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Sample records for abatement program bmap

  1. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  2. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  3. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  4. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  5. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  6. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  7. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  8. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  9. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate

  11. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  12. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  13. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  14. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate

  15. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  16. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986

  17. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  18. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987

  19. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  20. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  2. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  6. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge

  7. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  8. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  9. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively

  10. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams' biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL

  11. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  12. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  13. Effect of BMAP-28 antimicrobial peptides on Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote growth

    Lynn, Miriam A.; Kindrachuk, Jason; Marr, Alexandra K.;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, still pose an enormous public health problem in many countries throughout the world. Current measures are outdated and have some associated drug resistance, prompting the search into novel therapies. Several innovative approaches are under...... of the cathelicidin family of HDPs have demonstrated significant antimicrobial activities against various parasites including Leishmania. The cathelicidin bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (BMAP-28) has broad antimicrobial activities and confers protection in animal models of bacterial infection or sepsis. We...... tested the effectiveness of the use of BMAP-28 and two of its isomers the D-amino acid form (D-BMAP-28) and the retro-inverso form (RI-BMAP-28), as anti-leishmanial agents against the promastigote and amastigote intracellular Leishmania major lifecycle stages. Methodology/Principal Findings: An MTS...

  14. Killing of trypanosomatid parasites by a modified bovine host defense peptide, BMAP-18.

    Lee R Haines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tropical diseases caused by parasites continue to cause socioeconomic devastation that reverberates worldwide. There is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases due to increasing drug resistance exhibited by the parasites and problems with drug toxicity. One new approach is to apply host defense peptides (HDP; formerly called antimicrobial peptides to disease control, either to treat infected hosts, or to prevent disease transmission by interfering with parasites in their insect vectors. A potent anti-parasite effector is bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-27 (BMAP-27, a member of the cathelicidin family. Although BMAP-27 is a potent inhibitor of microbial growth, at higher concentrations it also exhibits cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. We tested the anti-parasite activity of BMAP-18, a truncated peptide that lacks the hydrophobic C-terminal sequence of the BMAP-27 parent molecule, an alteration that confers reduced toxicity to mammalian cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BMAP-18 showed strong growth inhibitory activity against several species and life cycle stages of African trypanosomes, fish trypanosomes and Leishmania parasites in vitro. When compared to native BMAP-27, the truncated BMAP-18 peptide showed reduced cytotoxicity on a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells and on Sodalis glossindius, a bacterial symbiont of the tsetse vector. The fluorescent stain rhodamine 123 was used in immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry experiments to show that BMAP-18 at low concentrations rapidly disrupted mitochondrial potential without obvious alteration of parasite plasma membranes, thus inducing death by apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that higher concentrations of BMAP-18 induced membrane lesions in the parasites as early as 15 minutes after exposure, thus killing them by necrosis. In addition to direct killing of parasites, BMAP-18 was shown to inhibit LPS

  15. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  16. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  17. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities

  18. On a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with Setup Times andMultiple Vacations

    Yi PENG; Xiang-qun YANG

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with setup times and multiple vacations.Arrivals of positive customers and negative customers follow a batch Markovian arrival process (BMAP) and Markovian arrival process (MAP) respectively.The arrival of a negative customer removes all the customers in the system when the server is working.The server leaves for a vacation as soon as the system empties and is allowed to take repeated (multiple) vacations.By using the supplementary variables method and the censoring technique,we obtain the queue length distributions.We also obtain the mean of the busy period based on the renewal theory.

  19. More electric power for cleaner air: ENEL air pollution abatement program

    ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) is conducting an intensive anti-pollution campaign that is expected to lead to overall reductions by about 80% in polluting emissions by the year 2000. Existing plants are being equipped with low NOx burners and electrostatic precipitators; coal units are receiving flue gas desulfurization systems. New poly-fuel plants, to be located far from residential zones, are to use low sulfur fuels or natural gas, and employ 250 meter high smoke-stacks. ENEL's anti-pollution campaign also involves a series of co-ordinated research studies directed towards the development of new sulfur and nitrogen oxides emission control technologies and innovative fluidized-bed and coal-water fuel slurry combustion systems. ENEL will also participate with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests in environmental protection programs. These will involve the setting-up of acid rain monitoring and sampling networks and atmospheric circulation mapping and modelling

  20. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of BMAP-derived peptides for the treatment of cystic fibrosis-related pulmonary infections.

    Mardirossian, Mario; Pompilio, Arianna; Crocetta, Valentina; De Nicola, Serena; Guida, Filomena; Degasperi, Margherita; Gennaro, Renato; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Scocchi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis require pharmacological treatment against chronic lung infections. The alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides BMAP-27 and BMAP-28 have shown to be highly active in vitro against planktonic and sessile forms of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia cystic fibrosis strains. To develop small antibacterial peptides for therapeutic use, we tested shortened/modified BMAP fragments, and selected the one with the highest in vitro antibacterial activity and lowest in vivo acute pulmonary toxicity. All the new peptides have shown to roughly maintain their antibacterial activity in vitro. The 1-18 N-terminal fragment of BMAP-27, showing MIC90 of 16 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa isolates and strain-dependent anti-biofilm effects, showed the lowest pulmonary toxicity in mice. However, when tested in a murine model of acute lung infection by P. aeruginosa, BMAP-27(1-18) did not show any curative effect. If exposed to murine broncho-alveolar lavage fluid BMAP-27(1-18) was degraded within 10 min, suggesting it is not stable in pulmonary environment, probably due to murine proteases. Our results indicate that shortened BMAP peptides could represent a starting point for antibacterial drugs, but they also indicate that they need a further optimization for effective in vivo use. PMID:27270571

  2. Performance Analysis for Bandwidth Allocation in IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Networks using BMAP Queueing

    Kafhali, Said El; Hanini, Mohamed; Haqiq, Abdelkrim; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4110

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis for the bandwidth allocation in IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless access (BWA) networks considering the packet-level quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) rate based on IEEE 802.16 standard is used to adjust the transmission rate adaptively in each frame time according to channel quality in order to obtain multiuser diversity gain. To model the arrival process and the traffic source we use the Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP), which enables more realistic and more accurate traffic modelling. We determine analytically different performance parameters, such as average queue length, packet dropping probability, queue throughput and average packet delay. Finally, the analytical results are validated numerically.

