WorldWideScience

Sample records for abatement program bmap

  1. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  2. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  3. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  4. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  5. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  6. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  7. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  8. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  9. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  11. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate

  12. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  14. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate

  15. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  16. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986

  17. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  18. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987

  19. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  20. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  2. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  6. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge

  7. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  8. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  9. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively

  10. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams' biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL

  11. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  12. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  13. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth

    Lynn, Miriam A.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Marr, Alexandra K.;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under...... of the cathelicidin family of HDPs have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activities against various parasites including Leishmania. The cathelicidin bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28) has broad antimicrobial activities and confers protection in animal models of bacterial infection or sepsis. We...... tested the effectiveness of the use of BMAP-28 and two of its isomers the D-amino acid form (D-BMAP-28) and the retro-inverso form (RI-BMAP-28), as anti-leishmanial agents against the promastigote and amastigote intracellular Leishmania major lifecycle stages. Methodology/Principal Findings: An MTS...

  14. Killing of trypanosomatid parasites by a modified bovine host defense peptide, BMAP-18.

    Lee R Haines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tropical diseases caused by parasites continue to cause socioeconomic devastation that reverberates worldwide. There is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases due to increasing drug resistance exhibited by the parasites and problems with drug toxicity. One new approach is to apply host defense peptides (HDP; formerly called antimicrobial peptides to disease control, either to treat infected hosts, or to prevent disease transmission by interfering with parasites in their insect vectors. A potent anti-parasite effector is bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-27 (BMAP-27, a member of the cathelicidin family. Although BMAP-27 is a potent inhibitor of microbial growth, at higher concentrations it also exhibits cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. We tested the anti-parasite activity of BMAP-18, a truncated peptide that lacks the hydrophobic C-terminal sequence of the BMAP-27 parent molecule, an alteration that confers reduced toxicity to mammalian cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BMAP-18 showed strong growth inhibitory activity against several species and life cycle stages of African trypanosomes, fish trypanosomes and Leishmania parasites in vitro. When compared to native BMAP-27, the truncated BMAP-18 peptide showed reduced cytotoxicity on a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells and on Sodalis glossindius, a bacterial symbiont of the tsetse vector. The fluorescent stain rhodamine 123 was used in immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry experiments to show that BMAP-18 at low concentrations rapidly disrupted mitochondrial potential without obvious alteration of parasite plasma membranes, thus inducing death by apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that higher concentrations of BMAP-18 induced membrane lesions in the parasites as early as 15 minutes after exposure, thus killing them by necrosis. In addition to direct killing of parasites, BMAP-18 was shown to inhibit LPS

  15. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  16. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  17. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities

  18. On a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with Setup Times andMultiple Vacations

    Yi PENG; Xiang-qun YANG

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with setup times and multiple vacations.Arrivals of positive customers and negative customers follow a batch Markovian arrival process (BMAP) and Markovian arrival process (MAP) respectively.The arrival of a negative customer removes all the customers in the system when the server is working.The server leaves for a vacation as soon as the system empties and is allowed to take repeated (multiple) vacations.By using the supplementary variables method and the censoring technique,we obtain the queue length distributions.We also obtain the mean of the busy period based on the renewal theory.

  19. More electric power for cleaner air: ENEL air pollution abatement program

    ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) is conducting an intensive anti-pollution campaign that is expected to lead to overall reductions by about 80% in polluting emissions by the year 2000. Existing plants are being equipped with low NOx burners and electrostatic precipitators; coal units are receiving flue gas desulfurization systems. New poly-fuel plants, to be located far from residential zones, are to use low sulfur fuels or natural gas, and employ 250 meter high smoke-stacks. ENEL's anti-pollution campaign also involves a series of co-ordinated research studies directed towards the development of new sulfur and nitrogen oxides emission control technologies and innovative fluidized-bed and coal-water fuel slurry combustion systems. ENEL will also participate with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests in environmental protection programs. These will involve the setting-up of acid rain monitoring and sampling networks and atmospheric circulation mapping and modelling

  20. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of BMAP-derived peptides for the treatment of cystic fibrosis-related pulmonary infections.

    Mardirossian, Mario; Pompilio, Arianna; Crocetta, Valentina; De Nicola, Serena; Guida, Filomena; Degasperi, Margherita; Gennaro, Renato; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Scocchi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis require pharmacological treatment against chronic lung infections. The alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides BMAP-27 and BMAP-28 have shown to be highly active in vitro against planktonic and sessile forms of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia cystic fibrosis strains. To develop small antibacterial peptides for therapeutic use, we tested shortened/modified BMAP fragments, and selected the one with the highest in vitro antibacterial activity and lowest in vivo acute pulmonary toxicity. All the new peptides have shown to roughly maintain their antibacterial activity in vitro. The 1-18 N-terminal fragment of BMAP-27, showing MIC90 of 16 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa isolates and strain-dependent anti-biofilm effects, showed the lowest pulmonary toxicity in mice. However, when tested in a murine model of acute lung infection by P. aeruginosa, BMAP-27(1-18) did not show any curative effect. If exposed to murine broncho-alveolar lavage fluid BMAP-27(1-18) was degraded within 10 min, suggesting it is not stable in pulmonary environment, probably due to murine proteases. Our results indicate that shortened BMAP peptides could represent a starting point for antibacterial drugs, but they also indicate that they need a further optimization for effective in vivo use. PMID:27270571

  2. Performance Analysis for Bandwidth Allocation in IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Networks using BMAP Queueing

    Kafhali, Said El; Hanini, Mohamed; Haqiq, Abdelkrim; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4110

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis for the bandwidth allocation in IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless access (BWA) networks considering the packet-level quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) rate based on IEEE 802.16 standard is used to adjust the transmission rate adaptively in each frame time according to channel quality in order to obtain multiuser diversity gain. To model the arrival process and the traffic source we use the Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP), which enables more realistic and more accurate traffic modelling. We determine analytically different performance parameters, such as average queue length, packet dropping probability, queue throughput and average packet delay. Finally, the analytical results are validated numerically.

  3. Performance Analysis for Bandwidth Allocation in IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Networks using BMAP Queueing

    Said EL KAFHALI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis for the bandwidth allocation in IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless access (BWA networks considering the packet-level quality-of-service (QoS constraints. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC rate based on IEEE 802.16 standard is used to adjust the transmission rate adaptively in each frame time according to channel quality in order to obtain multiuser diversity gain. To model the arrival process and the traffic source we use the Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP, which enables more realistic and more accurate traffic modelling. We determine analytically different performance parameters, such as average queue length, packet dropping probability, queue throughput and average packet delay. Finally, the analytical results are validated numerically.

  4. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  5. BMAP模型中最优分红和注资问题%Optimal Dividend and Capital Injection Problem in a BMAP Model

    白燕飞; 陈旭

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal dividend and capital injection problem of a company in a BMAP ( Batch Markov Arrival Process) model. The parameters in the process of the company’s surplus are modulated by the phase process of the BMAP, which is an observable continuous-time Markov chain. The possible dividend and capital injection are restricted to some random discrete time points which are determined by the same BMAP. The company has both dividend and capital injection opportunities or only has dividend but not capital injection opportu-nities at some of these time points, while can do nothing at other random time points. By transforming the BMAP model to an auxiliary Markov modulated model, we study the optimal dividend and capital injection problem of the company under the assumption that the company will not bankrupt. This paper aims to maximize the difference be-tween the total expected discounted dividend and the amount of capital and obtain the exact solution of the value functions and the optimal dividend and capital injection strategy.%研究了BMAP ( Batch Markov Arrival Process)模型中有分红和资金注入的情况下,公司的最优分红和注资问题。假设公司的盈余过程中的参数由BMAP模型中的相过程调制。在不同的跳跃点上,该公司有不同的分红和注资机会:在BMAP的一些跳跃点上,公司既没有分红也没有注资;在BMAP 的一些跳跃点上,公司只有分红没有注资;在BMAP的另外一些跳跃点上,公司既有分红又有注资。通过将BMAP模型转化为辅助马氏调制模型的方法,在公司不破产的情况下,考虑公司的最优分红和注资问题,旨在使期望折现分红总量与折现注资量之差达到最大,得到了值函数的精确解以及最优分红-注资策略。

  6. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6

  7. Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures Survey (PACE)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey is the most comprehensive national source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to...

  8. Optimal acid rain abatement policy in Europe

    Halkos, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Acid rain causes greater environmental damage than would occur if countries act cooperatively. Based on new estimates of sulphur abatement cost functions, the potential gains from cooperation are calculated for Europe. Various cooperative abatement rates are compared with the rates implied by recent international agreements. The distinction is made between primary and secondary abatement, and their respective roles are discussed.

  9. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise abatement. 772.11 Section 772.11 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and...) of this chapter must be considered. (d) When noise abatement measures are being considered,...

  10. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  11. Regional differences in China's CO2 abatement cost

    Under a framework of output distance function with multiple outputs, the study discusses the carbon abatement cost at provincial and regional levels in China, using the shadow price analysis. The findings show that the abatement cost, reflecting the marginal opportunity cost of carbon reduction, varies greatly among the provinces. On average, the abatement cost of the eastern region was much higher than that of the mid-western region during the observed period. The findings provide evidence that the carbon prices in the current ETS pilots have been much lower than desired levels, implying inefficiency of the markets. The wide range of the abatement cost estimates supports that the equi-marginal principle does not hold for the regulations on carbon pollution at regional levels. The regional cost differences indicate the huge potential for China to minimize the total abatement cost with policy instruments that may motive the emissions moving from areas of low abatement cost to where the abatement cost is higher. For a few undeveloped provinces that are environmentally fragile and have high abatement cost, supplementary measures will be needed to reduce the negative impact of carbon cutbacks on the poor to the minimum. - Highlights: • The marginal abatement cost of CO2 is defined by the shadow price measure. • A linear programming model based on distance function is established. • Marginal abatement costs at provincial level are empirical investigated. • The abatement cost varies across provinces and regions in China. • The findings provide evidence that the current ETS pilots are inefficient

  12. Technology diffusion, abatement cost, and transboundary pollution

    Tarui, Nori; Heal, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies countries’ incentives to develop advanced pollution abatement technology when technology may spillover across countries and pollution abatement is a global public good. We are motivated in part by the problem of global warming: a solution to this involves providing a global public good, and will surely require the development and implementation of new technologies. We show that at the Nash equilibrium of a simultaneous-move game with R&D investment and emission abatement, w...

  13. NOx abatement through urea additives

    Compared with catalytic denitrification, the use of urea in thermic processes of selective, non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), when combined with primary measures, constitutes an inexpensive alternative way of abating NOx emissions by means of combustion processes and waste incineration plants. A natural-gas fired and also electrically heated flow reactor was used in a number of fast series to systematically determine the influences of retention time, reaction temperature, reductant (ammonia or urea), molar ratio, and additives (ethanol) on the process. Balancing the input and output nitrogenous substances served to describe the partial shift through addition of ethanol of the reaction towards incomplete reduction and greater N2O emission. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of Quality of Service Performances of Connection Admission Control Mechanisms in OFDMA IEEE 802.16 Network using BMAP Queuing

    Bouchti, Abdelali El; Kafhali, Said El

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, two Connection Admission Control (CAC) mechanisms, namely, threshold-based and queue-aware CAC mechanisms are considered at a subscriber station. A queuing analytical framework for these admission control mechanisms is presented considering Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queuing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP). We determine analytically and numerically different QoS per...

