called TEPAS. ► Fifteen different TE modules are studied with TEPAS, their parameters are obtained. ► The theoretic and experimental results validate the accuracy of new method and TEPAS. - Abstract: Thermoelectric and dynamic parameters of thermoelectric (TE) modules such as time constant are of crucial importance in production and utilization of these modules. Many techniques, apparatuses and software have been developed to determine the performance related parameters and time constants of TE modules; however, these techniques based on the assumption that the parameters of the semiconductors are constant or have time dependency only. Hence, the performance analyses of TE modules with these methods lack accuracy. In this study, Z, K, R and τ parameters of standard TE modules of Melcor Inc. have been acquired with a new computer controlled test system, Thermoelectric Performance Analysis System (TEPAS) which includes hardware and software based on the new method, variables of which are easily measurable temperature, current and voltage. The parameters Z, K, R and τ attained are compared with direct measurement results and the advantage of the new method and TEPAS have been demonstrated. Time constants of 15 different thermoelectric modules are calculated with the new method and three of them are attained with TEPAS. The results are compared with the other theoretical calculations and measurements available in literature. The system’s control and interface software was developed by Delphi visual programming language.

  8. PULSING A 4.1 MW MOTOR GENERATOR SYSTEM TO 34 MW PEAK POWER UNDER CONSTANT INPUT POWER OPERATION.

    MARNERIS,I.; BADEA,V.; BANNON,M.; BONATI,R.; DANOWAKI,G.; SANDBERG,J.; SOUKAS,A.

    1999-03-29

    Brookhaven operates a 9 MW motor generator, made by Siemens, as part of the main magnet power supply of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) accelerator. A cycloconverter power supply system is utilized to ensure that during pulsing the main magnets of the AGS up to 50 MW peak power, the input power of the motor generator remains constant. There is also another motor generator (MG set) at Brookhaven, a 40 year old system manufactured by Westinghouse. This MG set could be pulsed up to 34 MW peak power while the input average power should not exceed. 4.1 M&V. A project is underway to upgrade this MG system and it's controls, so it could be used as a spare while doing maintenance on the Siemens MG and thus not interrupting the RHIC physics program. The purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to pulse the AGS magnets using the Westinghouse MG system without utilizing a cycloconverter power supply, and still be able to maintain the input power to the motor generator constant. Calculations will be provided to show that we can pulse the position of the liquid rheostat in the motor rotor circuit to support the above, while taking out the power necessary to pulse the AGS magnets. This solution is being implemented due to budget constraints and overall simplicity. The hydraulic system to accomplish this task will also be described.

  9. Pulsing a 4.1 MW Motor Generator System to 34 MW Peak Power Under Constant Input Power Operation

    Brookhaven operates a 9 MW motor generator, made by Siemens, as part of the main magnet power supply of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) accelerator. A cycloconverter power supply system is utilized to ensure that during pulsing the main magnets of the AGS up to 50 MW peak power, the input power of the motor generator remains constant. There is also another motor generator (MG set) at Brookhaven, a 40 year old system manufactured by Westinghouse. This MG set could be pulsed up to 34 MW peak power while the input average power should not exceed 4.1 MW. A project is underway to upgrade this MG system and it's controls, so it could be used as a spare while doing maintenance on the Siemens MG and thus not interrupting the RHIC physics program. The purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to pulse the AGS magnets using the Westinghouse MG system without utilizing a cycloconverter power supply, and still be able to maintain the input power to the motor generator constant. Calculations will be provided to show that they can pulse the position of the liquid rheostat in the motor rotor circuit to support the above, while taking out the power necessary to pulse the AGS magnets. This solution is being implemented due to budget constraints and overall simplicity. The hydraulic system to accomplish this task will also be described

  10. Optical timing receiver for the NASA laser ranging system. Part I. Constant-fraction discriminator

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA laser ranging system are essentially determined by time-resolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device, primarily a standard of microchannel-plate-type photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector, a timing discriminator, a high-precision time-interval digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the time-interval digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to their time-resolution capabilities, and to design a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-precision time digitizer which will be used in the laser ranging system receiver. (auth)

  11. Systemizing: A Cross-Cultural Constant for Motivation to Learn Science

    Zeyer, Albert; Çetin-Dindar, Ayla; Md Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam; Juriševic, Mojca; Devetak, Iztok; Odermatt, Freia

    2013-01-01

    The present study is based on the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory of cognitive science. It was hypothesized that the influence of students' gender on their motivation to learn science is often overestimated in the research literature and that cognitive style is more important for motivation than students' gender. By using structural…

  12. Fedgroup - a program system for producing group constants from evaluated nuclear data of files disseminated by IAEA

    The program system FEDGROUP was originally released for general distribution in June 1976. It is widely applied for the generation of group constant libraries used by different spectral codes. In this revised version of report INDC/HUN/-13 errors, deficiencies and misprints in the original report have been removed and an extension is introduced and described. The basic computer of FEDGROUP is the CDC-3300. There exist, however, CYBER-72, BESM-6 and IBM-360 versions, too. The problems connected with the various computer versions are discussed. Results of test calculations are quoted and errata to the report INDC/HUN/-13 are given

  13. Asymptotic stability of constant steady states for a 2×2 reaction–diffusion system arising in cancer modelling

    Di Francesco, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The dependence of tumor on essential nutrients is known to be crucial for its evolution and has become one of the targets for medical therapies. Based on this fact a reaction-diffusion system with chemotaxis term and nutrient-based growth of tumors is presented. The formulation of the model considers also an influence of tumor and pharmacological factors on nutrient concentration. In the paper, convergence of solutions to constant, stationary states in the one-dimensional case for small perturbation of the equilibria is investigated. The nonlinear stability results are obtained by means of the classical symmetrization method and energy Sobolev estimates. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Relativistic astronomical time scales, relativistic scaling of astronomical constants, and the system of astronomical units

    Klioner, S A

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a detailed explanation of relativistic scaling of astronomical quantities induced by times scales \\TDB and \\TT. It is argued that scaled time scales, scaled spatial coordinates and scaled masses should be considered as distinct quantities which themselves can be expressed in any units (rather then numerical values expressed in some non-SI units ("TDB units" and "TT units") as can be sometimes found in the literature). The system of astronomical units in the relativistic framework is discussed. The whole freedom in the definitions of the systems of astronomical units for TCB and TDB is demonstrated. A number of possible ways to freeze the freedom are shown and discussed. It is argued that in the near future one should probably think about converting AU into a defined quantity (by fixing its value in SI meters).

  15. On the Formulation of Flexible Multibody Systems with Constant Mass Matrix

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    1997-01-01

    A flexible body in a multibody system isdescribed only by the position of the nodes in theinertial frame. With this description we can formulatethe mass matrix of the flexible multibody as aconstant matrix. This matrix can be inverted in apreprocessing stage which yields a more efficientaccelerat...... this formulation is that neither thecentrifugal nor the Coriolis forces appear in theequations due to the description of the flexible body....

  16. Program system SADKO-2 for assurance of high-energy radiation transport calculation by the group constant methods

    The structure of the SADKO-2 program system, providing for calculations of radiation transport by the group methods for protons, π-mesons within the energy range from 20 MeV to 10 TeV; for neutrons-from the thermal one to 10 TeV; for photons-from 0.01 up to 15 MeV. The SADKO system containing the program for calculation of complete and twice-differential cross section of inelastic hA-interaction, the program for calculation of group microcross sections for particles with energy above 20 MeV and the program for calculation of group microcross sections for isotope mixtures. The file of the group cross sections in a predetermined format, prepared with an account of the components composition of the shielding and detector substance, constitute the result of the SADKO-2 constant system operation. 25 refs., 7 figs

  17. The system of constant current focus klystron KIU-37 master pulsed microwave generator electron linear accelerator

    In order to ensure long-term stability of beam parameters of linear accelerators is working on stabilizing the excitation of high-power systems. At this stage the solution of the problem, developed and applied in practice stabilization focusing coil current klystron KIU-37 to eliminate the dependence of the output power from the mains supply voltage fluctuations and other destabilizing factors. Its use has provided the stability of the output current in the range of +-0.5% with changes in the supply voltage +-10%, which, in turn, made it possible to significantly increase the long term stability of parameters of the excitation signal

  18. Constant force actuator for gravitational wave detector's seismic attenuation systems (SAS)

    We have designed, tested and implemented a UHV-compatible, low-noise, non-contacting force actuator for DC positioning and inertial damping of the rigid body resonances of the Seismic Attenuation System (SAS) designed for the TAMA Gravitational Wave Interferometer. The actuator fully satisfies the stringent zero-force-gradient requirements that are necessary to prevent re-injecting seismic noise into the SAS chain. The actuator's closed magnetic field design makes for particularly low power requirements, and low susceptibility to external perturbations. The actuator retains enough strength to absorb seismic perturbations even during small earthquakes

  19. Constant-coefficient FIR filters based on residue number system arithmetic

    Stamenković Negovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter based on the residue number system (RNS is presented. We chose to implement it in the (RNS, because the RNS offers high speed and low power dissipation. This architecture is based on the single RNS multiplier-accumulator (MAC unit. The three moduli set {2n+1,2n,2n-1}, which avoids 2n+1 modulus, is used to design FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of residue encoding, residue arithmetic, and residue decoding for FIR filters.

  20. Identification time constants of the synchronous machine in high reliability power supply systems in Kozloduy NPP for mathematical modeling of automatical control system

    This article presents the results of subjects identification, for following of creating base models in Simulink (included in Matlab5.3) of automatic control system, synchronous generator and motor. The method for timing rows analysis is used the received third line contains the machine's time constants: d axis transient short - circuit time constant Td' and consist of mechanical parameters, initial conditions and saturation parameters. The results of research allow creating models of type 'machine-regulator', for analysis in Simulink to Matlab identically by specification objects. (authors)

  1. Pseudo almost periodic solutions for the systems of differential equations with piecewise constant argument

    PIAO; Daxiong

    2001-01-01

    ., Wampler, E. J., Gaskell, C. M., Emission-line properties of optically and radio-selected complete quasars samples, Astrophys. J., 1989, 338: 630.[13]Yong, P., Sargent, W. L. W. A., High-resolution study of the absorption spectra of three QSOs: evidence for cosmological evolution in the lyman-alpha lines, Astrophys. J., 1982, 252: 10.[14]Lawrence, J., Zucker, J. R., Readhead, A. C. S. et al., Optical spectra of a complete sample of radio sources I. The spectra, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1996, 107: 541.[15]Junkkarinen, V. T. , Burbidge E. M. , Smith, H. E. , Spectrophyotometry of six broad absoption line QSOs, Astrophys. J. ,1987, 317, 460.[16]Laor, A., Babcall, J. N., Jannuzi, B. T. et al., The ultraviolet emission properties of 13 quasars, Astrophys. J. Suppl.,1995, 99: 1.[17]Baldwin, J. A., Rees, M. J., Longair, M. S. et al., QSOs with narrow emission lines, Astrophys. J., 1988, 327: 103.[18]Shaver, P. A. , Boksenberg A. , Robertson, J. G. , Spectroscopy of the QSO pair Q0028 + 003/Q0029 + 003, Astrophys.J., 1982, 261: L7.[19]Baldwin, J. A., Netzer, H., The emission-line regions of high-redshift QSOs, Astrophys. J., 1978, 226: 1.[20]Wills, B. J., Thompson, K. L., Han, M. et al. , The Hubble space telescope sample of radio-loud quasars: Ultraviolet spectra of the first 31 quasars, Astrophys. J., 1995, 447: 139.[21]Osmer, P. S., Smith, M. G. , Discovery and spectroscopic observations of 27 optical selected quasars with 1.4 < z < 2.5,Astrophys. J., 1977, 213: 607.[22]Storrie-Lombardi, L. J., McMabon, R. G., Irwin, M. J. et al., APM Z > = 4 QSO Survey: Spectra and Intervening Ab-sorption Systems, Astrophys. J., 1996, 468: 121.[23]Young, P. , Sargent, W. L. W. , Boksenberg, A. , Clv absorption in an unbiased sample of 33 QSOs: evidence for the inter-vening galaxy hypothesis, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1982, 48: 455.[24]Zitelli, V., Mignoli, M., Zarano, B. et al., A spectroscopically complete sample of quasars with Bj ≤ 22

  2. Analysis of position error by time constant in read-out resistive network for gamma-ray imaging detection system

    Jeon, Su-Jin; Park, Chang-In; Son, Byung-Hee; Jung, Mi; Jang, Teak-Jin; Lee, Chun-Sik; Choi, Young-Wan

    2016-03-01

    Position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) in array are used as gamma ray position detector. Each PMT converts the light of wide spectrum range (100 nm ~ 2500 nm) to electrical signal with amplification. Because detection system size is determined by the number of output channels in the PSPMTs, resistive network has been used for reducing the number of output channels. The photo-generated current is distributed to the four output current pulses according to a ratio by resistance values of resistive network. The detected positions are estimated by the peak value of the distributed current pulses. However, due to parasitic capacitance of PSPMTs in parallel with resistor in the resistive network, the time constants should be considered. When the duration of current pulse is not long enough, peak value of distributed pulses is reduced and detected position error is increased. In this paper, we analyzed the detected position error in the resistive network and variation of time constant according to the input position of the PSPMTs.

  3. Design and use of a constant geometry system to measure activated indium foil in personnel security badges

    A device for measuring the exposure rate from neutron-activated indium foil, under constant geometry, has been designed, constructed, and tested. The device is intended for use with the Juno ionization chambers, although it adapts to Victoreen CDV-700 and Victoreen 193 G-M instruments. Juno dose-response data for low (53 rad) and high (226 rad) doses were compiled and modeled. This model was compared to that assumed from the indium foil dose-response model in current use; plots of fitted and assumed models are congruent. An analysis of data from both Juno and CDV-700 instruments indicates that the constant geometry device may be used effectively to monitor the decay of In-116m. Tolerance limits for the Juno dose-response curve increase with time after activation, which results in diminished precision of dose estimates made by indium foil measurement. From the data collected in these experiments, the system appears to be most useful if activation is measured within 250 min after exposure. 5 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  4. Experimental and computational studies on a steam jet refrigeration system with constant area and variable area ejectors

    Graphical abstract: The work aimed at studying the performance of a steam jet refrigeration system with (i) a constant area ejector and (ii) a variable area ejector under different operating conditions both experimentally and computationally. The boiler temperature was varied from 90 °C to 120 °C, the evaporator temperature was varied from 5 °C to 15 °C and the entertainment ratio, variation of Mach number along the ejector and the Coefficient of Performance were obtained. With proper design, the shock phenomenon in the variable area ejector was eliminated as shown in the left figure, which resulted in a better performance of the variable area ejector over a range of evaporator temperatures. The study also confirmed that the system can operate steadily at a boiler temperature of 90 °C which can be obtained from waste heat. - Highlights: • Experimental and computational studies on steam jet refrigeration system carried out. • Constant area and variable area ejectors were designed for low heat input. • Evaporator temperature was varied from 5 °C to 15 °C and the boiler temperature from 90 °C to 120 °C. • At the lower boiler temperature, no shock formed in the variable area ejector resulting in better performance. • A steam jet refrigeration system can operate steadily at boiler temperature of 90 °C. - Abstract: This paper first presents the results from an experimental study of a conventional steam jet ejector refrigeration system and compares the performance with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results of the same. Secondly, it describes a method of developing a variable area supersonic ejector and presents experimental results of the operating performance of the variable area ejector over the same operating conditions. The two ejectors were experimentally tested for boiler temperatures below 120 °C and an evaporator temperature below 15 °C. It was found that the steam jet refrigeration system can operate with stability at low boiler

  5. Criticality experiments: analysis, evaluation, and programs. 8. Prompt Neutron Decay Constants in Uranium Diluted with Matrix Material Systems

    Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed on uranium diluted with matrix material systems to determine the prompt neutron decay constants. These constants represent an eigenvalue characteristic of these particular critical assemblies, which can be experimentally measured by the Rossi-Alpha or pulse neutron source techniques and calculated by a deterministic or Monte Carlo method. In the measurements presented in this paper, highly enriched foils diluted in various X/235U ratios with polyethylene and SiO2, and polyethylene and aluminum were assembled to a high multiplication, and the prompt neutron decay constants were obtained by the Rossi-Alpha technique. The uranium diluted with matrix material experiments were fueled with highly enriched uranium foils. The average dimensions of the bare foils were 22.86 cm squared and 0.00762 cm thick. The foils were laminated with plastic sheets to reduce the amount of airborne contamination. Each foil weighed ∼70 g. The diluent material consisted of SiO2, or 6061 aluminum plates, which were embedded into polyethylene plates. The SiO2 and aluminum plates were 22.86 cm square and 0.64 cm thick. The polyethylene plates were 39.12 cm square and 1.91 cm thick. Each polyethylene plate had a central recess whose dimensions were 22.86 cm by 22.86 cm by 0.64 cm deep and was used to accommodate the SiO2, or aluminum plates as well as the uranium foils. There were eight 39.12-cm-squared by 2.54-cm-thick high density polyethylene plates that form the top and bottom reflectors (four at the top and four at the bottom). Also, one of the polyethylene plates located in the center of the assembly had holes drilled in a radial direction to accommodate neutron detectors. Four 3He detectors were placed in this plate. The 3He detectors were 1.27 cm in diameter and ∼15 cm long. Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed at several subcritical separations for both experiments. The data were collected with a type I time analyzer (PATRM). This time

  6. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  7. A theoretical investigation of Ferromagnetic Resonance Linewidth and damping constants in coupled trilayer and spin valve systems

    The ferromagnetic resonance intrinsic field linewidth ΔH is investigated for a multilayer system such as a coupled trilayer and a spin valve structure. The magnetic coupling between two ferromagnetic layers separated by a nonmagnetic interlayer will be described by the bilinear J1 and biquadratic J2 coupling parameters. The interaction at the interface of the first ferromagnetic layer with the antiferromagnetic one is account for by the exchange anisotropy field, HE. A general formula is derived for the intrinsic linewidth ΔH. The explicit dependence of ΔH with HE, J1 and J2 will be highlighted. Analytical expressions for each mode field linewidth are found in special cases. Equivalent damping constants will be discussed

  8. Hybrid Kalman and unscented Kalman filters for INS/GPS integrated system considering constant lever arm effect

    常国宾; 柳明

    2015-01-01

    In inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) integrated system, GPS antennas are usually not located at the same location as the inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the INS, so the lever arm effect exists, which makes the observation equation highly nonlinear. The INS/GPS integration with constant lever arm effect is studied. The position relation of IMU and GPS’s antenna is represented in the earth centered earth fixed frame, while the velocity relation of these two systems is represented in local horizontal frame. Due to the small integration time interval of INS, i.e. 0.1 s in this work, the nonlinearity in the INS error equation is trivial, so the linear INS error model is constructed and addressed by Kalman filter’s prediction step. On the other hand, the high nonlinearity in the observation equation due to lever arm effect is addressed by unscented Kalman filter’s update step to attain higher accuracy and better applicability. Simulation is designed and the performance of the hybrid filter is validated.

  9. Progress on the research work of astronomical constants:IAU 2009 astronomical constant system%天文常数研究的进展——IAU 2009天文常数系统

    金文敬

    2011-01-01

    The situation of astronomical constant system adopted by the IAU since 1900 has been briefly reviewed. The mathematical relation between some astronomical constants and the main reason for the change of astronomical constant system each time in the past are described. Especially, the work on the IAU astronomical constant system, including the establishment of working groups and adoption of the current best estimates since 1991, is introduced. The background of the IAU 2009 astronomical constant system instead of the IAU 1976 astronomical constant system is given. As for this change the reasons are the appearance of new measurements of astronomical constants with exploration of the Solar system, application of the Barycentric Celestial Reference System and Geocentric Celestial Reference System under the relativistic reference frame after 1991 and the adoption of new models for precession and nutation after 2006. The comparison between the IAU 2009 and 1976 astronomical constant system is given. Finally, the work on astronomical constants in China, such as determination of precession constant from proper motion, the definition of astronomical unit under the relativistic reference frame, determination of nutation constant from globe optical classical observations during 1962.0-1982.0, Corrections to the IAU 1976 precession constant and the coefficients of the IAU nutation series from VLBI data by using various networks during April 1980-December 1995, establishment of a new nutation model of a non-rigid earth with ocean and atmosphere etc. is briefly mentioned. Some suggestions for the further work on astronomical constants are proposed as follows:(1) Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) incorporates the international organizations of ILRS, IVS and IGS. The globe solution are given from processing the observational data of SLR、 GPS and VLBI routinely. By using these globe data not only the Earth Orientation Parameters, plate motion and regional crustal

  10. Study of optical non-linear properties of a constant total effective length multiple quantum wells system

    Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabshahi, H., E-mail: arabshahi@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad [Physics Department, Al-Zahra University, Vanak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OptiOptical Non-Linear. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Effective Length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schroedinger equation solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructure.

  11. Making Method of the Data Processing System in the Experiment of the Planck Constant Measuring with Photoelectric Effect

    JIANG Xing-fang; LIYan-ji; Jiang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The Planck constant is an important constant inmodern physics. Its experimental verification isgenerally by the experiment of photoelectric effect.The data processing is very complex. In order tosimplify the complex question the intelligent system“Measuring of the Planck constant withphotoelectric effect” had been developed withmultimedia authoring tool Multimedia ToolBook. Theexperimental data was of large number that obtainedby user after the leakage current between electrodesand the anode ...

  12. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  13. On variations in the fine-structure constant and limits on AGB pollution of quasar absorption systems

    Fenner, Y; Gibson, B K

    2005-01-01

    At redshifts z_abs < 2, quasar absorption-line constraints on space-time variations in the fine-structure constant, alpha, rely on the comparison of MgII and FeII transition wavelengths. One potentially important uncertainty is the relative abundance of Mg isotopes in the absorbers which, if different from solar, can cause spurious shifts in the measured wavelengths and, therefore, alpha. Here we explore chemical evolution models with enhanced populations of intermediate-mass (IM) stars which, in their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase, are thought to be the dominant factories for heavy Mg isotopes at the low metallicities typical of quasar absorption systems. By design, these models partially explain recent Keck/HIRES evidence for a smaller alpha in z_abs < 2 absorption clouds than on Earth. However, such models also over-produce N, violating observed abundance trends in high-z_abs damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs). Our results do not support the recent claim of Ashenfelter, Mathews & Olive (2004...

  14. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    Kotuš, Srđan M; Carswell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift $z=1$, HE 0515$-$4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption-line system at $z_{abs}=1.1508$, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant ($\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$). A variation of just $\\sim$3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N $\\approx250$ pix$^{-1}$). This provides the most precise measurement of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ from a single absorption system to date, $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=-1.42\\pm0.55_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.65_{\\rm sys}$ ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of $\\sim$150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelengt...

  15. Structure of the group-constant-library GRUBA and its management by the program-system GRUMA

    For nuclear calculations of Fast Reactors a chain of programs and associated data libraries has been established and successfully applied at KfK. Starting from energy-dependent probabilities for interactions between neutrons and isotopes, they allow to derive - as an intermediate step - averaged energygroup-dependent data stored on the GRUBA-file, which eventually are used to calculate the characteristic nuclear parameters of a reactor under investigation. The GRUBA-file contains material- and reaction-type-dependent group-cross-sections and similar quantities combined in a so called set of group-constants. The file is managed by the program-system GRUMA, which allows to open a new file and to change an existing one, to prepare input-files, to document changes and to print data contained in the GRUBA-file. For practical work with GRUMA and GRUBA the present report replaces the old report KfK 1815; it includes all new options of general character. (orig.)

  16. System constants for the bis(cyanopropylsiloxane)-co-methylsilarylene HP-88 and poly(siloxane) Rtx-440 stationary phases.

    Kiridena, Waruna; Patchett, Cheryl C; Koziol, Wladyslaw W; Poole, Colin F

    2005-07-22

    The solvation parameter model is used to characterize the retention properties of the bis(cyanopropylsiloxane)-co-methylsilarylene, HP-88, and poly(siloxane), Rtx-440, stationary phases over the temperature range 60-140 degrees C. HP-88 is among the most cohesive, dipolar/polarizable and hydrogen-bond basic of stationary phases for open-tubular column gas chromatography. It has no hydrogen-bond acidity or capacity for electron lone pair interactions. It exhibits similar selectivity to the poly(cyanopropylsiloxane) stationary phase SP-2340. Rtx-440 is a low-polarity, low-cohesion stationary phase with a moderate capacity for dipolar/polarizable and hydrogen-bond base interactions. It has no hydrogen-bond acidity and possesses weak electron lone pair interactions. It has unique selectivity when compared against a system constants database for 28 common stationary phase compositions. Cluster analysis indicated that the poly(cyanopropylphenyldimethylsiloxane) stationary phase containing 6% cyanopropylphenylsiloxane monomer, DB-1301, the poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) stationary phase containing 20% diphenylsiloxane monomer, Rtx-20, the poly(siloxane) stationary phase of unknown composition, DB-624, and DX-1 [a mixture of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(ethylene glycol) 9:1] are the closest selectivity matches in the database. The selectivity of DB-1301 and Rtx-440 are very similar for solutes with weak hydrogen-bond acidity allowing one stationary phase to be substituted for the other with likely success. For strong hydrogen-bond acids, such as phenols, DB-1301 and Rtx-440 exhibit different selectivity. PMID:16038217

  17. On the ambiguity of the reaction rate constants in multivariate curve resolution for reversible first-order reaction systems.

    Schröder, Henning; Sawall, Mathias; Kubis, Christoph; Selent, Detlef; Hess, Dieter; Franke, Robert; Börner, Armin; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    If for a chemical reaction with a known reaction mechanism the concentration profiles are accessible only for certain species, e.g. only for the main product, then often the reaction rate constants cannot uniquely be determined from the concentration data. This is a well-known fact which includes the so-called slow-fast ambiguity. This work combines the question of unique or non-unique reaction rate constants with factor analytic methods of chemometrics. The idea is to reduce the rotational ambiguity of pure component factorizations by considering only those concentration factors which are possible solutions of the kinetic equations for a properly adapted set of reaction rate constants. The resulting set of reaction rate constants corresponds to those solutions of the rate equations which appear as feasible factors in a pure component factorization. The new analysis of the ambiguity of reaction rate constants extends recent research activities on the Area of Feasible Solutions (AFS). The consistency with a given chemical reaction scheme is shown to be a valuable tool in order to reduce the AFS. The new methods are applied to model and experimental data. PMID:27237834

  18. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    Wei, Hao; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view...

  19. Calculation of binding constants and concentration of binding sites in a reaction of a ligand with a heterogeneous system of binding sites

    A method is presented for the calculation of association constants and the concentration of binding sites in a reaction of a ligand with a heterogeneous system of binding sites. The Scatchard plot for such a system is curvelinear and the method employs previously established relationships between the parameters of the limiting slopes to such a curve and the above mentioned association constants and concentrations of binding sites. The special case of a system with two different and non-interacting groups of binding sites was solved. The expressions thus obtained were used to characterize the reaction of a polypeptide neurotoxin with its specific binding sites in a membranal preparation from insect central nervous system. Moreover it is evident from these expressions that the widely accepted method to analyze such system, by an intuitive generalization of the method applicable to homogeneous systems, is erroneous and should be avoided. (author)

  20. Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays to Measure Equilibrium Dissociation Constants: GAL4-p53 Binding DNA as a Model System

    Heffler, Michael A.; Walters, Ryan D.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2012-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that will teach students the practical and theoretical considerations for measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (K[subscript D]) for a protein/DNA interaction using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). An EMSA monitors the migration of DNA through a native gel;…

  1. Effect of whole-body irradiation on Michaelis-Menten constants of microsomal enzyme systems of rat liver

    The effect of whole-body irradiation on Michaelis-Menten constants of the NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase (EC1.6.2.3.), the oxidative demethylation of ethylmorphine and glucose 6-phosphatase (EC3.1.3.9.), have been studied at 1, 4 and 7 days after irradiation. (Auth.)

  2. Changes in immune system of experimental animals resulting from constant irradiation of several generations in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    The reaction of the immune system on the constant exposure to the radiation of the Chernobyl discharge during the life of several generations of laboratory animals. It has been shown that the exposed animals (irrespective of the line, generation and sex) differ considerably from the controls both in definite immune characteristics (30-70% of the studied parameters) and in sensitivity to grippe virus

  3. J-convexity constants

    Jincai Wang

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the \\(J\\)-convexity constants on Banach spaces and give some properties of the constants. We give the relations between the \\(J\\)-convexity constants and the \\(n\\)-th von Neumann-Jordan constants. Using the quantitative indices we estimate the value of \\(J\\)-convexity constants in Orlicz spaces.

  4. The influence of pressure-dependent variation of the elastic constants on tunnelling systems in amorphous solids

    Eggert, Th.; Geilenkeuser, R.; Jäckel, M.

    2000-07-01

    We have measured the dielectric response ε( ω) and the thermal conductivity κ of polystyrene (PS) and of polycarbonate (PC) under high hydrostatic pressure (0.1 MPaconstant Ci can be determined. These results show that the product P¯γ l,t2 of the standard tunnelling model (STM) scales with the pressure-dependent elastic constants c11 and c44.