  3. Performance Analysis for Bandwidth Allocation in IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Networks using BMAP Queueing

    Said EL KAFHALI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis for the bandwidth allocation in IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless access (BWA networks considering the packet-level quality-of-service (QoS constraints. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC rate based on IEEE 802.16 standard is used to adjust the transmission rate adaptively in each frame time according to channel quality in order to obtain multiuser diversity gain. To model the arrival process and the traffic source we use the Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP, which enables more realistic and more accurate traffic modelling. We determine analytically different performance parameters, such as average queue length, packet dropping probability, queue throughput and average packet delay. Finally, the analytical results are validated numerically.

  4. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  5. BMAP模型中最优分红和注资问题%Optimal Dividend and Capital Injection Problem in a BMAP Model

    白燕飞; 陈旭

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal dividend and capital injection problem of a company in a BMAP ( Batch Markov Arrival Process) model. The parameters in the process of the company’s surplus are modulated by the phase process of the BMAP, which is an observable continuous-time Markov chain. The possible dividend and capital injection are restricted to some random discrete time points which are determined by the same BMAP. The company has both dividend and capital injection opportunities or only has dividend but not capital injection opportu-nities at some of these time points, while can do nothing at other random time points. By transforming the BMAP model to an auxiliary Markov modulated model, we study the optimal dividend and capital injection problem of the company under the assumption that the company will not bankrupt. This paper aims to maximize the difference be-tween the total expected discounted dividend and the amount of capital and obtain the exact solution of the value functions and the optimal dividend and capital injection strategy.%研究了BMAP ( Batch Markov Arrival Process)模型中有分红和资金注入的情况下,公司的最优分红和注资问题。假设公司的盈余过程中的参数由BMAP模型中的相过程调制。在不同的跳跃点上,该公司有不同的分红和注资机会:在BMAP的一些跳跃点上,公司既没有分红也没有注资;在BMAP 的一些跳跃点上,公司只有分红没有注资;在BMAP的另外一些跳跃点上,公司既有分红又有注资。通过将BMAP模型转化为辅助马氏调制模型的方法,在公司不破产的情况下,考虑公司的最优分红和注资问题,旨在使期望折现分红总量与折现注资量之差达到最大,得到了值函数的精确解以及最优分红-注资策略。

  6. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6

  7. Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures Survey (PACE)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey is the most comprehensive national source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to...

  8. Optimal acid rain abatement policy in Europe

    Halkos, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Acid rain causes greater environmental damage than would occur if countries act cooperatively. Based on new estimates of sulphur abatement cost functions, the potential gains from cooperation are calculated for Europe. Various cooperative abatement rates are compared with the rates implied by recent international agreements. The distinction is made between primary and secondary abatement, and their respective roles are discussed.

  9. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise abatement. 772.11 Section 772.11 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and...) of this chapter must be considered. (d) When noise abatement measures are being considered,...

  10. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  11. Regional differences in China's CO2 abatement cost

    Under a framework of output distance function with multiple outputs, the study discusses the carbon abatement cost at provincial and regional levels in China, using the shadow price analysis. The findings show that the abatement cost, reflecting the marginal opportunity cost of carbon reduction, varies greatly among the provinces. On average, the abatement cost of the eastern region was much higher than that of the mid-western region during the observed period. The findings provide evidence that the carbon prices in the current ETS pilots have been much lower than desired levels, implying inefficiency of the markets. The wide range of the abatement cost estimates supports that the equi-marginal principle does not hold for the regulations on carbon pollution at regional levels. The regional cost differences indicate the huge potential for China to minimize the total abatement cost with policy instruments that may motive the emissions moving from areas of low abatement cost to where the abatement cost is higher. For a few undeveloped provinces that are environmentally fragile and have high abatement cost, supplementary measures will be needed to reduce the negative impact of carbon cutbacks on the poor to the minimum. - Highlights: • The marginal abatement cost of CO2 is defined by the shadow price measure. • A linear programming model based on distance function is established. • Marginal abatement costs at provincial level are empirical investigated. • The abatement cost varies across provinces and regions in China. • The findings provide evidence that the current ETS pilots are inefficient

  12. Technology diffusion, abatement cost, and transboundary pollution

    Tarui, Nori; Heal, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies countries’ incentives to develop advanced pollution abatement technology when technology may spillover across countries and pollution abatement is a global public good. We are motivated in part by the problem of global warming: a solution to this involves providing a global public good, and will surely require the development and implementation of new technologies. We show that at the Nash equilibrium of a simultaneous-move game with R&D investment and emission abatement, w...

  13. NOx abatement through urea additives

    Compared with catalytic denitrification, the use of urea in thermic processes of selective, non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), when combined with primary measures, constitutes an inexpensive alternative way of abating NOx emissions by means of combustion processes and waste incineration plants. A natural-gas fired and also electrically heated flow reactor was used in a number of fast series to systematically determine the influences of retention time, reaction temperature, reductant (ammonia or urea), molar ratio, and additives (ethanol) on the process. Balancing the input and output nitrogenous substances served to describe the partial shift through addition of ethanol of the reaction towards incomplete reduction and greater N2O emission. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of Quality of Service Performances of Connection Admission Control Mechanisms in OFDMA IEEE 802.16 Network using BMAP Queuing

    Bouchti, Abdelali El; Kafhali, Said El

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, two Connection Admission Control (CAC) mechanisms, namely, threshold-based and queue-aware CAC mechanisms are considered at a subscriber station. A queuing analytical framework for these admission control mechanisms is presented considering Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queuing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP). We determine analytically and numerically different QoS per...

  15. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22... Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a...