  15. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  16. Emission taxes and the market for abatement goods and services

    David, Maia [INRA-AgroParisTech UMR Economie Publique, F-78000 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Nimubona, Alain-Desire [Department of Economics, University of Waterloo (Canada); Sinclair-Desgagne, Bernard [HEC Montreal, CIRANO and CIRAIG (Canada); Ecole Polytechnique (France)

    2011-01-15

    This paper examines the effect of emission taxes on pollution abatement and social welfare, when abatement goods and services are provided by a Cournot oligopoly with free-entry. We point out initially that a higher tax not only increases demand for abatement; it also makes polluters less sensitive to price. This attracts a larger number of abatement suppliers while possibly inducing each one of them to produce less. Total abatement always goes up, however, when the delivery of abatement goods and services exhibits decreasing returns to scale. We then calculate the welfare-maximizing emission tax and compare it to the Pigouvian tax. (author)

  17. Groundwater abatement techniques for removal of refined hydrocarbons

    In this paper, the author describes the types of investigation and cleanup programs that have been successful in solving contamination problems resulting from service station gasoline losses in residential areas. Methods of investigation and treatment are described within the framework of a few of the projects undertaken by Groundwater Technology. The first case history involves the loss and retrieval of an unleaded gasoline that initially resulted in free product accumulations of greater than 3 ft on the water table and the accumulation of flammable vapors in an adjacent bank. The second case history describes the impact and abatement of dissolves gasoline contamination on ten domestic water supply wells

  18. Carbon dioxide abatement as a differential game

    The report combines predictions on greenhouse warming, CO2 abatement costs and adaptation costs in a differential game framework. The specified model makes it possible to solve the payoffs of the subgame perfect solution of a two state variable nonautonomous problem with N unequal countries. Abatement cost parameters are calibrated with a global energy sector model and climate parameters are based on empirical time series. Simulation suggests that the backstop technology assumption in the abatement cost model may imply drastic cuts in optimal emission levels. Compared to the Nash noncooperative equilibrium a pareto optimal agreement is found to be beneficial for developing countries but more costly for the industrial world. Given the present damage estimates, the losses due to an emission stabilizing agreement may be 400 times higher than maximum potential gains from cooperation

  19. Aplicação do programa Seis Sigma em uma indústria de abate de frangos = Implementation of Six Sigma program in an industry of slaughter of chicken

    Roselis Natalina Mazzuchetti; Miguel Angel Uribe Opazo; Regio Marcio Toesca Gimenes

    2010-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, a indústria de abate de frango busca fortalecer seusprocessos, visando atender às necessidades de mercado e, para contribuir com o desenvolvimento desses processos, novos métodos têm sido implantados, entre os quais se destaca o programa Seis Sigma. O presente estudo mostra a utilização deste Programa em um abatedouro de frangos com o objetivo de demonstrar as melhores práticas para adefinição e condução de um projeto centrado na melhoria da qualidade dos processos. Para tan...

  20. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost

  1. 23 CFR Table 1 to Part 772 - Noise Abatement Criteria

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise Abatement Criteria 1 Table 1 to Part 772 Highways... ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE Pt. 772, Table 1 Table 1 to Part 772—Noise Abatement Criteria Activity Category Leq(h) L10(h) Description of activity category A 57 (Exterior)...

  2. Transfer of Pollution Abatement Technology and Unemployment

    Muneyuki Saito; Yasuyuki Sugiyama

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the transfer of pollution abatement technology on the level of urban unemployment, the total amount of pollution, and social welfare in a small, open Harris Todaro economy. We show that these transfers reduce urban unemployment and decrease the total amount of pollution. However, social welfare is unchanged because the technology transfer does not affect factor prices.

  3. Nutrient Abatement Potential and Abatement Costs of Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Baltic Sea Region

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for b...

  4. CONTRACTING FOR NONPOINT-SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Bystrom, Olof; Daniel W. Bromley

    1998-01-01

    This study presents an incentive scheme to control agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. The analysis is based on a principal-agent framework with two parties: farmers and a regulating authority. Our incentive scheme proposes collective penalties as a way to control pollution. Unlike previous analyses of incentive schemes to control agricultural pollution, we suggest nonindividual contracts between farmers and a regulating authority, where farmers can trade pollution abatement efforts. Find...

  5. Costs and global impacts of black carbon abatement strategies

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Myhre, Gunnar; Skeie, Ragnhild B.

    2011-01-01

    Abatement of particulate matter has traditionally been driven by health concerns rather than its role in global warming. Here we assess future abatement strategies in terms of how much they reduce the climate impact of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) from contained combustion. We develop global scenarios which take into account regional differences in climate impact, costs of abatement and ability to pay, as well as both the direct and indirect (snow-albedo) climate impact of BC and...

  6. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    Elless, M.P. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: elless@edenspace.com; Ferguson, B.W. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: ferguson@edenspace.com; Bray, C.A. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: bray@edenspace.com; Patch, S. [Environmental Quality Institute, University of North Carolina, One University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)], E-mail: patch@unca.edu; Mielke, H. [College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)], E-mail: hmielke@xula.edu; Blaylock, M.J. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: blaylock@edenspace.com

    2008-11-15

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards.

  7. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

  8. The photochemical method for radiation abatement

    This report reviews the underlying chemistry of the photochemical method for removal of radioiodines from air and evaluates the concept with respect to various applications in the nuclear industry. The method uses ultraviolet light (200-300 nm) to convert organic iodides (RI) to elemental iodine (I2). The I2 is then reacted with ozone to form solid iodine oxides (I4O9 or (I2O5), which deposit inside a scrubber. It is concluded that the method is applicable to large-scale systems and would have several advantages over conventional methods of radioiodine abatement

  9. Emissions to the atmosphere - monitoring and abatement

    In 1996, paper-mills will be subject to the requirements of the UK Environmental Protection Act 1990. This will involve the monitoring and reduction of emissions of SO2 and NOx. This paper describes the sources of these emissions - fluidised bed boilers, stoker fuel beds, pulverized fuel -and the available technologies for monitoring and abating them. The cost and effectiveness of pollution control is site specific. Large mills may benefit from the installation of Pound 100k monitoring systems with annual running costs of Pound 50 k; while small mills may achieve the desired results through periodic monitoring by consultants at Pound 10k a year. (author)

  10. J curve for abatement with transboundary pollution

    Begona Casino

    2002-01-01

    In this note an alternative framework to Selden and Song's (1995) work is proposed in order to clarify some of their results and verify whether the relationship between pollution abatement and national income can be drawn as a J curve when there is more than one country involved. As Selden and Song do, pollution is considered as a flow externality. Their model is extended to a two country case which requires the use of differential games. The optimisation problem is decomposed into two stages...

  11. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NOx abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NOx emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NOx from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr-1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NOx concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NOx concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NOx concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  12. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  13. Pollution abatement and nature protection, fraud and trickery

    The present general interpretation of pollution abatement as a necessary vehicle for the preservation and protection of the earth we live on is called in question by arguments which maintain that pollution abatement is an instrument used by the rich countries, especially by the U.S.A., to reduce the developing countries' population. (HP)

  14. Do abatement quotas lead to more successful climate coalitions?

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Finus, M.; Dellink, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of different treaty designs on the success of international environmental agreements (IEAs). We analyze the standard assumption of an efficient abatement scheme and three uniform abatement quota schemes. Apart from analytical results, the analysis is supported by si

  15. Abatement of Air Pollutants and Cogeneration: Search for an Optimal Solution

    Posch, M.; Runca, E.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper atmospheric diffusion modelling and nonlinear optimization techniques are used for the analysis of minimum cost alternatives of air pollution control strategies. Two cases are considered: a) control of air pollution from a large point source and b) reduction of existing pollution levels in an urban area utilizing the heat cogenerated by a thermal power plant for district heating. As to a) a program has been built to compute the minimum cost function for the chosen abatement...

  16. Automobile air pollution: abatement through management and planning. Volume 2. 1979-february, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1979-Feb 80

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    Planning and management studies for the abatement of air pollution from automobiles are covered. This includes reports on maintenance and inspection programs, emission factors, urban planning related to pollution, Government policies, and the effects of these strategies on citizens and urban growth. Reports which give background information pertinent to such abatement decisions are also cited. (This updated bibliography contains 52 abstracts, 43 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Automobile air pollution: abatement through management and planning. Volume 1. 1970-1978 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1970-78

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    This bibliography contains planning and management studies for the abatement of air pollution from automobiles. The reports covers maintenance and inspection programs, emission factors, urban planning related to pollution, Government policies, and the effects of these strategies on citizens and urban growth. Reports which give background information pertinent to such abatement decisions are also cited. (This updated bibliography contains 245 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  19. Special Taxing Districts, Real Estate Abatements, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Real Estate Abatements'....

  20. 76 FR 46352 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for San Diego International, San Diego, CA

    2011-08-02

    ... approved. No program elements relating to new or revised flight procedures for noise abatement were... actions for noise abatement, noise mitigation, land use planning and program management on and off the... environmental analysis. Any new procedures proposed for noise abatement at SAN may not be implemented prior to...

  1. 77 FR 4616 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North...

    2012-01-30

    ... provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter... Noise Abatement Act of 1979, as amended (herein after referred to as the ``Act'') [recodified as 49 U.S... of such program. The Noise Compatibility Program recommended one Noise Abatement Element, eight...

  2. 77 FR 43136 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, PA

    2012-07-23

    ... and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of Federal Regulations... approval of such program. The submitted program contained twenty-two proposed actions for noise abatement... a noise abatement advisory committee; continue to develop the responsibilities of the...

  3. Nonlinear Production, Abatement, Pollution and Materials Balance Reconsidered

    Pethig, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    In the environmental economics literature the standard approach of modeling nonlinear production and abatement processes is to treat waste emissions "simply as another factor of production" (Cropper and Oates 1992). That approach doesn't map the materials flow involved completely and hides, moreover, the exact links between production, residuals generation and abatement. This paper shows that production functions with emissions treated as inputs can be reconstructed as a subsystem of a compre...

  4. Testing Increasing Returns to Pollution Abatement in Pesticides

    Managi, Shunsuke

    2006-01-01

    According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, economic growth and the reduction of environmental degradation are compatible goals. An inverted U-shaped relationship between economic performance and environmental pollution suggests that, empirically, an economy is associated with smaller levels of pollution after some threshold income point. One potential explanation for the empirical evidence of an EKC is increasing returns to pollution abatement, where the abatement efficien...

  5. Environmental innovation and the cost of pollution abatement

    Bréchet, Thierry; JOUVET, Pierre-André

    2006-01-01

    The impact of environmental innovation on the marginal pollution abatement cost at the firm level is investigated. We show that the common assumption that innovation reduces the marginal abatement cost is wrong. We draw some implications about the incentives to innovate under environmental regulation. In particular, we find that adopting an environmental friendly technology may lead to more pollution and less profit at the firm level.

  6. Abatement Technology and the Environment-Growth Nexus with Education

    Pautrel, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the conventional result that a tighter environmental tax has no long-run effect on human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final output production. It demonstrates that the technology used in the abatement sector determines the existence and the direction of the growth-effect. A tighter environmental tax rises (respectively reduces) human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final production, if the abatement secto...

  7. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  8. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  9. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  10. Chemical abatement of acid mine drainage formation

    Steven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data were used to develop a unified model of hydroxo-, sulfato-, and bisulfato-iron complexes and their stability constants in iron-sulfate solutions. Free energy of formation for each ligand series species was hypothesized to be linear in ligand number because of supporting evidence from the literature. Laboratory tests on the inhibition of acid mine drainage bacteria were conducted. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. Low-pH cultures of Thiobacillus thioxidans significantly increased zinc sulfide dissolution rates relative to sterile controls. Sodium lauryl sulfate, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mg/liter, respectively, in identical low-pH, batch cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, were sufficient for complete inhibition of bacterial zinc sulfide dissolution. Pilot-scale experiments on the abatement of acid mine drainage formation in both fresh and weathered pyritic coal refuse were also conducted. At doses of 0.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg in fresh and weathered refuse, respectively, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and most significantly, sodium lauryl surface, reduced the rate of iron, sulfate, and acidity production in water-leached barrels of coal refuse material.

  11. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO2. The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  12. Optimal investment and uncertainty on China's carbon emission abatement

    To realize environmentally sustainable development of the economy, China has decided to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with the level in 2005. Based on China's emission abatement target, this paper first analyzes enterprises' emission reduction pathways in practical production processes, and then develops a framework to derive the magnitude of investment required in each pathway in order to achieve the designated target at the minimal cost. Under the framework, it is found that in the absence of policy guidance, individual enterprises' emission reduction investments deviate from the optimal level. To correct the distortion, an alternative option is provided. Meanwhile, to ensure achievement of the emission reduction target, a stochastic model is introduced to measure the uncertainty arising from emission abatement investment. The results show that an appropriate emission abatement ratio can reduce ‘the systemic risk’ of emission abatement. Finally, a simulation is given to demonstrate the results derived from the stochastic model. - Highlights: ► We formulate enterprises' emission–reduction pathways. ► We examine the cost-minimization problem with emission budget. ► A random model is established to measure the uncertainty of emission abatement. ► Several policy recommendations are proposed.

  13. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  14. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Marginal abatement cost curves and abatement strategies: Taking option interdependency and investments unrelated to climate change into account

    Firms usually have optimization tools for evaluating various investment options; policymakers likewise need tools for designing economically efficient policies. One such tool is the MACC (marginal abatement cost curve), used to capture the least-cost sequence of abatement options. Such curves are also used for understanding the implications of government policies for markets and firms. This article explores dynamic path-dependent aspects of the Stockholm district heating system case, in which the performance of some discrete options is conditioned by others. In addition, it proposes adding a feedback loop to handle option redundancy when implementing a sequence of options. Furthermore, in an energy system, actions unrelated to climate change abatement might likewise affect the performance of abatement options. This is discussed together with implications for climate change policy and corporate investment optimization. Our results indicate that a systems approach coupled with a feedback loop could help overcome some of the present methodological limitations. - Highlights: • We propose changes to the method for constructing marginal abatement cost curves. • We use district heating in Stockholm as an illustrative example. • Option interdependency and system transformation must be accounted for. • This could include changes not resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions

  16. Quantifying CO2 abatement costs in the power sector

    Van den Bergh, Kenneth; Delarue, Erik

    2015-01-01

    CO2 cap-and-trade mechanisms and CO2 emission taxes are becoming increasingly widespread. To assess the impact of a CO2 price, marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a commonly used tool by policy makers, providing a direct graphical link between a CO2 price and the expected abatement. However, such MACCs can suffer from issues related to robustness and granularity. This paper focuses on the relation between a CO2 emission cost and CO2 emission reductions in the power sector. The authors ...