  5. Criteria for the Degree of Stability of the Linear Constant Systems%线性定常系统稳定度的判据

    王广彬; 潘宝珍; 侯文渊

    2004-01-01

    There are various applications of the stability theory of the first-order dynamical systems.And the stability of the non-linear control systems can be determined by its linear part.In practice, it is not enough to know the stability of the dynamical systems.Sometimes we must know the degree of stability of these systems.In this paper, we present some criteria for the degree of stability of the linear constant systems, by using the entries of the coefficient matrix A only.

  6. The Design of Constant Temperature and Humidity Air Conditioning System of Ancient Library%古籍库恒温恒湿空调系统设计

    杨德福

    2016-01-01

    Introduced the characteristics of the ancient library and HVAC system in the library of Liaoning Province, analyzes the scheme selection of the constant temperature and humidity air conditioning system and the cold and heat sources, summarizes the necessary technical measures and experience during the design of constant temperature and humidity air conditioning system, in order to provide a reference for design.%介绍了辽宁省图书馆古籍库及其暖通空调系统的特点,分析了其恒温恒湿空调系统方案选择及冷热源选择,总结了古籍库恒温恒湿空调系统设计的必要技术措施和体会,以供设计参考。

  7. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Volume XVI. Tabular and graphical presentation of 175 neutron group constants derived from the LLL evaluated neutron data library (ENDL)

    As of February 3, 1975, 175 neutron group constants had been derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) at LLL. In this volume, tables and graphs of the constants are presented along with the conventions used in their preparation. (U.S.)

  8. An investigation of the dependence of the average value of anisotropy constant of nano-particle systems on packing friction.

    Fannin, Paul C.; Coffey, William T.

    2000-03-01

    Measurements are presented of the complex magnetic susceptibility,\\chi (ω) = \\chi' (ω )- i\\chi'' (ω ), of a number of colloidal suspensions of nano-particles with different packing fractions, over the frequency range 10kHz to 18kHz. The magnetic field dependence of the average particle anisotropy constant, K, for magnetic fluids samples of magnetite in isopar M for seventeen values of polarising field, H, in the approximate range 0 to 100,000 A/m are presented and examined.

  9. Study on constant-pressure specific heat of non-equi- librium phase change process in gas-liquid two-phase flow system

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the air-water vapor-water system is taken as an example, and the formula of constantpressure specific heat during non-equilibrium phase change process in the two-phase flow system is deduced using the theory of two-phase flow and thermophysics. The constant-pressure specific heat of non-equilibrium phase change process is calculated with the corresponding numerical model, and the numerical results are compared to those of the equilibrium phase change process. It is shown that in evaporation process, the variational rate of the non-equilibrium specific heat increases with increasing initial fluid temperature and particle mass fraction. The smaller particle radius is, the faster the variational rate is. Meanwhile, the constant-pressure specific heat of equilibrium process is higher than that of the non-equilibrium process all the time.

  10. Cosmological Hubble constant and nuclear Hubble constant

    The evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang and the evolution of the dense and highly excited nuclear matter formed by relativistic nuclear collisions are investigated and compared. Values of the Hubble constants for cosmological and nuclear processes are obtained. For nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies the nuclear Hubble constant is obtained in the frame of different models involving the hydrodynamic flow of the nuclear matter. Significant difference in the values of the two Hubble constant - cosmological and nuclear - is observed

  11. Qualification test of few group constants generated from an MC method by the two-step neutronics analysis system McCARD/MASTER

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the qualification of few group constants estimated by the Seoul National University Monte Carlo particle transport analysis code McCARD in terms of core neutronics analyses and thus to validate the McCARD method as a few group constant generator. The two- step core neutronics analyses are conducted for a mini and a realistic PWR by the McCARD/MASTER code system in which McCARD is used as an MC group constant generation code and MASTER as a diffusion core analysis code. The two-step calculations for the effective multiplication factors and assembly power distributions of the two PWR cores by McCARD/MASTER are compared with the reference McCARD calculations. By showing excellent agreements between McCARD/MASTER and the reference MC core neutronics analyses for the two PWRs, it is concluded that the MC method implemented in McCARD can generate few group constants which are well qualified for high-accuracy two-step core neutronics calculations. (author)

  12. Henry’s constant of carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride/ethylene glycol, choline chloride/glycerol, choline chloride/malonic acid) systems

    Highlights: • A new set of Henry’s constant for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvents were measured. • The DESs used were: ethaline, glyceline, and maline. • The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. -- Abstract: In this study, we present a new set of Henry’s constant data for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (DES) (20 to 80 wt% DES) at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The DESs used were choline chloride-based: ethaline (choline chloride/ethylene glycol), glyceline (choline chloride/glycerol), and maline (choline chloride/malonic acid). A differential Henry’s coefficient model was used to describe the behaviour of Henry’s constant, and correlate it with temperature and concentration of DES in the aqueous DES solution. The correlation was found satisfactory such that the proposed model can be used in engineering calculations with reasonable accuracy

  13. Constant support system for multiparticle radiation transport and models of discrete hh, hA, and AA Interactions on the basis of the RTS&T-2013 code

    The constant system for multiparticle radiation transport and macro- and micromodels of the hh, hA, and AA interactions implemented in the form of a set of hadronic generators, included in the current version of the RTS&T-2013 code system intended for the statistical modeling of multi-particle radiation transport in heterogeneous 3D geometries in a wide energy range has been considered. Selective results of systematic testing of the code on the basis of integral benchmarks for typical problems of radiation transport are given for intermediate- and high-energy ranges

  14. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  15. Microcontroller based new single-phase transformer less inverter for grid-tied photovoltaic system with constant common mode voltage

    Nadia Afrin; Monirul Islam; Anarul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transformerless inverters are becoming more attractive for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system because of high efficiency and low cost. Unfortunately, leakage current may flow through the whole grid-tied PV system due to fluctuating common mode (CM) voltage that depends on the topology structure and control strategy. Therefore, to meet the safety regulations, leakage current of transformerless PV inverter has to be addressed carefully. In this paper, a new microcontroller based trans...

  16. Shifting parties, constant cleavage. Party system formation along the urban-rural cleavage in post-communist Lithuania

    Lie, Svenn Arne

    2006-01-01

    When studying the party system formation in post-communist Lithuania, the Western European theoretical framework is a useful, although not sufficient tool to understand this process. Weak alignments between voters and parties and unstable party systems have made it difficult to apply the Western European theoretical framework because it prerequisites a high degree of party institutionalisation. In addition to unstable electoral support for the established parties, new parties s...

  17. Surfaces of a Constant Negative Curvature

    G. M. Gharib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I study the geometric notion of a differential system describing surfaces of a constant negative curvature and describe a family of pseudospherical surfaces for the nonlinear partial differential equations with constant Gaussian curvature .

  18. RADHEAT-V4: a code system to generate multigroup constants and analyze radiation transport for shielding safety evaluation

    A modular code system RADHEAT-V4 has been developed for performing precisely neutron and photon transport analyses, and shielding safety evaluations. The system consists of the functional modules for producing coupled multi-group neutron and photon cross section sets, for analyzing the neutron and photon transport, and for calculating the atom displacement and the energy deposition due to radiations in nuclear reactor or shielding material. A precise method named Direct Angular Representation (DAR) has been developed for eliminating an error associated with the method of the finite Legendre expansion in evaluating angular distributions of cross sections and radiation fluxes. The DAR method implemented in the code system has been described in detail. To evaluate the accuracy and applicability of the code system, some test calculations on strong anisotropy problems have been performed. From the results, it has been concluded that RADHEAT-V4 is successfully applicable to evaluating shielding problems accurately for fission and fusion reactors and radiation sources. The method employed in the code system is very effective in eliminating negative values and oscillations of angular fluxes in a medium having an anisotropic source or strong streaming. Definitions of the input data required in various options of the code system and the sample problems are also presented. (author)

  19. Reforming the international system of units: On our way to redefine the base units solely from fundamental constants and beyond

    Bordé, Christian J

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose is to offer a logical analysis of the system of units and to explore possible paths towards a consistent and unified system with an original perspective. The path taken here builds on the fact that, thanks to optical or matter-wave interferometry, any measurement can be reduced to a dimensionless phase measurement and we follow this simple guiding line. We finally show how one could progress even further on the path of a synthetic framework for fundamental metrology based upon pure geometry in five dimensions.

  20. Validation of the ABBN/CONSYST constants system. Part 2: Validation through the critical experiments on cores with uranium solutions

    Results of calculations of critical assemblies with the cores of uranium solutions for the considered series of the experiments are presented in this paper. The conclusions about acceptability of the ABBN-93.1 cross sections for the calculations of such systems are made. (author)

  1. Determination of photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals in natural waters using an automatic light irradiation and injection system

    Photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in natural water samples were determined by an automatic determination system. After addition of benzene as a chemical probe to a water sample in a reaction cell, light irradiation and injection of irradiated water samples into an HPLC as a function of time were performed automatically. Phenol produced by the reaction between ·OH and the benzene added to the water sample was determined to quantify the ·OH formation rate. The rate constants of ·OH formation from the photolysis of nitrate ions, nitrite ions and hydrogen peroxide were comparable with those obtained in previous studies. The percent of expected ·OH photoformation rate from added nitrate ion were high in drinking water (97.4%) and river water (99.3%). On the other hand, the low percent (65.0%) was observed in seawater due to the reaction of ·OH with the high concentrations of chloride and bromide ions. For the automatic system, the coefficient of variance for the determination of the ·OH formation rate was less than 5.0%, which is smaller than that in the previous report. When the complete time sequence of analytical cycle was 40 min for one sample, the detection limit of the photoformation rate and the sample throughput were 8 x 10-13 M s-1 and 20 samples per day, respectively. The automatic system successfully determined the photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of ·OH in commercial drinking water and the major source and sink of ·OH were identified as nitrate and bicarbonate ions, respectively

  2. System of constants to calculate neutron transport with energy 10-2-4x108 eV

    A description of the library of nuclear data to calculate neutron transport in the energy range 10-2 eV-4x102 MeV (BND-400) is presented. The library contains a seven-group system of data for neutrons of E>10.5 MeV and a standard 26-group system for neutrons with E10.5 MeV, and those for matching with the file of data for neutrons with E<10.5 MeV are briefly described. In the BND-400 complex there are subroutines, which allow one to calculate the cross sections for neutron interaction with nuclei of matter with the help of various methods and models as well as to calculate group cross sections. It also provides output files in the form convenient for work. A brief instruction for BND-400 explotation on the computer BESM-6 is given

  3. Inference of Planck action constant by a classical fluctuative postulate holding for stable microscopic and macroscopic dynamical systems

    De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1999-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of inferring or simulating some aspects of quantum dynamics by adding classical statistical fluctuations to classical mechanics. We introduce a general principle of mechanical stability and derive a necessary condition for classical chaotic fluctuations to affect confined dynamical systems, on any scale, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic domains. As a consequence we obtain, both for microscopic and macroscopic aggregates, dimensional relations defining the m...

  4. Acute inflammatory and anabolic systemic responses to peak and constant-work-rate exercise bout in hospitalized patients with COPD

    Spruit, Martijn A.; Troosters, Thierry; Gosselink, Rik; Kasran, Ahmad; Decramer, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: To explore the acute systemic inflammatory and anabolic effects of cycling in hospital admitted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in patients with clinically stable disease. Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Setting: University Hospital Gasthuisberg, a tertiary care setting. Patients: 16 patients with clinically stable COPD (no acute exacerbation in the past 12 weeks; median age: 73 years (IQR: 60 to 75); median forced expiratory volume ...

  5. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  6. Microcontroller based new single-phase transformer less inverter for grid-tied photovoltaic system with constant common mode voltage

    Nadia Afrin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transformerless inverters are becoming more attractive for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV system because of high efficiency and low cost. Unfortunately, leakage current may flow through the whole grid-tied PV system due to fluctuating common mode (CM voltage that depends on the topology structure and control strategy. Therefore, to meet the safety regulations, leakage current of transformerless PV inverter has to be addressed carefully. In this paper, a new microcontroller based transformerless topology with low leakage current is proposed for grid-tied PV system. A 16-bit dSPIC microcontroller is implemented to control the proposed topology. The proposed circuit structure and detail operation principle are presented in this paper. One additional switch with conventional full-bridge inverter and a diode clamping branch ensure the disconnection of PV module from the grid at the freewheeling mode and clamp the short-circuited output voltage to the half of DC input voltage. Therefore, the CM leakage current is minimized considerably. Meanwhile, MOSFET switches have been used in the proposed inverter to improve the efficiency at light-load condition. Finally, a prototype has been developed to verify the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that the performance of the proposed inverter is as expected. It is found that the maximum efficiency and European efficiency of the proposed inverter is 98% and 97.52%, respectively.

  7. Physics without physical constants

    Following the general principles of both Newton's mechanics and Maxwell's electrodynamics, a new approach to basic equations of physics is presented. The new basic equations express fundamental laws of physics and are free from any physical constants. The necessary constants appear only through some kind of constitutive relations and by considering special solutions of the basic equations. The presented approach admits a new interpretation of fundamental physical constants, such as the Planck gravitational ones. 4 refs. (author)

  8. Cinética de sinterização para sistemas à base de SnO2 por taxa de aquecimento constante Sintering kinetics for SnO2-based systems by constant heating rate

    S. M. Tebcheran

    2003-04-01

    in small concentrations as densifying aids for this oxide. In the present study the sintering kinetics of tin oxide was studied considering the effect of sintering atmosphere and of the MnO2 concentration. SnO2-MnO2 systems were prepared from the polymeric precursors method and the obtained powders were characterized by surface area by the BET method. SnO2 powders with varied MnO2 concentrations were pressed in cylindrical shape, and sintered in a dilatometer furnace with constant heating rate and controlled atmospheres. Sintered samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of atmosphere (argon, air or CO2 as well as of the MnO2 concentrations on the sintering kinetics was determined. The kinetics data of linear shrinkage were analyzed in terms of kinetic models for the initial stage of sintering (Woolfrey and Bannister as well as for the global sintering (Su e Johnson allowing the determination of the apparent activation energy. Following the determination of the master sintering curve the apparent activation energy of all sintering process were determined as well as its dependence with the atmosphere and manganese concentrations. Based on these values and on the n exponent, determined by the classical grain growth equation, it was concluded that the most probable sintering mechanism is grain boundary diffusion with surface redistribution controlling the kinetics.

  9. Data file and management-retrieval code system of sub-library of atomic masses and characteristics constants of nuclear ground state (CENPL·MCC-1)

    The library of atomic masses and characteristic constants for nuclear ground states, a sub-library of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Parameter Library (CENPL), consists of two parts: the data file and management-retrieval code system. The former stores the nuclear basic data, such as the mass excesses, abundances and half-lives, spines and parities of the nuclear ground states. The latter is developed to retrieve the data stored in the data file. It can also derive the separation energies of some particles and particle groups and β-decay energies; nuclear reaction energies and the corresponding threshold energies for some neutron reaction channels including the third reaction process could also be obtained as combinations of different mass excesses. The function, feature and operation instruction of the code system are described briefly

  10. The Cosmological Constant

    Carroll Sean M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the physics and cosmology of the cosmological constant. Focusing on recent developments, I present a pedagogical overview of cosmology in the presence of a cosmological constant, observational constraints on its magnitude, and the physics of a small (and potentially nonzero vacuum energy.

  11. Local Experiments See Cosmologically Varying Constants

    Shaw, D J; Barrow, John D.; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a rigorous construction, using matched asymptotic expansions, which establishes under very general conditions that local terrestrial and solar-system experiments will measure the effects of varying `constants' of Nature occurring on cosmological scales to computable precision. In particular, `constants' driven by scalar fields will still be found to evolve in time when observed within virialised structures like clusters, galaxies, and planetary systems. This provides a justification for combining cosmological and terrestrial constraints on the possible time variation of many assumed `constants' of Nature, including the fine structure constant and Newton's gravitation constant.

  12. Implementation of a constant load method, for determination of crack growth velocities in MEX-03 system of National Institute of Nuclear Research

    Whit the objective of to complete the existent techniques for susceptibility evaluation to phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking in laboratories of Applied Sciences Area of National Institute of Nuclear Research; was realized and documented the modification of a high pressure and temperature equipment, identified as MEX-03 to carry out the implementation of a growth and crack propagation assay, using a constant load method. The assay was realized to a specimen of stainless steel AISI 304l type CT of an inch, which was previously thermally sensitize, simulating the typical degradation of this materials type below operation conditions in a BWR. The MEX-03 system, consist from an annexed auto key to a load system which originally was controlled by displacement; therefore were carried out modifications to achieve the control by load. The realized adjustments allowed to maintain a constant load during all the experiment, and as much the temperature conditions (T = 288 C) as of pressure (P = 8 Mpa) were controlled during the assay realization. The steel was exposed to a conditioned ambient with hydrogen gas addition; simulating a well-known alternative chemistry as hydrogen water chemistry that is used to mitigate the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking, main degradation mechanism of austenitic stainless steels. The continuation of the crack behavior was realized by means of electric potential fall technique and later was validated of visual form through the fractographic analysis of cracked surface. The modification and control of equipment for realization of this experiment is necessary, for what should be carried out new assays, whose results will allow to establish the effect of dynamic and static methods in velocity determination of crack growth to laboratory level; to be considered in the existent models of crack propagation in systems and components in operation. (Author)

  13. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. PMID:26853042

  14. The /A 1 Sigma +/ - /X 1 Sigma +/ system of the isotopic lithium hydrides - The molecular constants, potential energy curves, and their adiabatic corrections

    Vidal, C. R.; Stwalley, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    The molecular constants and their adiabatic corrections have been determined for the (A 1 Sigma +) - (X 1 Sigma +) system of the isotopic lithium hydrides: (Li-6)H, (Li-7)H, (Li-6)D, and (Li-7)D. Using a fully quantum mechanical variational method, the potential energy curves (IPA potentials) are determined. Extending the variational method, we have obtained for the first time adiabatic corrections of potential energy curves from isotopic spectroscopic data. A significant difference between the potential energy curves of the lithium hydrides and the lithium deuterides has been observed. When Li-6 was replaced by Li-7, a significant difference was only observed for the (A 1 Sigma +) state, but not for the (X 1 Sigma +) state.

  15. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  16. Constant of motion for a one-dimensional and nth-order autonomous system and its relation to the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian

    A constant of motion is defined for a one-dimensional and nth-differenital-order autonomous svstem. A generalization of the Legendre transformation is given that allows one to obtain a relation among the constant of motion the Lagrangian, and the Hamiltonian. The approach is used to obtain the constant of motion associated with the nonrelativistic third-differential-order Abraham-Lorentz radiation damping equation

  17. Development of a common nuclear group constants library system: JSSTDL-295n-104γ based on JENDL-3 nuclear data library

    JSSTDL 295n-104γ: A common group cross-section library system has been developed in JAERI to be used in fairly wide range of applications in nuclear industry. This system is composed of a common 295n-104γ group cross-section library based on JENDL-3 nuclear data file and its utility codes. Target of this system is focused to the criticality or shielding calculations in fast and fusion reactors using ANISN, DOT, or MORSE code. Specifications of the common group constants were decided responding to the request from various nuclear data users, particularly from nuclear design group in Japan. Group structure is decided so as to cover almost all group structures currently used in our country. This library includes self-shielding factor tables for primary reactions. A routine for generating macro-scopic cross-section using the self-shielding factor table is also provided. Neutron cross-sections and photon production cross-sections are processed by Prof. GROUCH-G/B code system and γ ray transport cross-sections are generated by GAMLEG-JR. In this paper, outline and present status of the JSSTDL library system is described along with two examples adopted in JENDL-3 benchmark test. One is for shielding calculation, where effects of self-shielding factor (f-table) is shown in conjunction with the analysis of the ASPIS natural iron deep penetration experiment. Without considering resonance self-shielding effect in resonance energy region for resonant nuclides like iron, the results is completely missled in the attenuation profile calculation in the shields. The other example is fast rector criticality calculations of very small critical assemblies with very high enrichment fuel materials where some basic characteristics of this library is presented. (orig.)

  18. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions

    Mendelson, Kenneth S.; Ackmann, James J.

    1997-03-01

    We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of a cubic array of spheres. Extensive calculations support preliminary conclusions reported previously (K. Mendelson and J. Ackmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41), 657 (1996).. At frequencies below 100 kHz the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') shows oscillations as a function of the volume fraction of suspension. These oscillations disappear at low conductivities of the suspending fluid. Measurements of the dielectric constant (J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). (H. Fricke and H. Curtis, J. Phys. Chem. 41), 729 (1937). are not sufficiently sensitive to show oscillations but appear to be consistent with the theoretical results.

  19. Algorithm for structure constants

    Paiva, F M

    2011-01-01

    In a $n$-dimensional Lie algebra, random numerical values are assigned by computer to $n(n-1)$ especially selected structure constants. An algorithm is then created, which calculates without ambiguity the remaining constants, obeying the Jacobi conditions. Differently from others, this algorithm is suitable even for poor personal computer. ------------- En $n$-dimensia algebro de Lie, hazardaj numeraj valoroj estas asignitaj per komputilo al $n(n-1)$ speciale elektitaj konstantoj de strukturo. Tiam algoritmo estas kreita, kalkulante senambigue la ceterajn konstantojn, obeante kondicxojn de Jacobi. Malsimile al aliaj algoritmoj, tiu cxi tauxgas ecx por malpotenca komputilo.

  20. Wind energy conversion systems with electric transmission to the water pumping with field control to constant flow; Sistema de conversao de energia eolica com transmissao eletrica para bombeamento de agua com controle de campo a fluxo constante

    Nobrega, Juraci Carlos de Castro

    1989-07-01

    The stead-state analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion Systems, consisting on a Windmill, Synchronous Generator, transmission Line and Induction Motor driving a Centrifugal Pump is developed. The performance of the system operating at variable Speed with a flux control is examined using mathematical and digital simulation. The control scheme is proposed and tested in laboratory and a tested in laboratory and a test centre to be compared with simulation results. (author)

  1. Microscopic group constants determination

    The method of microscopic group constants determination for nuclear reactor calculations is described in this paper. The principle of this method is group averaging of microscopic cross sections with respect to the standard spectrum. The group cross sections obtained are used for the calculation of fast critical assembly Jezebel. (author)

  2. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    1995-08-01

    about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple way to determine the distance to a remote galaxy is by measuring its redshift, calculate its velocity from the redshift and divide this by the Hubble constant, H0. For instance, the measured redshift of the parent galaxy of SN 1995K (0.478) yields a velocity of 116,000 km/sec, somewhat more than one-third of the speed of light (300,000 km/sec). From the universal expansion rate, described by the Hubble constant (H0 = 20 km/sec per million lightyears as found by some studies), this velocity would indicate a distance to the supernova and its parent galaxy of about 5,800 million lightyears. The explosion of the supernova would thus have taken place 5,800 million years ago, i.e. about 1,000 million years before the solar system was formed. However, such a simple calculation works only for relatively ``nearby'' objects, perhaps out to some hundred million lightyears. When we look much further into space, we also look far back in time and it is not excluded that the universal expansion rate, i.e. the Hubble constant, may have been different at earlier epochs. This means that unless we know the change of the Hubble constant with time, we cannot determine reliable distances of distant galaxies from their measured redshifts and velocities. At the same time, knowledge about such change or lack of the same will provide unique information about the time elapsed since the Universe began to expand (the ``Big Bang''), that is, the age of the Universe and also its ultimate fate. The Deceleration Parameter q0 Cosmologists are therefore eager to determine not only the current expansion rate (i.e., the Hubble constant, H0) but also its possible change with time (known as the deceleration parameter, q0). Although a highly accurate value of H0 has still not become available, increasing attention is now given to the observational determination of the second parameter, cf. also the Appendix at the

  3. Liquid-vapor distribution of some amines and acid-ionization constants of their ammonium salts in high temperature aqueous systems

    Ammonia and volatile organic amines are used to treat the water in steam generating systems to afford protection of the steam and feedwater circuits from corrosion by acidic condensate. The base strength and the volatility of the reagent used are two important parameters that have bearing on its ability to inhibit corrosion; they determine the pH of the solution produced from condensing steam. The distribution of thirteen amines between water and steam in the temperature range 150 to 325 degree C was studied. The amines were chosen on the basis of their known room temperature base strength. The acid ionization constants (Ka) of the ammonium salts of seven of these amines were determined by conductivity measurement in the temperature range 25 to 275 degree C. Amines with high room temperature base strength and distribution coefficient in the optimum range were chosen for the high-temperature base strength determination. The results of these studies were used to estimate the effectiveness of these amines in raising the pH of the condensate from steam containing carbon dioxide and acetic acid in order to provide the basis for further studies on the corrosion inhibition properties of the amines

  4. A study of the importance of the cell geometry in non-Faradaic systems. A new definition of the cell constant for conductivity measurement

    A new definition for the electrochemical cell constant in conductivity measurements is presented in this paper. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and DC pulses measurements have been carried out in non-Faradaic conditions in order to evaluate the effects of the cell geometry. The results obtained demonstrate that conductivity measurements are affected not only by the electrodes surface and separation but also by the cross section of the electrochemical cell. In order to obtain a linear behavior of the resistance versus the distance between electrodes, the cross section of the cell should be equal to the electrodes surface. Differences between the cell cross section and the electrodes surface produce a heterogeneous distribution of the electric field that causes the non-linear behavior for low values of the electrodes separation. This study shows that the reproducibility in electronic tongue and humid electronic nose measurements can be improved by designing an electrochemical cell structure that warrants a homogeneous distribution of the electrical field, which results in a reduction of the detection threshold in these types of system

  5. Studies in the system MgO-SiO2-CO2-H2O(I): The activity-product constant of chrysotile

    Hostetler, P.B.; Christ, C.L.

    1968-01-01

    Chrysotile dissolves congruently in water according to the reaction: Mg3Si2O6(OH)4c + 5H2Ol = 3Mgaq2+ + 6OHaq- + 2H4SiO4aq. Experimental determination of the activity-product constant of chrysotile, Kchr = [Mg2+]3[OH-]6[H4SiO4aq]2, at 90??C, yields the value of Kchr = 10-49.2 ?? 100.5. A synthetic sample and a natural sample from New Idria, California, were used in the determination. Values of Kchr were calculated for temperatures ranging from 0??C to 200??C, using the thermochemical data of King et al. (1967) for chrysotile and antigorite, various solubility data for silica, and ionic partial molal heat capacities estimated by the method of criss and Cobble (1964a). Kchr is 10-54.1 at 0??C, rises to a maximum value of 10-48.5 at approximately 135??C, and is 10-49.1 at 200??C (all values for the three-phase system, chrysotile plus solution plus vapor). The calculated 90??C value is 10-49.1, in excellent agreement with the experimental value; for 25??C, the calculated value is 10-50.8. ?? 1968.

  6. Constant Speed Ramps

    Perdomo, Oscar M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show all possible ramps where an object can move with constant speed under the effect of gravity and friction. The planar ramp are very easy to describe, just rotate a curve with velocity vector (tanh(as),sech(as)). Recall that tanh(as)^2+sech^2(as) = 1. Therefore, the solution of the planar constant speed problem is connected with easy to describe examples of curves with arc-length parameter. For ramps in the space, we show that there are as many ramps as tangent unit vector fields in the south hemisphere. A video explaining these results can be found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBrvbb0efVk

  7. Variation of fundamental constants

    Flambaum, V V

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  8. Asymptotic distribution of the pseudo-orbits and the generalized Euler constant γΔ for a family of strongly chaotic systems

    Aurich, R.; Steiner, F.

    1992-07-01

    Dynamical zeta functions, defined as Euler products over classical periodic orbits, have recently received enhanced attention as an important tool for the quantization of chaos. Their representation as a Dirichlet series over pseudo-orbits has proven to be particularly useful, since these series seem to possess in the general case much better convergence properties than the original Euler product. The convergence of the Dirichlet series depends crucially on the asymptotic distribution of the pseudo-orbits and thus on the ergodicity of the underlying dynamical system. It is shown that the lengths ln (or rather expln) of the classical periodic orbits play mathematically the role of generalized prime numbers. Based on the theory of Beurling's generalized prime numbers, we derive an exact law for the proliferation of psuedo-orbits for the Hadamard-Gutzwiller model, which is one of the main testing grounds of our ideas about quantum chaos. The strength of growth of the pseudo-orbits is determined by the ratio ZETA(2)/ZETA'(1), where ZETA(s) denotes the Selberg zeta function. Two explicit, complementary representations are given that allow the computation of this ratio solely from the length spectrum \\{ln\\} of the classical periodic orbits, or from the quantal energy spectrum \\{En\\}. One of these relations depends exponentially on the generalized Euler constant γΔ, which is therefore also studied. The formulas are applied to two strongly chaotic systems. It turns out that our asymptotic law describes the mean proliferation of pseudo-orbits very well not only in the asymptotic region, but also surprisingly well down to the shortest pseudo-orbit.

  9. The cosmological constant puzzle

    Bass, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The accelerating expansion of the Universe points to a small positive vacuum energy density and negative vacuum pressure. A strong candidate is the cosmological constant in Einstein's equations of General Relativity. Possible contributions are zero-point energies and the condensates associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The vacuum energy density extracted from astrophysics is 10 56 times smaller than the value expected from quantum fields and Standard Model particle physi...

  10. Is the sun constant

    Small fluctuations in the solar constant can occur on timescales much shorter than the Kelvin time. Changes in the ability of convection to transmit energy through the superadiabatic and transition regions of the convection zone cause structure adjustments which can occur on a time scale of days. The bulk of the convection zone reacts to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium (though not thermal equilibrium) and causes a luminosity change. While small radius variations will occur, most of the change will be seen in temperature

  11. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  12. Measurement of Setschenow constants for six hydrophobic compounds in simulated brines and use in predictive modeling for oil and gas systems.