  16. Emission taxes and the market for abatement goods and services

    David, Maia [INRA-AgroParisTech UMR Economie Publique, F-78000 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Nimubona, Alain-Desire [Department of Economics, University of Waterloo (Canada); Sinclair-Desgagne, Bernard [HEC Montreal, CIRANO and CIRAIG (Canada); Ecole Polytechnique (France)

    2011-01-15

    This paper examines the effect of emission taxes on pollution abatement and social welfare, when abatement goods and services are provided by a Cournot oligopoly with free-entry. We point out initially that a higher tax not only increases demand for abatement; it also makes polluters less sensitive to price. This attracts a larger number of abatement suppliers while possibly inducing each one of them to produce less. Total abatement always goes up, however, when the delivery of abatement goods and services exhibits decreasing returns to scale. We then calculate the welfare-maximizing emission tax and compare it to the Pigouvian tax. (author)

  17. Groundwater abatement techniques for removal of refined hydrocarbons

    In this paper, the author describes the types of investigation and cleanup programs that have been successful in solving contamination problems resulting from service station gasoline losses in residential areas. Methods of investigation and treatment are described within the framework of a few of the projects undertaken by Groundwater Technology. The first case history involves the loss and retrieval of an unleaded gasoline that initially resulted in free product accumulations of greater than 3 ft on the water table and the accumulation of flammable vapors in an adjacent bank. The second case history describes the impact and abatement of dissolves gasoline contamination on ten domestic water supply wells

  18. Carbon dioxide abatement as a differential game

    The report combines predictions on greenhouse warming, CO2 abatement costs and adaptation costs in a differential game framework. The specified model makes it possible to solve the payoffs of the subgame perfect solution of a two state variable nonautonomous problem with N unequal countries. Abatement cost parameters are calibrated with a global energy sector model and climate parameters are based on empirical time series. Simulation suggests that the backstop technology assumption in the abatement cost model may imply drastic cuts in optimal emission levels. Compared to the Nash noncooperative equilibrium a pareto optimal agreement is found to be beneficial for developing countries but more costly for the industrial world. Given the present damage estimates, the losses due to an emission stabilizing agreement may be 400 times higher than maximum potential gains from cooperation

  19. Aplicação do programa Seis Sigma em uma indústria de abate de frangos = Implementation of Six Sigma program in an industry of slaughter of chicken

    Roselis Natalina Mazzuchetti; Miguel Angel Uribe Opazo; Regio Marcio Toesca Gimenes

    2010-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, a indústria de abate de frango busca fortalecer seusprocessos, visando atender às necessidades de mercado e, para contribuir com o desenvolvimento desses processos, novos métodos têm sido implantados, entre os quais se destaca o programa Seis Sigma. O presente estudo mostra a utilização deste Programa em um abatedouro de frangos com o objetivo de demonstrar as melhores práticas para adefinição e condução de um projeto centrado na melhoria da qualidade dos processos. Para tan...

  20. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost

  1. 23 CFR Table 1 to Part 772 - Noise Abatement Criteria

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise Abatement Criteria 1 Table 1 to Part 772 Highways... ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE Pt. 772, Table 1 Table 1 to Part 772—Noise Abatement Criteria Activity Category Leq(h) L10(h) Description of activity category A 57 (Exterior)...

  2. Transfer of Pollution Abatement Technology and Unemployment

    Muneyuki Saito; Yasuyuki Sugiyama

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the transfer of pollution abatement technology on the level of urban unemployment, the total amount of pollution, and social welfare in a small, open Harris Todaro economy. We show that these transfers reduce urban unemployment and decrease the total amount of pollution. However, social welfare is unchanged because the technology transfer does not affect factor prices.

  3. Nutrient Abatement Potential and Abatement Costs of Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Baltic Sea Region

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2013-01-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for b...

  4. CONTRACTING FOR NONPOINT-SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Bystrom, Olof; Daniel W. Bromley

    1998-01-01

    This study presents an incentive scheme to control agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. The analysis is based on a principal-agent framework with two parties: farmers and a regulating authority. Our incentive scheme proposes collective penalties as a way to control pollution. Unlike previous analyses of incentive schemes to control agricultural pollution, we suggest nonindividual contracts between farmers and a regulating authority, where farmers can trade pollution abatement efforts. Find...

  5. Costs and global impacts of black carbon abatement strategies

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Myhre, Gunnar; Skeie, Ragnhild B.

    2011-01-01

    Abatement of particulate matter has traditionally been driven by health concerns rather than its role in global warming. Here we assess future abatement strategies in terms of how much they reduce the climate impact of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) from contained combustion. We develop global scenarios which take into account regional differences in climate impact, costs of abatement and ability to pay, as well as both the direct and indirect (snow-albedo) climate impact of BC and...

  6. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    Elless, M.P. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: elless@edenspace.com; Ferguson, B.W. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: ferguson@edenspace.com; Bray, C.A. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: bray@edenspace.com; Patch, S. [Environmental Quality Institute, University of North Carolina, One University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)], E-mail: patch@unca.edu; Mielke, H. [College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)], E-mail: hmielke@xula.edu; Blaylock, M.J. [Edenspace Systems Corporation, 3810 Concorde Parkway, Suite 100, Dulles, VA 20151-1131 (United States)], E-mail: blaylock@edenspace.com

    2008-11-15

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards.

  7. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

  8. Emissions to the atmosphere - monitoring and abatement

    In 1996, paper-mills will be subject to the requirements of the UK Environmental Protection Act 1990. This will involve the monitoring and reduction of emissions of SO2 and NOx. This paper describes the sources of these emissions - fluidised bed boilers, stoker fuel beds, pulverized fuel -and the available technologies for monitoring and abating them. The cost and effectiveness of pollution control is site specific. Large mills may benefit from the installation of Pound 100k monitoring systems with annual running costs of Pound 50 k; while small mills may achieve the desired results through periodic monitoring by consultants at Pound 10k a year. (author)

  9. The photochemical method for radiation abatement

    This report reviews the underlying chemistry of the photochemical method for removal of radioiodines from air and evaluates the concept with respect to various applications in the nuclear industry. The method uses ultraviolet light (200-300 nm) to convert organic iodides (RI) to elemental iodine (I2). The I2 is then reacted with ozone to form solid iodine oxides (I4O9 or (I2O5), which deposit inside a scrubber. It is concluded that the method is applicable to large-scale systems and would have several advantages over conventional methods of radioiodine abatement

  10. J curve for abatement with transboundary pollution

    Begona Casino

    2002-01-01

    In this note an alternative framework to Selden and Song's (1995) work is proposed in order to clarify some of their results and verify whether the relationship between pollution abatement and national income can be drawn as a J curve when there is more than one country involved. As Selden and Song do, pollution is considered as a flow externality. Their model is extended to a two country case which requires the use of differential games. The optimisation problem is decomposed into two stages...