  17. Marginal abatement cost curves and the optimal timing of mitigation measures

    Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. Measure-explicit marginal abatement cost curves depict the cost and abating potential of available mitigation options. Using a simple intertemporal optimization model, we demonstrate why this information is not sufficient to design emission reduction strategies. Because the measures required to achieve ambitious emission reductions cannot be implemented overnight, the optimal str...

  18. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  19. PFC Abatement in Capacitevely-Coupled Plasma Reactor

    Porshnev, P. I.; Alaoui, M.; Diamant, Stela; Francis, Terry; Raoux, Sebastien; Woolston, Mike

    2001-10-01

    A low-pressure plasma reactor, was developed to reduce PFC emissions of dielectric etch tools, is a point-of-use environmentally and economically sound solution. Generally, local electric fields in capacitively-coupled (CC) plasmas are higher than in inductively-coupled (IC) plasmas. As a result, electron energy distributions in CC plasmas have more pronounced high-energy part compared to the ones in IC plasmas. This is particularly important for effective breaking of the strong C-F bonds, which dissociation potentials are observably higher than the average electron energy. CC plasma in the Pegasys (Plasma Exhaust Gas Abatement SYStem) reactor was found to be in so-called g-regime, in which ionization is provided with secondary emission electrons. Though in these plasmas, the majority of electrons still reside in plasma bulk, the most important discharge characteristics, in particular, the abatement efficiency, are determined by highly-energetic electrons from sheath zones. With water being added to the incoming gas mixture, better than 95% destruction removal efficiency of the PFCs has been achieved for all dielectric etch applications. CC plasma-based abatement significantly differs from existing abatement methods, especially combustion and catalytic oxidation, which are much less environmentally friendly and economically viable.

  20. New Knowledge for the Industrial CVOC Emission Abatement

    Pitkäaho, S.; Nevanperä, T.; Matějová, Lenka; Kinnunen, T.; Ojala, S.; Keiski, R.L.

    Oulu : Juvenes Print, 2013 - (Pitkäaho, S.; Pruikkonen, H.; Pongrácz, E.; Keiski, R.), s. 19-22 ISBN 978-952-62-0292-1. [SkyPro Conference /2./. University of Oulu (FI), 12.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : catalysts * VOCs * CVOC emission abatement Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPA FILTRATION UNITS AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    A study was conducted to determine-the filtering efficiencies of 31 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units in use at asbestos-abatement projects. article-removal efficiencies for these units ranged from 90.53 to > 99.99 percent. ineteen (61%) of the units tested ...

  2. Estimating asbestos abatement projects: Excellence or 'You said I missed what'?

    Between 1900 and 1980, 30 million tons of asbestos were put in place. Because of the known health hazards and increasing federal, state, and local regulations, building owners are now facing the problem of asbestos abatement. There are 4 basic approaches to dealing with asbestos: (1) removal, (2) enclosure, (3) encapsulation, (4) deferred action in conjunction with a well defined operations and maintenance program. Once the full extent of the problem is determined, the decision can be made on which action or combination of actions to take and begin estimating the cost of the asbestos abatement project. There are no high-tech methods of asbestos removal. It is hot, wet, labor intensive work, the ways of removal are archaic. Removal means man power and man hours, labor is a big ticket item, and is an important factor in cost estimating. Become very familiar with the scope of the project and be sure to fully understand the depth of the asbestos problem. The products, supplies, tools, and in some cases, the machines are all disposable items. If one overlooks something or underestimates the time involved for removal, not only will one be way off on material, the labor costs will soar. Be very observant on walk throughs, notice everything. Be sure to get clear, accurate test results on material to be removed. Once all this is done, one can make a good take off with confidence. Finally, when in doubt always remember the 11th commandment of asbestos abatement cost-estimating 'If thou can't figure it out hor-ellipsis thou best figure it in.'

  3. Do abatement quotas lead to more successful climate coalitions?

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.-C.; Dellink, R. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group; Finus, M. [Univ. of Hagen (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2007-07-01

    Casual empirical evidence has already shown that existing international environmental agreements (IEAs) depart from a globally optimal solution typically in three respects. Firstly, not all countries that are responsible for negative transboundary spillovers participate in IEAs. A typical example is the Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. Neither the USA, a major current emitter of greenhouse gases, nor major future emitters such as China and India, have accepted quantified emission reductions under this agreement. Secondly, total abatement of the coalition is below coalitional optimal levels. For framework conventions (such as the Vienna Convention preceding the Montreal Protocol on CFC-reductions, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) preceding the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases reduction or the Convention Long Range Transboundary Pollution (LRTAP) preceding the Helsinki and Oslo Protocols on sulfur reductions) this is evident as they are mere declarations of intentions without abatement obligations. However, this suboptimality is also true for other conventions which is supported by empirical studies, suggesting that emission reduction targets are not much higher than in the absence of these agreements. Thirdly, emission reduction efforts are not cost-effectively allocated. Abatement obligations are often specified as uniform emission reduction quotas, even though countries face different marginal abatement costs. In the non-cooperative game theoretical literature on IEAs, the first type of deficiency has received much attention. A common assumption in many of these studies is that total abatement within a coalition is chosen optimally. The first papers shwoing that only small coalitions are self-enforcing go back to Barrett (1994) and Carraro and Siniscalco (1993), which has recently been confirmed by Breton et al. (2006). Later papers have addressed the problem of heterogeneous payoff functions and

  4. Endogenous Technological Progress with Uncertainty and Carbon Abatement Polices

    Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Most greenhouse gas abatement policy models tend to neglect a potentially important element that is relevant to the induced technology changes(ITC). These models that incorporate technological change treat such a change as autonomous, that is, unaffected by changes in prices brought about by policy reforms. However, climate change policies can create economic incentives to engage in more extensive R and D oriented toward the discovery of new production techniques that mitigate a reliance on convectional fuels, ultimately resulting in impacts on the policies themselves. In order to investigate the significance of induced technology for the attractiveness of abatement policies, this study develop the multi-sectoral dynamic CGE model by incorporating two characteristics of technological progress: the endogenous growth model with externality of technology in Romer (1986) and Lucas(1988) and the technological changes resulting from profit maximizing investment in R and D in Rebelo(1991) and Jones and Manuelli(1990). Furthermore, technological progress is affected by not only the economical factors but also the political and institutional system that cannot be captured in this model. This study considers such uncertainty in the technological progress as technology shock as in RBC school. This study shows that the presence of ITC implies lower costs of achieving a given abatement target in terms of the reduction cost per ton of carbon and GDP losses. The presence of ITC reduces the GDP losses by 0.9%p{approx}1.5%p compared with the absence of the ITC. As the abatement target is substantially high, R and D is reduced significantly even in the presence of ITC. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously consider the tax recycling for enhancing R and D investment, which minimizes the GDP losses. The reduction cost is highly sensitive to the uncertainty in technological progress. The technology shock leads the reduction cost to widely vary, in terms of standard deviation, 3

  5. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  6. A note the cost of pollution abatement

    Thierry Bréchet; Pierre-André Jouvet

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyse the consequences of the constraint of shareholder value on the wage level and equilibrium unemployment rate. We will relate the new program of maximization of the firm, as well as the one of the trade union. We obtain an increase of the unemployment rate when progressing from a maximization of profit to a maximization of the EVA. The unemployment rate is also now depending on others financial variables.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  8. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  9. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  10. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  11. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  12. DRONE - a tool for urban traffic noise abatement policy evaluation

    A. Bhaskar; Chung, E; Kuwahara, M

    2005-01-01

    Areawide Dynamic ROad traffic NoisE simulator-DRONE, been has developed by the integration of a road traffic noise prediction model (ASJ MODEL-1998) with road traffic simulator (AVENUE) which is further linked with GIS to provide areawide dynamic road traffic noise contour maps. This tool provides an engineering solution for the prediction of road traffic noise in urban network. Noise reduction in an urban area can be achieved by noise abatement policie...

  13. Quantifying CO2 abatement costs in the power sector

    CO2 cap-and-trade mechanisms and CO2 emission taxes are becoming increasingly widespread. To assess the impact of a CO2 price, marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a commonly used tool by policy makers, providing a direct graphical link between a CO2 price and the expected abatement. However, such MACCs can suffer from issues related to robustness and granularity. This paper focuses on the relation between a CO2 emission cost and CO2 emission reductions in the power sector. The authors present a new methodology that improves the understanding of the relation between a CO2 cost and CO2 abatement. The methodology is based on the insight that CO2 emissions in the power sector are driven by the composition of the conventional power portfolio, the residual load and the generation costs of the conventional units. The methodology addresses both the robustness issue and the granularity issue related to MACCs. The methodology is based on a bottom-up approach, starting from engineering knowledge of the power sector. It offers policy makers a new tool to assess CO2 abatement options. The methodology is applied to the Central Western European power system and illustrates possible interaction effects between, e.g., fuel switching and renewables deployment. - Highlights: • We present a new methodology on the CO2 cost-emission relation in the power sector. • Main objective of the methodology is to deepen the understanding of this relation. • CO2 emissions are driven by installed capacity, load and generation costs. • The robustness and granularity issues linked to MACCs are addressed. • We apply the methodology to the 2012 Central Western European power sector

  14. Determinants of Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure: Evidence from Romania

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Rault, Christophe; Sova, Robert; Sova, Anamaria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed some light on the factors affecting Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure (PACE) in the context of a transition economy such as Romania, in contrast to the existing literature which mostly focuses on developed economies. Specifically, we use survey data of the Romanian National Institute of Statistics and estimate Multilevel Regression Model (MRM) to investigate the determinants of environmental behaviour at plant level. Our results reveal some im...

  15. Evaluating uncertain CO2 abatement over the very long term

    Gerlagh, R.; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der

    2011-01-01

    Climate change research with the economic methodology of cost–benefit analysis is challenging because of valuation and ethical issues associated with the long delays between CO2 emissions and much of their potential damages, typically of several centuries. The large uncertainties with which climate change impacts are known today and the possibly temporary nature of some envisaged CO2 abatement options exacerbate this challenge. For example, potential leakage of CO2 from geological reservoirs,...

  16. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  17. On the cost-effective abatement of CO2-options taking consumer behaviour into account

    The current ecopolitical discussion focusses on the greenhouse effect and the consequent political aim to abate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Studies on individual measures for CO2 abatement and on the development of efficient abatement strategies are already at hand. There is one aspect, however, that has hardly been dealt with as yet: If CO2 abatement suceeds as it is planned by the Federal Government, then energy and prices will rise considerably, and this will curb the demand for energy. Any efficient abatement strategy must take this into account. The article presents a new concept for energy-emission models that takes consumer behaviour into account and discusses efficient CO2 abatement strategies following from the application of such models. (orig.)

  18. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  19. Assessment of the performance of asphalt rubber layers on noise abatement

    Freitas, Elisabete; Pereira, Paulo; Anfosso Ledee, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Layers with a very high content of rubber have shown to be very effective on noise abatement despite their reduced durability. On the contrary, layers with a rubberized asphalt binder have shown to be durable, but their performance regarding noise abatement is not consensual yet. This paper aims at assessing the effect of the use of layers with rubberized asphalt binder on noise abatement. For this purpose seven road sections with different surface types, among which five gap graded and three...

  20. Assessment of the performance of asphalt rubber layers on noise abatement

    Freitas, Elisabete F.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Layers with a very high content of rubber have shown to be very effective on noise abatement despite their reduced durability. On the contrary, layers with a rubberized asphalt binder have shown to be durable, but their performance regarding noise abatement is not consensual yet. This paper aims at assessing the effect of the use of layers with rubberized asphalt binder on noise abatement. For this purpose seven road sections with different surface types, among which five gap grad...

  1. COSTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ABATEMENT UNDER THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Larson, Donald F.; ARIEL DINAR

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the costs of emissions abatement through various types of projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Using project data, cost functions are estimated applying alternative functional forms. Results show that the average cost of abatement decreases with the volume of abatement, showing economies of scale and suggesting that reducing emissions through small projects is relatively expensive. Results also show significant variation in t...