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2016-02-01

    Treatment and reuse of brines, produced from energy extraction activities, requires aqueous solubility data for organic compounds in saline solutions. The presence of salts decreases the aqueous solubility of organic compounds (i.e. salting-out effect) and can be modeled using the Setschenow Equation, the validity of which has not been assessed in high salt concentrations. In this study, we used solid-phase microextraction to determine Setschenow constants for selected organic compounds in aqueous solutions up to 2-5 M NaCl, 1.5-2 M CaCl2, and in Na-Ca binary electrolyte solutions to assess additivity of the constants. These compounds exhibited log-linear behavior up to these high NaCl concentrations. Log-linear decreases in solubility with increasing salt concentration were observed up to 1.5-2 M CaCl2 for all compounds, and added to a sparse database of CaCl2 Setschenow constants. Setschenow constants were additive in binary electrolyte mixtures. New models to predict CaCl2 and KCl Setschenow constants from NaCl Setschenow constants were developed, which successfully predicted the solubility of the compounds measured in this study. Overall, data show that the Setschenow Equation is valid for a wide range of salinity conditions typically found in energy-related technologies. PMID:26598993

  13. 开关磁阻变速恒压发电控制研究%Variable-Speed Constant-Voltage Generation Control System of Switched Reluctance Generator

    陈逸; 孙剑波; 韦忠朝

    2012-01-01

    在matlab/simulink中对一台三相12/8极开关磁阻发电机的变速恒压工作情况进行了建模仿真,通过SRMFEM建立了开关磁阻发电机非线性本体模型,这在一定程度上保证了仿真结果的准确性在自励发电模式下,通过对电压、电流的两点式闭环,探讨了变速恒压情况下开关磁阻发电机的动静态响应.仿真结果表明:开关磁阻发电系统在变速的情况下依然有很不错的发电特性.但是,在仿真结果中,同样也可以发现,因为开关磁阻发电机是一个多变量、强耦合的非线性系统,在能量转换的过程中,虽然有滤波电容的平波作用,输出直流电压的脉动还是无法避免,在一些应用要求较高的场合,须在动态响应和发电质量两者之间权衡优化控制策略及相关拓扑电路的设计是下一步研究的问题.%Due to the characteristics of high reliability, wide speed scope with high efficiency, and low cost, Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) system is suitable for applications in the field of variable-speed con- stant-voltage generation, such as wind power generation, flywheel energy storage, electric vehicle, aircraft power generator, and so on. In this paper, a nonlinear model of SRG was established by means of Matlab/ Simulink. Furthermore, a power generation plan of SRG about variable-speed constant-voltage generation control system was designed. Variable-speed simulation results show that the control system has favorable dynamic and static characteristics.

  14. Construindo a participação social no SUS: um constante repensar em busca de equidade e transformação Building social participation on the Brazilian Health System: a constant rethinking that seeks fairness and transformation

    Juliana Sousa Coelho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um ensaio que expõe reflexões sobre a busca e o exercício da participação social no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, compreendendo seu conceito como as diferentes ações dos grupos sociais que influenciam a formulação, execução, fiscalização e avaliação das políticas públicas. Por isso o fato de a comunidade participar no sistema de saúde é visto como condição fundamental para o exercício pleno da saúde, capaz de promover equidade e de transformar a atenção à saúde. As ações de construir a cidadania e formar sujeitos coletivos são tomadas como fundamentos para a conquista de espaços democráticos e de direitos sociais. Mapeou-se a normatização atual referente à participação popular, considerando seus avanços, mas explicitando também suas fragilidades, principalmente no que tange aos conselhos e conferências de saúde. No ambiente dos espaços institucionais de participação, foram destacados elementos necessários para consolidar e efetivar a participação popular, como a relação entre os atores e a comunicação para a socializar as informações e conhecimentos em saúde. Busca-se também problematizar o assunto, trazendo à tona alguns dos obstáculos e críticas relativos à participação social. Pretende-se, com este ensaio, colaborar para a democratização dos diferentes espaços de escuta da sociedade civil, tornando-os locais cada vez mais apropriados para as tomadas de decisão sobre a construção de políticas e serviços de saúde, dos quais a população se apropria coletivamente, superando a simples obrigatoriedade burocrática da participação e contribuindo para a saúde e qualidade de vida.It concerns an essay that presents reflections on the search and the practice of the social participation in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, including the understanding of its concept as to how the different actions of the social groups influence the formularization, execution

  15. The Hubble Constant

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  16. Approximations to Euler's constant

    We study a problem of finding good approximations to Euler's constant γ=lim→∞ Sn, where Sn = Σk=Ln (1)/k-log(n+1), by linear forms in logarithms and harmonic numbers. In 1995, C. Elsner showed that slow convergence of the sequence Sn can be significantly improved if Sn is replaced by linear combinations of Sn with integer coefficients. In this paper, considering more general linear transformations of the sequence Sn we establish new accelerating convergence formulae for γ. Our estimates sharpen and generalize recent Elsner's, Rivoal's and author's results. (author)

  17. Determination of the Planck constant using a watt balance with a superconducting magnet system at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Schlamminger, Stephan; Seifert, Frank; Chao, Leon S; Newell, David B; Liu, Ruimin; Steiner, Richard L; Pratt, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    For the past two years, measurements have been performed with a watt balance at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to determine the Planck constant. A detailed analysis of these measurements and their uncertainties has led to the value $h=6.626\\,069\\,79(30)\\times 10^{-34}\\,$J$\\,$s. The relative standard uncertainty is $ 45\\times 10^{-9}$. This result is $141\\times 10^{-9}$ fractionally higher than $h_{90}$. Here $h_{90}$ is the conventional value of the Planck constant given by $h_{90}\\equiv 4 /( K_{\\mathrm{J-90}}^2R_{\\mathrm{K-90}})$, where $K_{\\mathrm{J-90}}$ and $R_{\\mathrm{K-90}}$ denote the conventional values of the Josephson and von Klitzing constants, respectively.

  18. Local experiments see cosmologically varying constants

    We describe a rigorous matched asymptotic expansion, which establishes under very general conditions that local terrestrial and solar-system experiments will measure any variations in 'constants' of Nature occurring on cosmological scales

  19. Markov constant and quantum instabilities

    Pelantová, Edita; Starosta, Štěpán; Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    For a qualitative analysis of spectra of certain two-dimensional rectangular-well quantum systems several rigorous methods of number theory are shown productive and useful. These methods (and, in particular, a generalization of the concept of Markov constant known in Diophantine approximation theory) are shown to provide a new mathematical insight in the phenomenologically relevant occurrence of anomalies in the spectra. Our results may inspire methodical innovations ranging from the description of the stability properties of metamaterials and of certain hiddenly unitary quantum evolution models up to the clarification of the mechanisms of occurrence of ghosts in quantum cosmology.

  20. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation on the...... theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  1. When constants are important

    Beiu, V.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors discuss several complexity aspects pertaining to neural networks, commonly known as the curse of dimensionality. The focus will be on: (1) size complexity and depth-size tradeoffs; (2) complexity of learning; and (3) precision and limited interconnectivity. Results have been obtained for each of these problems when dealt with separately, but few things are known as to the links among them. They start by presenting known results and try to establish connections between them. These show that they are facing very difficult problems--exponential growth in either space (i.e. precision and size) and/or time (i.e., learning and depth)--when resorting to neural networks for solving general problems. The paper will present a solution for lowering some constants, by playing on the depth-size tradeoff.

  2. Decay constants in geochronology

    IgorM.Villa; PaulR.Renne

    2005-01-01

    Geologic time is fundamental to the Earth Sciences, and progress in many disciplines depends critically on our ability to measure time with increasing accuracy and precision. Isotopic geochronology makes use of the decay of radioactive nuclides as a help to quantify the histories of rock, minerals, and other materials. Both accuracy and precision of radioisotopic ages are, at present, limited by those of radioactive decay constants. Modem mass spectrometers can measure isotope ratios with a precision of 10-4 or better. On the other hand, the uncertainties associated with direct half-life determinations are, in most cases, still at the percent level. The present short note briefly summarizes progress and problems that have been encountered during the Working Group's activity.

  3. The Hubble Constant

    Jackson Neal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  4. Determination of the distribution constants of aromatic compounds and steroids in biphasic micellar phosphonium ionic liquid/aqueous buffer systems by capillary electrokinetic chromatography

    Lokajová, Jana; Railila, A.; King, A. W. T.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1308, Sep 20 (2013), s. 144-151. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010760 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : critical micelle concentration * electrokinetic chromatography * distribution constant * PeakMaster * phosphonium ionic liquid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2013

  5. Bubble Universes With Different Gravitational Constants

    Takamizu, Yu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We argue a scenario motivated by the context of string landscape, where our universe is produced by a new vacuum bubble embedded in an old bubble and these bubble universes have not only different cosmological constants, but also their own different gravitational constants. We study these effects on the primordial curvature perturbations. In order to construct a model of varying gravitational constants, we use the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory where different expectation values of scalar fields produce difference of constants. In this system, we investigate the nucleation of bubble universe and dynamics of the wall separating two spacetimes. In particular, the primordial curvature perturbation on superhorizon scales can be affected by the wall trajectory as the boundary effect. We show the effect of gravitational constant in the exterior bubble universe can provide a peak like a bump feature at a large scale in a modulation of power spectrum.

  6. A user-friendly Matlab program and GUI for the pseudorotation analysis of saturated five-membered ring systems based on scalar coupling constants

    Martins José C; Hendrickx Pieter MS

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The advent of combinatorial chemistry has revived the interest in five-membered heterocyclic rings as scaffolds in pharmaceutical research. They are also the target of modifications in nucleic acid chemistry. Hence, the characterization of their conformational features is of considerable interest. This can be accomplished from the analysis of the 3JHH scalar coupling constants. Results A freely available program including an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) has b...

  7. The interacting and non-constant cosmological constant

    We propose a time-varying cosmological constant with a fixed equation of state, which evolves mainly through its interaction with the background during most of the long history of the universe. However, such interaction does not exist in the very early and the late-time universe and produces the acceleration during these eras when it becomes very nearly a constant. It is found that after the initial inflationary phase, the cosmological constant, which we call as lambda parameter, rolls down from a large constant value to another but very small constant value and further dominates the present epoch showing up in the form of the dark energy driving the acceleration. (author)

  8. Adelic Universe and Cosmological Constant

    Makhaldiani, Nugzar

    2003-01-01

    In the quantum adelic field (string) theory models, vacuum energy -- cosmological constant vanish. The other (alternative ?) mechanism is given by supersymmetric theories. Some observations on prime numbers, zeta -- function and fine structure constant are also considered.

  9. Dyes with high dielectric constants

    Langhals, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    The dielectric constants of perylene dyes, perylene-3,4: 9,10-tetracarboxylic bisimides, are reported. With aromatic substituents, dielectric constants up to 110 are obtained. With polymeric dyes, the dielectric constants rise to 260. Mechanisms and applications are discussed.

  10. Comparative analysis of the heat transfer rates in constant (CAV) and variable (VAV) volumes type multi zone acclimation system operating in hot and humid climate; Analise comparativa das taxas transferencia de calor em sistemas de climatizacao do tipo volume de ar constante (CAV) e volume de ar variavel (VAV) multizona operando em clima quente e umido

    Santos, Cesar A.G.; Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: gsantos@ufpa.br; jecorrea@amazon.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This work performs a comparative analysis among the constant and variable air volume multi zones acclimation systems, used for provide the thermal comfort in buildings. The work used the simulation HVAC2KIT computer program. The results of sensible and latent heats transfer rates on the cooling and dehumidification, inflating fan capacity, and heat transfer on the final heating condenser were obtained and analysed for the climate conditions of the Brazilian city of Belem from Para State, presenting hot and humid climate during all the year.

  11. Cleaning up the cosmological constant

    Kimpton, Ian

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel idea for screening the vacuum energy contribution to the overall value of the cosmological constant, thereby enabling us to choose the bare value of the vacuum curvature empirically, without any need to worry about the zero-point energy contributions of each particle. The trick is to couple matter to a metric that is really a composite of other fields, with the property that the square-root of its determinant is the integrand of a topological invariant, and/or a total derivative. This ensures that the vacuum energy contribution to the Lagrangian is non-dynamical. We then give an explicit example of a theory with this property that is free from Ostrogradski ghosts, and is consistent with solar system physics and cosmological tests.

  12. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

  13. Assessment of the 187Re decay constant by cross calibration of Re Os molybdenite and U Pb zircon chronometers in magmatic ore systems

    Selby, David; Creaser, Robert A.; Stein, Holly J.; Markey, Richard J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2007-04-01

    The past decade has seen renewed interest in 187Re- 187Os geochronology using a variety of matrices including sulfide minerals, shales and meteorites. The most widely used value of the 187Re decay constant ( λ187Re) is 1.666 ± 0.005 × 10 -11 a -1 (±0.31%), which is based on cross calibration of Re-Os and Pb-Pb chronometers for certain meteorites [Smoliar M. I., Walker R. J., and Morgan J. W. (1996) Re-Os isotope constraints on the age of Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IVB iron meteorites. Science271, 1099-1102]. However, other recent studies have yielded alternate values of λ187Re, based upon either direct counting experiments or analysis of meteorites. Here, we provide an independent assessment of λ187Re, using methodology, sample materials, and preparation of Os standard solutions different from those of Smoliar et al. (1996). Combining Re-Os age data for molybdenite formed in magmatic ore deposits, with the U-Pb zircon age of the magmatic rocks, a refined λ187Re value is determined by averaging 11 individual cross-calibration experiments spanning ca. 2700 Ma of Earth history. Using the U decay constants of Jaffey [Jaffey A. H., Flynn K. F., Glendenin L. E., Bentley W. C., and Essling A. M. (1971) Precision measurement of half-lives and specific activities of 235U and 238U. Phys. Rev.4, 1889-1906], a value for λ187Re of 1.6668 ± 0.0034 × 10 -11 a -1 is determined. Using the λ238U value of Jaffey et al. (1971) and λ235U value of Schoene [Schoene B., Crowley J. L., Condon D. J., Schmitz M. D., and Bowring S. A. (2006) Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U-Pb data. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70, 426-445], a value for λ187Re of 1.6689 ± 0.0031 × 10 -11 a -1 is determined. These values are nominally higher (ca. 0.1 and ca. 0.2%) than the value determined by Smoliar et al. [Smoliar M. I., Walker R. J., and Morgan J. W. (1996) Re-Os isotope constraints on the age of Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IVB iron meteorites. Science271

  14. Forward recursions and normalizing constant

    Guyon, Xavier; Hardouin, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Maximum likelihood parameter estimation is frequently replaced by various techniques because of its intractable normalizing constant. In the same way, the literature displays various alternatives for distributions involving such unreachable constants. In this paper, we consider a Gibbs distribution $\\pi $ and present a recurrence formula allowing a recursive calculus of the marginals of $\\pi $ and in the same time its normalizing constant$.$ The numerical performance of this algorithm is eval...

  15. Basic constant of matter world

    It was analysed how to gain constant 46 hidden among elementary units of matter world, which is divided into, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. Here it shows the unity of opposites on philosophy and simple symmetric beauty of mathphysics. The constant specifically shows that scope constant 44 in nuclides layer of matter world and chromosome number of mankind is 23 pairs, which is the highest form of matter motion, the basic cause of existing constant 46 is that matter exists in space-time with 4-dimensions, and it obeys the principle of the most lower energy

  16. Implementation of a constant load method, for determination of crack growth velocities in MEX-03 system of National Institute of Nuclear Research; Implementacion de un metodo de carga constante, para la determinacion de velocidades de crecimiento de grieta en el sistema MEX-03 del ININ

    Diaz S, A.; Fuentes C, P.; Merino C, F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: angeles.diaz@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    Whit the objective of to complete the existent techniques for susceptibility evaluation to phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking in laboratories of Applied Sciences Area of National Institute of Nuclear Research; was realized and documented the modification of a high pressure and temperature equipment, identified as MEX-03 to carry out the implementation of a growth and crack propagation assay, using a constant load method. The assay was realized to a specimen of stainless steel AISI 304l type CT of an inch, which was previously thermally sensitize, simulating the typical degradation of this materials type below operation conditions in a BWR. The MEX-03 system, consist from an annexed auto key to a load system which originally was controlled by displacement; therefore were carried out modifications to achieve the control by load. The realized adjustments allowed to maintain a constant load during all the experiment, and as much the temperature conditions (T = 288 C) as of pressure (P = 8 Mpa) were controlled during the assay realization. The steel was exposed to a conditioned ambient with hydrogen gas addition; simulating a well-known alternative chemistry as hydrogen water chemistry that is used to mitigate the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking, main degradation mechanism of austenitic stainless steels. The continuation of the crack behavior was realized by means of electric potential fall technique and later was validated of visual form through the fractographic analysis of cracked surface. The modification and control of equipment for realization of this experiment is necessary, for what should be carried out new assays, whose results will allow to establish the effect of dynamic and static methods in velocity determination of crack growth to laboratory level; to be considered in the existent models of crack propagation in systems and components in operation. (Author)

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charg...

  18. Formulas for determining rotational constants

    Guelachvili, G.

    This document is part of Subvolume B `Linear Triatomic Molecules', Part 9, of Volume 20 `Molecular Constants mostly from Infrared Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein Group II `Molecules and Radicals'. Part of the introduction, it states formulas for determining rotational constants, band center, band origin, and quadrupole coupling. Specific comments relate to BHO (HBO) and COS (OCS).

  19. The stability of fundamental constants

    The tests of the constancy of fundamental constants are tests of the local position invariance and thus of the equivalence principle, at the heart of general relativity. After summarising the links between fundamental constants, gravity, cosmology and metrology, a brief overview of the observational and experimental constraints on their variation is proposed. (authors)

  20. A behavioral model of solar/diesel/Li-ion hybrid power systems for off-grid applications : Simulation over a lifetime of 10 years in constant use

    Gaudray, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Remote hybrid power systems (RHPS) serve local off-grid loads or various island grids when no grid extension is possible. They combine renewable resources, conventional generators and energy storage systems in order to balance the load at any moment, while ensuring power quality and energy security similar to large centralized grids. Modelling such a complex system is crucial for carrying out proper simulations for predicting the system’s behavior and for optimal sizing of components. The mod...

  1. A Family of Exactly Solvable Radial Quantum Systems on Space of Non-Constant Curvature with Accidental Degeneracy in the Spectrum

    Orlando Ragnisco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of exactly solvable quantum systems on curved space is presented. The family is the quantum version of the classical Perlick family, which comprises all maximally superintegrable 3-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with spherical symmetry. The high number of symmetries (both geometrical and dynamical exhibited by the classical systems has a counterpart in the accidental degeneracy in the spectrum of the quantum systems. This family of quantum problem is completely solved with the techniques of the SUSYQM (supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We also analyze in detail the ordering problem arising in the quantization of the kinetic term of the classical Hamiltonian, stressing the link existing between two physically meaningful quantizations: the geometrical quantization and the position dependent mass quantization.

  2. Constantly operating geoinformation system for geoenvironment as a tool for pre-project investigations in city infrastructure development (on the example of moscow

    Belyaev Valeriy L’vovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a geoinformation system for urban geoenvironment is concerned. Geological data is necessary for the sustainable development of city infrastructure. The municipal departments should use geological and environmental information for perspective planning, selecting the location for important infrastructure objects, solving ecologycal problems, and in decision making. The concept includes a preliminary list of system’s users, their informational needs, main functionalities, methodical approaches to the system design and development. Geological data must contain source documents from geological archives “as is” and geodata based on its interpretation for various tasks. These data must be checked carefully and updated with new engineering-geological investigations. Geoinformation system must integrate various geological, engineering-geological, hydrogeological, and environmental data. Sophisticated procedures must be provided to check complicated logical dependences in the system database and to analyze contradictions between source documents. 3D modeling is an adequate language for presenting geological data, therefore, the considered system must include 3D models of various scales. In the suggested concept 3D modeling is considered as a tool for investigations, not only for presentations. The end users should have possibilities to get results of their queries in various formats: tables, geological and thematic maps, geological cross-sections, 2D and 3D grids as source data for mathematical modeling, etc. In conclusion, the paper briefly describes IEG RAS activities in GIS technologies for geological cartography and 3D modeling.

  3. Symmetries and constant mean curvature surfaces

    In this paper, we discuss the Lie symmetries, symmetry algebra and symmetry reductions of the equation which describes constant mean curvature surfaces via the generalized Weierstrass-Enneper formulae. First we point out that the equation admits an infinite-dimensional symmetry Lie algebra. Then using symmetry reductions, we obtain two integrable Hamiltonian systems (one autonomous, the other nonautonomous) with two degrees of freedom. The autonomous one was obtained by Konopelchenko and Taimanov by other means. Our method provides a new approach for construction of constant mean curvature surfaces. (author)

  4. FEDGROUP-3 - a program system for processing evaluated nuclear data in ENDF/B, KEDAK or UKNDL format to constants to be used in reactor physics calculation

    A new, completely rewritten version of the FEDGROUP program system is presented in this report. The formulae and the algorithm underlying the calculation are revised. The FEDGROUP-3 is able to calculate group averaged infinite diluted and screened cross-sections, elastic and inelastic transfer matrices, point-wise cross-section sets from evaluated data in ENDF/B, KEDAK and UKNDL format. The program system is written mainly in FORTRAN-IV of IBM-OS but it can be adapted relatively easily to other type of computers. (author)

  5. Constant Communities in Complex Networks

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Ganguly, Niloy; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2013-01-01

    Identifying community structure is a fundamental problem in network analysis. Most community detection algorithms are based on optimizing a combinatorial parameter, for example modularity. This optimization is generally NP-hard, thus merely changing the vertex order can alter their assignments to the community. However, there has been very less study on how vertex ordering influences the results of the community detection algorithms. Here we identify and study the properties of invariant groups of vertices (constant communities) whose assignment to communities are, quite remarkably, not affected by vertex ordering. The percentage of constant communities can vary across different applications and based on empirical results we propose metrics to evaluate these communities. Using constant communities as a pre-processing step, one can significantly reduce the variation of the results. Finally, we present a case study on phoneme network and illustrate that constant communities, quite strikingly, form the core func...

  6. Fundamental Constants and Conservation Laws

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2001-01-01

    This work describes underlying features of the universe such as fundamental constants and cosmological parameters, conservation laws, baryon and lepton asymmetries, etc. in the context of local gauge theories for fundamental forces under the constraint of the flat universe. Conservation laws for fundamental forces are related to gauge theories for fundamental forces, their resulting fundamental constants are quantitatively analyzed, and their possible violations at different energy scales are...

  7. Rotating spacetimes with a cosmological constant

    We develop solution-generating techniques for stationary metrics with one angular momentum and axial symmetry, in the presence of a cosmological constant and in arbitrary spacetime dimension. In parallel we study the related lower dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton static spacetimes with a Liouville potential. For vanishing cosmological constant, we show that the field equations in more than four dimensions decouple into a four dimensional Papapetrou system and a Weyl system. We also show that given any four dimensional 'seed' solution, one can construct an infinity of higher dimensional solutions parametrised by the Weyl potentials, associated to the extra dimensions. When the cosmological constant is non-zero, we discuss the symmetries of the field equations, and then extend the well known works of Papapetrou and Ernst (concerning the complex Ernst equation) in four-dimensional general relativity, to arbitrary dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that the Papapetrou hypothesis generically reduces a stationary system to a static one even in the presence of a cosmological constant. We also give a particular class of solutions which are deformations of the (planar) adS soliton and the (planar) adS black hole. We give example solutions of these techniques and determine the four-dimensional seed solutions of the 5 dimensional black ring and the Myers-Perry black hole

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Constant Power Prime-Mover Driven Isolated 3-φ SEIG for Pico-Hydro Power Generation System in Remote Mountainous Region of Himalayas

    Rathore Umesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental evaluation of the performance of 3-φ self-excited induction generator (SEIG suitable for pico-hydro power generation system feeding domestic load in remote mountainous region. The use of induction generators is most suitable for renewable energy conversion systems due to their enormous advantages over conventional synchronous generators. Important features of induction generators include the simplicity in construction, ruggedness, simplified control, ease in maintenance and small size per generated kW. The performance characteristics of 3-φ SEIG feeding isolated load are evaluated using MATLAB-Simulink model based on the prevalent renewable energy sources inputs and loading conditions in mountainous terrain of Himalayas. The results are validated using an experimental set-up comprising of 3-φ, 3 HP induction motor run as 3- φ induction generator driven by 5HP, 4-pole DC shunt motor acting as prime-mover.

  9. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  10. Stability of leap-frog constant-coefficients semi-implicit schemes for the fully elastic system of Euler equations. Flat-terrain case

    Benard, P; Vivoda, J; Smolikova, P; Benard, Pierre; Laprise, Rene; Vivoda, Jozef; Smolikova, Petra

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the response of this system/scheme in terms of stability in presence of explicitly treated residual terms, as it inevitably occurs in the reality of NWP. This sudy is restricted to the impact of thermal and baric residual terms (metric residual terms linked to the orography are not considered here). It is shown that conversely to what occurs with Hydrostatic Primitive Equations, the choice of the prognostic variables used to solve the system in time is of primary importance for the robustness with Euler Equations. For an optimal choice of prognostic variables, unconditionnally stable schemes can be obtained (with respect to the length of the time-step), but only for a smaller range of reference states than in the case of Hydrostatic Primitive Equations. This study also indicates that: (i) vertical coordinates based on geometrical height and on mass behave similarly in terms of stability for the problems examined here, and (ii) hybrid coordinates induce an intrinsic inst...

  11. Effective cosmological constant induced by stochastic fluctuations of Newton's constant

    de Cesare, Marco; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-01-01

    We consider implications of the microscopic dynamics of spacetime for the evolution of cosmological models. We argue that quantum geometry effects may lead to stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational constant, which is thus considered as a macroscopic effective dynamical quantity. Consistency with Riemannian geometry entails the presence of a time-dependent dark energy term in the modified field equations, which can be expressed in terms of the dynamical gravitational constant. We suggest that the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe may be ascribed to quantum fluctuations in the geometry of spacetime rather than the vacuum energy from the matter sector.

  12. Effective cosmological constant induced by stochastic fluctuations of Newton's constant

    de Cesare, Marco; Lizzi, Fedele; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-09-01

    We consider implications of the microscopic dynamics of spacetime for the evolution of cosmological models. We argue that quantum geometry effects may lead to stochastic fluctuations of the gravitational constant, which is thus considered as a macroscopic effective dynamical quantity. Consistency with Riemannian geometry entails the presence of a time-dependent dark energy term in the modified field equations, which can be expressed in terms of the dynamical gravitational constant. We suggest that the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe may be ascribed to quantum fluctuations in the geometry of spacetime rather than the vacuum energy from the matter sector.

  13. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  14. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    Duff, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, ?. For example, the standard model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers or scales? they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as ?, c, G, e and k ?, are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense, only dimensionless constants are 'fundamental'. Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental 'constants' of nature is operationally well defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as ? or ? on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.

  15. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    Duff, M J

    2014-01-01

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, alpha. For example, the Standard Model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers, scales... they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as h, c, G, e, k..., are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense only dimensionless constants are "fundamental". Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental "constants" of nature is operationally well-defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as c or G on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might...

  16. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s–1 Mpc–1. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H 0/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

  17. Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites

    Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt;

    2011-01-01

    known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...

  18. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology; De la constante de Rydberg a la metrologie des constantes fondamentales

    Nez, F

    2005-06-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  19. Noncommuting contractions of oscillators with constant force

    We find two noncommuting contractions of the Lie algebras u(N) and gl(N,R), realized as the symmetry algebras of N-dimensional isotropic harmonic and repulsive oscillators of spring constant k element of R, with a constant force of magnitude f. The contraction limit to the symmetry algebra of the N-dimensional free system is (k, f) → (0, 0). We take two paths in this plane, determined by the order of contraction of the two parameters, and show that they yield two closely related-but distinct-Euclidean-type symmetry algebras for the common contracted system. We also show briefly how the wavefunctions of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator reduce to plane waves along the above two paths

  20. Variation of the fine structure constant

    Lipovka, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    In present paper we evaluate the fine structure constant variation which should take place as the Universe is expanded and its curvature is changed adiabatically. This changing of the fine structure constant is attributed to the energy lost by physical system (consist of baryonic component and electromagnetic field) due to expansion of our Universe. Obtained ratio (d alpha)/alpha = 1. 10{-18} (per second) is only five times smaller than actually reported experimental limit on this value. For this reason this variation can probably be measured within a couple of years. To argue the correctness of our approach we calculate the Planck constant as adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field, from geometry of our Universe in the framework of the pseudo- Riemannian geometry. Finally we discuss the double clock experiment based on Al+ and Hg+ clocks carried out by T. Rosenband et al. (Science 2008). We show that in this particular case there is an error in method and this way the fine structure constant variation c...

  1. On constant elasticities of demand

    Andrés Vázquez

    1998-01-01

    While the Slutsky matrix and duality theory have been used to establish that constant elasticity demand functions imply unitary income elasticities, zero cross price elasticities and own price elasticities equal to minus one, this note shows that these results can also be straightforwardly derived from the simple assumption that demand functions satisfy the budget constraint with strict equality.