  11. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NOx abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NOx emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NOx from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr-1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NOx concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NOx concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NOx concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  12. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  13. Do abatement quotas lead to more successful climate coalitions?

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Finus, M.; Dellink, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of different treaty designs on the success of international environmental agreements (IEAs). We analyze the standard assumption of an efficient abatement scheme and three uniform abatement quota schemes. Apart from analytical results, the analysis is supported by si

  14. Pollution abatement and nature protection, fraud and trickery

    The present general interpretation of pollution abatement as a necessary vehicle for the preservation and protection of the earth we live on is called in question by arguments which maintain that pollution abatement is an instrument used by the rich countries, especially by the U.S.A., to reduce the developing countries' population. (HP)

  15. Abatement of Air Pollutants and Cogeneration: Search for an Optimal Solution

    Posch, M.; Runca, E.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper atmospheric diffusion modelling and nonlinear optimization techniques are used for the analysis of minimum cost alternatives of air pollution control strategies. Two cases are considered: a) control of air pollution from a large point source and b) reduction of existing pollution levels in an urban area utilizing the heat cogenerated by a thermal power plant for district heating. As to a) a program has been built to compute the minimum cost function for the chosen abatement...

  16. Automobile air pollution: abatement through management and planning. Volume 2. 1979-february, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1979-Feb 80

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    Planning and management studies for the abatement of air pollution from automobiles are covered. This includes reports on maintenance and inspection programs, emission factors, urban planning related to pollution, Government policies, and the effects of these strategies on citizens and urban growth. Reports which give background information pertinent to such abatement decisions are also cited. (This updated bibliography contains 52 abstracts, 43 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Automobile air pollution: abatement through management and planning. Volume 1. 1970-1978 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1970-78

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    This bibliography contains planning and management studies for the abatement of air pollution from automobiles. The reports covers maintenance and inspection programs, emission factors, urban planning related to pollution, Government policies, and the effects of these strategies on citizens and urban growth. Reports which give background information pertinent to such abatement decisions are also cited. (This updated bibliography contains 245 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  19. Special Taxing Districts, Real Estate Abatements, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Real Estate Abatements'....

  20. 76 FR 46352 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for San Diego International, San Diego, CA

    2011-08-02

    ... approved. No program elements relating to new or revised flight procedures for noise abatement were... actions for noise abatement, noise mitigation, land use planning and program management on and off the... environmental analysis. Any new procedures proposed for noise abatement at SAN may not be implemented prior to...

  1. 77 FR 4616 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North...

    2012-01-30

    ... provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter... Noise Abatement Act of 1979, as amended (herein after referred to as the ``Act'') [recodified as 49 U.S... of such program. The Noise Compatibility Program recommended one Noise Abatement Element, eight...

  2. 77 FR 43136 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, PA

    2012-07-23

    ... and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of Federal Regulations... approval of such program. The submitted program contained twenty-two proposed actions for noise abatement... a noise abatement advisory committee; continue to develop the responsibilities of the...

  3. Nonlinear Production, Abatement, Pollution and Materials Balance Reconsidered

    Pethig, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    In the environmental economics literature the standard approach of modeling nonlinear production and abatement processes is to treat waste emissions "simply as another factor of production" (Cropper and Oates 1992). That approach doesn't map the materials flow involved completely and hides, moreover, the exact links between production, residuals generation and abatement. This paper shows that production functions with emissions treated as inputs can be reconstructed as a subsystem of a compre...

  4. Testing Increasing Returns to Pollution Abatement in Pesticides

    Managi, Shunsuke

    2006-01-01

    According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, economic growth and the reduction of environmental degradation are compatible goals. An inverted U-shaped relationship between economic performance and environmental pollution suggests that, empirically, an economy is associated with smaller levels of pollution after some threshold income point. One potential explanation for the empirical evidence of an EKC is increasing returns to pollution abatement, where the abatement efficien...

  5. Environmental innovation and the cost of pollution abatement

    Bréchet, Thierry; JOUVET, Pierre-André

    2006-01-01

    The impact of environmental innovation on the marginal pollution abatement cost at the firm level is investigated. We show that the common assumption that innovation reduces the marginal abatement cost is wrong. We draw some implications about the incentives to innovate under environmental regulation. In particular, we find that adopting an environmental friendly technology may lead to more pollution and less profit at the firm level.

  6. Abatement Technology and the Environment-Growth Nexus with Education

    Pautrel, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the conventional result that a tighter environmental tax has no long-run effect on human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final output production. It demonstrates that the technology used in the abatement sector determines the existence and the direction of the growth-effect. A tighter environmental tax rises (respectively reduces) human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final production, if the abatement secto...

  7. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  8. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  9. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  10. Chemical abatement of acid mine drainage formation

    Steven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data were used to develop a unified model of hydroxo-, sulfato-, and bisulfato-iron complexes and their stability constants in iron-sulfate solutions. Free energy of formation for each ligand series species was hypothesized to be linear in ligand number because of supporting evidence from the literature. Laboratory tests on the inhibition of acid mine drainage bacteria were conducted. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. Low-pH cultures of Thiobacillus thioxidans significantly increased zinc sulfide dissolution rates relative to sterile controls. Sodium lauryl sulfate, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mg/liter, respectively, in identical low-pH, batch cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, were sufficient for complete inhibition of bacterial zinc sulfide dissolution. Pilot-scale experiments on the abatement of acid mine drainage formation in both fresh and weathered pyritic coal refuse were also conducted. At doses of 0.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg in fresh and weathered refuse, respectively, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and most significantly, sodium lauryl surface, reduced the rate of iron, sulfate, and acidity production in water-leached barrels of coal refuse material.