  2. Perspectives of nuclear power and carbon dioxide abatement

    The papers presented at the conference particularly look at reactor safety aspects and nuclear power programmes worldwide, which are discussed in connection with the demand for ensuring power supplies in the future, and reducing atmospheric pollution by carbon dioxide. The CO2 problem as it is encountered at present and strategies for CO2 abatement are explained in some papers, whereas other papers are concerned with nuclear power reactors and the related major aspects of safety engineering, nuclear fuel supply and radioactive waste management, and further development of nuclear installations, comparing the technical details and pro and cons of LWR, HTR, and breeder reactor programmes. (DG)

  3. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  4. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  6. Robust MACCs? The topography of abatement by fuel switching in the European power sector

    This paper employs a simulation model of the European power sector to analyze the abatement response to a CO2 price through fuel switching, one of principal means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in any economy. Abatement is shown to depend not only on the price of allowances, but also and more importantly on the load level of the system and the ratio between natural gas and coal prices. The interplay of these different determinants vitiates any simple relation between a CO2 price and abatement and requires the development of more than two-dimensional graphics to illustrate these complex relationships. In the terms of the literature on the use of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), we find that these MACCs are not robust as usually defined and we suggest that the more complex topography developed in this paper may be more helpful in visualizing this abatement response to a CO2 price.

  7. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desirability of subsidies for abatement technology. We find a more robust recommendation for upstream subsidies than for downstream subsidies. Downstream subsidies tend to increase global abatement technology prices, reduce pollution abatement abroad and increase emission leakage. On the contrary, upstream subsidies reduce abatement technology prices, and hence also emissions leakage.(Author)

  8. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  9. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    Mendes AA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A escalda, depena e evisceração são pontos importantes de contaminação cruzada no abatedouro devido à grande quantidade de microorganismos aderidos às penas, pele e patas das aves e ao rompimento das vísceras durante a evisceração. Entretanto, a desidratação da carcaça começa imediatamente após o início do jejum. Períodos prolongados de jejum podem afetar o pH das diversas partes do intestino, aumentando a presença de Salmonella e outros microorganismos patogênicos. Além disso, determinam uma maior contaminação pela bile, e são, subjetivamente, associados à fragilidade dos intestinos durante a evisceração mecânica. Portanto, os esquemas de processamento devem ser estabelecidos levando-se em conta a integridade e o esvaziamento do intestino e da vesícula biliar, bem como a desidratação e os seus efeitos sobre o bem estar das aves, contaminação da carcaça e qualidade da carne. Como alguns efeitos do jejum ainda não são bem conhecidos, sugerem-se pesquisas nas seguintes áreas: definir o tempo ótimo de jejum para atender o bem estar das aves, minimizar a contaminação e otimizar os parâmetros de qualidade de carcaça; estudar os efeitos de períodos prolongados de jejum sobre o pH e a colonização do papo, pró-ventrículo, moela, intestino delgado, intestino grosso e cecos por enterobactérias, como Salmonella, por exemplo; efeito do jejum sobre o tamanho e cor do fígado. O resultado esperado é um aumento

  10. Radwaste solidification modifications by means of nitrogen oxides catalytic abatement

    In the treatment and solidification of medium and high level radioactive wastes, large amounts of NO /sub x/ are produced, which are normally scrubbed with nitric acid or alkaline solutions. In this way big volumes of secondary wastes containing high nitrate concentrations which cannot be easily discharged are produced. The application of the NO /sub x/ catalytic abatement with selective ammonia reduction would permit to avoid this problem, with large cost savings. Two practical examples have been examined: a bituminization plant and a pot vitrification plant referred to the Italian EUREX Reprocessing Pilot Plant. 416,000 and 362,000 $/y respectively would be saved by replacing scrubbing towers with a catalytic reactor

  11. Pulsed Corona Discharges and Their Applications in Toxic VOCs Abatement

    MuhammadArifMalik; SalmanAkbarMalik

    1999-01-01

    plasma processes are among the emerging technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sbatoment. Both thermal plasmas and non-equil[brimn plasmas (cold plasmas) are being developed for VOCs clesnup. Particularly, pulsed corona discharges offer several edvantages over conventional VOCs abatement tochniqvee, To optimize the existing technology and to developit further, there is need to understand the mechanlsms involved in plasma chemical reacticms, Furthermore, it is strongly desirable to be able to predict the behavior of new VOCs in non-equillbrlum plasma enviromuent from the data known for a few representative oompounds, Pulsed corona discharge technique is introduced here with dtafion of refevant literature, Fundamental principfes,useful for predicting the VOCs' decomposition behavior, have been worked out from the published literature. Latest developments in the area, targeted to minimize the enersy losses, improve the VOCs destruction efficiency and reduce the generation of unwanted organic and inorganic by-products, are presented.

  12. Asia: Inflation is Abating,But More Challenges Lie Ahead

    Nicholas Kwan

    2011-01-01

    No quick monetary easingAcross Asia,there are signs that the current round of consumer price inflation is abating,as we predicted earlier this year.But it is much too early for Asian governments to claim victory in their efforts to achieve price stability.Even assuming the battle against consumer price inflation is won,the more challenging war against asset-price inflation is yet to fully unfold.Tne next three to six months will be critical.Monetary policy needs to remain tight,or even be tightened further.More importantly,macro-prudential measures and other policy tools are required to contain leverage and the risk of asset bubbles.While inflation numbers may moderate further,investors looking for a quick reversal of theregion's tight monetary policy are likely to be disappointed,and markets could turn more volatile in anticipation of policy changes.

  13. SO2 abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at Copper Cliff

    This paper reports that Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO2 emissions form the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O2/t Cu + Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead to a substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation of high-strength SO2 off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant

  14. 77 FR 3545 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for Philadelphia International...

    2012-01-24

    ... provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47504 (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the..., Office of the Noise Abatement Program Manager, located at 2801 Island Avenue, Suite 13, Philadelphia, PA... FR 44046 (July 27, 2010). The proposed noise compatibility program will be approved or disapproved...

  15. 75 FR 35122 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Buckeye Municipal Airport, Town of Buckeye, AZ

    2010-06-21

    ... approval of such program. The submitted program contained five proposed actions for noise abatement, noise... Town of Buckeye under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part...

  16. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO2e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO2e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO2e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  17. Marginal abatement cost curves in general equilibrium: The influence of world energy prices

    Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a favorite instrument to analyze international emissions trading. This paper focuses on the question of how to define MACCs in a general equilibrium context where the global abatement level influences energy prices and in turn national MACCs. We discuss the mechanisms theoretically and then use the CGE model DART for quantitative simulations. The result is, that changes in energy prices resulting from different global abatement levels do indeed affect national MACCs. Also, we compare different possibilities of defining MACCs-of which some are robust against changes in energy prices while others vary considerably. (author)

  18. Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?

    Zhengge Tu; Renjun Shen

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS) on the pollution abatement costs (PAC) from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC) and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC) based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. O...

  19. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NOx control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NOx controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NOx retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NOx controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NOx-specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  20. Energy conservation and CO2-emission abatement potential in the Greek residential services sector

    A policy for CO2-emission abatement will have to allow for the sectoral energy-conservation potential. The present paper outlines the energy-analysis method applied to the Greek residential and services sectors. The trends in energy requirements for 1990-2000 are forecast and energy-conservation and CO2-abatement measures are proposed. A Maximum Action Scenario (MAS) and a Realistic Scenario (RS) are compared with a No-Action Scenario (NAS). (Author)

  1. Environmental policy, education and growth with finite lifetime: the role of the abatement technology

    Pautrel, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    This note shows that the assumptions about the abatement technology modify the impact of the environmental taxation on the long-run growth driven by human capital accumulation à la Lucas (1988), when lifetime is finite. Whereas no impact of the environmental policy on long-run growth is found when pollution originates from final output and abatement is an activity requiring final output to reduce net emissions, this note demonstrates that a tighter environmental tax enhances human capital acc...

  2. Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry : cost estimates and policy implications

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Minul; Wheeler, David; Chonghua Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Using factory-level data provided by China's National Environmental Protection Agency and the Tianjin Environmental Protection Bureau, the authors of this report estimate the costs of water pollution abatement for Chinese industry. Using their econometric results, they analyze the cost-effectiveness of current pollution control policy in China and make the conclusions that follow. (1) For each pollutant, marginal abatement costs exhibit great differences by sector, scale, and degree of abatem...

  3. Greenhouse gas abatement costs of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification

    The demand for hydrogen is likely to increase in the next decade to satisfy the projected growth of the bitumen upgrading industry in western Canada. This paper presents GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement costs and the GHG abatement potential in producing hydrogen from UCG (underground coal gasification) along with CCS (carbon capture and sequestration). Seven hydrogen production scenarios are considered to assess the competitiveness of implementing UCG compared to SMR (steam methane reforming). The analysis is completed through a LCA (life cycle assessment) of large-scale hydrogen production from UCG and SMR with and without CCS. Considering SMR technology without CCS as the base case, the GHG abatement costs of implementing the UCG-CCS technology is calculated to be in the range of 41–109 $CAD/tonne-CO2-eq depending on the transportation distance to the CCS site from the UCG-H2 production plant. Life cycle GHG emissions are higher in UCG than in SMR. The GHG abatement costs for SMR-CCS-based scenarios are higher than for UCG-CCS-based scenarios; they range from 87 to 158 $CAD/tonne-CO2-eq in a similar manner to UCG-CCS. Consideration of revenues for selling the CO2 captured for EOR (enhanced oil recovery) reduces the GHG abatement costs. An opportunity for revenue generation is realized in the UCG-CCS case. - Highlights: • Estimation of GHG abatement costs for UCG and SMR with and without CCS. • UCG-CCS has the lowest GHG abatement costs. • UCG-CCS has the highest GHG abatement potential. • Life cycle GHG emissions in SMR-CCS are higher than in UCG-CCS

  4. ACCOUNTING FOR SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS IN EVALUATING WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT POLICIES

    Qiu, Zeyuan; Prato, Anthony A.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates three agricultural nonpoint pollution abatement policies: regulating the spatial pattern of agricultural activities, ambient tax, and abatement tax/subsidy. All three policies incorporate spatial characteristics of agricultural emission loading and movement for an agricultural watershed in the Midwest. The effects of spatial variation in natural conditions and landscape features on agricultural emissions and crop yield are evaluated using a newly developed biophysical sim...

  5. ALLOCATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE MARGINAL COSTS OF POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Shortle, James S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the possible use of information on the relative marginal costs of point and nonpoint source water pollution abatement to assess the efficiency implications of shifting a greater portion of the burden for water quality protection to nonpoint sources. The inherent uncertainty about the effects of changes in resource allocation for nonpoint pollution abatement on nonpoint pollution loads is recognized in the analysis. This uncertainty is shown to result in significant limitat...

  6. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SHADOW PRICE AND COST ESTIMATES OF NITROGEN POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Shaik, Saleem; Helmers, Glenn A.; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The implications of treating environmental pollution as an undesirable output (weak disposability) as well as a normal input (strong disposability) on the direct and indirect shadow price and cost estimates of nitrogen pollution abatement is analyzed using Nebraska agriculture sector data. The shadow price of nitrogen pollution abatement treated as an undesirable output represents the reduced revenue from reducing nitrogen pollution. In contrast, the shadow price of nitrogen pollution abateme...

  7. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges.

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiantao; Pan, Hua; Su, Qingfa; Liu, Yamin; Shi, Yao

    2010-05-15

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m(3) reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O(3) and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML+dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20mg/kJ. PMID:20116170

  8. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges

    Chen Jie; Yang Jiantao; Pan Hua; Su Qingfa; Liu Yamin [Institute of Industrial Ecology and Environment, Zhejiang University (Yuquan Campus) Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shi Yao, E-mail: shiyao@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Ecology and Environment, Zhejiang University (Yuquan Campus) Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m{sup 3} reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O{sub 3} and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML + dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20 mg/kJ.

  9. Prospects for non-thermal atmospheric plasmas for pollution abatement

    For approximately the past ten years, atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas have been increasingly promoted as a technology for a number of applications in the area of pollution abatement. In such plasmas, the electrons have a significantly higher temperature compared to the ions, atoms and molecules. This paper provides an overview of both the technologies involved and the diverse potential application areas. A general description of these atmospheric plasmas and the basic principles involved in the destruction or removal of gaseous phase pollutants, based on the nature of the processes taking place within these plasmas, are given. A number of examples of the different plasma technologies are described. The technologies described are pulsed corona, microwave and dielectric barrier plasmas. Their suitability and use in various application areas are also discussed including incinerator off gas treatment, industrial process off gas treatment and diesel exhaust aftertreatment. The use of modelling of the physical and chemical processes involved to predict system performance and as a tool for sizing systems to meet customer requirements is also discussed. (author)

  10. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m3 reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O3 and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML + dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20 mg/kJ.