  2. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from the...

  3. Kerma constant of gamma radiation

    The values are tabulated of the gamma kerma constant for 106 radionuclides and an energy threshold of δ=0, 10, 20 and 30 keV. The calculated values will be useful in gamma radiation protection for ease of calculation of the kerma rate from a point radiation source. The study was required in view of the consistent introduction of SI units. (author)

  4. Exponential Decay of Expansive Constants

    Sun, Peng

    2011-01-01

    A map $f$ on a compact metric space is expansive if and only if $f^n$ is expansive. We study the exponential rate of decay of the expansive constant of $f^n$. A major result is that this rate times box dimension bounds topological entropy.

  5. Bose-Einstein condensation at constant temperature

    Erhard, M.; Schmaljohann, H.; Kronjäger, J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.

    2004-09-01

    We present an experimental approach to Bose-Einstein condensation by increasing the particle number of the system at almost constant temperature. In particular, the emergence of a new condensate is observed in multicomponent F=1 spinor condensates of Rb87 . Furthermore, we develop a simple rate-equation model for multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate thermodynamics at finite temperature which well reproduces the measured effects.

  6. Elastic constants from microscopic strain fluctuations

    Sengupta, Surajit; Nielaba, Peter; Rao, Madan; Binder, K.

    1999-01-01

    Fluctuations of the instantaneous local Lagrangian strain $\\epsilon_{ij}(\\bf{r},t)$, measured with respect to a static ``reference'' lattice, are used to obtain accurate estimates of the elastic constants of model solids from atomistic computer simulations. The measured strains are systematically coarse- grained by averaging them within subsystems (of size $L_b$) of a system (of total size $L$) in the canonical ensemble. Using a simple finite size scaling theory we predict the behaviour of th...

  7. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hinshaw, G., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-10-20

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

  8. WHY IS THE SOLAR CONSTANT NOT A CONSTANT?

    In order to probe the mechanism of variations of the solar constant on the inter-solar-cycle scale, the total solar irradiance (TSI; the so-called solar constant) in the time interval of 1978 November 7 to 2010 September 20 is decomposed into three components through empirical mode decomposition and time-frequency analyses. The first component is the rotation signal, counting up to 42.31% of the total variation of TSI, which is understood to be mainly caused by large magnetic structures, including sunspot groups. The second is an annual-variation signal, counting up to 15.17% of the total variation, the origin of which is not known at this point in time. Finally, the third is the inter-solar-cycle signal, counting up to 42.52%, which is inferred to be caused by the network magnetic elements in quiet regions, whose magnetic flux ranges from (4.27-38.01) × 1019 Mx.

  9. Production in constant evolution; Produccion en constante evolucion

    Lozano, T.

    2009-07-01

    The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant now has 25 years of operation behind it: a quarter century adding value and demonstrating the reasons why it is one of the most important energy producing facilities in the Spanish power market. Particularly noteworthy is the enterprising spirit of the plant, which has strived to continuously improve with the large number of modernization projects that it has undertaken over the past 25 years. The plant has constantly evolved thanks to the amount of investments made to improve safety and reliability and the perseverance to stay technologically up to date. Efficiency, training and teamwork have been key to the success of the plant over these 25 years of constant change and progress. (Author)

  10. Study on a constant-tip-speed-ratio operation of wind power generation system. Effect of load control system on dynamic behavior; Furyoku hatsuden system no hensoku seigyo unten ni kansuru kenkyu. Fuka seigyokei ga system no rikigakuteki kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Wakui, T.; Yamaguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The effect that the set data of the load control system in a wind power generation system exerts on the dynamic behavior of a system was investigated. The wind power generation system consists of a hybrid wind turbine with combined Darrieus and Savonius rotors, load with a generator and battery in the center, and a controller. A constant-tip-speed ratio operation that holds the circumferential speed ratio in which the power coefficient is maximized irrespective of the change in wind velocity was used to extract and convert the wind energy more effectively. In a high-wind velocity area, the system is operated at a fixed speed, and the increase in rotation is suppressed to protect the wing strength. In a large system, the response characteristics are only slightly improved by the limited load operation range and influenced rotor inertial. Power cannot be fully extracted even if the control system is changed in setting, and the applicability to the wind situation remains low. During the actual operation, the adjustment value of the control system should be set so that the output operation is satisfactorily possible in the specified load operation range, that is, the change in the instantaneous value of an effective power coefficient indicates almost flat gain characteristics in frequency characteristics. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Pion mass and decay constant

    Maris, P; Tandy, P C

    1998-01-01

    Independent of assumptions about the form of the quark-antiquark scattering kernel we derive the explicit relation between the pion Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, Gamma_pi, and the quark propagator in the chiral limit; Gamma_pi necessarily involves a non-negligible gamma_5 gamma.P term (P is the pion four-momentum). We also obtain exact expressions for the pion decay constant, f_pi, and mass, both of which depend on Gamma_pi; and demonstrate the equivalence between f_pi and the pion Bethe-Salpeter normalisation constant in the chiral limit. We stress the importance of preserving the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity in any study of the pion itself, and in any study whose goal is a unified understanding of the properties of the pion and other hadronic bound states.

  12. Wormholes and the cosmological constant

    We review Coleman's wormhole mechanism for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. We show that in a minisuperspace model wormhole-connected universes dominate the path integral. We also provide evidence that the euclidean path integral over geometries with spherical topology is unstable with respect to formation of infinitely many wormhole-connected 4-spheres. Consistency is restored by summing over all topologies, which leads to Coleman's result. Coleman's argument for determination of other parameters is reviewed and applied to the mass of the pion. A discouraging result is found that the pion mass is driven to zero. We also consider qualitatively the implications of the wormhole theory for cosmology. We argue that a small number of universes containing matter and energy may exist in contact with infinitely many cold and empty universes. Contact with the cold universes insures that the cosmological constant in the warm ones is zero. (orig.)

  13. Three pion nucleon coupling constants

    Arriola, E Ruiz; Perez, R Navarro

    2016-01-01

    There exist four pion nucleon coupling constants, $f_{\\pi^0, pp}$, $-f_{\\pi^0, nn}$, $f_{\\pi^+, pn} /\\sqrt{2}$ and $ f_{\\pi^-, np} /\\sqrt{2}$ which coincide when up and down quark masses are identical and the electron charge is zero. While there is no reason why the pion-nucleon-nucleon coupling constants should be identical in the real world, one expects that the small differences might be pinned down from a sufficiently large number of independent and mutually consistent data. Our discussion provides a rationale for our recent determination $$f_p^2 = 0.0759(4) \\, , \\quad f_{0}^2 = 0.079(1) \\,, \\quad f_{c}^2 = 0.0763(6) \\, , $$ based on a partial wave analysis of the $3\\sigma$ self-consistent nucleon-nucleon Granada-2013 database comprising 6713 published data in the period 1950-2013.

  14. Quaternions as astrometric plate constants

    Jefferys, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for solving problems in relative astrometry is proposed. In it, the relationship between the measured quantities and the components of the position vector of a star is modeled using quaternions, in effect replacing the plate constants of a standard four-plate-constant solution with the four components of a quaternion. The method allows a direct solution for the position vectors of the stars, and hence for the equatorial coordinates. Distortions, magnitude, and color effects are readily incorporated into the formalism, and the method is directly applicable to overlapping-plate problems. The advantages of the method include the simplicity of the resulting equations, their freedom from singularities, and the fact that trigonometric functions and tangential point transformations are not needed to model the plate material. A global solution over the entire sky is possible.

  15. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Compernolle, S.; J.-F. Müller

    2014-01-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included....

  16. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Compernolle, S.; J.-F. Müller

    2014-01-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most ...

  17. Planck's constant measurement for dummies

    Damyanov, Desislav S; Ilieva, Simona I; Gourev, Vassil N; Yordanov, Vasil G; Mishonov, Todor M

    2015-01-01

    A simple experimental setup for measuring the Planck's constant, using Landauer quantization of the conductance of touching gold wires, is described. It consists of two gold wires with thickness of 500 micron and 1.5cm length, and a fast operational amplifier. The setup costs less than \\$30 and can be realized in every teaching laboratory in 10 days. The usage of oscilloscope is required.

  18. Neutron Scattering and Elastic Constants

    Elastic constants of crystals obtained from neutron scattering techniques at frequencies, ω, of the order of 1012 cps, are frequently compared with those obtained with ultrasonic techniques for which ω 10 cps. If the normal modes of vibration of the crystal did not interact with each other or with other excitations in the crystal, these elastic constants would be identical. In a real crystal, however, interactions exist, and these lead to different behaviour, depending on whether the elastic wave propagates in a collision-free, ωτ >> 1, mode or a collision-dominated ωτ 3 have demonstrated this difference. In piezoelectric crystals τ is related to the time required for the electric polarization to follow the elastic wave. At frequencies so high that the electric polarization cannot follow the elastic wave, experiments on DKDP have shown that the elastic constants do not exhibit the anormaly present at low frequencies. Similar behaviour is expected to occur near many phase transitions which show anomalous elastic behaviour. Analogous, but probably smaller, effects occur through the interactions of elastic waves with conduction electrons in metals and with the spins in magnetic materials. (author)

  19. Cosmology with New Astrophysical Constants

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that Einstein field equations give two solutions for cosmology. The first one is the standard well known representative of the present status of cosmology. We identify it with the local point of view of a flat Universe with the values for the cosmological omega parameters (k = 0, lambda = 2/3, m = 1/3). The second one is a new one that we identify with a cosmic point of view, as given by free photons, neutrinos, tachyons and gravity quanta. We apply a wave to particle technique to find the matter propagation equation. Then we prove that all gravitational radii are constant, regardless of the possible time variations of the physical properties like the speed of light c, the gravitational constant G or the mass m of fundamental particles. We find two cosmological constants, c^3 /G and mc, with the condition that the field equations be derived from the action principle. With this result, and the integration of the Bianchi identity, we prove the existence of the two solutions for cosmology. We then va...

  20. Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant

    Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.

  1. Resource Letter FC-1: The physics of fundamental constants

    Mohr, Peter J.; Newell, David B.

    2010-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the physics of fundamental constants and their values as determined within the International System of Units (SI). Journal articles, books, and websites that provide relevant information are surveyed. Literature on redefining the SI in terms of exact values of fundamental constants is also included.

  2. Dielectric constant dependence of formation constants: complexation of dioxovanadium(V) with methionine

    The reaction of dioxovanadium(V) with methionine was studied by spectrophotometric titration in mixed solvent systems of methanol + water and dioxane + water at 25 Deg C and constant ionic strength 0.15 mol dm-3 NaClO4 in the pH range 1.5 - 8, with high ligand of metal ratios. Two mononuclear complexes ML and ML2 have been characterized for the ligands. The stability constants of the complexes formed and their stoichiometry are given and interpreted. Linear relationships are observed when log β is plotted versus 1/D, where β and D represent formation and dielectric constants, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of solvent protonation and complexation

  3. Angular momentum and separation constant in the Kerr metric

    Kerr metric admits a Killing tensor which yields a second order constant of motion for classical trajectories. An explicit expression is found for this constant using a particular coordinate system, the oblate spheroidal. Owing to the separability of the Hamilton - Jacobi equation in this system, it is easy to show that the second order constant is in fact the square of the total angular momentum of the particle at infinity, corrected with terms which arise from the non-inertial character of the coordinate system. (Author)

  4. Pion mass and decay constant

    Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.; Tandy, P. C.

    1997-01-01

    Independent of assumptions about the form of the quark-antiquark scattering kernel we derive the explicit relation between the pion Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, Gamma_pi, and the quark propagator in the chiral limit; Gamma_pi necessarily involves a non-negligible gamma_5 gamma.P term (P is the pion four-momentum). We also obtain exact expressions for the pion decay constant, f_pi, and mass, both of which depend on Gamma_pi; and demonstrate the equivalence between f_pi and the pion Bethe-Salpeter...

  5. Hydrodynamic constants from cosmic censorship

    We study a gravity dual of Bjorken flow of N=4 SYM-theory plasma. We point out that the cosmic censorship hypothesis may explain why the regularity of the dual geometry constrains the hydrodynamic constants. We also investigate the apparent horizon of the dual geometry. We find that the dual geometry constructed on Fefferman-Graham (FG) coordinates is not appropriate for examination of the apparent horizon since the coordinates do not cover the trapped region. However, the preliminary analysis on FG coordinates suggests that the location of the apparent horizon is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic parameters. (author)

  6. Exact constants in approximation theory

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  7. Henry's law constants of polyols

    S. Compernolle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry's law constants (HLC are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. Depending on the case, infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs, solid state pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediary results. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014, an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  8. Fundamental physics constants and mass metrology

    The SI international system of units uses a unit of mass represented by a Pt-Ir cylinder of equal height and diameter. The prototype is conserved along with six copies by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. The development of new scales with accuracies greater than one micro-gram has evidenced that the use of such material reference units presents inaccuracies due to mass increases with time caused by the absorption of substances and the effects of cleaning operations and aging. Progress in the determination of some physics constants, in particular, developments in electrical metrology related to the Josephson and Hall quantistic effects, has led to the investigation of the possible re-definition of units of mass. Two approaches appear to be interesting. The first is connected with the 'classic' concept of mass, synonym of quantity of material, and leads to the definition of the kilogram based on the Avogadro constant, the Faraday constant and the atomic scale. The second is derived from the units of time and length based on the use of the Planck and De Broglie relationships

  9. The big constant out, the small constant in

    Some time ago, Tseytlin has made an original and unusual proposal for an action that eliminates an arbitrary cosmological constant. The form of the proposed action, however, is strongly modified by gravity loop effects, ruining its benefit. Here I discuss an embedding of Tseytlin's action into a broader context, that enables to control the loop effects. The broader context is another universe, with its own metric and dynamics, but only globally connected to ours. One possible Lagrangian for the other universe is that of unbroken AdS supergravity. A vacuum energy in our universe does not produce any curvature for us, but instead increases or decreases the AdS curvature in the other universe. I comment on how to introduce the accelerated expansion in this framework in a technically natural way, and consider the case where this is done by the self-accelerated solutions of massive gravity and its extensions

  10. Influence of System Inertia Time Constants on Transient Stability Level of Interconnected AC Power Grid%系统惯性时间常数对互联电网暂态稳定水平的影响

    赵振元; 陈维荣; 戴朝华; 张雪霞

    2012-01-01

    由于区域电网的互联,整个系统的惯性时间常数将会发生明显变化,继而会影响整网的暂态稳定水平。基于暂态能量函数法,通过对等值2机系统进行数学推导并作暂态稳定分析,研究了系统在各种运行方式下,2端机组惯量变化对电力系统暂态稳定水平产生的影响,比较了两端机组惯量变化分别对系统暂态稳定性的影响,并发现了系统机组惯性时间常数对系统暂态稳定水平造成的影响与系统的负荷水平及初始工况有关。在理论分析的基础上,结合相关算例在各种运行方式下进行了仿真研究,仿真结果验证了分析结果的正确性。%Due to the interconnection of regional power grids, the inertia time constant of the whole interconnected grid evidently changes, then transient stability level of the interconnected power grid will be influenced. Based on transient energy function, by means of mathematical deduce for equivalent two-machine system and analysis on its transient stability, the influences of unit inertial changes at both terminals on transient stability level of the whole system under various operation modes are researched, and respective influences of terminal unit inertial changes on transient stability of the whole grid are compared, besides, it is found that the influences of unit inertial time constants on system transient stability level are relevant to load level and initial operating condition of the power grid. Based on theoretical analysis, simulation of concerned examples under various operation modes is performed and the correctness of theoretical analysis results is verified by simulation results.

  11. Kepler's Constant and WDS Orbit

    Siregar, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work are to find a Kepler's constant by using polynomial regression of the angular separation \\rho = \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta = \\theta(t). The Kepler's constant obtained is used to derive the element of orbit. As a case study the angular separation and the position angle of the WDS 00063 +5826 and the WDS 04403-5857 were investigated. For calculating the element of orbit the Thiele-Innes van den Bos method is used. The rough data of the angular separation \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta(t) are taken from the US Naval Observatory, Washington. This work also presents the masses and absolute bolometric magnitudes of each star.These stars include into the main-sequence stars with the spectral class G5V for WDS04403-5857and the type of spectrum G3V for WDS 00063+5826. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 04403-5857 nearly equal to 20 Gyr. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 00063+5826 are 20 Gyr and 19 Gyr, respectively.

  12. 小型挖掘机开式节流恒功率控制主泵效率研究%Research on Efficiency Characteristics of Constant Power Controlled Main Pump in Open Throttle System on Mini Excavators

    乔玉钢; 胡勇

    2015-01-01

    开式节流恒功率控制液压系统在小型液压挖掘机上得到了广泛的应用。按照小型挖掘机实际工况特点,推导建立了开式节流系统主泵的动态数学模型,再结合主泵的p-q曲线,分析得出了主泵输出效率与主泵工作参数之间的特性。%Constant power controlled main pumps have been widely used in the open throttle hydraulic systems on mini hydraulic excavators. According to the characteristics of the actual condition of small excavators, a dynamic mathematical model of main pump in the open throttle system is deduced and established. Combined with the main pump p-q curve analysis, the relational characteristics between the output efficiency and the working parameters of the main pump are revealed in this paper.

  13. Nonlocal conservation laws of the constant astigmatism equation

    Hlaváč, Adam; Marvan, Michal

    2016-01-01

    For the constant astigmatism equation, we construct a system of nonlocal conservation laws (an abelian covering) closed under the reciprocal transformations. We give functionally independent potentials modulo a Wronskian type relation.

  14. Timelike Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces with Singularities

    Brander, David

    2011-01-01

    We use integrable systems techniques to study the singularities of timelike non-minimal constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz-Minkowski 3-space. The singularities arise at the boundary of the Birkhoff big cell of the loop group involved. We examine the behaviour of the surfaces at the big cell boundary, generalize the definition of CMC surfaces to include those with finite, generic singularities, and show how to construct surfaces with prescribed singularities by solving a singular geometric Cauchy problem. The solution shows that the generic singularities of the generalized surfaces are cuspidal edges, swallowtails and cuspidal cross caps.

  15. Reduction of symplectic manifold through constants of the motion

    The reduction of a dynamical system on a symplectic manifold by the use of constants of the motion is described. A constant of the motion together with a symplectic structure defines a distribution, from which one obtains a foliation. The Hamiltonian dynamical system is reduced to another of lower dimension on a certain quotient manifold defined by the foljation. The role of the dynamics remaining on the leaves is discussed

  16. Selected articles translated from Jadernye Konstanty (Nuclear Constants)

    The document contains the following three papers: 'Evaluation of the decay characteristics of 3H and 36Cl', 'Validation of the ABBN/CONSYST constants system. Part 1: Validation through the critical experiments on compact metallic cores', and 'Validation of the ABBN/CONSYST constants system. Part 2: Validation through the critical experiments on cores with uranium solutions'. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  17. Coupling constant in dispersive model

    R Saleh-Moghaddam; M E Zomorrodian

    2013-11-01

    The average of the moments for event shapes in + - → hadrons within the context of next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD prediction in dispersive model is studied. Moments used in this article are $\\langle 1 - T \\rangle, \\langle ρ \\rangle, \\langle B_{T} \\rangle$ and $\\langle B_{W} \\rangle$. We extract , the coupling constant in perturbative theory and α0 in the non-perturbative theory using the dispersive model. By fitting the experimental data, the values of $(M_{Z^{°}})$ = 0.1171 ± 0.00229 and 0 ($_{I} = 2{\\text{GeV}}$) = 0.5068 ± 0.0440 are found. Our results are consistent with the above model. Our results are also consistent with those obtained from other experiments at different energies. All these features are explained in this paper.

  18. Henry's law constants of polyols

    Compernolle, S.; Müller, J.-F.

    2014-12-01

    Henry's law constants (HLC) are derived for several polyols bearing between 2 and 6 hydroxyl groups, based on literature data for water activity, vapour pressure and/or solubility. While deriving HLC and depending on the case, also infinite dilution activity coefficients (IDACs), solid state vapour pressures or activity coefficient ratios are obtained as intermediate results. An error analysis on the intermediate quantities and the obtained HLC is included. For most compounds, these are the first values reported, while others compare favourably with literature data in most cases. Using these values and those from a previous work (Compernolle and Müller, 2014), an assessment is made on the partitioning of polyols, diacids and hydroxy acids to droplet and aqueous aerosol.

  19. Performance testing system design for constant pressure water supply instrument of warship%舰用变频恒压供水装置性能测试系统设计

    李雁飞; 王行; 庞之洋; 陈金增

    2011-01-01

    针对舰用变频恒压供水装置测试的需求,以虚拟仪器技术为基础,完成了进出口压力、流量、功率等参数的测量,并基于LabVIEW软件完成了参数监测、数据记录及性能分析等功能设计.应用结果表明,该测试系统在硬件上具有测量精度高、采样速度快、抗干扰能力强、可靠性高等特点,在软件上具有功能完善、人机界面友好等特点.%According to the testing requirement of constant-pressure water-supply instrument of warship, parameters including vacuum degree of inlet, pressure and flux of outlet and power of instrument are measured based on virtual instrument technology. Designed testing software has functions such as parameter monitoring, data recording and performance analysis based on Lab VIEW. Application results show that the testing system has high accuracy of measurement, high sampling speed and high reliability in hardware, and has perfect functions and friendly interface in software.

  20. The physical basis of natural units and truly fundamental constants

    Hsu, L.; Hsu, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The natural unit system, in which the value of fundamental constants such as c and ℏ are set equal to one and all quantities are expressed in terms of a single unit, is usually introduced as a calculational convenience. However, we demonstrate that this system of natural units has a physical justification as well. We discuss and review the natural units, including definitions for each of the seven base units in the International System of Units (SI) in terms of a single unit. We also review the fundamental constants, which can be classified as units-dependent or units-independent. Units-independent constants, whose values are not determined by human conventions of units, may be interpreted as inherent constants of nature.

  1. Alternative set of defining constants for redefinition of four SI units

    Khruschov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different sets of defining constants, fixed values of which are considered in connection with the transition to new definitions of four SI units (the kilogram, the mole, the ampere, and the kelvin). The notion of constant's order in a given system of units is suggested. We propose an alternative set of fixed constants applicable for new definitions of the four SI units. We analyse and discuss in detail the set, which consists of the Planck constant, the Avogadro constant, the Boltz...

  2. A Variant of Davenport's Constant

    R Thangadurai

    2007-05-01

    Let be a prime number. Let be a finite abelian -group of exponent (written additively) and be a non-empty subset of $]n[:=\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$ such that elements of are incongruent modulo and non-zero modulo . Let $k ≥ D(G)/|A|$ be any integer where () denotes the well-known Davenport’s constant. In this article, we prove that for any sequence $g_1,g_2,\\ldots,g_k$ (not necessarily distinct) in , one can always extract a subsequence $g_{i_1},g_{i_2},\\ldots,g_{i_l}$ with $1 ≤ l ≤ k$ such that $$\\sum\\limits_{j=1}^l a_j g_{i_j}=0 \\text{in} G,$$ where $a_j\\in A$ for all . We provide examples where this bound cannot be improved. Furthermore, for the cyclic groups, we prove some sharp results in this direction. In the last section, we explore the relation between this problem and a similar problem with prescribed length. The proof of Theorem 1 uses group-algebra techniques, while for the other theorems, we use elementary number theory techniques.

  3. Alternative set of defining constants for redefinition of four SI units

    Khruschov, V V

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different sets of defining constants, fixed values of which are considered in connection with the transition to new definitions of four SI units (the kilogram, the mole, the ampere, and the kelvin). The notion of constant's order in a given system of units is suggested. We propose an alternative set of fixed constants applicable for new definitions of the four SI units. We analyse and discuss in detail the set, which consists of the Planck constant, the Avogadro constant, the Boltzmann constant and the magnetic constant.

  4. Design and implementation of cell resistance measurement system based on square wave constant current source%基于方波恒流源细胞电阻测量系统的设计实现

    郝丽俊; 单纯玉; 白宝丹

    2015-01-01

    A cell resistance measurement system based on a constant current source is designed .In the system ,AC square w ave micro‐current signal is first being applied to the cells or the cell mass ,and then an output square‐w ave volt‐age proportional to the measuring cell resistance is obtained according to Ohm's law .Finally digital display values can be attained after rectification and A/D conversion .The application of constant current source can effectively improve meas‐urement accuracy by eliminating the effect on the measuring results of the cell membrane potential and measuring elec‐trode electrolysis .And also ,as using square wave ,the DC influence can be easily filtered by the system with simple cir‐cuit .Finally ,using saline to simulate experimental cell fluid ,the experiment shows that with the increasing distance of test probes ,the measured resistance is increased in direct proportion and the results have little effect on polarization and effective .In addition , results demonstrate that the mean square error is less than 6% in the measurement range 0 -1 000 Ω and it can basically meet to the needs of isolated assisted detection in clinically .%设计实现了一个细胞电阻测量系统。该系统基于方波恒流源电路,将交流方波微电流信号施加在被测细胞或细胞群上,根据欧姆定律,输出与被测细胞电阻成正比的交流方波电压,再经滤波、整流、A/D转换后获得电阻数字显示值。系统中恒流源的应用有效消除了测量电极电解作用及细胞膜电位对测量结果的影响,方波电压的产生则便于进一步滤除直流干扰成分,提高测量准确度。利用生理盐水模拟细胞液进行实验,可以观察到随着测试表笔距离的加大,测量电阻也在做正比例增加,结果受表笔电极化影响很小,且在有效测量范围0~1000Ω内,测量均方误差小于6%,能够基本满足临床上离体辅助检测的需求。

  5. Research and Practice of the Traceable Animal Products Constantly Monitor System%畜产品全程监管可追溯体系的研究与实践

    崔先雨; 张淋江

    2015-01-01

    畜产品全程监管可追溯体系,是从畜产品投入品的生产、检验、销售到畜禽养殖的饲养、防疫、监督、检疫、出栏、运输、屠宰,再到畜产品的检疫、运输、销售等每个环节都建立监管和追溯体系,实现真正意义上的全过程监管与追溯。以政府监管的畜产品质量安全监督管理平台为核心,以濮阳市皇哺牛奶有限公司、河南三高农牧股份有限公司为示范企业,依托河南省奶牛生产性能测定中心奶牛生产管理信息服务平台数据,采用标准化的质量安全跟踪与追溯框架,建立畜禽产品质量安全追溯系统,实现“从养殖场到餐桌”整个供应链的全程溯源服务。%The traceable animal products constantly monitor system is a monitor and tracing system from the production, inspection, sale of animal by-products input to livestock breeding, epidemic prevention and supervision, quarantine, market, transportation and slaughter, and then to the quarantine, transport and sale of the animal by-products, aiming to realize the whole process monitor and trace in the true sense. This article takes the government regulated animal products quality and safety supervision and management platform as the core, and Puyang Huangbu Milk Co., Ltd. and Henan Sungo Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd. as the demonstration enterprises. Based on the data on the cow production management information service platform of Henan cow production performance test center, this article uses standard quality and safety of tracking and traceability framework to set up animal products quality safety traceability system to realize the entire tracing system of the supply chain"from farm to table".

  6. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  7. Vacuum energy and the cosmological constant

    Bass, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the Universe points to a small positive value for the cosmological constant or vacuum energy density. We discuss recent ideas that the cosmological constant plus LHC results might hint at critical phenomena near the Planck scale.

  8. Critical survey of stability constants of EDTA complexes critical evaluation of equilibrium constants in solution stability constants of metal complexes

    Anderegg, G

    2013-01-01

    Critical Survey of Stability Constants of EDTA Complexes focuses on the computations, values, and characteristics of stability constants. The book emphasizes that for a critical discussion of experimentally determined stability constants, it is important to consider the precision of the values that manifests the self-consistency of the constant, taking into consideration the random errors. The publication reviews the stability constants of metal complexes. The numerical calculations affirm the reactions and transformations of metal ions when exposed to varying conditions. The text also present

  9. Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity

    Cohen, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global) is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global) is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global) is the populat...

  10. Origin of cosmological constant from Bulk manifold

    The problem about cosmological constant is a difficult and important problem, people even don't know what it is really originated from. In this letter, the authors show up a kind of origin of the cosmological constant from the viewpoint of some extra dimensional spaces, obtain different values of the cosmological constant under different circumstances, acquire the evolution function with time t. And we achieve a cosmological constant that may be fitted with modern astronomic observation. (authors)

  11. 数据驱动的变速变桨风能转换系统恒功率控制%Data-driven constant power control of variable speed variable pitch wind energy conversion system

    潘庭龙; 孙承奇; 纪志成; 徐莉莉

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the constant power control of the above rated wind speed,pitch angle and elec-tromagnetic torque of the wind energy conversion system( WECS) must be controlled simultaneously. The nonlinearity and uncertainty of the variable speed variable pitch wind energy conversion system results in the difficulties in modeling. Combining the data-driven optimal control theory with multivariable control strategy,according to the input and output data of the variable speed variable pitch wind energy conversion system to calculate the Markov parameters. A data-driven state observer controller is constructed. A multivariable optimal feedback controller is designed by the closed form of difference Riccati equation. Simulation in MATLAB/simulink results indicate that the above rated wind,the data-driven multivariable optimal control without modelling can effectively maintain the rated power output.%为了实现风能转换系统在额定风速以上的恒功率控制,必须同时控制桨距角和电磁转矩。针对变速变桨风能转换系统具有强非线性和不确定性难于建立精确模型的问题,将数据驱动的最优控制理论和多变量控制策略相结合,根据变速变桨风能转换系统的输入输出数据得出系统的马尔可夫参数,据此构造一个基于数据的状态观测控制器,并通过差分Riccati方程的闭合解来设计多变量最优反馈控制器。在MATLAB/Simulink的仿真结果表明:在不建立模型的基础上设计的数据驱动的多变量最优控制器能够有效地实现系统的恒功率输出控制。

  12. Motion on Constant Curvature Spaces and Quantization Using Noether Symmetries

    Bracken, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is presented for quantizing a metric nonlinear system on a manifold of constant curvature. It makes use of a curvature dependent procedure which relies on determining Noether symmetries from the metric. The curvature of the space functions as a constant parameter. For a specific metric which defines the manifold, Lie differentiation of the metric gives these symmetries. A metric is used such that the resulting Schrodinger equation can be solved in terms of hypergeometric fu...