  11. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO2. The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  12. Optimal investment and uncertainty on China's carbon emission abatement

    To realize environmentally sustainable development of the economy, China has decided to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with the level in 2005. Based on China's emission abatement target, this paper first analyzes enterprises' emission reduction pathways in practical production processes, and then develops a framework to derive the magnitude of investment required in each pathway in order to achieve the designated target at the minimal cost. Under the framework, it is found that in the absence of policy guidance, individual enterprises' emission reduction investments deviate from the optimal level. To correct the distortion, an alternative option is provided. Meanwhile, to ensure achievement of the emission reduction target, a stochastic model is introduced to measure the uncertainty arising from emission abatement investment. The results show that an appropriate emission abatement ratio can reduce ‘the systemic risk’ of emission abatement. Finally, a simulation is given to demonstrate the results derived from the stochastic model. - Highlights: ► We formulate enterprises' emission–reduction pathways. ► We examine the cost-minimization problem with emission budget. ► A random model is established to measure the uncertainty of emission abatement. ► Several policy recommendations are proposed.

  13. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  14. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Marginal abatement cost curves and abatement strategies: Taking option interdependency and investments unrelated to climate change into account

    Firms usually have optimization tools for evaluating various investment options; policymakers likewise need tools for designing economically efficient policies. One such tool is the MACC (marginal abatement cost curve), used to capture the least-cost sequence of abatement options. Such curves are also used for understanding the implications of government policies for markets and firms. This article explores dynamic path-dependent aspects of the Stockholm district heating system case, in which the performance of some discrete options is conditioned by others. In addition, it proposes adding a feedback loop to handle option redundancy when implementing a sequence of options. Furthermore, in an energy system, actions unrelated to climate change abatement might likewise affect the performance of abatement options. This is discussed together with implications for climate change policy and corporate investment optimization. Our results indicate that a systems approach coupled with a feedback loop could help overcome some of the present methodological limitations. - Highlights: • We propose changes to the method for constructing marginal abatement cost curves. • We use district heating in Stockholm as an illustrative example. • Option interdependency and system transformation must be accounted for. • This could include changes not resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions

  16. Quantifying CO2 abatement costs in the power sector

    Van den Bergh, Kenneth; Delarue, Erik

    2015-01-01

    CO2 cap-and-trade mechanisms and CO2 emission taxes are becoming increasingly widespread. To assess the impact of a CO2 price, marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a commonly used tool by policy makers, providing a direct graphical link between a CO2 price and the expected abatement. However, such MACCs can suffer from issues related to robustness and granularity. This paper focuses on the relation between a CO2 emission cost and CO2 emission reductions in the power sector. The authors ...

  17. Marginal abatement cost curves and the optimal timing of mitigation measures

    Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. Measure-explicit marginal abatement cost curves depict the cost and abating potential of available mitigation options. Using a simple intertemporal optimization model, we demonstrate why this information is not sufficient to design emission reduction strategies. Because the measures required to achieve ambitious emission reductions cannot be implemented overnight, the optimal str...

  18. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  19. New Knowledge for the Industrial CVOC Emission Abatement

    Pitkäaho, S.; Nevanperä, T.; Matějová, Lenka; Kinnunen, T.; Ojala, S.; Keiski, R.L.

    Oulu : Juvenes Print, 2013 - (Pitkäaho, S.; Pruikkonen, H.; Pongrácz, E.; Keiski, R.), s. 19-22 ISBN 978-952-62-0292-1. [SkyPro Conference /2./. University of Oulu (FI), 12.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : catalysts * VOCs * CVOC emission abatement Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. PFC Abatement in Capacitevely-Coupled Plasma Reactor

    Porshnev, P. I.; Alaoui, M.; Diamant, Stela; Francis, Terry; Raoux, Sebastien; Woolston, Mike

    2001-10-01

    A low-pressure plasma reactor, was developed to reduce PFC emissions of dielectric etch tools, is a point-of-use environmentally and economically sound solution. Generally, local electric fields in capacitively-coupled (CC) plasmas are higher than in inductively-coupled (IC) plasmas. As a result, electron energy distributions in CC plasmas have more pronounced high-energy part compared to the ones in IC plasmas. This is particularly important for effective breaking of the strong C-F bonds, which dissociation potentials are observably higher than the average electron energy. CC plasma in the Pegasys (Plasma Exhaust Gas Abatement SYStem) reactor was found to be in so-called g-regime, in which ionization is provided with secondary emission electrons. Though in these plasmas, the majority of electrons still reside in plasma bulk, the most important discharge characteristics, in particular, the abatement efficiency, are determined by highly-energetic electrons from sheath zones. With water being added to the incoming gas mixture, better than 95% destruction removal efficiency of the PFCs has been achieved for all dielectric etch applications. CC plasma-based abatement significantly differs from existing abatement methods, especially combustion and catalytic oxidation, which are much less environmentally friendly and economically viable.

  1. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPA FILTRATION UNITS AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    A study was conducted to determine-the filtering efficiencies of 31 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units in use at asbestos-abatement projects. article-removal efficiencies for these units ranged from 90.53 to > 99.99 percent. ineteen (61%) of the units tested ...

  2. Estimating asbestos abatement projects: Excellence or 'You said I missed what'?

    Between 1900 and 1980, 30 million tons of asbestos were put in place. Because of the known health hazards and increasing federal, state, and local regulations, building owners are now facing the problem of asbestos abatement. There are 4 basic approaches to dealing with asbestos: (1) removal, (2) enclosure, (3) encapsulation, (4) deferred action in conjunction with a well defined operations and maintenance program. Once the full extent of the problem is determined, the decision can be made on which action or combination of actions to take and begin estimating the cost of the asbestos abatement project. There are no high-tech methods of asbestos removal. It is hot, wet, labor intensive work, the ways of removal are archaic. Removal means man power and man hours, labor is a big ticket item, and is an important factor in cost estimating. Become very familiar with the scope of the project and be sure to fully understand the depth of the asbestos problem. The products, supplies, tools, and in some cases, the machines are all disposable items. If one overlooks something or underestimates the time involved for removal, not only will one be way off on material, the labor costs will soar. Be very observant on walk throughs, notice everything. Be sure to get clear, accurate test results on material to be removed. Once all this is done, one can make a good take off with confidence. Finally, when in doubt always remember the 11th commandment of asbestos abatement cost-estimating 'If thou can't figure it out hor-ellipsis thou best figure it in.'