  11. Yale FICSIT: risk factor abatement strategy for fall prevention.

    Tinetti, M E; Baker, D I; Garrett, P A; Gottschalk, M; Koch, M L; Horwitz, R I

    1993-03-01

    Based on finding a strong association between number of impairments and risk of falling in earlier studies, Yale FICSIT investigators are conducting an intervention trial comparing the effectiveness of usual care plus social visits (SV) and a targeted risk abatement intervention (TI) strategy in reducing falls among at risk community elderly persons. Subjects include members of a participating HMO who are > or = 70 years of age, cognitively intact, not terminally ill, not too physically active, and possess at least one fall risk factor. The targeted risk factors include postural hypotension; sedative use; at least four targeted medications; upper and lower extremity strength and range of motion impairments; foot problems; and balance, gait, and transfer dysfunctions. The interventions include medication adjustments, behavioral change recommendations, education and training, and home-based exercise regimens targeting the identified risk factors. The interventions are carried out by the study nurse practitioner and physical therapist in TI subjects' homes. The SV subjects receive a comparable number of home visits as the TI subjects during which a structured life review is performed by social work students. The primary outcome is occurrence of falls during the 12-month followup. Secondary outcomes include change in mobility performance and fall-related efficacy. PMID:8440856

  12. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  13. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence. PMID:23343109

  14. CO2 Abatement In The Iron And Steel Industry

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The iron and steel industry is the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions due to the energy intensity of steel production, its reliance on carbon-based fuels and reductants, and the large volume of steel produced -- over 1414 Mt in 2010. With the growing concern over climate change, steel makers are faced with the challenge of finding ways of lowering CO2 emissions without seriously undermining process efficiency or considerably adding to costs. This report examines ways of abating CO2 emissions from raw materials preparation (coking, sintering and pelletising plants) through to the production of liquid steel in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces. Direct reduction and smelting reduction processes are covered, as well as iron making in a blast furnace. A range of technologies and measures exist for lowering CO2 emissions including minimising energy consumption and improving energy efficiency, changing to a fuel and/or reducing agent with a lower CO2 emission factor (such as wood charcoal), and capturing the CO2 and storing it underground. Significant CO2 reductions can be achieved by combining a number of the available technologies. If carbon capture and storage is fitted than steel plants could become near zero emitters of CO2.

  15. Climate and air quality-driven scenarios of ozone and aerosol precursor abatement

    In addition to causing domestic and regional environmental effects, many air pollutants contribute to radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. However, climate effects are not considered when cost-effective abatement targets for these pollutants are established, nor are they included in current international climate agreements. We construct air pollution abatement scenarios in 2030 which target cost-effective reductions in RF in the EU, USA, and China and compare these to abatement scenarios which instead target regional ozone effects and particulate matter concentrations. Our analysis covers emissions of PM (fine, black carbon and organic carbon), SO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and CO. We find that the effect synergies are strong for PM/BC, VOC, CO and CH4. While an air quality strategy targeted at reducing ozone will also reduce RF, this will not be the case for a strategy targeting particulate matter. Abatement in China dominates RF reduction, but there are cheap abatement options also available in the EU and USA. The justification for international cooperation on air quality issues is underlined when the co-benefits of reduced RF are considered. Some species, most importantly SO2, contribute a negative forcing on climate. We suggest that given current knowledge, NOx and SO2 should be ignored in RF-targeted abatement policies.

  16. Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I

    Garza, Sergio

    1977-01-01

    Regional decline of aquifer head due to ground-water withdrawal in the Houston area has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. The NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) in southeastern Harris County, Texas, was about 13 to 19 feet above mean sea level in 1974 and sinking at a rate of more than 0.2 foot per year. NASA-JSC officials, concerned about the hurricane flooding hazard, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to study the feasibility of artificially recharging the aquifers for subsidence abatement. Hydrologic digital models were developed for theoretical determinations of quantities of water needed, under various well-array plans, for artificial recharge of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in order to halt the local subsidence at NASA-JSC. The programs for the models were developed for analysis of three-dimensional ground-water flow. Total injection rates of between 2,000 and 14,000 gallons per minute under three general well-array plans were determined for a range of residual clay pore pressures of 10 to 70 feet of hydraulic head. The space distributions of the resultant hydraulic heads, illustrated for injection rates of 3,600 and 8 ,400 gallons per minute, indicated that, for the same rate, increasing the number and spread of the injection locations reduces the head gradients within NASA-JSC. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  18. 77 FR 14461 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    2012-03-09

    ... flight procedures for noise abatement were proposed by the airport operator. DATES: Effective Date: The... period shall be deemed to be an approval of such program, seven proposed actions for noise abatement... Creek, Michigan, under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and...

  19. 78 FR 16910 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport, Cleveland, Ohio

    2013-03-19

    ... for noise abatement, land use planning and program management on and off the airport were evaluated... Cleveland, Ohio under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR part 150 (hereinafter referred to...

  20. Marginal abatement cost curves and the optimal timing of mitigation measures

    Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. Measure-explicit marginal abatement cost curves depict the cost and abating potential of available mitigation options. Using a simple intertemporal optimization model, we demonstrate why this information is not sufficient to design emission reduction strategies. Because the measures required to achieve ambitious emission reductions cannot be implemented overnight, the optimal strategy to reach a short-term target depends on longer-term targets. For instance, the best strategy to achieve European's −20% by 2020 target may be to implement some expensive, high-potential, and long-to-implement options required to meet the −75% by 2050 target. Using just the cheapest abatement options to reach the 2020 target can create a carbon-intensive lock-in and make the 2050 target too expensive to reach. Designing mitigation policies requires information on the speed at which various measures to curb greenhouse gas emissions can be implemented, in addition to the information on the costs and potential of such measures provided by marginal abatement cost curves. - Highlights: • Classification of existing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC). • MACCs do not provide separated data on the speed at which measures can be implemented. • Optimal measures to reach a short-term target depend on longer-term targets. • Unique carbon price or aggregated emission-reduction target may be insufficient. • Room for short-term sectoral policies if agents are myopic or governments cannot commit

  1. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  2. Emission abatement: Untangling the impacts of the EU ETS and the economic crisis

    In this study we use historical emission data from installations under the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to evaluate the impact of this policy on greenhouse gas emissions during the first two trading phases (2005–2012). As such the analysis seeks to disentangle two causes of emission abatement: that attributable to the EU ETS and that attributable to the economic crisis that hit the EU in 2008/09. To do so, we use a dynamic panel data approach. Our results suggest that, by far, the biggest share of abatement was attributable to the effects of the economic crisis. This finding has serious implications for future policy adjustments affecting core elements of the EU ETS, including the distribution of EU emission allowances. - Highlights: • We untangle the effects of the EU ETS from those of the economic crisis on industrial emission abatement. • The empirical analysis uses verified emission data instead of estimated emission data. • Abatement of emissions in EU in the last years has been mainly due to the impact of the economic crisis. • Low level of abatement attributable to the EU ETS suggests that important changes must be made in environmental policy

  3. Working Group 'Air pollution abatement' of the University of Stuttgart -ALS. Annual report 1990

    Despite considerable efforts for air pollution abatement - examples are here desulphurization and nitrogen removal in power and large combustion plants as well as catalytic converters for automobiles there are still many problems to solve. Many small and medium-size companies still have to reduce production-related pollutant emissions, traffic still is a major source of pollutants. Air pollution abatement in the new Federal states and other Eastern European countries is a particularly urgent task and reductions of CO2 emissions from energy production processes with fossil fuels are not least a great challenge. Apart from industry, legislation and administration especially science is called upon to find solutions to these problems. The university of Stuttgart takes up the challenge. Numerous institutes - 17 of 8 faculties -united in the working group ''air pollution abatement'' of the university of Stuttgart which carries out in interdisciplinary cooperation research work in the area of air pollution abatement. In this annual report activities of individual member states institutes in the area of air pollution abatement (fields of study, current research projects, cooperations and publications in 1991) as well as joint projects are presented. (orig./KW)

  4. Marginal abatement cost curves for policy recommendation – A method for energy system analysis

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to rank possible measures marginal abatement cost curves have become a tool to graphically represent the relationship between abatement costs and emission reduction. This paper demonstrates how to derive marginal abatement cost curves for well-to-wheel GHG emissions of the transport sector considering the full energy provision chain and the interlinkages and interdependencies within the energy system. Presented marginal abatement cost curves visualize substitution effects between measures for different marginal mitigation costs. The analysis makes use of an application of the energy system model generator TIMES for South Africa (TIMES-GEECO). For the example of Gauteng province, this study exemplary shows that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for cost-efficient reduction of GHG emissions. However, the analysis also demonstrates that several options are available to mitigate transport related GHG emissions at comparable low marginal abatement costs. This methodology can be transferred to other economic sectors as well as to other regions in the world to derive cost-efficient GHG reduction strategies

  5. Electrochemical abatement of chloroethanes in water: Reduction, oxidation and combined processes

    An electrochemical route, based on the anodic oxidation to carbon dioxide coupled with the cathodic reduction to de-halogenated hydrocarbons, was proposed for the treatment of waters contaminated by chloroethanes. The electrochemical abatement of two model compounds, namely 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, was carried out by cathodic reduction at silver, anodic oxidation at boron doped diamond (BDD) and combined processes. The anodic oxidation gives rise to a high abatement of the concentration of both these compounds and of COD. The reduction of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane proceeds also with high abatement but with the formation of some halogenated intermediates and final products, even if in low concentrations. Lower abatements were, on the other hand, obtained for the reduction of 1,2-dichloroethane. When reduction and oxidation processes were carried out simultaneously, a higher abatement of pollutants was obtained with the same amount of the passed charge (e.g., passed time) and applied cell voltage with respect to uncoupled processes. Furthermore, in the case of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, no other halogenated products were detected at the end of the electrolyses when the combined process was performed in an undivided cell.

  6. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

  7. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  8. Control of chironamics in milkfish (Chanos chanos) ponds with Abate (Temephos) insecticide

    Tsai, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Larval chironomids (Chironomus longilobus (Kieffer) are serious competitors with milkfish Chanos chanos (Forskal) for benthic algae in commercial milkfish ponds in Taiwan. Chironomid larvae were effectively killed with temephos (Abate, 0, 0, 0', 0'-tetramethyl 0, 0'-thiodi-p-phenylene phosphorothioate) 50% emulsifiable concentrate when it was diluted 1:2,000 with seawater and applied to milkfish ponds to establish a concentration of 0.050 mg/liter of the active ingredient. This treatment did not harm milkfish and benthic algae. Residues found in the edible portions of milkfish after seven applications of Abate 50% emulsifiable concentrate ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/kg, well below the 1.0 mg/liter approved by the World Health Organization for presence in human drinking water. The acute toxicity of Abate 50% emulsifiable concentrate to 13 other species of aquatic animals was determined in the laboratory.

  9. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  10. L’abate Angelo Comolli (1760-1794) e il confronto Raffaello-Dürer

    Stefano Onofri

    2012-01-01

    L’articolo studia l’abate Angelo Comolli e la sua Vita inedita di Raffaello da Urbino, pubblicata per la prima volta a Roma nel 1790. Di questa biografia è interessante, in particolare, il brano sul confronto tra Raffaello e Dürer. Non si sa molto della vita dell’abate Comolli: possiamo ricavarne alcune informazioni da una lettera (Torino, Biblioteca Civica) scritta dal fratello Fermo. Nel suo lavoro su Raffaello, Comolli dichiara di pubblicare con note un’anonima biografia del pittore urbina...

  11. Air pollution abatement as influenced by the structural change in energy supplies and transportation. Papers

    This colloquium was organised by the Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft (KRdL) (Committee on Air Pollution Abatement) within the VDI and DIN in close cooperation with other expert committees and institutions. The aim was, working from the situation in the new Laender, to analyse the focal problems: coordination of the energy economy and ecopolitics; emissions and pollutant input as a function of the primary energy sources used; utilisation of residual energy/thermal waste treatment; and air pollution abatement and traffic. The analysis was to be conducted from the viewpoint of national and international regulations and lead to suggestions of possible solutions. Twenty-seven contributions were abstracted individually. (orig.)

  12. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  13. Industrial Competitiveness and Diffusion of New Pollution Abatement Technology – a new look at the Porter-hypothesis

    Greaker, Mads

    2004-01-01

    We study the relationship between industrial competitiveness, adaption of cleaner production techniques and environmental policy. While other contributions have analyzed environmental innovations with point of departure in the polluting firm, we introduce an upstream market for new pollution abatement technology. A strong environmental policy may then benefit industrial competitiveness through its effect on the price on pollution abatement. However, the incentive for a stringen...