  13. Fields of rational constants of cyclic factorizable derivations

    Janusz Zielinski

    2015-01-01

    We describe all rational constants of a large family of four-variable cyclic factorizable derivations. Thus, we determine all rational first integrals of their corresponding systems of differential equations. Moreover, we give a characteristic of all four-variable Lotka-Volterra derivations with a nontrivial rational constant. All considerations are over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero. Our main tool is the investigation of the cofactors of strict Darboux ...

  14. One-group constant libraries for nuclear equilibrium state

    Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors

    1997-03-01

    One-group constant libraries for the nuclear equilibrium state were generated for both liquid sodium cooled MOX fuel type fast reactor and PWR type thermal reactor with Equilibrium Cell Iterative Calculation System (ECICS) using JENDL-3.2, -3, -2 and ENDF/B-VI nuclear data libraries. ECICS produced one-group constant sets for 129 heavy metal nuclides and 1238 fission products. (author)

  15. 基于太阳能的微灌系统恒压供水自动控制装置研制%Constant pressure water supply automatic device designed for micro-irrigation system based on solar energy

    李加念; 洪添胜; 倪慧娜

    2013-01-01

      The stability of micro-irrigation system inlet water pressure affects the uniformity of the micro-irrigation and the mixed fertilizer accuracy of automatic fertilizer mixing device. In order to provide a constant inlet water pressure for small and medium-sized irrigation pipe network which adopts gravity drip irrigation, a constant pressure water supply automatic control device was developed, through employing a diaphragm pump DP-60 powered by solar energy to carry water to the reservoir built in high place, and maintaining the reservoir’ water level at a fixed height in the drip irrigation process. The water level was detected online by using a level sensor YZ-YO-LAG1, and the controller control DP-60 carrying water to the reservoir according to the water level detected. Due to the certain distance between reservoir water level detection terminal and DP-60 control terminal, two wireless communication modules CC1100 were installed in each terminal respectively to realize wireless data transmission and control between two terminals. To reduce power consumption of wireless communication, a regular communication strategy combining with sleeping mechanism was adopted, and a kind of time synchronization technology was employed to keep time synchronization between the communication parties, and the WOR (wake on radio) mode of CC1100 module was enabled while communicating, the communication success rate was 100%verified by practical test. Photovoltaic capacity of the system had been designed for obtaining an optimal capacity combination of solar cell array and lead-acid battery, and the solar panel power was determined to be 60 W and the battery capacity to be 60 A·h, the capacity combination could meet the electricity demand of 500L irrigation norm for each drip irrigation cycle, and ensure that the system operates normally in seven consecutive days without sunshine. In order to maximize the use of solar energy, the relationship between solar panel power and the

  16. Nonlinear H-infinity robust control of constant power for wind power system%风力发电系统的恒功率非线性H∞鲁棒控制

    秦生升; 胡国文; 顾春雷; 李杜

    2012-01-01

    风力发电系统传统控制器的缺点在于,基于某一工况点的局部线性化方法无法实现全局范围的精确控制,且传统的控制理论无法应对内外干扰.本文将精确反馈线性化方法与线性H∞理论相结合设计非线性H∞控制器.首先用微分几何精确线性化方法将非线性风电模型全局线性化,然后运用线性H∞控制理论对此线性系统设计控制器,将两者结合有原风电系统的非线性H∞变桨距控制器.最后对12m/s至24m/s阶跃风,12111/至22m/s骤变风,18m/s至20m/s随机风,以及风力机转动惯量下降10%的情况进行仿真,能实现风机转速及输出功率的恒定.验证了该控制器在全风速段的精确控制,并且具有良好鲁棒性.%The conventional wind turbine controller can not realize the global range control because of its local lineariza- tion at specific operating point. It neither provides the rejection of internal and external disturbances. In our approach, the nonlinear model of the wind turbine is converted to a global linear model by using the differential geometry method. For this global linear model, a linear H-infinity variable pitch controller is designed for the existing wind power system. Simu- lations of the control system are carried out for 12-24 m/s step wind, 12-22 m/s suddenly change wind, 18-20 m/s random wind, and 10% reduction of wind turbine rotary inertia. Results show that the wind turbine speed and the output power are maintained at constant values as desired, showing desirable performances and robustness of the control.

  17. The importance of being (a) constant

    The author intends to show how the epistemological status of the physical constants bears witness to the development of physical science in general. He classifies the various physical constants into three types, properties of particular physical objects, characteristics of classes of physical phenomena and universal constants. He discusses the phenomena of fundamental constants experiencing a change in their type, at length on the example of two important constants, c and G. He considers Planck's constant and discusses the conceptual role of universal constants in general, as well as some aspects of quantum mechanics which appear in a new light from the proposed point of view. The existence is shown of hidden universal constants, forgotten ones in the realm of classical physics, as well as overlooked ones in modern physics. The velocity of light is studied as an example of general considerations on universal constants, and as a way to approach some epistemological problems of special relativity. Newton's gravitational constant is studied in connection with the interpretation of general relativity. (Auth./C.F.)

  18. Influences of brain tissue poroelastic constants on intracranial pressure (ICP) during constant-rate infusion.

    Li, Xiaogai; von Holst, Hans; Kleiven, Svein

    2013-01-01

    A 3D finite element (FE) model has been developed to study the mean intracranial pressure (ICP) response during constant-rate infusion using linear poroelasticity. Due to the uncertainties in the poroelastic constants for brain tissue, the influence of each of the main parameters on the transient ICP infusion curve was studied. As a prerequisite for transient analysis, steady-state simulations were performed first. The simulated steady-state pressure distribution in the brain tissue for a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation system showed good correlation with experiments from the literature. Furthermore, steady-state ICP closely followed the infusion experiments at different infusion rates. The verified steady-state models then served as a baseline for the subsequent transient models. For transient analysis, the simulated ICP shows a similar tendency to that found in the experiments, however, different values of the poroelastic constants have a significant effect on the infusion curve. The influence of the main poroelastic parameters including the Biot coefficient α, Skempton coefficient B, drained Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio ν, permeability κ, CSF absorption conductance C(b) and external venous pressure p(b) was studied to investigate the influence on the pressure response. It was found that the value of the specific storage term S(ε) is the dominant factor that influences the infusion curve, and the drained Young's modulus E was identified as the dominant parameter second to S(ε). Based on the simulated infusion curves from the FE model, artificial neural network (ANN) was used to find an optimised parameter set that best fit the experimental curve. The infusion curves from both the FE simulation and using ANN confirmed the limitation of linear poroelasticity in modelling the transient constant-rate infusion. PMID:22452461

  19. Constant Current Models of Brushless DC Motor

    Krykowski, Krzysztof; Hetmańczyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Two constant current models of Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current Motor (PM BLDC) are presented in the paper. In the first part of the paper principle of operation, basic properties and mathematical equations describing PM BLDC models are given. Then, two different constant current models of PM BLDC motor are considered: In the first model, PM BLDC motor is approximated with dc motor; in the second model, modified constant current model is applied with additional block, which is used t...

  20. Cosmological Constant and Soft Terms in Supergravity

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Jihn E.; Nilles, Hans Peter, Ramos-S\\xe1nchez, Sa\\xfal

    1994-01-01

    Some of the soft SUSY breaking parameters in hidden sector supergravity model depend on the expectation value of the hidden sector scalar potential, $$, whose tree level value is equal to the tree level cosmological constant. The current practice of calculating soft parameters assumes that $=0$. Quantum correction to the cosmological constant can differ from the correction to $$ by an amount of order $m^2_{3/2}M_{Pl}^2/8\\pi$. This implies that, for the vanishing cosmological constant, the $$-...

  1. Cosmological Constant and Axions in String Theory

    Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-08-18

    String theory axions appear to be promising candidates for explaining cosmological constant via quintessence. In this paper, we study conditions on the string compactifications under which axion quintessence can happen. For sufficiently large number of axions, cosmological constant can be accounted for as the potential energy of axions that have not yet relaxed to their minima. In compactifications that incorporate unified models of particle physics, the height of the axion potential can naturally fall close to the observed value of cosmological constant.

  2. Bubble Universes With Different Gravitational Constants

    Takamizu, Yu-ichi; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We argue a scenario motivated by the context of string landscape, where our universe is produced by a new vacuum bubble embedded in an old bubble and these bubble universes have not only different cosmological constants, but also their own different gravitational constants. We study these effects on the primordial curvature perturbations. In order to construct a model of varying gravitational constants, we use the Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory where different expectation values of scalar fi...

  3. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  4. Motion on constant curvature spaces and quantization using noether symmetries

    Bracken, Paul

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is presented for quantizing a metric nonlinear system on a manifold of constant curvature. It makes use of a curvature dependent procedure which relies on determining Noether symmetries from the metric. The curvature of the space functions as a constant parameter. For a specific metric which defines the manifold, Lie differentiation of the metric gives these symmetries. A metric is used such that the resulting Schrödinger equation can be solved in terms of hypergeometric functions. This permits the investigation of both the energy spectrum and wave functions exactly for this system.

  5. 40 CFR 57.302 - Performance level of interim constant controls.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance level of interim constant... Performance level of interim constant controls. (a) Maximum feasible efficiency. Each NSO shall require: that the smelter operate its interim constant control systems at their maximum feasible...

  6. Spectral Sensitivity Measured with Electroretinogram Using a Constant Response Method

    Rocha, Fernando Allan de Farias; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Martins, Sonia Limara; Aguiar, Renata Genaro; de Souza, John Manuel; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2016-01-01

    A new method is presented to determine the retinal spectral sensitivity function S(λ) using the electroretinogram (ERG). S(λ)s were assessed in three different species of myomorph rodents, Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), Wistar rats (Ratus norvegicus), and mice (Mus musculus). The method, called AC Constant Method, is based on a computerized automatic feedback system that adjusts light intensity to maintain a constant-response amplitude to a flickering stimulus throughout the spectrum, as it is scanned from 300 to 700 nm, and back. The results are presented as the reciprocal of the intensity at each wavelength required to maintain a constant peak to peak response amplitude. The resulting S(λ) had two peaks in all three rodent species, corresponding to ultraviolet and M cones, respectively: 359 nm and 511 nm for mice, 362 nm and 493 nm for gerbils, and 362 nm and 502 nm for rats. Results for mouse and gerbil were similar to literature reports of S(λ) functions obtained with other methods, confirming that the ERG associated to the AC Constant-Response Method was effective to obtain reliable S(λ) functions. In addition, due to its fast data collection time, the AC Constant Response Method has the advantage of keeping the eye in a constant light adapted state. PMID:26800521

  7. Habitable sphere and fine structure constant

    Kozlovskii, Miroslaw P; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Marciak-Kozlowska, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Future space missions, TPF and Darwin will focus on searches of signatures of life on extrasolar planets. In this paper we look for model independ definition of the habitable zone. It will be shown that the radius of the habitable sphere depends only on the constants of the Nature. Key words: Habitable sphere, fine structure constant.

  8. Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants

    Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing trie

  9. Supplementary kinetic constants of charged particles

    Ribaric, Marijan; Sustersic, Luka

    2006-01-01

    We put forward: (A) An improved description of classical, kinetic properties of a charged pointlike physical particle that consists, in addition to its mass and charge, also of the Eliezer and Bhabha kinetic constants; and (B) a proposal to evaluate these kinetic constants by considering the trajectories of charged particles in an acccelerator.

  10. FLOTATION RATE CONSTANT MODEL FOR FINE COAL

    LuMaixi; CaiZhang; TaoYoujun; KuangYali

    1996-01-01

    The density of fine coal has a major effect on the value of its floxation rate constant. The collector dose can increase the flotation rate of fine coal, especially for low ash coal, but the effect for gangue is not notable. The flotation rate of gangue is mainly governed by the water entrainment. A coal flotation rate constant model has been developed.

  11. Constant-axial-intensity nondiffracting beam.

    Cox, A J; D'Anna, J

    1992-02-15

    Numerical solutions of the Fresnel diffraction integral with various apodizing filter functions are used to indicate that a so-called nondiffracting beam can be produced that maintains a constant spot size and constant axial intensity over a considerable range, approximately 30 m in our example. PMID:19784285

  12. Atomic hydrogen and fundamental physical constants

    Techniques are described which allow the study, in undergraduate laboratories, of the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. The Rydberg constant, the electron-proton mass ratio, and the fine-structure constant are evaluated from the measurements. The key to the series of experiments is a discharge tube in which atomic lines dominate over the molecular lines. (author)

  13. Fields of rational constants of cyclic factorizable derivations

    Janusz Zielinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe all rational constants of a large family of four-variable cyclic factorizable derivations. Thus, we determine all rational first integrals of their corresponding systems of differential equations. Moreover, we give a characteristic of all four-variable Lotka-Volterra derivations with a nontrivial rational constant. All considerations are over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero. Our main tool is the investigation of the cofactors of strict Darboux polynomials. Factorizable derivations are important in derivation theory. Namely, we may associate the factorizable derivation with any given derivation of a polynomial ring and that construction helps to determine rational constants of arbitrary derivations. Besides, Lotka-Volterra systems play a significant role in population biology, laser physics and plasma physics.

  14. The Cosmological Constant and the Gravitational Light Bending

    Biressa, Tolu

    2011-01-01

    The solution of the null non-radial geodesic in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background is revisited. The gravitational bending of a light ray is affected by the cosmological constant, in agreement with the findings of some previous investigations. The present study confirms that the leading correction term depends directly not only on the cosmological constant but also on the impact parameter and on the angular distance to the source. Using the resulting lens equation, the projected mass of the lens was estimated for several systems displaying Einstein rings. Corrections on masses due to the cosmological constant are, on the average, of the order of 2%, indicating that they are not completly negligible for lens systems at cosmological distances.

  15. Cosmic Time Variation of the Gravitational Constant

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    A pre-relativistic cosmological approach to electromagnetism and gravitation is explored that leads to a cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. Space itself is supposed to have physical substance, which manifests by its permeability. The scale factors of the permeability tensor induce a time variation of the fundamental constants. Atomic radii, periods, and energy levels scale in cosmic time, which results in dispersionless redshifts without invoking a space expansion. Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are reviewed in this context. The time variation of the gravitational constant at the present epoch can be expressed in terms of these quantities. This provides a completely new way to restrain the deceleration parameter from laboratory bounds on the time variation of the gravitational constant. This variation also affects the redshift dependence of angular diameters and the surface brightness, and we study in some detail the redshift scaling of the linear sizes of radio sources. The effec...

  16. Elastic constants of layers in isotropic laminates.

    Heyliger, Paul R; Ledbetter, Hassel; Kim, Sudook; Reimanis, Ivar

    2003-11-01

    The individual laminae elastic constants in multilayer laminates composed of dissimilar isotropic layers were determined using ultrasonic-resonance spectroscopy and the linear theory of elasticity. Ultrasonic resonance allows one to measure the free-vibration response spectrum of a traction-free solid under periodic vibration. These frequencies depend on pointwise density, laminate dimensions, layer thickness, and layer elastic constants. Given a material with known mass but unknown constitution, this method allows one to extract the elastic constants and density of the constituent layers. This is accomplished by measuring the frequencies and then minimizing the differences between these and those calculated using the theory of elasticity for layered media to select the constants that best replicate the frequency-response spectrum. This approach is applied to a three-layer, unsymmetric laminate of WpCu, and very good agreement is found with the elastic constants of the two constituent materials. PMID:14649998

  17. GPS test of the local position invariance of Planck's constant

    Kentosh, James; Mohageg, Makan

    2012-01-01

    Publicly available clock correction data from the Global Positioning System was analyzed and used in combination with the results of terrestrial clock comparison experiments to confirm the local position invariance (LPI) of Planck's constant within the context of general relativity. The results indicate that h is invariant within a limit of |beta_h|

  18. Calculation of local elastic constants at a metallic grain boundary

    A new atomistic-simulation method for calculating the full local elastic-constant tensor in terms of local stress and local strain for inhomogeneous systems is described. Results of simulations of an isolated high-angle twist grain boundary are presented. A dramatic reduction in resistance to shear parallel to the grain boundary is observed, and its relation to structural disorder is discussed

  19. Relativistic theory of gravitation based on the constant curvature space

    This paper expounds the basic postulates of the relativistic theory of gravitation on the basis of the constant curvature space, which make it possible to find uniquely the complete system of the equations for gravitational field having a nonzero rest mass. 7 refs

  20. DETERMINATION OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS OF SELECTED PRIORITY POLLUTANTS

    The Henry's law constants (H) for 41 selected priority pollutants were determined to characterize these pollutants and provide information on their fate as they pass through wastewater treatment systems. All experimental values presented for H are averages of two or more replicat...

  1. Neutron stars and the cosmological constant problem

    The gravitational aether theory is a modification of general relativity that decouples vacuum energy from gravity, and thus can potentially address the cosmological constant problem. The classical theory is distinguishable from general relativity only in the presence of relativistic pressure (or vorticity). Since the interior of neutron stars has high pressure and as their mass and radius can be measured observationally, they are the perfect laboratory for testing the validity of the aether theory. In this paper, we solve the equations of stellar structure for the gravitational aether theory and find the predicted mass-radius relation of nonrotating neutron stars using two different realistic proposals for the equation of state of nuclear matter. We find that the maximum neutron-star mass predicted by the aether theory is 12%-16% less than the maximum mass predicted by general relativity assuming these two equations of state. We also show that the effect of aether is similar to modifying the equation of state in general relativity. The effective pressure of the neutron star given by the aether theory at a fiducial density differs from the values given by the two nuclear equations of state to an extent that can be constrained using future gravitational wave observations of neutron stars in compact systems. This is a promising way to test the aether theory if further progress is made in constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter in densities above the nuclear saturation density.

  2. Theophylline: constant-rate infusion predictions.

    Mesquita, C A; Sahebjami, H; Imhoff, T; Thomas, J P; Myre, S A

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a method of prospectively estimating appropriate aminophylline infusion rates in acutely ill, hospitalized patients with bronchospasm. Steady-state serum theophylline concentrations (Css), clearances (Cl), and half-lives (t1/2) were estimated by the Chiou method using serum concetrantions obtained 1 and 6 h after the start of a constant-rate intravenous aminophylline infusion in 10 male patients averaging 57 years of age. Using an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT) system for theophylline analysis, pharmacokinetic estimations were excellent for Css (r = 0.9103, p less than 0.01) and Cl (r = 0.9750, p less than 0.01). The mean estimation errors were 9.4% (range 0.8-21.5) for Css and 12.3% (range 1.3-28.0) for Cl. There was no correlation between patient age and Cl. This method is useful for rapidly individualizing aminophylline therapy in patients with acute bronchospasm. PMID:6740734

  3. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  4. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements.

    Berryman, James G; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry and drained constants, which are assumed known, and the saturated or undrained constants, which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the effects of the fluids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore fluid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants. PMID:20136194

  5. Some Zero-Sum Constants with Weights

    S D Adhikari; R Balasubramanian; F Pappalardi; P Rath

    2008-05-01

    For an abelian group , the Davenport constant () is defined to be the smallest natural number such that any sequence of elements in has a non-empty subsequence whose sum is zero (the identity element). Motivated by some recent developments around the notion of Davenport constant with weights, we study them in some basic cases. We also define a new combinatorial invariant related to $(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^d$, more in the spirit of some constants considered by Harborth and others and obtain its exact value in the case of $(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^2$ where is an odd integer.

  6. Some results concerning the constant astigmatism equation

    Hlaváč, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we continue investigation of the constant astigmatism equation z_{yy} + (1/z)_{xx} + 2 = 0. We newly interpret its solutions as describing spherical orthogonal equiareal patterns, with relevance to two-dimensional plasticity. We show how the classical Bianchi superposition principle for the sine-Gordon equation can be extended to generate an arbitrary number of solutions of the constant astigmatism equation by algebraic manipulations. As a by-product, we show that sine-Gordon solutions give slip line fields on the sphere. Finally, we compute the solutions corresponding to classical Lipschitz surfaces of constant astigmatism via the corresponding equiareal patterns.

  7. Reactor group constants and benchmark test

    The evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2 are validated by analyzing critical mock-up experiments for various type reactors and assessing applicability for nuclear characteristics such as criticality, reaction rates, reactivities, etc. This is called Benchmark Testing. In the nuclear calculations, the diffusion and transport codes use the group constant library which is generated by processing the nuclear data files. In this paper, the calculation methods of the reactor group constants and benchmark test are described. Finally, a new group constants scheme is proposed. (author)

  8. Laser Propulsion and the Constant Momentum Mission

    We show that perfect propulsion requires a constant momentum mission, as a consequence of Newton's second law. Perfect propulsion occurs when the velocity of the propelled mass in the inertial frame of reference matches the velocity of the propellant jet in the rocket frame of reference. We compare constant momentum to constant specific impulse propulsion, which, for a given specification of the mission delta V, has an optimum specific impulse that maximizes the propelled mass per unit jet kinetic energy investment. We also describe findings of more than 50 % efficiency for conversion of laser energy into jet kinetic energy by ablation of solids

  9. On the constants for some Sobolev imbeddings

    Pizzocchero Livio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the imbedding inequality is the Sobolev space (or Bessel potential space of type and (integer or fractional order . We write down upper bounds for the constants , using an argument previously applied in the literature in particular cases. We prove that the upper bounds computed in this way are in fact the sharp constants if , , and exhibit the maximising functions. Furthermore, using convenient trial functions, we derive lower bounds on for in many cases these are close to the previous upper bounds, as illustrated by a number of examples, thus characterizing the sharp constants with little uncertainty.

  10. On structure constants of sl(2) theories

    Petkova, V.B. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Arnold-Sommerfeld Inst. fuer Mathematische Physik (ASI); Zuber, J.B. [CEA, Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    1995-03-27

    Structure constants of minimal conformal theories are reconsidered. It is shown that ratios of structure constants of spin zero fields of a non-diagonal theory over the same evaluated in the diagonal theory are given by a simple expression in terms of the components of the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of the corresponding Dynkin diagram. This is proved by inspection, which leads us to carefully determine the signs of the structure constants that had not all appeared in the former works on the subject. We also present a proof relying on the consideration of lattice correlation functions and speculate on the extension of these identities to more complicated theories. ((orig.)).

  11. Radiative non-Abelian cosmic strings with negative cosmological constant

    We investigated the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system with a cosmological constant on a time-dependent non-diagonal cylindrical symmetric spacetime. Only for suitable negative Λ and specific initial values, we find numerically regular wave-like solutions dressed with both electric and magnetic charges. The cosmic string feature is maintained by the finite angle deficit the solutions possess. In general the solution will develop a cosmological horizon; however, it resolves for increasing negative values of the cosmological constant and increasing time. Further, the features of the dyon depend on the angular momentum flux

  12. Definition of the diffusion constant in one-group theory

    A one-group transport equation is derived from the general Boltzmann equation with the sole assumption that the neutron velocity spectrum is independent of position and angle. It is shown that the correct way to define a diffusion constant is to form averages of the scattering cross section, not the mean free path, over the neutron spectrum. Conclusions are also drawn regarding the equivalence between moderator systems studied with pulsed neutron sources and critical reactors and regarding possible systematic differences in diffusion constants derived from stationary and pulsed source experiments. Finally, an accurate equation for the neutron spectrum is derived

  13. An improved dosimeter having constant flow pump

    A dosemeter designed for individual use which can be used to monitor toxic radon gas and toxic related products of radon gas in mines and which incorporates a constant air stream flowing through the dosimeter is described. (U.K.)

  14. Cosmology with a time dependent cosmological constant

    In the context of the scalar-tensor theories we consider cosmological models with a time dependent cosmological constant. Several toy models are obtained among them there are solutions without singularity and accelerating. (Author)

  15. Asymptotic safety and the cosmological constant

    Falls, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We study the non-perturbative renormalisation of quantum gravity in four dimensions. Taking care to disentangle physical degrees of freedom, we observe the topological nature of conformal fluctuations arising from the functional measure. The resulting beta functions possess an asymptotically safe fixed point with a global phase structure leading to classical general relativity for positive, negative or vanishing cosmological constant. If only the conformal fluctuations are quantised we find an asymptotically safe fixed point predicting a vanishing cosmological constant on all scales. At this fixed point we reproduce the critical exponent, ν = 1/3, found in numerical lattice studies by Hamber. Returning to the full theory we find that by setting the cosmological constant to zero the critical exponent agrees with the conformally reduced theory. This suggests the fixed point may be physical while hinting at solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  16. The time constant of the somatogravic illusion

    Correia Grácio, B.J.; Winkel, K.N. de; Groen, E.L.; Wentink, M.; Bos, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Met desdemona hebben we gevonden dat de tijd constante van de somatografische illusie rond twee seconden is. Dit resultaat verschilt van wat was gevonden in ander onderzoek dat gebruikt maakt van een gewone centrifuge

  17. Canonoid transformations and constants of motion

    The necessary and sufficient conditions for a canonoid transformation with respect to a given Hamiltonian are obtained in terms of the Lagrange brackets of the trasformation. The relation of these conditions with the constants of motion is discussed. (Author)

  18. Hydrolysis and formation constants at 250C

    A database consisting of hydrolysis and formation constants for about 20 metals associated with the disposal of nuclear waste is given. Complexing ligands for the various ionic species of these metals include OH, F, Cl, SO4, PO4 and CO3. Table 1 consists of tabulated calculated and experimental values of log K/sub xy/, mainly at 250C and various ionic strengths together with references to the origin of the data. Table 2 consists of a column of recommended stability constants at 250C and zero ionic strength tabulated in the column headed log K/sub xy/(0); other columns contain coefficients for an extended Debye-Huckel equation to permit calculations of stability constants up to 3 ionic strength, and up to 0.7 ionic strength using the Davies equation. Selected stability constants calculated with these coefficients for various ionic strengths agree to an average of +- 2% when compared with published experimental and calculated values

  19. Constant conditional entropy and related hypotheses

    Constant entropy rate (conditional entropies must remain constant as the sequence length increases) and uniform information density (conditional probabilities must remain constant as the sequence length increases) are two information theoretic principles that are argued to underlie a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Here we revise the predictions of these principles in the light of Hilberg’s law on the scaling of conditional entropy in language and related laws. We show that constant entropy rate (CER) and two interpretations for uniform information density (UID), full UID and strong UID, are inconsistent with these laws. Strong UID implies CER but the reverse is not true. Full UID, a particular case of UID, leads to costly uncorrelated sequences that are totally unrealistic. We conclude that CER and its particular cases are incomplete hypotheses about the scaling of conditional entropies. (letter)

  20. Constant global population with demographic heterogeneity

    Joel E. Cohen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To understand better a possible future constant global population that is demographically heterogeneous, this paper analyzes several models. Classical theory of stationary populations generally fails to apply. However, if constant global population size P(global is the sum of all country population sizes, and if constant global annual number of births B(global is the sum of the annual number of births of all countries, and if constant global life expectancy at birth e(global is the population-weighted mean of the life expectancy at birth of all countries, then B(global x e(global always exceeds P(global unless all countries have the same life expectancy at birth.

  1. Maximum Tension: with and without a cosmological constant

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    We discuss various examples and ramifications of the conjecture that there exists a maximum force (or tension) in general relativistic systems. We contrast this situation with that in Newtonian gravity, where no maximum force exists, and relate it to the existence of natural units defined by constants of Nature and the fact that the Planck units of force and power do not depend on Planck's constant. We discuss how these results change in higher dimensions where the Planck units of force are no longer non-quantum. We discuss the changes that might occur to the conjecture if a positive cosmological constant exists and derive a maximum force bound using the Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole.

  2. Low noise constant current source for bias dependent noise measurements

    A low noise constant current source used for measuring the 1/f noise in disordered systems in ohmic as well as nonohmic regime is described. The source can supply low noise constant current starting from as low as 1 μA to a few tens of milliampere with a high voltage compliance limit of around 20 V. The constant current source has several stages, which can work in a standalone manner or together to supply the desired value of load current. The noise contributed by the current source is very low in the entire current range. The fabrication of a low noise voltage preamplifier modified for bias dependent noise measurements and based on the existing design available in the MAT04 data sheet is also described.

  3. The Cosmological Constant Problem from a Brane-World Perspective

    Förste, S; Lavignac, Stephane; Nilles, Hans Peter; Forste, Stefan; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lavignac, St\\'ephane; Nilles, Hans Peter

    2000-01-01

    We point out several subtleties arising in brane-world scenarios of cosmological constant cancellation. We show that solutions with curvature singularities are inconsistent, unless the contribution to the effective four-dimentional cosmological constant of the physics that resolves the singularities is fine-tuned. This holds for both flat and curved branes. Irrespective of this problem, we then study an isolated class of flat solutions in models where a bulk scalar field with a vanishing potential couples to a 3-brane. We give an example where the introduction of a bulk scalar potential results in a nonzero cosmological constant. Finally we comment on the stability of classical solutions of the brane system with respect to quantum corrections.