  3. Do abatement quotas lead to more successful climate coalitions?

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.-C.; Dellink, R. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group; Finus, M. [Univ. of Hagen (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2007-07-01

    Casual empirical evidence has already shown that existing international environmental agreements (IEAs) depart from a globally optimal solution typically in three respects. Firstly, not all countries that are responsible for negative transboundary spillovers participate in IEAs. A typical example is the Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. Neither the USA, a major current emitter of greenhouse gases, nor major future emitters such as China and India, have accepted quantified emission reductions under this agreement. Secondly, total abatement of the coalition is below coalitional optimal levels. For framework conventions (such as the Vienna Convention preceding the Montreal Protocol on CFC-reductions, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) preceding the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases reduction or the Convention Long Range Transboundary Pollution (LRTAP) preceding the Helsinki and Oslo Protocols on sulfur reductions) this is evident as they are mere declarations of intentions without abatement obligations. However, this suboptimality is also true for other conventions which is supported by empirical studies, suggesting that emission reduction targets are not much higher than in the absence of these agreements. Thirdly, emission reduction efforts are not cost-effectively allocated. Abatement obligations are often specified as uniform emission reduction quotas, even though countries face different marginal abatement costs. In the non-cooperative game theoretical literature on IEAs, the first type of deficiency has received much attention. A common assumption in many of these studies is that total abatement within a coalition is chosen optimally. The first papers shwoing that only small coalitions are self-enforcing go back to Barrett (1994) and Carraro and Siniscalco (1993), which has recently been confirmed by Breton et al. (2006). Later papers have addressed the problem of heterogeneous payoff functions and

  4. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  5. Endogenous Technological Progress with Uncertainty and Carbon Abatement Polices

    Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Most greenhouse gas abatement policy models tend to neglect a potentially important element that is relevant to the induced technology changes(ITC). These models that incorporate technological change treat such a change as autonomous, that is, unaffected by changes in prices brought about by policy reforms. However, climate change policies can create economic incentives to engage in more extensive R and D oriented toward the discovery of new production techniques that mitigate a reliance on convectional fuels, ultimately resulting in impacts on the policies themselves. In order to investigate the significance of induced technology for the attractiveness of abatement policies, this study develop the multi-sectoral dynamic CGE model by incorporating two characteristics of technological progress: the endogenous growth model with externality of technology in Romer (1986) and Lucas(1988) and the technological changes resulting from profit maximizing investment in R and D in Rebelo(1991) and Jones and Manuelli(1990). Furthermore, technological progress is affected by not only the economical factors but also the political and institutional system that cannot be captured in this model. This study considers such uncertainty in the technological progress as technology shock as in RBC school. This study shows that the presence of ITC implies lower costs of achieving a given abatement target in terms of the reduction cost per ton of carbon and GDP losses. The presence of ITC reduces the GDP losses by 0.9%p{approx}1.5%p compared with the absence of the ITC. As the abatement target is substantially high, R and D is reduced significantly even in the presence of ITC. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously consider the tax recycling for enhancing R and D investment, which minimizes the GDP losses. The reduction cost is highly sensitive to the uncertainty in technological progress. The technology shock leads the reduction cost to widely vary, in terms of standard deviation, 3

  6. A note the cost of pollution abatement

    Thierry Bréchet; Pierre-André Jouvet

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyse the consequences of the constraint of shareholder value on the wage level and equilibrium unemployment rate. We will relate the new program of maximization of the firm, as well as the one of the trade union. We obtain an increase of the unemployment rate when progressing from a maximization of profit to a maximization of the EVA. The unemployment rate is also now depending on others financial variables.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  8. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  9. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  10. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  11. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  12. Determinants of Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure: Evidence from Romania

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Rault, Christophe; Sova, Robert; Sova, Anamaria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed some light on the factors affecting Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure (PACE) in the context of a transition economy such as Romania, in contrast to the existing literature which mostly focuses on developed economies. Specifically, we use survey data of the Romanian National Institute of Statistics and estimate Multilevel Regression Model (MRM) to investigate the determinants of environmental behaviour at plant level. Our results reveal some im...

  13. DRONE - a tool for urban traffic noise abatement policy evaluation

    A. Bhaskar; Chung, E; Kuwahara, M

    2005-01-01

    Areawide Dynamic ROad traffic NoisE simulator-DRONE, been has developed by the integration of a road traffic noise prediction model (ASJ MODEL-1998) with road traffic simulator (AVENUE) which is further linked with GIS to provide areawide dynamic road traffic noise contour maps. This tool provides an engineering solution for the prediction of road traffic noise in urban network. Noise reduction in an urban area can be achieved by noise abatement policie...

  14. Evaluating uncertain CO2 abatement over the very long term

    Gerlagh, R.; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der

    2011-01-01

    Climate change research with the economic methodology of cost–benefit analysis is challenging because of valuation and ethical issues associated with the long delays between CO2 emissions and much of their potential damages, typically of several centuries. The large uncertainties with which climate change impacts are known today and the possibly temporary nature of some envisaged CO2 abatement options exacerbate this challenge. For example, potential leakage of CO2 from geological reservoirs,...

  15. Quantifying CO2 abatement costs in the power sector

    CO2 cap-and-trade mechanisms and CO2 emission taxes are becoming increasingly widespread. To assess the impact of a CO2 price, marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a commonly used tool by policy makers, providing a direct graphical link between a CO2 price and the expected abatement. However, such MACCs can suffer from issues related to robustness and granularity. This paper focuses on the relation between a CO2 emission cost and CO2 emission reductions in the power sector. The authors present a new methodology that improves the understanding of the relation between a CO2 cost and CO2 abatement. The methodology is based on the insight that CO2 emissions in the power sector are driven by the composition of the conventional power portfolio, the residual load and the generation costs of the conventional units. The methodology addresses both the robustness issue and the granularity issue related to MACCs. The methodology is based on a bottom-up approach, starting from engineering knowledge of the power sector. It offers policy makers a new tool to assess CO2 abatement options. The methodology is applied to the Central Western European power system and illustrates possible interaction effects between, e.g., fuel switching and renewables deployment. - Highlights: • We present a new methodology on the CO2 cost-emission relation in the power sector. • Main objective of the methodology is to deepen the understanding of this relation. • CO2 emissions are driven by installed capacity, load and generation costs. • The robustness and granularity issues linked to MACCs are addressed. • We apply the methodology to the 2012 Central Western European power sector

  16. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  17. On the cost-effective abatement of CO2-options taking consumer behaviour into account

    The current ecopolitical discussion focusses on the greenhouse effect and the consequent political aim to abate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Studies on individual measures for CO2 abatement and on the development of efficient abatement strategies are already at hand. There is one aspect, however, that has hardly been dealt with as yet: If CO2 abatement suceeds as it is planned by the Federal Government, then energy and prices will rise considerably, and this will curb the demand for energy. Any efficient abatement strategy must take this into account. The article presents a new concept for energy-emission models that takes consumer behaviour into account and discusses efficient CO2 abatement strategies following from the application of such models. (orig.)