  14. Photovoltaic (PV) electricity: Comparative analyses of CO2 abatement at different fuel mix scales in the US

    Photovoltaic electricity has the potential to mitigate CO2 emissions from the grid. A methodology to more accurately evaluate CO2 abatement by PV electricity is developed. We develop a capacity factor based dispatching model to evaluate marginal abatement in the load zones of ERCOT and CAISO, and compare it to the abatement using national, regional and state average resource profiles. The average cases over-estimated and under-estimated CO2 abatement in ERCOT and CAISO, respectively. Marginal abatement was lower by 17% than the average cases in ERCOT, due to the predominant displacement of the low carbon natural gas plants at the margin. In CASIO, marginal abatement was higher (1.3-2.4 times) than that of the average cases due to the displacement of highly inefficient gas plants at the margin. We demonstrate that actual CO2 abatement of PV electricity is dependent on both peak load resources and capacity of installations. Subsequently, we develop a CO2 indicator that can be used as a guideline for selecting PV installation sites to derive maximum abatement. Installing photovoltaics in regional areas of MRO, SPP and RFC was determined to be most beneficial. The results of this study can guide energy planning and CO2 mitigation policy-making using photovoltaics in the future.

  15. Zeolite ZSM5 catalysts for abatement of nitrogen oxide

    Ganemi, Bager

    1999-07-01

    Airborne pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels are a global problem. Emission of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is increasing with the worldwide increase in the use of energy. Atmospheric and photochemical reactions link nitrogen oxides to hydrocarbons and tropospheric ozone. The emission of NO{sub x} has to be tackled urgently in order to limit the harmful effects of anthropogenic activity on the environment. The subject of this thesis is catalytic nitrogen oxide abatement through direct decomposition and reduction by methane over ion-exchanged zeolite ZSM5. The work covers catalytic conversion and surface intermediates, including correlations with the level of exchanged Cu{sup 2+} cations and Ni{sup 2+} or Pd{sup 2+} co-cations. Special attention is given to the aluminium content of the support and changes in structural parameters. It was found that NO{sub x} conversion over cation-exchanged ZSM5 is strongly influenced by the ion-exchange procedure and by the above material parameters. Characterization of Cu-ZSM5 reveals that approximately two molecules of water per Cu{sup 2+} ion desorb at temperatures between 150 and 350 Deg C, in addition to the conventional dehydration at lower temperatures. The desorbed water comes from the decomposition of Cu(OH){sub 2}. Decomposition of hydroxylated copper ions results in the formation Of Cu{sup 2+}-O-Cu{sup 2+} dimers, which are suggested to be the active sites for catalytic decomposition of NO. Acid sites are important for the dispersion of copper ions on the catalyst surface. Acid sites are also important for the interaction between copper species and the zeolite. Increased acidity leads to a stronger interaction between the exchanged cation and the framework, i.e. the exchanged cations become more resistant to mobility. The stronger bond between the exchanged cations and lattice oxygen also prevents dealumination of the catalyst and decreases the thermal expansion at higher temperatures. The temperature of

  16. Methodological lessons and results from UNEP GHG abatement costing studies. The case of Zimbabwe

    This article is based on greenhouse gas emissions and greenhouse gas abatement costing studies carried out for Zimbabwe. The study produced an inventory of GHG emissions for the country and assessed the cost of 17 technological options for reducing emissions on the basis of which was developed a set of abatement cost curves. The study shows that emission levels as at 1991 were 16.9 million tonnes having increased from a 1982 level of 8.9 million tonnes. Abatement costs range from -Z$821.50 (negative costs) per tonne for the cheapest abatement option to Z$31 645.00 for the most expensive option considered. However, omitting the two options at the endpoints of the cost curve the remaining options are in the interval - Z$49.6 to +Z$1673.2. Assessment of these costs was based on cost items such as capital outlay for an option, related fuel costs and a discount rate set at 6% and 10%. (Author)

  17. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  18. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has bee

  19. Biological inhibitor abatement and ethanol fermentation of sugars from dilute acid-pretreated rice hulls

    Fermentation inhibitors arise from lignin, hemicellulose, and degraded sugar during pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a microbe has been explored for abatement of pretreated biomass in which fermentation inhibitors, if left untreated, can complicate microbial conversion of biomass to f...

  20. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  1. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  2. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methodsand equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during themanufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Threeseparating methods and equipment are presented in this article tocontrol three different groups of electronic wastes. The firstgroup includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes ofsemiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure forthis group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric andmanganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. Thesecond group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus,HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture ofsemiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedureinvolves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with aseparator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions ofAs, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in aflocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test resultsshowed that all waste gases and water after the abatementprocedures presented in this article passed the discharge standardsset by the state Environmental Protection Administrationof china.

  3. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-

  4. Fermentation of Bioenergy Crops Into Ethanol Using Biological Abatement for Removal of Inhibitors

    Conversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals is hampered by the presence of inhibitory compounds contained in sugar streams derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Biological abatement is a promising method for removing these inhibitors because it neither consumes chemicals nor generates wastes. In t...

  5. A Critique of the Public Education Approach to Industrial Pollution Abatement.

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    1973-01-01

    Public education cannot be considered an efficient alternative to industrial pollution abatement. The public education alternative stresses that an informed non-industrial public will, out of civic responsibility, bring about sufficient social pressure on the industrial sector to end pollution. However, evidence suggests that the mere presence of…

  6. Non-thermal plasmas for non-catalytic and catalytic VOC abatement

    Highlights: → We review the current status of catalytic and non-catalytic VOC abatement based on a vast number of research papers. → The underlying mechanisms of plasma-catalysis for VOC abatement are discussed. → Critical process parameters that determine the influent are discussed and compared. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent achievements and the current status of non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many reactor configurations have been developed to generate a NTP at atmospheric pressure. Therefore in this review article, the principles of generating NTPs are outlined. Further on, this paper is divided in two equally important parts: plasma-alone and plasma-catalytic systems. Combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has attracted increased attention in order to overcome the weaknesses of plasma-alone systems. An overview is given of the present understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-catalytic processes. In both parts (plasma-alone systems and plasma-catalysis), literature on the abatement of VOCs is reviewed in close detail. Special attention is given to the influence of critical process parameters on the removal process.

  7. International status of the existing means and techniques for source term abatement

    This paper gives an overview of all existing or potential means and techniques allowing to reduce the source term in PWR reactors. These means belong to three categories: those related to design and fabrication, those related to exploitation, and those calling for curative techniques. For each of these means, the paper gives a brief description of the technique used, evaluates its efficiency in terms of dose rate or contamination improvement, indicates its implementation at the international scale and the position of EDF with respect to this mean: 1 - source term abatement at the design or fabrication stage: reduction of the cobalt amount (reduction of the cobalt content of steam generator (SG) tubes, replacement of the fuel grids alloy, reduction of stellite surfaces); surface treatments (electropolishing of new steam generator water boxes, use of the surface chromium electrodeposition process); 2 - source term abatement by exploitation modification or optimization: surfaces conditioning (preconditioning of replacement SGs, preconditioning of the RCP (elementary system of French PWRs primary loop) before commissioning); chemistry modification or optimization (zinc injection, high and constant pH in the RCP during operation, acid and reductive chemistry during shutdown, abatement of the H2 content of the RCP, use of 10B-enriched boric acid, iron injection), exploitation modification or optimization (low shutdown criteria for primary pumps, purification, use of inert atmosphere in auxiliary water systems, de-oxygenation of the elementary cooling system during shutdown); 4 - curative means for source term abatement: ultrasonic cleaning of the irradiated fuel, circuits decontamination. (J.S.)

  8. Valuation of marginal CO2 abatement options for electric power plants in Korea

    The electricity generation sector in Korea is under pressure to mitigate greenhouse gases as directed by the Kyoto Protocol. The principal compliance options for power companies under the cap-and-trade include the application of direct CO2 emission abatement and the procurement of emission allowances. The objective of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for assessing the cost-effectiveness of these options. We attempt to derive the marginal abatement cost for CO2 using the output distance function and analyze the relative advantages of emission allowance procurement option as compared to direct abatement option. Real-option approach is adopted to incorporate emission allowance price uncertainty. Empirical result shows the marginal abatement cost with an average of Euro 14.04/ton CO2 for fossil-fueled power plants and confirms the existence of substantial cost heterogeneity among plants which is sufficient to achieve trading gains in allowance market. The comparison of two options enables us to identify the optimal position of the compliance for each plant. Sensitivity analyses are also presented with regard to several key parameters including the initial allowance prices and interest rate. The result of this paper may help Korean power plants to prepare for upcoming regulations targeted toward the reduction of domestic greenhouse gases.

  9. Sustainable noise abatement along motorways in Germany – an empirical study in the municipality Frasdorf (Bavaria

    Jürgen Breuste

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecological respects. Sustainable noise abatement should take into consideration ecological and social aspects like landscape integration and contribution to local development due to the unique location of the municipality. Enclosed motorway canopies are particularly beneficial to meet these criteria. The costs for sustainable noise abatement measures should be weighted as less important; however, financial costs are crucial for the federal government due to the requirements of the Federal Pollution Control Act. Hence, residents and experts assume that noise barriers as the cheaper noise abatement measures will be implemented. However, the results of the study and the latest developments in the expansion plans suggest that the implementation of enclosed motorway canopies, which go beyond the legal requirements, is feasible through extensive citizen participation and community-specific planning.

  10. IN-PLACE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF HEPA-FILTRATION SYSTEMS AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    This study was conducted to assess the in-place performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems at asbestos-abatement siteS in New Jersey to determine each systems particle-removal efficiency. n air-generated dioctyl phthalate aerosol was used to challeng...

  11. The Copenhagen Accord: abatement costs and carbon prices resulting from the submissions

    As part of the Copenhagen Accord, individual countries have submitted greenhouse gas reduction proposals for the year 2020. This paper analyses the implications for emission reductions, the carbon price, and abatement costs of these submissions. The submissions of the Annex I (industrialised) countries are estimated to lead to a total reduction target of 12-18% below 1990 levels. The submissions of the seven major emerging economies are estimated to lead to an 11-14% reduction below baseline emissions, depending on international (financial) support. Global abatement costs in 2020 are estimated at about USD 60-100 billion, assuming that at least two-thirds of Annex I emission reduction targets need to be achieved domestically. The largest share of these costs are incurred by Annex I countries, although the costs as share of GDP are similar for Annex I as a group and the seven emerging economies as a group, even when assuming substantial international transfers from Annex I countries to the emerging economies to finance their abatement costs. If the restriction of achieving two-thirds of the emission reduction target domestically is abandoned, it would more than double the international carbon price and at the same time reduce global abatement costs by almost 25%.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY, SEPARABILITY AND ABATEMENT COSTS OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    Wossink, Ada; Denaux, Zulal Sogutlu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new framework for analyzing abatement costs of nonpoint-source pollution. Unlike previous studies, this framework treats production and pollution as non-separable and also recognizes that production inefficiency is a fundamental cause of pollution. The implications of this approach are illustrated using an empirical analysis for cotton producers.

  13. Application of Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides as Catalysts for Abatement of N2O Emissions

    Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa; Pacultová, K.; Lacný, Z.

    Prague : JHI, 2008, S.54-55. [Symposium on Catalysis /40./. Prague (CZ), 03.11.2008-05.11.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * mixed oxide catalysts * N2O abatement Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  15. Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

  16. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  17. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  18. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  19. Optimal Acid Rain Abatement Strategies for Eastern Canada

    Mariam, Yohannes; Smith, W.B.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the past environmental management practices have been based on disparate analysis of the impacts of pollutants on selected components of ecosystems. However, holistic analysis of emission reduction strategies is necessary to justify that actions taken to protect the environment would not unduly punish economic growth or vice versa. When environmental management programs are implemented, it would be extremely difficult for the industry to attain the targeted emission reduction in a sing...

  20. Chromate abatement in the Y-12 Plant's New Hope Pond

    Results are reported from a 15-months field study that utilized four nonchromate-based water-treatment programs in 16 low-temperature (less than 1000F) cooling towers using corrosion and deposition studies, microbiological control, and plant effluent creek analyses as evaluation parameters. The study succeeded in bringing the chromate content of effluent of the New Hope Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to the limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency. (auth)

  1. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Are the costs of pollution abatement lower in Central and Eastern Europe? Evidence from Lithuania

    It is often claimed that pollution reductions can be achieved at lower cost in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, because more possibilities exist to update production processes and reduce waste. To date, however, there has been little or no systematic evaluation of what the costs actually are in these countries. The main purpose of this paper is to partially fill this research gaps using firm-level data from Lithuania. Abatement cost estimates for key air pollutants are presented based on investments made in Lithuania during 1993-4. The paper also attempts to estimate the demand for pollution directly using data on pollution charges from 1994. Using both methods, it is shown that for at least some key pollutants marginal and average abatement costs are probably substantially lower in Lithuania than in western countries. (Author)

  3. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  4. Research on the application of active sound barriers for the transformer noise abatement

    Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound barriers are a type of measure most commonly used in the noise abatement of transformers. In the noise abatement project of substations, the design of sound barriers is restrained by the portal frames which are used to hold up outgoing lines from the main transformers, which impacts the noise reduction effect. If active sound barriers are utilized in these places, the noise diffraction of sound barriers can be effectively reduced. At a 110kV Substation, an experiment using a 15-channel active sound barrier has been carried out. The result of the experiment shows that the mean noise reduction value (MNRV of the noise measuring points at the substation boundary are 1.5 dB (A. The effect of the active noise control system is impacted by the layout of the active noise control system, the acoustic environment on site and the spectral characteristic of the target area.