  4. Performance evaluation of wideband bio-impedance spectroscopy using constant voltage source and constant current source

    Current sources are widely used in bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement systems to maximize current injection for increased signal to noise while keeping within medical safety specifications. High-performance current sources based on the Howland current pump with optimized impedance converters are able to minimize stray capacitance of the cables and setup. This approach is limited at high frequencies primarily due to the deteriorated output impedance of the constant current source when situated in a real measurement system. For this reason, voltage sources have been suggested, but they require a current sensing resistor, and the SNR reduces at low impedance loads due to the lower current required to maintain constant voltage. In this paper, we compare the performance of a current source-based BIS and a voltage source-based BIS, which use common components. The current source BIS is based on a Howland current pump and generalized impedance converters to maintain a high output impedance of more than 1 MΩ at 2 MHz. The voltage source BIS is based on voltage division between an internal current sensing resistor (Rs) and an external sample. To maintain high SNR, Rs is varied so that the source voltage is divided more or less equally. In order to calibrate the systems, we measured the transfer function of the BIS systems with several known resistor and capacitor loads. From this we may estimate the resistance and capacitance of biological tissues using the least-squares method to minimize error between the measured transimpedance excluding the system transfer function and that from an impedance model. When tested on realistic loads including discrete resistors and capacitors, and saline and agar phantoms, the voltage source-based BIS system had a wider bandwidth of 10 Hz to 2.2 MHz with less than 1% deviation from the expected spectra compared to more than 10% with the current source. The voltage source also showed an SNR of at least 60 dB up to 2.2 MHz in

  5. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    Jamil, Mubasher; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M. R.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant, in flat and non-flat background geometry. We extract the exact differential equations determining the evolution of the dark energy density-parameter, which include G-variation correction terms. Performing a low-redshift expansion of the dark energy equation of state, we provide the involved parameters as functions of the current density parameters, of the holographic dark energy constant and of the G-variation.

  6. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant, in flat and non-flat background geometry. We extract the exact differential equations determining the evolution of the dark energy density-parameter, which include G-variation correction terms. Performing a low-redshift expansion of the dark energy equation of state, we provide the involved parameters as functions of the current density parameters, of the holographic dark energy constant and of the G-variation.

  7. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    Jamil, Mubasher; Setare, M R

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant, in flat and non-flat background geometry. We extract the exact differential equations determining the evolution of the dark energy density-parameter, which include $G$-variation correction terms. Performing a low-redshift expansion of the dark energy equation of state, we provide the involved parameters as functions of the current density parameters, of the holographic dark energy constant and of the $G$-variation.

  8. Prime rings with PI rings of constants

    Kharchenko, V K; Rodríguez-Romo, S

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that if the ring of constants of a restricted differential Lie algebra with a quasi-Frobenius inner part satisfies a polynomial identity (PI) then the original prime ring has a generalized polynomial identitiy (GPI). If additionally the ring of constants is semiprime then the original ring is PI. The case of a non-quasi-Frobenius inner part is also considered.

  9. Siegel-Veech constants in H(2)

    Lelièvre, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Abelian differentials on Riemann surfaces can be seen as translation surfaces, which are flat surfaces with cone-type singularities. Closed geodesics for the associated flat metrics form cylinders whose number under a given maximal length generically has quadratic asymptotics in this length, with a common coefficient constant for the quadratic asymptotics called a Siegel--Veech constant which is shared by almost all surfaces in each moduli space of translation surfaces. Square-tiled surfaces ...

  10. Emergent Gravity And The Cosmological Constant Problem

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2007-01-01

    We address issues on the origin of gravity and the cosmological constant problem based on a recent understanding about the correspondence between noncommutative field theory and gravity. We suggest that the cosmological constant problem can be resolved in a natural way if gravity emerges from a gauge theory in noncommutative spacetime. Especially, we elucidate why the emergent gravity implies that vacuum energy does not gravitate but only fluctuations around the vacuum generate gravity. That ...

  11. Optimization for Hue Constant RGB Sensors

    Finlayson, Graham D.; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    We present an optimization technique to find hue constant RGB sensors. The hue representation is based on a log RGB opponent color space that is invariant to brightness and gamma. While modeling the visual response did not derive the opponent space, the hue definition is similar to the ones found in CIE Lab and IPT. Finding hue constant RGB sensors through this optimization might be applicable in color engineering applications such as finding RGB sensors for color image encodings.

  12. Beyond lensing by the cosmological constant

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing problem of whether the cosmological constant affects directly the deflection of light caused by a gravitational lens is reconsidered. We use a new approach based on the Hawking quasilocal mass of a sphere grazed by light rays and on its splitting into local and cosmological parts. Previous literature restricted to the cosmological constant is extended to any form of dark energy accelerating the universe in which the gravitational lens is embedded.

  13. Parametrized spaces model locally constant homotopy sheaves

    Shulman, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the homotopy theory of parametrized spaces embeds fully and faithfully in the homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves, and that its essential image consists of the locally homotopically constant objects. This gives a homotopy-theoretic version of the classical identification of covering spaces with locally constant sheaves. We also prove a new version of the classical result that spaces parametrized over X are equivalent to spaces with an action of the loop space of X. This giv...

  14. Europium (III) and americium (III) stability constants with humic acid

    The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Eu(III) and Am(III) complexes with a humic acid extracted from a lake-bottom sediment were measured using a solvent extraction system. The organic extractant was di(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in toluene while the humate aqueous phase had a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M (NaClO4). Aqueous humic acid concentrations were monitored by measuring uv-visible absorbances at approx.= 380 nm. The total carboxylate capacity of the humic acid was determined by direct potentiometric titration to be 3.86 +- 0.03 meq/g. The humic acid displayed typical characteristics of a polyelectrolyte - the apparent pKsub(a), as well as the calculated metal ion stability constants increased as the degree of ionization (α) increased. The binding data required a fit of two stability constants, β1 and β2, such that for Eu, log β1 = 8.86 α + 4.39, log β2 = 3.55 α + 11.06 while for Am, log β1 = 10.58 α + 3.84, log β2 = 5.32 α + 10.42. With hydroxide, carbonate, and humate as competing ligands, the humate complex associated with the β1 constant is calculated to be the dominant species for the trivalent actinides and lanthanides under conditions present in natural waters. (orig.)

  15. RNA structure and scalar coupling constants

    Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.

  16. Tunneling for Dirac Fermions in Constant Magnetic Field

    Choubabi, El Bouazzaoui; Bouziani, Mohamed El; Jellal, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The tunneling effect of two-dimensional Dirac fermions in a constant magnetic field is studied. This can be done by using the continuity equation at some points to determine the corresponding reflexion and transmission coefficients. For this, we consider a system made of graphene as superposition of two different regions where the second is characterized by an energy gap t'. In fact, we treat concrete systems to practically give two illustrations: barrier and diode. For each case, we discuss ...

  17. Are the Truly Constant Constants of Nature? How is the Real Material Space and its Structure?

    In a concise and simplified way, some matters of authors' theories -Unified Theory of the Physical and Mathematical Universal Constants and Quantum Cellular Structural Geometry-, an only one theoretical main body MN2. This investigation has as objective the search of the last cells that base the existence, unicity and harmony of matter, as well as its structural-formal and dynamic-functional diversity. The quantitative hypothesis is demonstrated that 'World is one, is one; but it is one Arithmetic-Geometric-Topological-Dimensional and Structural-Cellular-Dynamic one, simultaneously'. In the Frontiers of Fundamental Physics such last cells are the cells of own Real Material Space of whose whole accretion, interactive and staggered all the existing one at all the hierarchic levels arises, cells these below which make no sense to speak of structure and, therefore, of existence. The cells of the Real Material Space are its 'Atoms'. Law of Planetary Systems or '4th Kepler's Law'

  18. The cosmological constant: a lesson from Bose-Einstein condensates

    Finazzi, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    The cosmological constant is one of the most pressing problems in modern physics. In this Letter, we address the issue of its nature and computation using an analogue gravity standpoint as a toy model for an emergent gravity scenario. Even if it is well known that phonons in some condense matter systems propagate like a quantum field on a curved spacetime, only recently it has been shown that the dynamics of the analogue metric in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a Poisson-like equation with a vacuum source term reminiscent of a cosmological constant. Here we directly compute this term and confront it with the other energy scales of the system. On the gravity side of the analogy, this model suggests that in emergent gravity scenarios it is natural for the cosmological constant to be much smaller than its naif value computed as the zero-point energy of the emergent effective field theory. The striking outcome of our investigation is that the value of this constant cannot be easily predicted by ju...

  19. Dynamic analysis of the CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle

    The basic SAR (solar-driven adsorption refrigeration) machine is an intermittent cold production system. Recently, the CO-SAR (continuous operation solar-powered adsorption refrigeration) system is developed. The CO-SAR machine is based on the theoretical CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle in which the adsorption process takes place at a constant temperature that equals the ambient temperature. Practically, there should be a temperature gradient between the adsorption bed and the surrounding atmosphere to provide a driving potential for heat transfer. In the present study, the dynamic analysis of the CTAR cycle is developed. This analysis provides a comparison between the theoretical and the dynamic operation of the CTAR cycle. The developed dynamic model is based on the D-A adsorption equilibrium equation and the energy and mass balances in the adsorption reactor. Results obtained from the present work demonstrate that, the idealization of the constant temperature adsorption process in the theoretical CTAR cycle is not far from the real situation and can be approached. Furthermore, enhancing the heat transfer between the adsorption bed and the ambient during the bed pre-cooling process helps accelerating the heat rejection process from the adsorption reactor and therefore approaching the isothermal process. - Highlights: • The dynamic analysis of the CTAR (constant temperature adsorption refrigeration) cycle is developed. • The CTAR theoretical and dynamic cycles are compared. • The dynamic cycle approaches the ideal one by enhancing the bed precooling

  20. Estimation of Stability Constants of Complex Compounds

    Raos, N.

    Full Text Available The stability constant of a complex generally depends on the electronic, stereochemical and steric factors, as well as on the chelate effect and interaction of the complex, metal and ligand with water. In the first part of the paper we discuss the Irving-Williams order of stability of bivalent transition metal ion complexes from Mn2+ to Zn2+, along with the HSAB model (hard and soft acids and bases of stability. The second part describes three kinds of models for the estimation of the stability constants of complex compounds. First are those based on molecular mechanics, which were used mainly for the estimation of the enantioselectivity effect, i. e. Gibbs energy differences between MLL and MDL isomers. The second kind of models are mechanistic, that rest on the presumption of linear dependence of measured stability constants of the complexes with the same ligand (stability constants of mono- and bis-complexes, protonation constants, etc.. The third kind of models are heuristic (QSPR, which encompass molecular descriptors calculated by the method of overlapping spheres (OS, as well as topological indices. Among the variety of topological indices, connectivity indices proved best. They were calculated for the ligand and various representations of the coordination compound structure.

  1. Environment-Dependent Fundamental Physical Constants

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    2012-01-01

    A theory of special inconstancy, in which some fundamental physical constants such as the fine-structure and gravitational constants may vary, is proposed in pregeometry. In the special theory of inconstancy, the \\alpha-G relation of \\alpha=3\\pi/[16ln(4\\pi/5GM_W^2)] between the varying fine-structure and gravitaional constants (where M_W is the charged weak boson mass) is derived from the hypothesis that both of these constants are related to the same fundamental length scale in nature. Furthermore, it leads to the prediction of dot{{\\alpha}}/\\alpha=(-0.8\\pm2.5)\\times10^{-14}yr^{-1} from the most precise limit of dot{G}/G=(-0.6\\pm2.0)\\times10^{-12}yr^{-1} by Thorsett, which is not only consistent with the recent observation of dot{{\\alpha}}/\\alpha=(0.5\\pm0.5)\\times10^{-14}yr^{-1} by Webb et al. but also feasible for future experimental tests. Also a theory of general inconstancy, in which any fundamental physical constants may vary, is proposed in "more general relativity", by assuming that the space-time is ...

  2. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten;

    1994-01-01

    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...... experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...

  3. The case for the cosmological constant

    Varun Sahni

    2000-07-01

    I present a short overview of current observational results and theoretical models for a cosmological constant. The main motivation for invoking a small cosmological constant (or -term) at the present epoch has to do with observations of high redshift Type Ia supernovae which suggest an accelerating universe. A flat accelerating universe is strongly favoured by combining supernovae observations with observations of CMB anisotropies on degree scales which give the `best-fit’ values ≃ 0.7 and m ≃ 0.3. A time dependent cosmological -term can be generated by scalar field models with exponential and power law potentials. Some of these models can alleviate the `fine tuning’ problem which faces the cosmological constant.

  4. Bounds on Gromov Hyperbolicity Constant in Graphs

    José M Rodríguez; José M Sigarreta

    2012-02-01

    If is a geodesic metric space and 1,2,3 $\\in$ , a geodesic triangle ={1,2,3} is the union of the three geodesics [1,2], [2,3] and [31] in . The space is -hyperbolic (in the Gromov sense) if any side of is contained in a -neighborhood of the union of two other sides, for every geodesic triangle in . If is hyperbolic, we denote by () the sharp hyperbolicity constant of , i.e. ()=$inf{$≥ 0$ : is -hyperbolic}. In this paper we relate the hyperbolicity constant of a graph with some known parameters of the graph, as its independence number, its maximum and minimum degree and its domination number. Furthermore, we compute explicitly the hyperbolicity constant of some class of product graphs.

  5. Gravitational Interactions and Fine-Structure Constant

    Jentschura, U D; Nandori, I

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic and gravitational central-field problems are studied with relativistic quantum mechanics on curved space-time backgrounds. Corrections to the transition current are identified. Analogies of the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra suggest the definition of a gravitational fine-structure constant. The electromagnetic and gravitational coupling constants enter the Einstein-Hilbert-Maxwell Lagrangian. We postulate that the variational principle holds with regard to a global dilation transformation of the space-time coordinates. The variation suggests is consistent with a functional relationship of the form alpha_QED being proportional to alpha_G^(1/2), where alpha_QED is the electrodynamic fine-structure constant, and alpha_G its gravitational analogue.

  6. Conformally invariant braneworld and the cosmological constant

    A six-dimensional braneworld scenario based on a model describing the interaction of gravity, gauge fields and 3+1 branes in a conformally invariant way is described. The action of the model is defined using a measure of integration built of degrees of freedom independent of the metric. There is no need to fine tune any bulk cosmological constant or the tension of the two (in the scenario described here) parallel branes to obtain zero cosmological constant, the only solutions are those with zero 4D cosmological constant. The two extra dimensions are compactified in a 'football' fashion and the branes lie on the two opposite poles of the compact 'football-shaped' sphere

  7. Coulomb field in a constant electromagnetic background

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear Maxwell equations are written up to the third-power deviations from a constant-field background, valid within any local nonlinear electrodynamics including QED with Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian. Linear electric response to imposed static finite-sized charge is found in the vacuum filled by an arbitrary combination of constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields. The modified Coulomb field, corrections to the total charge and to the charge density are given in terms of derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants.

  8. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  9. Black Hole Constraints on Varying Fundamental Constants

    We apply the generalized second law of thermodynamics and derive upper limits on the variation in the fundamental constants. The maximum variation in the electronic charge permitted for black holes accreting and emitting in the present cosmic microwave background corresponds to a variation in the fine-structure constant of Δα/α≅2x10-23 per second. This value matches the variation measured by Webb et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 884 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 091301 (2001)] using absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars and suggests the variation mechanism may be a coupling between the electron and the cosmic photon background

  10. The Cosmological Constant Problem (2/2)

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  11. The Cosmological Constant Problem (1/2)

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  12. Optimizing constant wavelength neutron powder diffractometers

    Cussen, Leo D.

    2016-06-01

    This article describes an analytic method to optimize constant wavelength neutron powder diffractometers. It recasts the accepted mathematical description of resolution and intensity in terms of new variables and includes terms for vertical divergence, wavelength and some sample scattering effects. An undetermined multiplier method is applied to the revised equations to minimize the RMS value of resolution width at constant intensity and fixed wavelength. A new understanding of primary spectrometer transmission (presented elsewhere) can then be applied to choose beam elements to deliver an optimum instrument. Numerical methods can then be applied to choose the best wavelength.

  13. Stringy mechanism for a small cosmological constant

    Based on the probability distributions of products of random variables, we propose a simple stringy mechanism that prefers the meta-stable vacua with a small cosmological constant. We state some relevant properties of the probability distributions of functions of random variables. We then illustrate the mechanism within the flux compactification models in Type IIB string theory. As a result of the stringy dynamics, we argue that the generic probability distribution for the meta-stable vacua typically peaks with a divergent behavior at the zero value of the cosmological constant. However, its suppression in the single modulus model studied here is modest

  14. Hermite's Constant for Quadratic Number Fields

    Baeza, Ricardo; Coulangeon, Renaud; Icaza, Maria Ines; O'Ryan, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    We develop a method to compute the Hermite-Humbert constants $\\gam_{K,n}$ of a real quadratic number field $K$, the analogue of the classical Hermite constant $\\gam_n$ when $\\funnyQ$ is replaced by a quadratic extension. In the case $n=2$, the problem is equivalent to the determination of lowest points of fundamental domains in $\\H^2$ for the Hilbert modular group over $K$, that had been studied experimentally by H. Cohn. We establish the results he conjectured for the...

  15. Analytical potential energy functions and theoretical spectroscopic constants for MX/MX- (M dbond Ge, Sn, Pb; X dbond O, S, Se, Te, Po) and LuA (A dbond H, F) systems: Density functional theory calculations

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Li, Xin-Hua; Abou-Rachid, Hakima

    The molecular spectroscopic constants for the chalcogenide complexes MX (M dbond Ge, Sn, Pb; X dbond O, S, Se, Te, Po) and their corresponding MX- anions are presented with the LSDA/SDD, B1LYP/SDD, and B3LYP/SDD methods. Although many methods were attempted, only the most promising results are reported. We show that the best results are obtained by LSDA/SDD calculations, and thus this method is emphasized as an illustrative example of our methodology. The potential energy curves and physical property characterizations for X1 ?+ state of LuH and LuF are presented with a variety of density functional theory (DFT) methods. Comparisons with wave function-based treatments (HF, MP2, CCSD, QCISD) are made in addition to experimental correlations. We show that the best results are obtained by the B3LYP/SDD method for LuH, and the MPW1PW91/SDD method for LuF.

  16. Lattice Theta Constants vs Riemann Theta Constants and NSR Superstring Measures

    Dunin-Barkowski, P; Sleptsov, A

    2009-01-01

    We discuss relations between two different representations of hypothetical holomorphic NSR measures, based on two different ways of constructing the semi-modular forms of weight 8. One of these ways is to build forms from the ordinary Riemann theta constants and another -- from the lattice theta constants. We discuss unexpectedly elegant relations between lattice theta constants, corresponding to 16-dimensional self-dual lattices, and Riemann theta constants and present explicit formulae expressing the former ones through the latter. Starting from genus 5 the modular-form approach to construction of NSR measures is clearly sick and it seems to fail completely already at genus 6.

  17. New concepts in constant wavelength neutron powder diffractometry

    Complete text of publication follows. Neutron powder diffraction is an important tool in the determination of atomic structures of materials. It has become increasingly important to improve the current constant wavelength powder diffractometers to handle the increasing demand. Where once a single diffraction pattern of a 10 gram sample was the entire experiment, today the demand is for experiments using smaller samples in multiple environments (temperature, pressure, magnetic field,...). A new type of constant wavelength diffractometer is proposed using position sensitive detectors (PSD) and advanced collimators. The PSD's allow a larger out-of-scattering plane area to be collected while still affording good peak shapes; hence good resolution at increased collection rates can be obtained. With miniaturisation of many of the detector electronics, the entire system could be affordable and compact. A system of 360 x 40 cm long PSD's is envisaged. This increased density (over the typically 64 detectors) is made possible by use of new advances in neutron collimation. (author)

  18. A Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for Reordering Buffer Management

    Avigdor-Elgrabli, Noa

    2012-01-01

    In the reordering buffer management problem (RBM) a sequence of $n$ colored items enters a buffer with limited capacity $k$. When the buffer is full, one item is removed to the output sequence, making room for the next input item. This step is repeated until the input sequence is exhausted and the buffer is empty. The objective is to find a sequence of removals that minimizes the total number of color changes in the output sequence. The problem formalizes numerous applications in computer and production systems, and is known to be NP-hard. We give the first constant factor approximation guarantee for RBM. Our algorithm is based on an intricate "rounding" of the solution to an LP relaxation for RBM, so it also establishes a constant upper bound on the integrality gap of this relaxation. Our results improve upon the best previous bound of $O(\\sqrt{\\log k})$ of Adamaszek et al. (STOC 2011) that used different methods and gave an online algorithm. Our constant factor approximation beats the super-constant lower b...

  19. The Alpha Constant from Relativistic Groups

    González-Martin, G R

    2000-01-01

    The value of the alpha constant, known to be equal to an algebraic expression in terms of pi and entire numbers related to certain group volumes, is derived from the relativistic structure group of a geometric unified theory, its subgroups and corresponding symmetric space quotients.

  20. Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ = 0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.

  1. Damping constant estimation in magnetoresistive readers

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej, E-mail: Andrzej.Stankiewicz@seagate.com; Hernandez, Stephanie [Recording Heads Group, Seagate Technology, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The damping constant is a key design parameter in magnetic reader design. Its value can be derived from bulk or sheet film ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width. However, dynamics of nanodevices is usually defined by presence of non-uniform modes. It triggers new damping mechanisms and produces stronger damping than expected from traditional FMR. This work proposes a device-level technique for damping evaluation, based on time-domain analysis of thermally excited stochastic oscillations. The signal is collected using a high bandwidth oscilloscope, by direct probing of a biased reader. Recorded waveforms may contain different noise signals, but free layer FMR is usually a dominating one. The autocorrelation function is a reflection of the damped oscillation curve, averaging out stochastic contributions. The damped oscillator formula is fitted to autocorrelation data, producing resonance frequency and damping constant values. Restricting lag range allows for mitigation of the impact of other phenomena (e.g., reader instability) on the damping constant. For a micromagnetically modeled reader, the technique proves to be much more accurate than the stochastic FMR line width approach. Application to actual reader waveforms yields a damping constant of ∼0.03.

  2. Varying Constants: Constraints from Seasonal Variations

    Shaw, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the constraints obtained from new atomic clock data on the possible time variation of the fine structure `constant' and the electron-proton mass ratio and show how they are strengthened when the seasonal variation of Sun's gravitational field at the Earth's surface is taken into account.

  3. Teaching Nanochemistry: Madelung Constants of Nanocrystals

    Baker, Mark D.; Baker, A. David

    2010-01-01

    The Madelung constants for binary ionic nanoparticles are determined. The computational method described here sums the Coulombic interactions of each ion in the particle without the use of partial charges commonly used for bulk materials. The results show size-dependent lattice energies. This is a useful concept in teaching how properties such as…

  4. Pion decay constants in dense skyrmion matter

    Lee H.-J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the QCD, the hadronic matter can have various phases with matter density and temperature. In general, when there is phase transition in a matter, it is known that a symmetry in the matter changes. In case of the hadronic matter, the chiral symmetry in the matter is expected to be restored when the matter density (or temperature increases. The actual order parameter with respect to the chiral symmetry in the hadronic matter is known as the quark condensate from the QCD, but the pion decay constant, corresponding to the radius of the chiral circle, plays the role of the order parameter in an effective field theoretical approach to the QCD. In this paper, by using the skyrmion model which is an effective theory to the QCD, we construct the skyrmion matter as a model of the hadronic matter (nuclear matter and calculate the pion decay constant in the matter. Because of presence of the matter, the pion decay constant is split into the two components, the temporal component and the spatial component. We discuss the phase transition in the skyrmion matter and behavior of the two components of the decay constant for massless pion with density of the skyrmion matter.

  5. Monopoly price discrimination with constant elasticity demand

    Aguirre Pérez, Iñaki; Cowan, Simon George

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents new results on the welfare e¤ects of third-degree price discrimination under constant elasticity demand. We show that when both the share of the strong market under uniform pricing and the elasticity di¤erence between markets are high enough,then price discrimination not only can increase social welfare but also consumer surplus.

  6. A combined value of the Hubble constant

    We combine measurements of the Hubble constant in M100, M96, NGC 5253 and IC 4182 including the correction due to the metallicity dependence of the period-luminosity relation of Cepheids, as determined by Beaulieu et al. and Sasselov et al. We pay special attention to error correlations

  7. GPS test of the local position invariance of Planck's constant

    Kentosh, James

    2012-01-01

    Publicly available clock correction data from the Global Positioning System was analyzed and used in combination with the results of terrestrial clock comparison experiments to confirm the local position invariance (LPI) of Planck's constant within the context of general relativity. The results indicate that h is invariant within a limit of |beta_h|<0.007, where beta_h is a dimensionless parameter that represents the extent of LPI violation.

  8. Atomic fine structure in a space of constant curvature

    Bessis, N.; Bessis, G.; Shamseddine, R. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1982-10-01

    As a contribution to a tentative formulation of atomic physics in a curved space, the determination of atomic fine structure energies in a space of constant curvature is investigated. Starting from the Dirac equation in a curved space-time, the analogue of the Pauli equation in a general coordinate system is derived. The theoretical curvature induced shifts and splittings of the fine structure energy levels are put in evidence and examined for the particular case of the hydrogenic n=2 levels.

  9. Atomic fine structure in a space of constant curvature

    As a contribution to a tentative formulation of atomic physics in a curved space, the determination of atomic fine structure energies in a space of constant curvature is investigated. Starting from the Dirac equation in a curved space-time, the analogue of the Pauli equation in a general coordinate system is derived. The theoretical curvature induced shifts and splittings of the fine structure energy levels are put in evidence and examined for the particular case of the hydrogenic n=2 levels. (author)

  10. Bouncing models with a cosmological constant

    Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pereira, Stella; Siffert, Beatriz [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Bouncing models have been proposed by many authors as a complementation, or even as an alternative to inflation for the description of the very early and dense Universe. However, most bouncing models contain a contracting phase from a very large and rarefied state, where dark energy might have had an important role as it has today in accelerating our large Universe. In that case, its presence can modify substantially the initial conditions and evolution of cosmological perturbations, changing the known results already obtained in the literature concerning their amplitude and spectrum. In this paper, we assume the simplest and most appealing candidate for dark energy, the cosmological constant, and evaluate its influence on the evolution of cosmological perturbations during the contracting phase of a bouncing model, which also contains a perfect fluid with constant equation of state parameter w. We show that the spectrum and the amplitude of the perturbations are substantially altered by the presence of a cosmological constant with value tuned to give the present acceleration of the Universe. In this case, one needs the presence of a stiff matter fluid in the contracting phase, which can be modelled by a scalar field with kinetic energy much greater than its potential energy, very plausible in this situation, in order to have a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations in the expanding phase, contrary to the case without a cosmological constant, where a dust fluid is required. The difference resides on the vacuum state choice we have to make when a cosmological constant is present. (author)

  11. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems.

    Ortuño, M; Somoza, A M; Vinokur, V M; Baturina, T I

    2015-01-01

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials. PMID:25860804

  12. Thermal shape fluctuations in hot rotating nuclei: Comparison of constant energy constraint and constant temperature constraint

    Statistical shape fluctuations can be calculated with two alternative assumptions: (a) the temperature remains constant as the shape fluctuates, or (b) the energy remains constant as the shape fluctuates. These two possibilities are compared for a simple model, the Landau theory, and the finite-temperature HFB cranking theory. Average electric quadrupole moments are compared for these two constraints. (orig.)

  13. Constant pH replica exchange molecular dynamics in biomolecules using a discrete protonation model

    Meng, Yilin; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2010-01-01

    A constant pH replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) method is proposed and implemented to improve coupled protonation and conformational state sampling. By mixing conformational sampling at constant pH (with discrete protonation states) with a temperature ladder, this method avoids conformational trapping. Our method was tested and applied to seven different biological systems. The constant pH REMD not only predicted pKa correctly for small, model compounds but also converged faster than...

  14. The Hubble constant from galaxy lenses: impacts of triaxiality and model degeneracies

    Corless, Virginia L.; Dobke, Benjamin M.; King, Lindsay J.

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble constant can be constrained using the time delays between multiple images of gravitationally lensed sources. In some notable cases, typical lensing analyses assuming isothermal galaxy density profiles produce low values for the Hubble constant, inconsistent with the result of the HST Key Project (72 +- 8 km/s/Mpc). Possible systematics in the values of the Hubble constant derived from galaxy lensing systems can result from a number of factors, e.g. neglect of environmental effects,...

  15. Frequency Dependence of Attenuation Constant of Dielectric Materials

    A. S. Zadgaonkar

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dielectric materials have been studied for frequency dependence of attenuation constant. The sensitive cathode ray oscillograph method has been used to evaluate to the dielectric constant and loss factor, and from these attenuation constants have been calculated. The temperature remaining constant, a regular increase has been observed in attenuation constant, at higher frequencies of electro-magnetic propagating wave.