  18. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  19. Assessment of the performance of asphalt rubber layers on noise abatement

    Freitas, Elisabete; Pereira, Paulo; Anfosso Ledee, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Layers with a very high content of rubber have shown to be very effective on noise abatement despite their reduced durability. On the contrary, layers with a rubberized asphalt binder have shown to be durable, but their performance regarding noise abatement is not consensual yet. This paper aims at assessing the effect of the use of layers with rubberized asphalt binder on noise abatement. For this purpose seven road sections with different surface types, among which five gap graded and three...

  20. Assessment of the performance of asphalt rubber layers on noise abatement

    Freitas, Elisabete F.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Layers with a very high content of rubber have shown to be very effective on noise abatement despite their reduced durability. On the contrary, layers with a rubberized asphalt binder have shown to be durable, but their performance regarding noise abatement is not consensual yet. This paper aims at assessing the effect of the use of layers with rubberized asphalt binder on noise abatement. For this purpose seven road sections with different surface types, among which five gap grad...

  1. COSTS OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ABATEMENT UNDER THE CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Larson, Donald F.; ARIEL DINAR

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the costs of emissions abatement through various types of projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. Using project data, cost functions are estimated applying alternative functional forms. Results show that the average cost of abatement decreases with the volume of abatement, showing economies of scale and suggesting that reducing emissions through small projects is relatively expensive. Results also show significant variation in t...

  2. Perspectives of nuclear power and carbon dioxide abatement

    The papers presented at the conference particularly look at reactor safety aspects and nuclear power programmes worldwide, which are discussed in connection with the demand for ensuring power supplies in the future, and reducing atmospheric pollution by carbon dioxide. The CO2 problem as it is encountered at present and strategies for CO2 abatement are explained in some papers, whereas other papers are concerned with nuclear power reactors and the related major aspects of safety engineering, nuclear fuel supply and radioactive waste management, and further development of nuclear installations, comparing the technical details and pro and cons of LWR, HTR, and breeder reactor programmes. (DG)

  3. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  4. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  6. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desirability of subsidies for abatement technology. We find a more robust recommendation for upstream subsidies than for downstream subsidies. Downstream subsidies tend to increase global abatement technology prices, reduce pollution abatement abroad and increase emission leakage. On the contrary, upstream subsidies reduce abatement technology prices, and hence also emissions leakage.(Author)

  7. Robust MACCs? The topography of abatement by fuel switching in the European power sector

    This paper employs a simulation model of the European power sector to analyze the abatement response to a CO2 price through fuel switching, one of principal means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in any economy. Abatement is shown to depend not only on the price of allowances, but also and more importantly on the load level of the system and the ratio between natural gas and coal prices. The interplay of these different determinants vitiates any simple relation between a CO2 price and abatement and requires the development of more than two-dimensional graphics to illustrate these complex relationships. In the terms of the literature on the use of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), we find that these MACCs are not robust as usually defined and we suggest that the more complex topography developed in this paper may be more helpful in visualizing this abatement response to a CO2 price.

  8. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  9. Radwaste solidification modifications by means of nitrogen oxides catalytic abatement

    In the treatment and solidification of medium and high level radioactive wastes, large amounts of NO /sub x/ are produced, which are normally scrubbed with nitric acid or alkaline solutions. In this way big volumes of secondary wastes containing high nitrate concentrations which cannot be easily discharged are produced. The application of the NO /sub x/ catalytic abatement with selective ammonia reduction would permit to avoid this problem, with large cost savings. Two practical examples have been examined: a bituminization plant and a pot vitrification plant referred to the Italian EUREX Reprocessing Pilot Plant. 416,000 and 362,000 $/y respectively would be saved by replacing scrubbing towers with a catalytic reactor

  10. Asia: Inflation is Abating,But More Challenges Lie Ahead

    Nicholas Kwan

    2011-01-01

    No quick monetary easingAcross Asia,there are signs that the current round of consumer price inflation is abating,as we predicted earlier this year.But it is much too early for Asian governments to claim victory in their efforts to achieve price stability.Even assuming the battle against consumer price inflation is won,the more challenging war against asset-price inflation is yet to fully unfold.Tne next three to six months will be critical.Monetary policy needs to remain tight,or even be tightened further.More importantly,macro-prudential measures and other policy tools are required to contain leverage and the risk of asset bubbles.While inflation numbers may moderate further,investors looking for a quick reversal of theregion's tight monetary policy are likely to be disappointed,and markets could turn more volatile in anticipation of policy changes.

  11. SO2 abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at Copper Cliff

    This paper reports that Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO2 emissions form the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O2/t Cu + Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead to a substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation of high-strength SO2 off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant

  12. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    Mendes AA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A escalda, depena e evisceração são pontos importantes de contaminação cruzada no abatedouro devido à grande quantidade de microorganismos aderidos às penas, pele e patas das aves e ao rompimento das vísceras durante a evisceração. Entretanto, a desidratação da carcaça começa imediatamente após o início do jejum. Períodos prolongados de jejum podem afetar o pH das diversas partes do intestino, aumentando a presença de Salmonella e outros microorganismos patogênicos. Além disso, determinam uma maior contaminação pela bile, e são, subjetivamente, associados à fragilidade dos intestinos durante a evisceração mecânica. Portanto, os esquemas de processamento devem ser estabelecidos levando-se em conta a integridade e o esvaziamento do intestino e da vesícula biliar, bem como a desidratação e os seus efeitos sobre o bem estar das aves, contaminação da carcaça e qualidade da carne. Como alguns efeitos do jejum ainda não são bem conhecidos, sugerem-se pesquisas nas seguintes áreas: definir o tempo ótimo de jejum para atender o bem estar das aves, minimizar a contaminação e otimizar os parâmetros de qualidade de carcaça; estudar os efeitos de períodos prolongados de jejum sobre o pH e a colonização do papo, pró-ventrículo, moela, intestino delgado, intestino grosso e cecos por enterobactérias, como Salmonella, por exemplo; efeito do jejum sobre o tamanho e cor do fígado. O resultado esperado é um aumento