  5. The timing of pollution abatement investments and the business cycle. An international comparison

    A simple equilibrium business-cycle model for an economy with both clean- and dirty-producing plants is developed. The authors derive that the optimal timing of cleaning the production process is during a slowdown of the economy. Due to external effects and market failures the timing of pollution abatement investments is not expected to be optimal in the real world. We test the optimality of the timing of those investments with data for Germany, the Netherlands and the U.S.A. It appears that for more than 25 percent of the sectors pollution abatement investments show counter-cyclical behaviour, while in only one sector these investments are pro-cyclical. 1 tab., 3 appendices, 10 refs

  6. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  7. Modelling the Marginal Abatement Cost of Mitigating Nitrogen Loss from Agricultural Land

    Aksana Chyzheuskaya; Cathal O'Donoghue; Cathal Buckley; Mary Ryan; Stuart Green

    2012-01-01

    With the deadline identified by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) approaching in 2015 there is increasing pressure on policymakers to introduce new regulations to achieve water quality targets. Agriculture is one of the contributors of diffuse pollution entering watercourses and will come under pressure to reduce pollutant loads. This paper produces Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) Curves for eight policy measures that could potentially reduce nitrate leaching from agricultural land on ...

  8. Nitrogen abatement cost comparison for cropping systems under alternative management choices

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for cost-effective methods to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for nitrate-nitrogen pollution in an agricultural watershed are evaluated using estimated crop yield and nitrate pollution production functions for alternative cropping systems. The cropping systems considered in this study included i) two grain corn-based cropping systems; ii) two potato-based cropping systems; and iii) a vegetable-horticulture system, managed under ...

  9. Pollution charges, community pressure, and abatement cost of industrial pollution in China

    WANG Hua

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate stand...

  10. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  11. Privatization and the Environment in a Mixed Duopoly with Pollution Abatement

    Wang, Leonard F.S.; Ya-chin Wang; Lihong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to re-examine whether privatization improves the environment or not in a mixed duopolistic model. In our model, both firms adopt pollution abatement technologies in response to the environmental tax imposed by the government. It is shown that privatization unambiguously reduces the pollution levels of firms. Namely, privatization does improve the environment. Moreover, by implementing partial-privatization policy, social welfare can be enhanced.

  12. The cost of abating CO2 emissions by renewable energy incentives in Germany

    Marcantonini, Claudio; ELLERMAN, A. Denny

    2013-01-01

    Incentives for the development of renewable energy have increasingly become an instrument of climate policy, that is, as a means to reduce GHG emissions. This research analyzes the German experience in promoting renewable energy over the past decade to identify the ex post cost of reducing CO2 emissions through the promotion of renewable energy, specifically, wind and solar. To this propose, we calculated the annual CO2 abatement cost for the years 2006- 2010 as the ratio of the net cost over...

  13. Financial tools for the abatement of traffic congestion: a dynamical analysis

    Angelo Antoci; Marcello Galeotti; Davide Radi

    2011-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple mechanism aimed at implementing and supporting environmental protection policies in urban areas based on innovative financial instruments issued by a policy maker, which can be bought by two categories of involved agents, city users and agencies providing the city services. According to this mechanism, virtuous service providers choosing to offer high quality services can obtain cost abatement. City users, recip- rocally, have to pay for entering into the c...

  14. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Sarfraz Hashim; Xie Yuebo; Muhammad Saifullah; Ramila Nabi Jan; Adila Muhetaer

    2015-01-01

    Today’s ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River ...

  15. Does Distribution Matter? When Flexibility, Equity and Efficiency in Greenhouse Gas Abatement

    Gunter Stephan; Georg Müller-Fürstenberger

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses banking and borrowing of carbon emission rights within the framework of a simple, integrated assessment model. Breaking the world economy in just two regions it will be shown: (1) Increasing when-flexibility in greenhouse gas abatement through banking and borrowing of carbon emission permits has a positive effect on welfare for regions with a poor endowment in carbon emission rights, but negatively affects rich-endowed regions. (2) Intergenerational fairness advocates inte...

  16. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    De Giovanni, Marina; Curci, Gabriele; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; SPANTO, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The ...

  17. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Carolyn Fischer; Mads Greaker; Knut Einar Rosendahl

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desi...

  18. Institutional analysis for nitrogen pollution abatement in a Waikato river sub-catchment in New Zealand

    Ramilan, Thiagarajah; Scrimgeour, Frank G.; Marsh, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in water resources in the Waikato region are increasing, mainly as a result of non-point source pollution from agricultural activities. Non-point pollution management is a complex issue requiring sufficient information and appropriate institutions. This paper considers the environmental policy literature and analyse how institutions, contract design, and monitoring and transaction costs in the presence of farm heterogeneity encourage optimal abatement. The analysis identifies ...

  19. Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by thermal power plants

    Thermal power plants using fossil fuels in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary sources of pollutant release. A review of the present possibilities to abate the pollution, mainly by abatement of releases at stack is presented. At present the unique viable solution applicable in Romania thermopower stations appears to be the use of catalytic technology based on NOx selective reduction with ammonia. Investments for pollution abatement installations for intra- or post-combustion burning gases in classic boilers appear to be 1/4 and 1/3 of the cost of a new thermal power plant and the maintenance costs of de-pollution installations even when the resulting products are rendered profitable, the cost of KWh will raise. Replacement of classical boilers by circulating fluidized bed boilers would solve entirely the SO2 and NOx release issue. Investments for such boilers are lower than those implied by a new classical boiler equipped with supplementary installations for the removal of intra- and post-combustion gases. The only remaining drawback is waste resulting desulfurization which is disposed at the dump. (author)

  20. Energy abatement in Chinese industry: Cost evaluation of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives

    For Chinese industry, the costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated by the method of directional distance function. These scenarios are based on the combinations of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives—the former are sectors and provinces, and the latter include the five principles of average, intensity share, absolute share, discriminatory absolute and discriminatory intensity. For all the scenarios, the quantitative impacts in terms of output potential loss are calculated and compared. Due to less output potential loss for all the allocation alternatives, the sector regulation strategy is shown to be more effective than the province regulation strategy. It is also demonstrated that, among all the scenarios considered, the sector regulation based on the intensity share principle and the province regulation based on the absolute share principle are the two optimal. The performances of energy abatement allocation of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans of China are assessed against the simulated scenarios. - Highlights: ► The costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated for Chinese industry. ► The impacts on all entities under all allocation alternatives are calculated and compared. ► The optimal scenarios for the different strategies are identified. ► The performances of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans are assessed.

  1. Electrochemical processes in macro and microfluidic cells for the abatement of chloroacetic acid from water

    Highlights: • The electrochemical abatement of chloroacetic acid in water was studied. • The performance of both macro and microfluidic reactors was examined. • Cathodic reduction and anodic oxidation was studied in detail. • Mediated oxidation by electro-Fenton and active chlorine was carried out. • Anodic oxidation at BDD gave better performances. • Microfluidic reactors gave better performances compared to conventional cells. - Abstract: The remediation of solutions contaminated with monochloroacetic acid (CAA), which is one of the most resistant haloacetic acids (HAAs) to chemical degradation, dramatically depends on the adopted electrochemical approach: (i) CAA is only poorly oxidized either by homogeneous hydroxyl radical in electro-Fenton (EF), electrogenerated active chlorine or electro-oxidation on Pt anode; (ii) it is moderately abated by direct reduction on silver or compact graphite cathodes (from 30% in macro cells to 60% in the microfluidic devices); (iii) it is quantitatively removed by direct electro-oxidation on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The use of a microreactor enables operation in the absence of supporting electrolyte and drastically enhances the performance of the cathodic process. Simultaneously performing direct oxidation on BDD and reduction on graphite in a microfluidic cell yields the fastest CAA removal with 100% abatement at low current densities (∼5 mA cm−2)

  2. Korea's emission trading scheme and policy design issues to achieve market-efficiency and abatement targets

    In 2008, the government of Republic of Korea (Korea) announced the national abatement target aiming at 30% reductions from the Business-as-Usual projections by 2020. Accordingly, the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 onwards. As ETS performance substantially depends on the structural design, it is critically important to examine the details of Korean ETS for the achievement of cost effectiveness and concurrent development of an active emission trading market. This paper addresses several policy design issues for this purpose. After providing an overview on the current framework of Korean ETS, we propose ways to achieve flexibility, consistency and market efficiency of the program in consideration of the preexisting policies. Issues in policy design are discussed by focusing on allowance allocation, market stabilization measures and price mechanism in the emission and energy markets in Korea. This paper will serve as a practical guideline for establishing sustainable and market-efficient Korean ETS that can be compatible with the international standards as in the EU ETS. - Highlights: • Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 in Korea to reduce CO2. • ETS performance substantially depends on structural design. • We provide policy overview on the current framework of Korean ETS. • Several policy design issues are discussed for developing policy consistency. • We focus on allowance allocation, allowance reserve and market stabilization measures

  3. 76 FR 2746 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for San Diego International Airport...

    2011-01-14

    .... 47501 et seq. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and... requirements, effective November 10, 2009, 74 FR 66400-66401. The proposed noise compatibility program will...

  4. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  5. Multiplicação fotoautotrófica in vitro de pereiras 'Abate Fetel' Photoautotrophic multiplication in vitro of 'Abate Fetel' pears

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Novas cultivares de pereira têm sido introduzidas no Brasil, como a 'Abate Fetel'. A produção de mudas de qualidade dessa cultivar é necessária, sendo possível obter tal cultivar pelo uso de técnicas de micropropagação. Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de sacarose e tipos de vedação dos frascos na multiplicação in vitro de pereiras 'Abate Fetel'. Segmentos nodais contendo de duas a três gemas axilares, de aproximadamente 1cm de comprimento, oriundos de plantas pré-estabelecidas in vitro, foram inoculados em meio de cultura 'QL', suplementados com mio-inositol (100mg L-1, sacarose (0, 15, 30, 45g L-1, BAP (1mg L-1, AIB (0,1mg L-1 solidificado com 6,5g L-1 de ágar e pH ajustado para 5,7. Os frascos foram vedados com algodão, alumínio ou filme plástico de PVC e mantidos em sala de crescimento a 25±2°C, com intensidade luminosa de 42µmoles m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Os frascos vedados com algodão apresentaram o maior número de folhas na ausência de sacarose, não sendo observado efeito das concentrações de sacarose presentes no meio de cultura sobre o número de brotações e número de folhas formadas. O comprimento médio das brotações e a massa fresca total não diferiram entre os tipos de vedação empregados, porém observou-se aumento expressivo dessas variáveis frente ao aumento da sacarose no meio de cultura. A vedação dos frascos com filme de PVC proporcionou o maior número de brotações por explante quando utilizadas altas concentrações de sacarose.New pear cultivars have been introduced in Brazil as the 'Abate Fetel'. Seedling production with higher quality of this cultivar is needed, and this can be obtained by use of micropropagation techniques. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different sucrose concentrations and types of closure flasks on micropropagation of 'Abate Fetel' pears. Nodal segments with two to three axillary buds, about 1 cm in length, from

  6. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  7. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m−3 h−1 and CO2 yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 103–9.0 × 104 CFU m−3. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m−3 h−1. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m−3 h−1 were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 103 to 9.0 × 104 CFU m−3. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies

  8. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m−2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs. (letter)

  9. Ex-ante evaluation of EU ETS during 2013–2030: EU-internal abatement

    This study investigates CO2 emission reduction within the EU resulting from the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) up to 2030. This is performed by constructing a baseline scenario without the ETS and assessing the impacts of the ETS, as currently designed. The results indicate that the ETS will start to impact emissions primarily after 2025 due to the prevalence of a sizable allowance surplus. The impact of approved (i.e. back-loading and 2.2% linear reduction factor (LRF)) and proposed (i.e. market stability reserve (MSR)) policy interventions and the inclusion of aviation, could accelerate the exhaustion of surplus and increase emission reductions during the investigated period. However, these measures would be insufficient to restore the scarcity of allowances and the corresponding carbon price before the start of ETS Phase IV, and the effectiveness of EU-internal abatement cannot be guaranteed until 2023. The effectiveness could be further reduced in the case of the economic shocks or the exclusion of international aviation. To restore the scarcity of allowances, other reform options are necessary. This paper extends the reasoning for the early removal of the back-loaded 900 Mtonne allowances by 2020 and broadening the scope of ETS to other sectors with potential high demand for allowances. - Highlights: • Quantification of CO2 emission abatement in the EU resulting from the ETS up to 2030. • The impact of policy interventions and the inclusion of aviation is quantified. • The effectiveness of EU ETS in EU-internal abatement is limited until 2023

  10. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  11. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning. (letter)

  12. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  13. Emission Inventories of Carbon-containing Greenhouse Gases in and Technological Measures for Their Abatement

    Zhuang Yahui; Zhang Hongxun; Wang Xiaoke; Li Changsheng

    2004-01-01

    The report summarizes surveys on carbon inventories and initiatives on sustainable carbon cycling taken by the Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Sciences, where the authors work/worked. The first part of the report, which appeared in the preceding issue of this journal, deals with the concept of sustainable carbon cycling, the historic evolution of carbon cycling processes in China, carbon pool enhancement, value addition,carbon sequestration and carbon balance. This very paper, as the second part of the report, covers the results of carbon dynamics modeling, emission inventories of various carbon-containing greenhouse gases and their potential abatement measures.