  16. Dielectric Constant Measurements for Characterizing Lunar Soils

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buehler, M.; Seshadri, S.; Kuhlman, G.; Schaap, M.

    2005-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using fast, reliable in-situ methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils can be very difficult because of the many complex parameters that influence the measurements. In particular, soil electrical property measurements are influenced by temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. Determining the dielectric constant of lunar materials may be very important in providing quick characterization of surface deposits, especially for the Moon. A close examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that the rocks and soils on the Moon are dominated by silicates and oxides. In this presentation, we will show that determining the dielectric constant measurements can provide a simple, quick detection method for minerals that contain titanium, iron, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  17. Molecular dynamics at constant temperature and pressure

    Toxvaerd, S.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms for molecular dynamics (MD) at constant temperature and pressure are investigated. The ability to remain in a regular orbit in an intermittent chaotic regime is used as a criterion for long-time stability. A simple time-centered algorithm (leap frog) is found to be the most stable of the commonly used algorithms in MD. A model of N one-dimensional dimers with a double-well intermolecular potential, for which the distribution functions at constant temperature T and pressure P can be calculated, is used to investigate MD-NPT dynamics. A time-centered NPT algorithm is found to sample correctly and to be very robust with respect to volume scaling.

  18. The Value of the Cosmological Constant

    Barrow, John D

    2011-01-01

    We make the cosmological constant, {\\Lambda}, into a field and restrict the variations of the action with respect to it by causality. This creates an additional Einstein constraint equation. It restricts the solutions of the standard Einstein equations and is the requirement that the cosmological wave function possess a classical limit. When applied to the Friedmann metric it requires that the cosmological constant measured today, t_{U}, be {\\Lambda} ~ t_{U}^(-2) ~ 10^(-122), as observed. This is the classical value of {\\Lambda} that dominates the wave function of the universe. Our new field equation determines {\\Lambda} in terms of other astronomically measurable quantities. Specifically, it predicts that the spatial curvature parameter of the universe is {\\Omega}_{k0} \\equiv -k/a_(0)^(2)H^2= -0.0055, which will be tested by Planck Satellite data. Our theory also creates a new picture of self-consistent quantum cosmological history.

  19. Regular Black Holes with Cosmological Constant

    MO Wen-Juan; CAI Rong-Gen; SU Ru-Keng

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of regular black holes with cosmological constant Λ in nonlinear electrodynamics. Instead of usual singularity behind black hole horizon, all fields and curvature invariants are regular everywhere for the regular black holes. Through gauge invariant approach, the linearly dynamical stability of the regular black hole is studied. In odd-parity sector, we find that the Λ term does not appear in the master equations of perturbations, which shows that the regular black hole is stable under odd-parity perturbations. On the other hand, for the even-parity sector, the master equations are more complicated than the case without the cosmological constant. We obtain the sufficient conditions for stability of the regular black hole. We also investigate the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole, and find that those thermodynamic quantities do not satisfy the differential form of first law of black hole thermodynamics. The reason for violating the first law is revealed.

  20. Incompressible flows with piecewise constant density

    Danchin, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with variable density. The aim is to prove existence and uniqueness results in the case of discontinuous ini- tial density. In dimension n = 2, 3, assuming only that the initial density is bounded and bounded away from zero, and that the initial velocity is smooth enough, we get the local-in-time existence of unique solutions. Uniqueness holds in any dimension and for a wider class of velocity fields. Let us emphasize that all those results are true for piecewise constant densities with arbitrarily large jumps. Global results are established in dimension two if the density is close enough to a positive constant, and in n-dimension if, in addition, the initial velocity is small. The Lagrangian formula- tion for describing the flow plays a key role in the analysis that is proposed in the present paper.

  1. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    Anderson, O.A.

    1988-07-13

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90/degree/ intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The fine structure constant and numerical alchemy

    Dattoli, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    We comment on past and more recent efforts to derive a formula yielding the fine structure constant in terms of integers and transcendent numbers. We analyse these "exoteric" attitudes and describe the myths regarding {\\alpha}, which seems to have very ancient roots, tracing back to Cabbala and to medieval alchemic conceptions. We discuss the obsession for this constant developed by Pauli and the cultural "environment" in which such an "obsession" grew. We also derive a simple formula for {\\alpha} in terms of two numbers {\\pi} and 137 only. The formula we propose reproduces the experimental values up to the last significant digit, it has not any physical motivation and is the result of an alchemic combination of numbers. We make a comparison with other existing formulae, discuss the relevant limits of validity by comparison with the experimental values and discuss a criterion to recover a physical meaning, if existing, from their mathematical properties.

  3. Cylindrical wormholes with positive cosmological constant

    Richarte, Mart'\\in G

    2013-01-01

    We construct cylindrical, traversable wormholes with finite radii by taking into account the cut-and-paste procedure for the case of cosmic string manifolds with a positive cosmological constant. Under reasonable assumptions about the equation of state of the matter located at the shell, we find that the wormhole throat undergoes a monotonous evolution provided it moves at a constant velocity. In order to explore the dynamical nonlinear behaviour of the wormhole throat, we consider that the matter at the shell is supported by anisotropic Chaplygin gas, anti-Chaplygin gas, or a mixed of Chaplygin and anti-Chaplygin gases implying that wormholes could suffer an accelerated expansion or contraction but the oscillatory behavior seems to be forbidden.

  4. Quantum Exclusion of Positive Cosmological Constant?

    Dvali, Gia

    2014-01-01

    We show that a positive cosmological constant is incompatible with the quantum-corpuscular resolution of de Sitter metric in form of a coherent state. The reason is very general and is due to the quantum self-destruction of the coherent state because of the scattering of constituent graviton quanta. This process creates an irreversible quantum clock, which precludes eternal de Sitter. It also eliminates the possibility of Boltzmann brains and Poincare recurrences. This effect is expected to be part of any microscopic theory that takes into account the quantum corpuscular structure of the cosmological background. This observation puts the cosmological constant problem in a very different light, promoting it, from a naturalness problem, into a question of quantum consistency. We are learning that quantum gravity cannot tolerate exceedingly-classical sources.

  5. Varying fine-structure and gravitational constants

    A simple relation between the time-dependent fine-structure and gravitational constants of alpha/alpha2 approx G/G is derived from the hypothesis that both of these fundamental constants are related to the more fundamental length scale of nature as in he unified pregauge and pregeometric theory of all fundamental forces. From the latest observation of alpha/alpha = (-1.91 ± 0.54) centre dot 10-15yr-1 by Webb et al., it leads to the prediction of G/G = (-0.154 ± 0.044) centre dot 10-12yr-1, which is not only consistent with the most precise limit of G/G = (-0.6 ± 2.0) centre dot 10-12yr-1 by Thorsett but also feasible for future experimental tests

  6. Lectures on the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Padilla, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    These lectures on the cosmological constant problem were prepared for the X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. The problem itself is explained in detail, emphasising the importance of radiative instability and the need to repeatedly fine tune as we change our effective description. Weinberg's no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  7. Cosmic concordance and the fine structure constant

    Recent measurements of a peak in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background suggest that the geometry of the universe is close to flat. But if other accepted indicators of cosmological parameters are also correct then the best fit model is marginally closed, with the peak in the spectrum at slightly larger scales than in a flat universe. If these observations persevere, one way they might be reconciled with a flat universe is if the fine structure constant had a lower value at earlier times, which would delay the recombination of electrons and protons and also act to suppress secondary oscillations as observed. We discuss evidence for a few percent increase in the fine structure constant between the time of recombination and the present

  8. Cosmological Constant or Variable Dark Energy?

    XU Li-Xin; ZHANG Cheng-Wu; LIU Hong-Ya

    2007-01-01

    @@ Selection statics of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) model and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)model are applied to the Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model, the constant equation of state of dark energy, w =constant, and the parametrized equation of state of dark energy, w(z) = w0 + w1z/(1 + z),to determine which one is the better cosmological model to describe the evolution of the universe by combining the recent cosmic observational data including Sne Ia, the size of baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak from SDSS, the three-year WMAP CMB shift parameter. The results show that AIC, BIC and current datasets are not powerful enough to discriminate one model from the others, though odds suggest differences between them.

  9. Curvature induced running of the cosmological constant

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate the renormalization group flow of the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ induced by the change in space-time curvature in the electroweak vacuum. We calculate the generic magnitude resulting from running in the standard model in a subtraction scheme that respects the Appelquist-Carazzone decoupling theorem. Interestingly, we find in this prescription that for a non-minimal coupling $\\xi\\lesssim 10^4$ the magnitude of the generated contribution remains below the value consistent with observations.

  10. String coupling constant seems to be 1

    Yoon, Youngsub

    2016-01-01

    We present a reasoning that the string coupling constant should be 1 from the assumption that the area spectrum derived from loop quantum gravity must be equal to the area spectrum calculated from "stringy differential geometry." To this end, we will use the loop quantum gravity area spectrum constructions proposed by Brian Kong and us, and stringy differential geometry based on double field theory recently proposed by Imtak Jeon, Kanghoon Lee and Jeong-Hyuck Park.

  11. Light Dragging, the Origin of Hubble's Constant

    Christensen Jr, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently E. Harrison has argued the Red Shift distance law proposed by Hubble and velocity-distance law developed later on theoretical grounds has no general proof demonstrating the two laws are actually equivalent. It is the purpose of this paper to account for the nebular redshift law of Hubble based on two principles: 1) Spacetime motion and light dragging. 2) An overall spacetime index of refraction based on Hubble's Constant.

  12. Constant fraction timing with scintillation detectors

    A model is presented for constant fraction pick-off timing with scintillator-photomultiplier detectors based on a statistical method for leading edge timing. Many of the essential features of this technique are obtained such as prompt time-response, the dependence of FWHM on dynamic range of pulse heights and on maximum energy deposited in scintillator; also the effect of delay time on the optimum resolution in CFPHT and ARC timing. The Walk component in this technique is also satisfactory reproduced

  13. Standard-model coupling constants from compositeness

    Besprosvany, J.

    2003-01-01

    A coupling-constant definition is given based on the compositeness property of some particle states with respect to the elementary states of other particles. It is applied in the context of the vector-spin-1/2-particle interaction vertices of a field theory, and the standard model. The definition reproduces Weinberg's angle in a grand-unified theory. One obtains coupling values close to the experimental ones for appropriate configurations of the standard-model vector particles, at the unifica...

  14. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, $\\Lambda = \\sigma H + \\Lambda_0$, in which the $\\Lambda$CDM limit is recovered by taking $\\sigma=0$. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lema\\"itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current ob...

  15. Chiral Heterotic Strings with Positive Cosmological Constant

    Florakis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit examples of semi-realistic heterotic models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry, which dynamically lead to breaking scales much smaller than $M_{\\rm Planck}$ and exponentially small positive values for the cosmological constant. Contrary to field theoretic intuition, we find that the global structure of the effective potential is significantly affected by contributions of massive and non-level matched string states and we investigate the conditions that dynamically ensure a number of desired properties.

  16. Some constant solutions to Zamolodchikov's tetrahedron equations

    Hietarinta, Jarmo

    1992-01-01

    In this letter we present constant solutions to the tetrahedron equations proposed by Zamolodchikov. In general, from a given solution of the Yang-Baxter equation there are two ways to construct solutions to the tetrahedron equation. There are also other kinds of solutions. We present some two-dimensional solutions that were obtained by directly solving the equations using either an upper triangular or Zamolodchikov's ansatz.

  17. Comoving suppression mechanism and cosmological constant problem

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that the observer is fixed in a comoving frame of reference with $g_{00}=\\frac{\\lambda}{\\Lambda}$, where $\\lambda$ and $\\Lambda$ denote the comoving parameter and the cosmological constant, respectively. By using the {\\it comoving suppression mechanism} and {\\it Mach's principle} (the latter of which is used to determine the comoving parameter $\\lambda$), we calculate the vacuum energy density of quantum fluctuation field in the above-mentioned comoving frame of refer...

  18. Fundamental Constants as Monitors of the Universe

    Thompson, Rodger I

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical observations have a unique ability to determine the laws of physics at distant times in the universe. They, therefore, have particular relevance in answering the basic question as to whether the laws of physics are invariant with time. The dimesionless fundamental constants, such as the proton to electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant are key elements in the investigation. If they vary with time then the answer is clearly that the laws of physics are not invariant with time and significant new physics must be developed to describe the universe. Limits on their variance, on the other hand, constrains the parameter space available to new physics that requires a variation with time of basic physical law. There are now observational constraints on the time variation of the proton to electron mass ratio mu at the 1.E-7 level. Constraints on the variation of the fine structure constant alpha are less rigorous, 1E-5, but are imposed at higher redshift. The implications of these limits on ne...

  19. Which Fundamental Constants for CMB and BAO?

    Rich, James

    2015-01-01

    We study the Cosmic Microwave Background using the three-scale framework of Hu et al. to derive the dependence of the CMB temperature anisotropy spectrum on the fundamental constants. We show that, as expected, the observed spectrum depends only on \\emph{dimensionless} combinations of the constants, and we emphasize the points that make this generally true for cosmological observations. Our analysis suggests that the CMB spectrum shape is mostly determined by $\\alpha^2m_e/m_p$ and the proton-CDM-particle mass ratio, $m_p/\\mchi$, with a sub-dominant dependence on $(G\\mchi m_e/\\hbar c)\\alpha^\\beta$ with $\\beta\\sim -7$. The distance to the last-scattering surface depends on $Gm_p\\mchi/\\hbar c$, so published CMB observational limits on time variations of the constants, besides making assumptions about the form of the dark-energy, implicitly assume the time-independence of this quantity. On the other hand, low-redshift $H_0$, BAO and large-scale structure data can be combined with the \\emph{shape} of the CMB spect...

  20. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions of Blood Cells

    Mendelson, Kenneth; Ackmann, James

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of suspensions of blood cells have recently been reported by Ackmann, et al.(J. J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). At frequencies below 100 kHz, the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') goes through a maximum at a blood cell volume fraction of about 70%. Effective medium approximations do not agree well with this behavior. As a more realistic model, we are studying the grain consolidation model of Roberts and Schwartz(J. N. Roberts and L. M. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 31), 5990 (1985). We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of this model for a cubic array of spheres. The simulations agree remarkably well with experiment. They suggest, however, that ɛ' may be showing oscillations rather than a simple maximum. Comparison of the simulated and experimental points suggests that this is not an artifact of the periodic array used in the model. Furthermore the simulations indicate that the maximum (or oscillations) disappears at low conductivities of the suspending fluid.

  1. A constant current source for extracellular microiontophoresis.

    Walker, T; Dillman, N; Weiss, M L

    1995-12-01

    A sophisticated constant-current source suitable for extracellular microiontophoresis of tract-tracing substances, such as Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, Biocytin or Fluoro-Gold, is described. This design uses a flyback switched-mode power supply to generate controllable high-voltage and operational amplifier circuitry to regulate current and provide instrumentation. Design features include a fast rise time, +/- 2000 V supply (stable output in current and voltage monitoring, and separate pumping and holding current settings. Three features of this constant-current source make it especially useful for extracellular microiontophoresis. First, the output voltage monitor permits one to follow changes in the microelectrode resistance during current injection. Second, the voltage-limit (or out-of-compliance) indicator circuitry will sound an alarm when the iontophoretic pump is unable to generate the desired current, such as when the micropipette is blocked. Third, the high-compliance voltage power supply insures up to +/- 20 microA of current through 100 M omega resistance. This device has proven itself to be a reliable constant-current source for extracellular microiontophoresis in the laboratory. PMID:8788057

  2. Nonminimal coupling and the cosmological constant problem

    Glavan, Dražen

    2015-01-01

    We consider a universe with a positive effective cosmological constant and a nonminimally coupled scalar field. When the coupling constant is negative, the scalar field exhibits linear growth at asymptotically late times, resulting in a decaying effective cosmological constant. The Hubble rate in the Jordan frame reaches a self-similar solution, $H=1/(\\epsilon t)$, where the principal slow roll parameter $\\epsilon$ depends on $\\xi$, reaching maximally $\\epsilon=2$ (radiation era scaling) in the limit when $\\xi\\rightarrow -\\infty$. Similar results are found in the Einstein frame (E), with $H_E=1/(\\epsilon_E t)$, but now $\\epsilon_E \\rightarrow 4/3$ as $\\xi\\rightarrow -\\infty$. Therefore in the presence of a nonminimally coupled scalar de Sitter is not any more an attractor, but instead (when $\\xi4/3$ at a rate $\\Gamma\\gg H$, the scaling changes to that of matter, $\\epsilon\\rightarrow \\epsilon_m$, and the energy density in the effective cosmological becomes a fixed fraction of the matter energy density, $M_{\\rm...

  3. Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence

    Newell, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

  4. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  5. On recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    Cervino, M; Hidalgo, S

    2016-01-01

    Star Formation Rate (SFR) inferences are based in the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are require to provide a calibration; we aims to study the key points of such approximation to produce accurate SFR inferences. We use the intrinsic algebra used in synthesis models, and we explore how SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underling Star Formation history (SFH). We show that the constant SFR approximation is actually a simplified expression of more deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It is a characterization of the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), acting the SSPs as sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e. about 13Gyr for z=0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not requirements to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a SFR single time scale ove...

  6. Classical degeneracy and the existence of additional constants of motion

    Weigert, S.; Thomas, H. (Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland))

    1993-03-01

    The relation between degeneracy of classical frequencies in integrable systems and additional global constants of motion is investigated from a general point of view. It is shown that in autonomous systems with [ital N] degrees of freedom the existence of [Lambda][lt][ital N] such additional invariants imply [Lambda] global linear relations with commensurate coefficients between the frequencies, and vice versa. Furthermore, such a degeneracy gives rise to a specific structure of the Hamiltonian considered as a function of action variables. The general statements are illustrated by various examples.

  7. Virial theorem and gravitational equilibrium with a cosmological constant

    Nowakowski, Marek; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; García, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the Newtonian limit of Einstein's equations in the presence of a positive cosmological constant, we obtain a new version of the virial theorem and a condition for gravitational equilibrium. Such a condition takes the form ρ > λρvac, where ρ is the mean density of an astrophysical system (e.g. galaxy, galaxy cluster or supercluster), λ is a quantity which depends only on the shape of the system, and ρvac is the vacuum density. We conclude that gravitational stability might be ...

  8. Pole-placement with constant gain output feedback

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Davison (1970) has demonstrated that it is possible to assign max (m, p) poles of a linear time-invariant controllable and observable multivariable system arbitrarily close to desired locations by using constant gain output feedback. A new proof of Davison's theorem on pole placement is developed, and a system design procedure is described which offers some advantages over Davison's method. It is shown that in some cases more than max (m, p) poles can be assigned arbitrarily, and a least square design procedure is proposed to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  9. Was the fine-structure constant variable over cosmological time?

    Cosmological variation of the fine-structure constant (α) dependent on the redshifts of quasars. Using the emission (absorption) systems in the spectra of distant quasars, we investigate the effects of the cosmology variability in the value of the fine-structure constant (α) dependent on the redshifts of quasars during the evolution of Universe. We obtain optical spectra of fine-structure transitions in [Ne-III], [Ne-V], [O-III], [O-I], and [S-II] multiplets from a sample of 14 Seyfert 1.5 galaxies in the low-z range. 0.035 2(t)/α2(0) = (0.999965 ± 0.00005529). (authors)

  10. Sound damping constant for generalized theories of gravity

    The near-horizon metric for a black brane in anti-de Sitter space and the metric near the AdS boundary both exhibit hydrodynamic behavior. We demonstrate the equivalence of this pair of hydrodynamic systems for the sound mode of a conformal theory. This is first established for Einstein's gravity, but we then show how the sound damping constant will be modified from its Einstein form for a generalized theory. The modified damping constant is expressible as the ratio of a pair of gravitational couplings that are indicative of the sound-channel class of gravitons. This ratio of couplings differs from both that of the shear diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity to entropy ratio. Our analysis is mostly limited to conformal theories, but suggestions are made as to how this restriction might eventually be lifted.

  11. CONSTANT LEVERAGE AND CONSTANT COST OF CAPITAL: A COMMON KNOWLEDGE HALF-TRUTH

    IGNACIO VÉLEZ-PAREJA; RAUF IBRAGIMOV; JOSEPH THAM

    2008-01-01

    Un enfoque típico para valorar flujos de caja finitos es suponer que el endeudamiento es constante (generalmente como un endeudamiento objetivo o deseado) y que por tanto, el costo del patrimonio, Ke y el costo promedio ponderado de capital CPPC, también son constantes. Para los flujos de caja perpetuos, y con el costo de la deuda, Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos o escudo fiscal, Ke y el CPPC aplicado al flujo de caja libre FCL son constantes si el endeudamiento es co...

  12. Progress in the accuracy of the fundamental physical constants: 2010 CODATA recommended values

    Karshenboim, S. G.

    2013-09-01

    Every four years, the CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants presents tables of recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. Recently, 2010 CODATA recommended values (Mohr P J, Taylor B N, and Newell D B "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2010" Rev. Mod. Phys. 84 1527 (2012)), based on global data up to 31 December 2010, were published. In the present review, we briefly analyze the new recommended values, as well as new original data, on which the determination is based. To facilitate the consideration, the data are subdivided into several groups. New original theoretical and experimental results are discussed for each group separately. Special attention is paid to experimental and theoretical progress in the determination of the Rydberg constant R_{\\infty}, the electron-proton mass ratio m_{ e}/m_{ p}, the fine-structure constant \\alpha, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k, the Newtonian constant of gravitation G, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon \\alpha_{\\mu}. In conclusion, the prospects of redefining units of the International System (SI) in terms of fundamental physical constants, which is currently under active discussion by the metrological community, are considered. The very possibility and efficiency of a practical realization of such a scenario with the redefinition directly depends on the status of the determination of the fundamental constants.

  13. Competitive kinetics as a tool to determine rate constants for reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by food components

    Jongberg, Sisse; Lund, Marianne Nissen; Pattison, David I.;

    2016-01-01

    . This approach allows determination of apparent rate constants for the oxidation of proteins by haem proteins of relevance to food oxidation and should be applicable to other systems. A similar approach has provided approximate apparent rate constants for the reduction of MbFe(IV)=O by catechin and...

  14. Conditions for the absence of infinite renormalization in masses and coupling constants

    A model of scalar, pseudo-scalar and spin 1/2 particle interaction is studied. After reformulation of the problem in function of auxiliary fields, perturbative calculations up to one loop are developed, finding out certain relations among characteristics constants of system, which assure (until the considered order) the absence of infinite renormalization in masses and coupling constants. (M.C.K.)

  15. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-01-01

    Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant ...

  16. DC Bus Voltage Constant Control Technology in Wind Power System with Dual PWM Converter%风电系统双PWM变换器直流母线电压控制技术

    刘波; 贺志佳; 金昊

    2015-01-01

    双PWM变换器是目前风力发电系统广泛使用的控制电路,其直流母线是实现风电系统能量传输与转换的中间环节,母线电压的稳定与否直接关系到能否实现对机侧和网侧变换器独立控制及整个系统的安全稳定运行,减小直流母线电压波动成为双PWM变换器控制技术的研究热点,并得到了广泛的关注。对风电系统双PWM变换器直流母线电压控制技术进行综述,分析了基于电容电流直接控制、直接功率控制、协调控制及模糊控制等各种控制策略的优缺点,指出了存在的问题、今后的研究重点及发展趋势。%Dual PWM converter control system is widely used in wind power system,the DC bus is the interme-diate link of energy transfer and conversion in wind power system,bus voltage stability is directly related to the realization of the generator side and grid side converter control and the stable operation of the whole system. How to reduce the fluctuation of DC bus voltage has become the research focus of dual PWM converter control technology,and received wide attention. DC bus voltage control technology in wind power system with dual PWM converter was summarized. Analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the direct control based on ca-pacitive current,direct power control,coordination control,fuzzy control and other control strategies. Pointed out the problem in each of control strategies and the research emphases and development trend in the future.

  17. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  18. Temperature corrections for constant temperature and constant current hot-wire anemometers

    Changes in the ambient fluid temperature change the calibration curve for velocity measurements taken using hot-wire anemometry. New correction methods are proposed to account for the effects of relatively large temperature changes in the heat-transfer process and on the fluid properties. The corrections do not assume any particular heat-transfer correlation, and they do not require multiple calibrations over a range of temperatures. The corrections are derived for the constant temperature and constant current modes of operation

  19. New Improved Massive Gravity and Three Dimensional Spacetimes of Constant Curvature and Constant Torsion

    Dereli, T

    2016-01-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space $AdS_3$) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  20. Stability constants and rate constants of intramolecular redox decomposition of cerium(IV) complexes with some polyatomic alcohols

    The complex formation and redox decomposition of several hydroxo complexes that form in the Ce4+ - SO42- - R(OH)m systems, where R(OH)m (m = 3, 5, 6) is glycerol, xylitol, and sorbitol, respectively, were studied spectrophotometrically, pH metrically, and kinetically at the ionic strength I = 2 with the pH of the sulfate background in the range of 1.7-3.4 and temperatures of 20.0-23.0 deg C. The stability constants of the [CeOHHxL]3-x (L = R(OH)m) complexes, the ligand speciation, and the rate constants of the intramolecular redox decomposition of the complexes were determined in the sulfate background. The apparent stabilization of the +4 oxidation state of cerium in the specified complexes is demonstrated

  1. Effects of spin-lock field direction on the quantitative measurement of spin-lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame (T1ρ) in a clinical MRI system

    Purpose: To investigate whether the direction of spin-lock field, either parallel or antiparallel to the rotating magnetization, has any effect on the spin-lock MRI signal and further on the quantitative measurement of T1ρ, in a clinical 3 T MRI system. Methods: The effects of inverted spin-lock field direction were investigated by acquiring a series of spin-lock MRI signals for an American College of Radiology MRI phantom, while the spin-lock field direction was switched between the parallel and antiparallel directions. The acquisition was performed for different spin-locking methods (i.e., for the single- and dual-field spin-locking methods) and for different levels of clinically feasible spin-lock field strength, ranging from 100 to 500 Hz, while the spin-lock duration was varied in the range from 0 to 100 ms. Results: When the spin-lock field was inverted into the antiparallel direction, the rate of MRI signal decay was altered and the T1ρ value, when compared to the value for the parallel field, was clearly different. Different degrees of such direction-dependency were observed for different spin-lock field strengths. In addition, the dependency was much smaller when the parallel and the antiparallel fields are mixed together in the dual-field method. Conclusions: The spin-lock field direction could impact the MRI signal and further the T1ρ measurement in a clinical MRI system

  2. CONSTANT LEVERAGE AND CONSTANT COST OF CAPITAL: A COMMON KNOWLEDGE HALF-TRUTH

    IGNACIO VÉLEZ-PAREJA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un enfoque típico para valorar flujos de caja finitos es suponer que el endeudamiento es constante (generalmente como un endeudamiento objetivo o deseado y que por tanto, el costo del patrimonio, Ke y el costo promedio ponderado de capital CPPC, también son constantes. Para los flujos de caja perpetuos, y con el costo de la deuda, Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos o escudo fiscal, Ke y el CPPC aplicado al flujo de caja libre FCL son constantes si el endeudamiento es constante. Sin embargo esto no es verdad para los flujos de caja finitos. En este documento mostramos que para flujos de caja finitos, Ke y por lo tanto el CPPC dependen de la tasa de descuento que se utiliza para valorar el ahorro en impuestos, AI y según lo esperado, Ke y el CPPC no son constantes con Kd como la tasa de descuento para el ahorro en impuestos, aunque el endeudamiento sea constante. Ilustramos esta situación con un ejemplo simple. Analizamos cinco métodos: el flujo de caja descontado, FCD, usando APV, el FCD y la formulación tradicional y general del CPPC, el valor presente del flujo de caja del accionista, FCA más deuda y el flujo de caja de capital, FCC.

  3. Localized (super)gravity and cosmological constant

    We consider localization of gravity in domain wall solutions of Einstein's gravity coupled to a scalar field with a generic potential. We discuss conditions on the scalar potential such that domain wall solutions are non-singular. Such solutions even exist for appropriate potentials which have no minima at all and are unbounded below. Domain walls of this type have infinite tension, while usual kink type of solutions interpolating between two AdS minima have finite tension. In the latter case the cosmological constant on the domain wall is necessarily vanishing, while in the former case it can be zero or negative. Positive cosmological constant is allowed for singular domain walls. We discuss non-trivial conditions for physically allowed singularities arising from the requirement that truncating the space at the singularities be consistent. Non-singular domain walls with infinite tension might a priori avoid recent 'no-go' theorems indicating impossibility of supersymmetric embedding of kink type of domain walls in gauged supergravity. We argue that (non-singular) domain walls are stable even if they have infinite tension. This is essentially due to the fact that localization of gravity in smooth domain walls is a Higgs mechanism corresponding to a spontaneous breakdown of translational invariance. As to discontinuous domain walls arising in the presence of δ-function 'brane' sources, they explicitly break translational invariance. Such solutions cannot therefore be thought of as limits of smooth domain walls. We point out that if the scalar potential has no minima and approaches finite negative values at infinity, then higher derivative terms are under control, and do not affect the cosmological constant which is vanishing for such backgrounds. Nonetheless, we also point out that higher curvature terms generically delocalize gravity, so that the desired lower-dimensional Newton's law is no longer reproduced

  4. Elucidation of constant current density molecular plating

    The production of thin layers by means of constant current or constant voltage electrolysis in organic media is commonly known as molecular plating. Despite the fact that this method has been applied for decades and is known to be among the most efficient ones for obtaining quantitative deposition, a full elucidation of the molecular plating is still lacking. In order to get a general understanding of the process and hence set the basis for further improvements of the method, constant current density electrolysis experiments were carried out in a mixture of isopropanol and isobutanol containing millimolar amounts of HNO3 together with [Nd(NO3)3·6H2O] used as a model electrolyte. The process was investigated by considering the influence of different parameters, namely the electrolyte concentrations (i.e., Nd(NO3)3·6H2O: 0.11, 0.22, 0.44 mM, and HNO3: 0.3, 0.4 mM), the applied current (i.e., 2 mA and 6 mA), and the surface roughness of the deposition substrates (i.e., a few tens to several hundreds of nm). The response of the process to changes of these parameters was monitored recording cell potential curves, which showed to be strongly influenced by the investigated conditions. The produced layers were characterized using γ-ray spectroscopy for the evaluation of Nd deposition yields, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis of the surfaces, and atomic force microscopy for surface roughness evaluation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results clearly indicate that Nd is present only as Nd3+ on the cathodic surface after molecular plating. The results obtained from this characterization and some basic features inferred from the study of the cell potential curves were used to interpret the different behaviours of the deposition processes as a consequence of the applied variables.

  5. PET physiological measurements using constant infusion

    A wide range of study designs can be used with positron emission tomography methods to provide quantitative measurements of physiological parameters. While bolus injection of tracer is the conventional approach, use of combined bolus plus constant infusion provides a number of advantages for receptor-binding tracers. Of recent interest is the use of this approach to dynamically follow the displacement of tracer during in vivo changes in neurotransmitter concentrations. This paper provides an overview of the tradeoffs in using bolus/infusion methods versus conventional bolus injection for receptor binding studies

  6. Bouncing Anisotropic Universes with Varying Constants

    Barrow, John D

    2013-01-01

    We examine the evolution of a closed, homogeneous and anisotropic cosmology subject to a variation of the fine structure 'constant', \\alpha, within the context of the theory introduced by Bekenstein, Sandvik, Barrow and Magueijo, which generalises Maxwell's equations and general relativity. The variation of \\alpha permits an effective ghost scalar field, whose negative energy density becomes dominant at small length scales, leading to a bouncing cosmology. A thermodynamically motivated coupling which describes energy exchange between the effective ghost field and the radiation field leads to an expanding, isotropizing sequence of bounces. In the absence of entropy production we also find solutions with stable anisotropic oscillations around a static universe.

  7. Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant

    Baier, R.; Nishimura, H.; Stricker, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter, which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Without fine tuning the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a generic formation of a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  8. Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant

    Baier, R; Stricker, S A

    2014-01-01

    The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Depending on the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  9. Standard-model coupling constants from compositeness

    Besprosvany, J

    2003-01-01

    A coupling-constant definition is given based on the compositeness property of some particle states with respect to the elementary states of other particles. It is applied in the context of the vector-spin-1/2-particle interaction vertices of a field theory, and the standard model. The definition reproduces Weinberg's angle in a grand-unified theory. One obtains coupling values close to the experimental ones for appropriate configurations of the standard-model vector particles, at the unification scale within grand-unified models, and at the electroweak breaking scale.

  10. Scales Set by the Cosmological Constant

    Balaguera-Antolinez, A; Nowakowski, M; Balaguera-Antolinez, Andres; Boehmer, Christian G.; Nowakowski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    The cosmological constant sets certain scales important in cosmology. We show that \\Lambda in conjunction with other parameters like the Schwarzschild radius leads to scales relevant not only for cosmological but also for astrophysical applications. Of special interest is the extension of orbits and velocity of test particles traveling over Mpc distances. We will show that there exists a lower and an upper cut-off on the possible velocities of test particles. For a test body moving in a central gravitational field \\Lambda enforces a maximal value of the angular momentum if we insist on bound orbits of the test body which move at a distance larger than the Schwarzschild radius.

  11. TASI Lectures on the cosmological constant

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2007-08-30

    The energy density of the vacuum, Lambda, is at least 60 orders of magnitude smaller than several known contributions to it. Approaches to this problem are tightly constrained by data ranging from elementary observations to precision experiments. Absent overwhelming evidence to the contrary, dark energy can only be interpreted as vacuum energy, so the venerable assumption that Lambda=0 conflicts with observation. The possibility remains that Lambda is fundamentally variable, though constant over large spacetime regions. This can explain the observed value, but only in a theory satisfying a number of restrictive kinematic and dynamical conditions. String theory offers a concrete realization through its landscape of metastable vacua.

  12. Fine Structure Constant: Theme With Variations

    Bezerra, V B; Muniz, C R; Tahim, M O; Vieira, H S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatial variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ due to the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists of calculating the solution including the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regimen, which yields the gravitational analog of the atomic Bohr levels. From this result, we obtain several values for the effective $\\alpha$ by considering some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on the parameters of the involved theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the white dwarf emission spectra. Such constraints are compared with those ones obtained in the literature.

  13. Intrinsic Redshifts and the Hubble Constant

    Bell, M. B.; Comeau, S. P.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the V_CMB velocities of the Fundamental Plane (FP) clusters studied in the Hubble Key Project appear to contain the same discrete "velocities" found previously by us and by Tifft to be present in normal galaxies. Although there is a particular Hubble constant associated with our findings we make no claim that its accuracy is better than that found by the Hubble Key Project. We do conclude, however, that if intrinsic redshifts are present and are not taken into account, the Hubble...

  14. Computing upper bounds on Friedrichs' constant

    Vejchodský, Tomáš

    Prague : Institute of Math ematics AS CR, 2012 - (Brandts, J.; Chleboun, J.; Korotov, S.; Segeth, K.; Šístek, J.; Vejchodský, T.), s. 278-289 ISBN 978-80-85823-60-8. [Applications of Math ematics 2012. Prague (CZ), 02.05.2012-05.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Friedrichs' constant Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics http://www. math .cas.cz/~am2012/proceedings/contributions/vejchodsky.pdf

  15. Quilted Floer trajectories with constant components

    Wehrheim, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    We fill a gap in the proof of the transversality result for quilted Floer trajectories in arXiv:0905.1370 by addressing trajectories for which some but not all components are constant. Namely we show that for generic sets of split Hamiltonian perturbations and split almost complex structures, the moduli spaces of parametrized quilted Floer trajectories of a given index are smooth of expected dimension. An additional benefit of the generic split Hamiltonian perturbations is that they perturb the given cyclic Lagrangian correspondence such that any geometric composition of its factors is transverse and hence immersed.

  16. The Fine Structure Constant and Habitable Planets

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts $\\alpha^{-1}$ to be $145\\pm 50$. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be $145\\pm9$. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  17. Rugged constant-temperature thermal anemometer

    Palma, J

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a robust thermal anemometer which can be easily built. It was conceived to measure outdoor wind speeds, and for airspeed monitoring in wind tunnels and other indoor uses. It works at a constant, low temperature of approximately 90$^\\circ$C, so that an independent measurement of the air temperature is required to give a correct speed reading. Despite the size and high thermal inertia of the probe, the test results show that this anemometer is capable of measuring turbulent fluctuations up to ~100 Hz in winds of ~14 m/s, which corresponds to a scale similar to the length of the probe.

  18. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  19. Relaxation creep rupture of heterogeneous material under constant strain.

    Hao, Sheng-Wang; Zhang, Bao-Ju; Tian, Ji-Feng

    2012-01-01

    We focus on a system consisting of an elastic part and a damageable part in series, to study the relaxation creep rupture of a heterogeneous system subjected to a uniaxial constant strain applied instantaneously. The viscoelastic behavior of the damageable part is modeled by a fiber bundle model consisting of Kelvin-Voigt elements and global load sharing is assumed for the redistribution of load following fiber breaking in the damageable part. Analytical and numerical calculations show that the global relaxation creep rupture appears if the elastic energy stored in the elastic part exceeded the fracture energy of the damageable part. The lifetime of the system strongly depends on the values of the applied external strain and the initial stiffness ratio k between the elastic part and the damageable part. We show that a higher stiffness ratio implies a more brittle system. Prior to complete failure, relaxation creep rupture exhibits a sequence of three stages, similar to creep rupture under constant stress, and the nominal force rate presents a power law singularity with a power index -1/2 near the global rupture time. PMID:22400604

  20. Determination of pre-emphasis constants for eddy current reduction

    Magnetic field gradients play a fundamental role in fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods and spectroscopy imaging. Precise information on gradient waveform shape and rise times is often very useful in experimental MRI. We present a simple method for the measurement of the gradient time course and static magnetic field changes. The method does not require any specialized hardware and can be used with a standard volume coil and a special phantom filled with deionized or doped water. The method is based on an analysis of the instantaneous frequency variation of an MR signal in the time domain, acquired from a mechanically selected thin slice of phantom located at the gradient isocentre. The measurement and approximation of the course of time gradients and of the changes in the static magnetic field result in pre-emphasis constants that substitute the constants determined manually in a time-consuming manner. The described method facilitates the determination of pre-emphasis constants for the compensation of eddy current effects in MR systems. Our results show that residual gradients in the region of interest within 0.5 ms after the gradient is switched off are smaller than 5 µT m−1 (for an applied test gradient of 72 mT m−1) and the shift of the static field is smaller than 0.2 µT. This accuracy is very important for the development of MR spectroscopic imaging technologies using samples with very short relaxation times, and for EPI pulse sequences

  1. History and progress on accurate measurements of the Planck constant.

    Steiner, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the Planck constant, h, is entering a new phase. The CODATA 2010 recommended value is 6.626 069 57 × 10(-34) J s, but it has been a long road, and the trip is not over yet. Since its discovery as a fundamental physical constant to explain various effects in quantum theory, h has become especially important in defining standards for electrical measurements and soon, for mass determination. Measuring h in the International System of Units (SI) started as experimental attempts merely to prove its existence. Many decades passed while newer experiments measured physical effects that were the influence of h combined with other physical constants: elementary charge, e, and the Avogadro constant, N(A). As experimental techniques improved, the precision of the value of h expanded. When the Josephson and quantum Hall theories led to new electronic devices, and a hundred year old experiment, the absolute ampere, was altered into a watt balance, h not only became vital in definitions for the volt and ohm units, but suddenly it could be measured directly and even more accurately. Finally, as measurement uncertainties now approach a few parts in 10(8) from the watt balance experiments and Avogadro determinations, its importance has been linked to a proposed redefinition of a kilogram unit of mass. The path to higher accuracy in measuring the value of h was not always an example of continuous progress. Since new measurements periodically led to changes in its accepted value and the corresponding SI units, it is helpful to see why there were bumps in the road and where the different branch lines of research joined in the effort. Recalling the bumps along this road will hopefully avoid their repetition in the upcoming SI redefinition debates. This paper begins with a brief history of the methods to measure a combination of fundamental constants, thus indirectly obtaining the Planck constant. The historical path is followed in the section describing how the

  2. History and progress on accurate measurements of the Planck constant

    Steiner, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the Planck constant, h, is entering a new phase. The CODATA 2010 recommended value is 6.626 069 57 × 10-34 J s, but it has been a long road, and the trip is not over yet. Since its discovery as a fundamental physical constant to explain various effects in quantum theory, h has become especially important in defining standards for electrical measurements and soon, for mass determination. Measuring h in the International System of Units (SI) started as experimental attempts merely to prove its existence. Many decades passed while newer experiments measured physical effects that were the influence of h combined with other physical constants: elementary charge, e, and the Avogadro constant, NA. As experimental techniques improved, the precision of the value of h expanded. When the Josephson and quantum Hall theories led to new electronic devices, and a hundred year old experiment, the absolute ampere, was altered into a watt balance, h not only became vital in definitions for the volt and ohm units, but suddenly it could be measured directly and even more accurately. Finally, as measurement uncertainties now approach a few parts in 108 from the watt balance experiments and Avogadro determinations, its importance has been linked to a proposed redefinition of a kilogram unit of mass. The path to higher accuracy in measuring the value of h was not always an example of continuous progress. Since new measurements periodically led to changes in its accepted value and the corresponding SI units, it is helpful to see why there were bumps in the road and where the different branch lines of research joined in the effort. Recalling the bumps along this road will hopefully avoid their repetition in the upcoming SI redefinition debates. This paper begins with a brief history of the methods to measure a combination of fundamental constants, thus indirectly obtaining the Planck constant. The historical path is followed in the section describing how the improved

  3. History and progress on accurate measurements of the Planck constant

    The measurement of the Planck constant, h, is entering a new phase. The CODATA 2010 recommended value is 6.626 069 57 × 10−34 J s, but it has been a long road, and the trip is not over yet. Since its discovery as a fundamental physical constant to explain various effects in quantum theory, h has become especially important in defining standards for electrical measurements and soon, for mass determination. Measuring h in the International System of Units (SI) started as experimental attempts merely to prove its existence. Many decades passed while newer experiments measured physical effects that were the influence of h combined with other physical constants: elementary charge, e, and the Avogadro constant, NA. As experimental techniques improved, the precision of the value of h expanded. When the Josephson and quantum Hall theories led to new electronic devices, and a hundred year old experiment, the absolute ampere, was altered into a watt balance, h not only became vital in definitions for the volt and ohm units, but suddenly it could be measured directly and even more accurately. Finally, as measurement uncertainties now approach a few parts in 108 from the watt balance experiments and Avogadro determinations, its importance has been linked to a proposed redefinition of a kilogram unit of mass. The path to higher accuracy in measuring the value of h was not always an example of continuous progress. Since new measurements periodically led to changes in its accepted value and the corresponding SI units, it is helpful to see why there were bumps in the road and where the different branch lines of research joined in the effort. Recalling the bumps along this road will hopefully avoid their repetition in the upcoming SI redefinition debates. This paper begins with a brief history of the methods to measure a combination of fundamental constants, thus indirectly obtaining the Planck constant. The historical path is followed in the section describing how the

  4. Nuclear data evaluation and group constant generation for reactor analysis

    In nuclear or shielding design analysis for reactors including nuclear facilities, nuclear data are one of the primary importances. Research project for nuclear data evaluation and their effective applications has been continuously performed. The objectives of this project are (1) to compile the latest evaluated nuclear data files, (2) to establish their processing code systems, and (3) to evaluate the multigroup constant library using the newly compiled data files and the code systems. As the results of this project, JEF-2.2 which is latest version of Joint Evaluated File developed at OECD/NEA was compiled and COMPLOT and EVALPLOT utility codes were installed in personal computer, which are able to draw ENDF/B-formatted nuclear data for comparison and check. Computer system (NJOY/ACER) for generating continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP library was established and the system was validated by analyzing a number of experimental data. (Author)

  5. CONSTRAINING FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANT EVOLUTION WITH H I AND OH LINES

    We report deep Green Bank Telescope spectroscopy in the redshifted H I 21 cm and OH 18 cm lines from the z = 0.765 absorption system toward PMN J0134–0931. A comparison between the 'satellite' OH 18 cm line redshifts, or between the redshifts of the H I 21 cm and 'main' OH 18 cm lines, is sensitive to changes in different combinations of three fundamental constants, the fine structure constant α, the proton-electron mass ratio μ ≡ mp /me , and the proton g-factor gp . We find that the satellite OH 18 cm lines are not perfectly conjugate, with both different line shapes and stronger 1612 MHz absorption than 1720 MHz emission. This implies that the satellite lines of this absorber are not suitable to probe fundamental constant evolution. A comparison between the redshifts of the H I 21 cm and OH 18 cm lines, via a multi-Gaussian fit, yields the strong constraint [ΔF/F] = [ – 5.2 ± 4.3] × 10–6, where F ≡ gp [μα2]1.57 and the error budget includes contributions from both statistical and systematic errors. We thus find no evidence for a change in the constants between z = 0.765 and the present epoch. Incorporating the constraint [Δμ/μ] –7 from another absorber at a similar redshift and assuming that fractional changes in gp are much smaller than those in α, we obtain [Δα/α] = (– 1.7 ± 1.4) × 10–6 over a look-back time of 6.7 Gyr.

  6. Hyperscaling violation and the shear diffusion constant

    Kolekar, Kedar S; Narayan, K

    2016-01-01

    We consider holographic theories in bulk $(d+1)$-dimensions with Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating exponents $z,\\theta$ at finite temperature. By studying shear gravitational modes in the near-horizon region given certain self-consistent approximations, we obtain the corresponding shear diffusion constant on an appropriately defined stretched horizon, adapting the analysis of Kovtun, Son and Starinets. For generic exponents with $d-z-\\theta>-1$, we find that the diffusion constant has power law scaling with the temperature, motivating us to guess a universal relation for the viscosity bound. When the exponents satisfy $d-z-\\theta=-1$, we find logarithmic behaviour. This relation is equivalent to $z=2+d_{eff}$ where $d_{eff}=d_i-\\theta$ is the effective boundary spatial dimension (and $d_i=d-1$ the actual spatial dimension). It is satisfied by the exponents in hyperscaling violating theories arising from null reductions of highly boosted black branes, and we comment on the corresponding analysis in that cont...

  7. Is cosmological constant needed in Higgs inflation?

    Feng, Chao-Jun, E-mail: fengcj@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai United Center for Astrophysics (SUCA), Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Xin-Zhou, E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai United Center for Astrophysics (SUCA), Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2014-11-10

    The detection of B-mode shows a very powerful constraint to theoretical inflation models through the measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. Higgs boson is the most likely candidate of the inflaton field. But usually, Higgs inflation models predict a small value of r, which is not quite consistent with the recent results from BICEP2. In this paper, we explored whether a cosmological constant energy component is needed to improve the situation. And we found the answer is yes. For the so-called Higgs chaotic inflation model with a quadratic potential, it predicts r≈0.2, n{sub s}≈0.96 with e-folds number N≈56, which is large enough to overcome the problems such as the horizon problem in the Big Bang cosmology. The required energy scale of the cosmological constant is roughly Λ∼(10{sup 14} GeV){sup 2}, which means a mechanism is still needed to solve the fine-tuning problem in the later time evolution of the universe, e.g. by introducing some dark energy component.

  8. Dynamical Vacuum against a rigid Cosmological Constant

    Sola, Joan; Gomez-Valent, Adria; Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    When we are approaching the centenary of the introduction of the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ by Einstein in his gravitational field equations, and after about two decades of the first observational papers confirming the existence of a non-vanishing, positive, $\\Lambda$ as the most likely explanation for the observed acceleration of the Universe, we are still facing the question whether $\\Lambda$ is truly a fundamental constant of Nature or a mildly evolving dynamical variable. In this work we compare three types of cosmological scenarios involving dynamical vacuum energy in interaction with matter. By performing an overall fit to the cosmological observables $SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+CMB$, we find that the dynamical $\\Lambda$ models are significantly more favored than the $\\Lambda$CDM, suggesting that a rigid $\\Lambda$-term is excluded at $\\sim 3\\sigma$ c.l. This conclusion is strongly supported by Akaike and Bayesian information criteria which render more than 10 points of difference in favor of the dynamical v...

  9. Ventricular fibrillation time constant for swine

    The strength–duration curve for cardiac excitation can be modeled by a parallel resistor–capacitor circuit that has a time constant. Experiments on six pigs were performed by delivering current from the X26 Taser dart at a distance from the heart to cause ventricular fibrillation (VF). The X26 Taser is an electromuscular incapacitation device (EMD), which generates about 50 kV and delivers a pulse train of about 15–19 pulses s−1 with a pulse duration of about 150 µs and peak current about 2 A. Similarly a continuous 60 Hz alternating current of the amplitude required to cause VF was delivered from the same distance. The average current and duration of the current pulse were estimated in both sets of experiments. The strength–duration equation was solved to yield an average time constant of 2.87 ms ± 1.90 (SD). Results obtained may help in the development of safety standards for future electromuscular incapacitation devices (EMDs) without requiring additional animal tests

  10. Is cosmological constant needed in Higgs inflation?

    Chao-Jun Feng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of B-mode shows a very powerful constraint to theoretical inflation models through the measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. Higgs boson is the most likely candidate of the inflaton field. But usually, Higgs inflation models predict a small value of r, which is not quite consistent with the recent results from BICEP2. In this paper, we explored whether a cosmological constant energy component is needed to improve the situation. And we found the answer is yes. For the so-called Higgs chaotic inflation model with a quadratic potential, it predicts r≈0.2, ns≈0.96 with e-folds number N≈56, which is large enough to overcome the problems such as the horizon problem in the Big Bang cosmology. The required energy scale of the cosmological constant is roughly Λ∼(1014 GeV2, which means a mechanism is still needed to solve the fine-tuning problem in the later time evolution of the universe, e.g. by introducing some dark energy component.

  11. In-medium pion weak decay constants

    Kim, H

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear matter, the pion weak decay constant is separated into the two components $f^t, f^s$ corresponding to the time and space components of the axial-vector current. Using QCD sum rules, we compute the two decay constants from the pseudoscalar-axial vector correlation function in the matter $i \\int d^4x~ e^{ip\\cdot x} $. It is found that the sum rule for $f^t$ satisfies the in-medium Gell-Mann$-$Oakes$-$Renner (GOR) relation precisely while the $f^s$ sum rule does not. The $f^s$ sum rule contains the nonnegligible contribution from the dimension 5 condensate $_N + {1\\over 8} _N$ in addition to the in-medium quark condensate. Using standard set of QCD parameters and ignoring the in-medium change of the pion mass, we obtain $f^t =105$ MeV at the nuclear saturation density. The prediction for $f^s$ depends on values of the dimension 5 condensate and slightly on the Borel mass. However, the OPE constrains that $f^s/f^t \\ge 1 $, which does not agree with the prediction from the in-medium chiral perturbation ...

  12. Do Wormholes Fix the Coupling Constants?

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2004-05-01

    If Newtonian gravitation is modified to use surface-to-surface separation between particles, it can have the strength of nuclear force between nucleons. This may be justified by possible existence of quantum wormholes in particles. All gravitational interactions would be between coupled wormholes, emitting 1/r graviton flux from their exit mouths as a function of the particle size, allowing the point-like treatment above. When the wormhole exit mouths are 1 Planck length apart, the resultant force is the known strong force coupling constant with an order of magnitude of 40 compared to the normal gravitational strength for nucleons. In addition to being mathematically simple, the above finding is consistent with observations of other coupling constants, Feynman's speculation of "transfusion" of two particles into spin 2 gravitons (published in 1962), Hawking radiation, big-bang theory abundance of quantum wormholes, wormhole theory fine-tuned by Kip S. Thorne and Matt Visser, and recent microscopic gravity measurements. It potentially leads to the holographic principle being promoted by Dr. G. t' Hooft, by naturally pointing out that the mass of the particles is proportional to their diameter squared.

  13. PREFACE: Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology

    Klose, Volkmar; Kramer, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 70th PTB Seminar which, the second on the subject "Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology", was held at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig from October 21 to 22, 1985. About 100 participants from the universities and various research institutes of the Federal Republic of Germany participated in the meeting. Besides a number of review lectures on various broader subjects there was a poster session which contained a variety of topical contributed papers ranging from the theory of the quantum Hall effect to reports on the status of the metrological experiments at the PTB. In addition, the participants were also offered the possibility to visit the PTB laboratories during the course of the seminar. During the preparation of the meeting we noticed that even most of the general subjects which were going to be discussed in the lectures are of great importance in connection with metrological experiments and should be made accessible to the scientific community. This eventually resulted in the idea of the publication of the papers in a regular journal. We are grateful to the editor of Metrologia for providing this opportunity. We have included quite a number of papers from basic physical research. For example, certain aspects of high-energy physics and quantum optics, as well as the many-faceted role of Sommerfeld's fine-structure constant, are covered. We think that questions such as "What are the intrinsic fundamental parameters of nature?" or "What are we doing when we perform an experiment?" can shed new light on the art of metrology, and do, potentially, lead to new ideas. This appears to be especially necessary when we notice the increasing importance of the role of the fundamental constants and macroscopic quantum effects for the definition and the realization of the physical units. In some cases we have reached a point where the limitations of our knowledge of a fundamental constant and

  14. Garbage-free reversible constant multipliers for arbitrary integers

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for constructing reversible circuitry for multiplying integers by arbitrary integer constants. The method is based on Mealy machines and gives circuits whose size are (in the worst case) linear in the size of the constant. This makes the method unsuitable for large constants, ......, but gives quite compact circuits for small constants. The circuits use no garbage or ancillary lines....

  15. Decay constants and wave functions of heavy-light pseudoscalars

    Calculations of the pseudoscalar decay constant for mesons containing one heavy quark (i.e., fD, fB) are reported. Results at β = 6.0 using the static-quark approximation for the heavy-quark propagator are compared to results using a propagating heavy quark with Wilson fermions at (β = 6.0, β = 6.1 and β = 6.3). Further investigation into the dynamics governing these systems is made by measuring the Bethe-Salpeter wave function for each case. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Some Unique Constants Associated with Extremal Black Holes

    Sivaram, C; 10.1007/s10509-012-0983-z

    2012-01-01

    In recent papers we had developed a unified picture of black hole entropy and curvature which was shown to lead to Hawking radiation. It was shown that for any black hole mass, holography implies a phase space of just one quantum associated with the interior of the black hole. Here we study extremal rotating and charged black holes and obtain unique values for ratios of angular momentum to entropy, charge to entropy, etc. It turns out that these ratios can be expressed in terms of fundamental constants in nature, having analogies with other physical systems, like in condensed matter physics.

  17. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    S Ramasesha; Shaon Sahoo; Rajamani Raghunathan; Diptiman Sen

    2009-09-01

    We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, and for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hamiltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant -valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamiltonians employing full spatial and spin symmetry adaptation and we illustrate this technique by solving the exchange Hamiltonian of the Cu6Fe8 system. Treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as perturbation, we compute the and values for various eigenstates of the exchange Hamiltonian. Since, the dipolar contribution to the magnetic anisotropy is negligibly small, we calculate the molecular anisotropy from the single-ion anisotropies of the metal centers. We have studied the variation of and by rotating the single-ion anisotropies in the case of Mn12Ac and Fe8 SMMs in ground and few low-lying excited states of the exchange Hamiltonian. In both the systems, we find that the molecular anisotropy changes drastically when the single-ion anisotropies are rotated. While in Mn12Ac SMM values depend strongly on the spin of the eigenstate, it is almost independent of the spin of the eigenstate in Fe8 SMM. We also find that the value is almost insensitive to the orientation of the anisotropy of the core Mn(IV) ions. The dependence of on the energy gap between the ground and the excited states in both the systems has also been studied by using different sets of exchange constants.

  18. Design verification of large time constant thermal shields for optical reference cavities.

    Zhang, J; Wu, W; Shi, X H; Zeng, X Y; Deng, K; Lu, Z H

    2016-02-01

    In order to achieve high frequency stability in ultra-stable lasers, the Fabry-Pérot reference cavities shall be put inside vacuum chambers with large thermal time constants to reduce the sensitivity to external temperature fluctuations. Currently, the determination of thermal time constants of vacuum chambers is based either on theoretical calculation or time-consuming experiments. The first method can only apply to simple system, while the second method will take a lot of time to try out different designs. To overcome these limitations, we present thermal time constant simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) based on complete vacuum chamber models and verify the results with measured time constants. We measure the thermal time constants using ultrastable laser systems and a frequency comb. The thermal expansion coefficients of optical reference cavities are precisely measured to reduce the measurement error of time constants. The simulation results and the experimental results agree very well. With this knowledge, we simulate several simplified design models using FEA to obtain larger vacuum thermal time constants at room temperature, taking into account vacuum pressure, shielding layers, and support structure. We adopt the Taguchi method for shielding layer optimization and demonstrate that layer material and layer number dominate the contributions to the thermal time constant, compared with layer thickness and layer spacing. PMID:26931831

  19. Explicit curvature dependence of coupling constants

    We consider a renormalizable quantum field theory, such as a grand unified theory, in a general curved spacetime. We use a new partially summed form of the proper-time or heat-kernel expansion of the propagator to obtain curvature-dependent logarithmic terms in the effective action. We demonstrate the connection between these terms and the renormalization group. The explicit form of the logarithmic curvature dependence permits us to obtain the modified gravitational field equations. The logarithmic terms are of importance for dynamical models of the early universe, including inflationary models. These terms are also of interest at the present time. We use them, together with the observed upper limit on the present value of the cosmological constant, to place an upper limit on the masses of the heaviest particles in renormalizable field theories. This upper limit is of the order of 1019 GeV for Higgs bosons in minimal SU(5) theory

  20. Eternal Higgs inflation and cosmological constant problem

    Hamada, Yuta; Oda, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Higgs potential beyond the Planck scale in the superstring theory, under the assumption that the supersymmetry is broken at the string scale. We identify the Higgs field as a massless state of the string, which is indicated by the fact that the bare Higgs mass can be zero around the string scale. We find that, in the large field region, the Higgs potential is connected to a runaway vacuum with vanishing energy, which corresponds to opening up an extra dimension. We verify that such universal behavior indeed follows from the toroidal compactification of the non-supersymmetric $SO(16)\\times SO(16)$ heterotic string theory. We show that this behavior fits in the picture that the Higgs field is the source of the eternal inflation. The observed small value of the cosmological constant of our universe may be understood as the degeneracy with this runaway vacuum, which has vanishing energy, as is suggested by the multiple point criticality principle.