  14. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal

  15. Measures for noise pollution abatement in existing cooling tower systems; Massnahmen zur Geraeuschminderung an bestehenden Kuehlturmanlagen

    Niessen, R. [Sulzer-Escher Wyss GmbH, Lindau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The operator`s order discussed by the paper was for planning and performance of backfitting measures for noise pollution abatement in an existing cooling tower system equipped with sound attenuation devices. Although the existing plant was operating in compliance with the legal noise emission limits, residents of neighbouring dwellings had been complaining about noise pollution. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabe, eine nachtraegliche Massnahme zur Laermminderung an einer bestehenden, mit Schalldaempfern ausgeruesteten Anlage zu planen und durchzufuehren, wurde vom Betreiber einer Rueckkuehlanlage gestellt. Der vom Gesetzgeber definierte Grenzwert fuer den Nachtbetrieb wurde mit der bestehenden Anlage zwar erreicht, doch die Anwohner fuehlten eine Belaestigung durch den Anlagenbetrieb. (orig./GL)

  16. The timing of biological carbon sequestration and carbon abatement in the energy sector under optimal strategies against climate risks

    This paper addresses the timing of the use of biological carbon sequestration and its capacity to alleviate the carbon constraint on the energy sector. We constructed a stochastic optimal control model balancing the costs of fossil emission abatement, the opportunity costs of lands allocated to afforestation, and the costs of uncertain climate damages. We show that a minor part of the sequestration potential should start immediately as a 'brake', slowing down both the rate of growth of concentrations and the rate of abatement in the energy sector. thus increasing the option value of the emission trajectories. But, most of the potential is put in reserve to be used as a 'safety valve' after the resolution of uncertainty, if a higher and faster decarbonization is required: sequestration cuts off the peaks of costs of fossil abatement and postpones the pivoting of the energy system by up to two decades. (authors)

  17. Asia least-cost greenhouse gas abatement strategy identification and assessment of mitigation options for the energy sector

    The focus of the presentation was on greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy sector for India. Results from the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (ALGAS) project were presented. The presentation comprised of a review of the sources of greenhouse gases, the optimisation model, ie the Markal model, used for determining the least-cost options, discussion of the results from the baseline and the abatement scenarios. The second half of the presentation focussed on a multi-criteria assessment of the abatement options using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model. The emissions of all greenhouse gases, for India, are estimated to be 986.3 Tg of carbon dioxide equivalent for 1990. The energy sector accounted for 58 percent of the total emissions and over 90 percent of the CO2 emissions. Net emissions form land use change and forestry were zero. (au)

  18. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  19. Planning the low-carbon city. Thoughts about abatement costs of mobility policies

    This publication proposes a summary of a research thesis which studied how to address urban climate policies from an economic point of view. This thesis shows that it is possible to develop tools for an economic analysis of local climate policies which would take urban peculiarities into account, notably the systemic aspect, and the importance of positive and negative externalities. The author puts forward the abatement cost which relies on a set of conventions, and is studied through a given analysis table. The application of a urban planning-transport model to the Grenoble area with different scenarios of urban development confirms that abatement costs of measures of reduction of greenhouse gases in the field of mobility are high in comparison with other values (building sector, Quinet value). However, taking co-benefits (or positive externalities) into account allows these costs to be reduced, that which makes investments in the transport sector more attractive. The author shows that reaching the factor 4 in urban transports seems difficult

  20. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  1. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh [Economic Analysis Division, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu (Nepal); Skutsch, Margaret [Centro de Investigaciones en Geographia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); University of Twente, PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-economic and resources use data collected from forest users in three sites of Nepal Himalaya. The paper estimates the incremental carbon from forest enhancement on a yearly basis over a five-year period using the value of 1 and 5 per tCO{sub 2} for conservative analysis. The results based on the three sites indicate that community forest management may be one of the least cost ways to abate carbon with a break-even price under Scenario 2 which ranges from 0.55 to 3.70 per tCO{sub 2}. However, bringing community forests into the carbon market may entail high opportunity costs as forests provide numerous non-monetary benefits to the local population, who regard these as the main incentive for conservation and management. An important finding of the research is that if forest resources use by local communities is not permitted, then carbon trading will not be attractive to them as revenue from carbon will not cover the cost foregone by not harvesting forest resources. (author)

  2. Macro economic linkages and impacts. Technical and fiscal options in GHG abatement

    This paper discusses some of the main macro economic linkages and feedbacks associated with policies for GHG abatement. The linkages in a global model are described when OECD carbon taxes or alternatively OECD/OPEC joint action raises world oil prices with a smaller OECD carbon tax. The results give a world perspective on the GHG abatement problem. The paper continues with a discussion of the linkages and feedbacks associated with three options: demand-side management (DSM), mainly to improve end-use energy efficiency, reductions in subsidies of fossil fuel production and use, and investment in renewable energy supplies, specifically in energy forestry and associated infrastructure. It concludes that DSM and investment in renewables are unlikely on their own to bring about reduction in GHG emissions, and that new supplies may even lead to increased emissions by driving down the price of energy. However, reductions in emissions may be compatible with increased efficiency and development, as well as with improvements in the quality of the local environment and in rural living, with the new supplies replacing fossil fuel supplies, provided that real fossil fuel prices are increased via removal of subsidies and if required carbon taxes. (au) 15 refs

  3. CFD modeling of a UV-LED photocatalytic odor abatement process in a continuous reactor

    Highlights: ► A CFD model is developed for a UV-LED based photocatalytic deodorization reactor. ► Radiation field model and Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics are integrated in the model. ► The model can predict the pollutant concentration profile and the reactor performance. ► LED distance is predicted to be a critical parameter in photocatalytic reactor design. - Abstract: This paper presents a model study of a UV light-emitting-diode (UV-LED) based photocatalytic odor abatement process. It integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the gas flow in the reactor with LED-array radiation field calculation and Langmuir–Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. It was applied to simulate the photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a UV-LED reactor based on experimentally determined chemical kinetic parameters. A non-linear power law relating reaction rate to irradiation intensity was adopted. The model could predict the steady state DMS concentration profiles by calculating the advection, diffusion and Langmuir–Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. By affecting the radiation intensity and uniformity, the position of the LED array relative to the catalyst appeared to be a critical parameter determining DMS removal efficiency. Too small distances might yield low quantum efficiency and consequently poor abatement performance. This study provided an example of LED-based photocatalytic process modeling and gave insights into the optimization of light source design for photocatalytic applications.

  4. Marginal CO2 abatement costs: Findings from alternative shadow price estimates for Shanghai industrial sectors

    Shanghai, one of the most developed cities in China, is implementing a pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme. Estimating the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions for the industrial sectors covered in Shanghai's emission trading scheme provides the government and participating firms useful information for devising compliance policies. This paper employs multiple distance function approaches to estimating the shadow prices of CO2 emissions for Shanghai industrial sectors. Our empirical results show that the overall weighted average of shadow price estimates by different approaches ranges between 394.5 and 1906.1 Yuan/ton, which indicates that model choice truly has a significant effect on the shadow price estimation. We have also identified a negative relationship between the shadow price of CO2 emissions and carbon intensity, and the heavy industries with higher carbon intensities tend to have lower shadow prices. It has been suggested that Shanghai municipal government take various measures to improve its carbon market, e.g. using the marginal abatement costs of participating sectors/firms as a criterion in the initial allocation of carbon emission allowances. - Highlights: • We estimate the shadow prices of CO2 emissions for Shanghai's manufacturing sectors. • Multiple distance function approaches are employed in the empirical analysis. • Model selection indeed has a significant effect on the shadow price estimation. • The CO2 shadow price and the carbon intensity have a negative relationship

  5. Two-liquid phase partitioning biotrickling filters for methane abatement: exploring the potential of hydrophobic methanotrophs.

    Lebrero, Raquel; Hernández, Laura; Pérez, Rebeca; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-15

    The potential of two-liquid phase biotrickling filters (BTFs) to overcome mass transfer limitations derived from the poor aqueous solubility of CH4 has been scarcely investigated to date. In this context, the abatement of diluted methane emissions in two-liquid phase BTFs was evaluated using two different inocula: a type II methanotrophs culture in BTF 1 and a hydrophobic microbial consortium capable of growing inside silicone oil in BTF 2. Both BTFs supported stable elimination capacities above 45 g m(-3) h(-1) regardless of the inoculum, whereas no improvement derived from the presence of hydrophobic microorganisms compared to the type II metanotrophs culture was observed. Interestingly, the addition of silicone oil mediated a reduced metabolites concentration in the recycling aqueous phase, thus decreasing the needs for mineral medium renewal. Moreover, a 78% similarity was recorded between the microbial communities enriched in both BTFs at the end of the experimental period in spite of the differences in the initial inoculum structure. The results obtained confirmed the superior performance of two-liquid phase BTFs for CH4 abatement compared with conventional biotrickling filters. PMID:25555135

  6. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies. PMID:24887128

  7. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO2, CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  8. Noise exposure assessment and abatement strategies at an indoor firing range.

    Kardous, Chucri A; Willson, Robert D; Hayden, Charles S; Szlapa, Piotr; Murphy, William J; Reeves, Efrem R

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to hazardous impulse noise is common during the firing of weapons at indoor firing ranges. The aims of this study were to characterize the impulse noise environment at a law enforcement firing range; document the insufficiencies found at the range from a health and safety standpoint; and provide noise abatement recommendations to reduce the overall health hazard to the auditory system. Ten shooters conducted a typical live-fire exercise using three different weapons--the Beretta.40 caliber pistol, the Remington.308 caliber shotgun, and the M4.223 caliber assault rifle. Measurements were obtained at 12 different positions throughout the firing range and adjacent areas using dosimeters and sound level meters. Personal and area measurements were recorded to a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder for further spectral analysis. Peak pressure levels inside the firing range reached 163 decibels (dB) in peak pressure. Equivalent sound levels (Leq) ranged from 78 decibels, A-weighted (dBA), in office area adjacent to the range to 122 dBA inside the range. Noise reductions from wall structures ranged from 29-44 dB. Noise abatement strategies ranged from simple noise control measures (such as sealing construction joints and leaks) to elaborate design modifications to eliminate structural-borne sounds using acoustical treatments. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of firing weapons in enclosed spaces on hearing and health in general. PMID:12851012

  9. Separating environmental efficiency into production and abatement efficiency. A nonparametric model with application to U.S. power plants

    Hampf, Benjamin

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we present a new approach to evaluate the environmental efficiency of decision making units. We propose a model that describes a two-stage process consisting of a production and an end-of-pipe abatement stage with the environmental efficiency being determined by the efficiency of both stages. Taking the dependencies between the two stages into account, we show how nonparametric methods can be used to measure environmental efficiency and to decompose it into production and abatement efficiency. For an empirical illustration we apply our model to an analysis of U.S. power plants.

  10. The effect of soil abatement on blood lead levels in children living near a former smelting and milling operation.

    Lanphear, Bruce P.; Succop, Paul; Roda, Sandra; Henningsen, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of soil abatement on children's blood lead concentrations and on environmental levels of lead and arsenic. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The first (1989) was of a random sample of 6- to 72-month-old children (n=112). The second (1998) included all 6- to 72-month-old children whose parents agreed to participate in the survey (n=215). From 1993 to 1996, soil abatement was conducted around homes with average soil lead concentration >500 pa...