  13. Pulsed Corona Discharges and Their Applications in Toxic VOCs Abatement

    MuhammadArifMalik; SalmanAkbarMalik

    1999-01-01

    plasma processes are among the emerging technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sbatoment. Both thermal plasmas and non-equil[brimn plasmas (cold plasmas) are being developed for VOCs clesnup. Particularly, pulsed corona discharges offer several edvantages over conventional VOCs abatement tochniqvee, To optimize the existing technology and to developit further, there is need to understand the mechanlsms involved in plasma chemical reacticms, Furthermore, it is strongly desirable to be able to predict the behavior of new VOCs in non-equillbrlum plasma enviromuent from the data known for a few representative oompounds, Pulsed corona discharge technique is introduced here with dtafion of refevant literature, Fundamental principfes,useful for predicting the VOCs' decomposition behavior, have been worked out from the published literature. Latest developments in the area, targeted to minimize the enersy losses, improve the VOCs destruction efficiency and reduce the generation of unwanted organic and inorganic by-products, are presented.

  14. 77 FR 3545 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for Philadelphia International...

    2012-01-24

    ... provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47504 (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the..., Office of the Noise Abatement Program Manager, located at 2801 Island Avenue, Suite 13, Philadelphia, PA... FR 44046 (July 27, 2010). The proposed noise compatibility program will be approved or disapproved...

  15. 75 FR 35122 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Buckeye Municipal Airport, Town of Buckeye, AZ

    2010-06-21

    ... approval of such program. The submitted program contained five proposed actions for noise abatement, noise... Town of Buckeye under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part...

  16. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO2e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO2e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO2e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  17. Marginal abatement cost curves in general equilibrium: The influence of world energy prices

    Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a favorite instrument to analyze international emissions trading. This paper focuses on the question of how to define MACCs in a general equilibrium context where the global abatement level influences energy prices and in turn national MACCs. We discuss the mechanisms theoretically and then use the CGE model DART for quantitative simulations. The result is, that changes in energy prices resulting from different global abatement levels do indeed affect national MACCs. Also, we compare different possibilities of defining MACCs-of which some are robust against changes in energy prices while others vary considerably. (author)

  18. Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?

    Zhengge Tu; Renjun Shen

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS) on the pollution abatement costs (PAC) from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC) and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC) based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. O...

  19. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NOx control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NOx controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NOx retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NOx controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NOx-specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  20. Greenhouse gas abatement costs of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification

    The demand for hydrogen is likely to increase in the next decade to satisfy the projected growth of the bitumen upgrading industry in western Canada. This paper presents GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement costs and the GHG abatement potential in producing hydrogen from UCG (underground coal gasification) along with CCS (carbon capture and sequestration). Seven hydrogen production scenarios are considered to assess the competitiveness of implementing UCG compared to SMR (steam methane reforming). The analysis is completed through a LCA (life cycle assessment) of large-scale hydrogen production from UCG and SMR with and without CCS. Considering SMR technology without CCS as the base case, the GHG abatement costs of implementing the UCG-CCS technology is calculated to be in the range of 41–109 $CAD/tonne-CO2-eq depending on the transportation distance to the CCS site from the UCG-H2 production plant. Life cycle GHG emissions are higher in UCG than in SMR. The GHG abatement costs for SMR-CCS-based scenarios are higher than for UCG-CCS-based scenarios; they range from 87 to 158 $CAD/tonne-CO2-eq in a similar manner to UCG-CCS. Consideration of revenues for selling the CO2 captured for EOR (enhanced oil recovery) reduces the GHG abatement costs. An opportunity for revenue generation is realized in the UCG-CCS case. - Highlights: • Estimation of GHG abatement costs for UCG and SMR with and without CCS. • UCG-CCS has the lowest GHG abatement costs. • UCG-CCS has the highest GHG abatement potential. • Life cycle GHG emissions in SMR-CCS are higher than in UCG-CCS

  1. ACCOUNTING FOR SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS IN EVALUATING WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT POLICIES

    Qiu, Zeyuan; Prato, Anthony A.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates three agricultural nonpoint pollution abatement policies: regulating the spatial pattern of agricultural activities, ambient tax, and abatement tax/subsidy. All three policies incorporate spatial characteristics of agricultural emission loading and movement for an agricultural watershed in the Midwest. The effects of spatial variation in natural conditions and landscape features on agricultural emissions and crop yield are evaluated using a newly developed biophysical sim...

  2. Energy conservation and CO2-emission abatement potential in the Greek residential services sector

    A policy for CO2-emission abatement will have to allow for the sectoral energy-conservation potential. The present paper outlines the energy-analysis method applied to the Greek residential and services sectors. The trends in energy requirements for 1990-2000 are forecast and energy-conservation and CO2-abatement measures are proposed. A Maximum Action Scenario (MAS) and a Realistic Scenario (RS) are compared with a No-Action Scenario (NAS). (Author)

  3. Environmental policy, education and growth with finite lifetime: the role of the abatement technology

    Pautrel, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    This note shows that the assumptions about the abatement technology modify the impact of the environmental taxation on the long-run growth driven by human capital accumulation à la Lucas (1988), when lifetime is finite. Whereas no impact of the environmental policy on long-run growth is found when pollution originates from final output and abatement is an activity requiring final output to reduce net emissions, this note demonstrates that a tighter environmental tax enhances human capital acc...

  4. Water pollution abatement by Chinese industry : cost estimates and policy implications

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Minul; Wheeler, David; Chonghua Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Using factory-level data provided by China's National Environmental Protection Agency and the Tianjin Environmental Protection Bureau, the authors of this report estimate the costs of water pollution abatement for Chinese industry. Using their econometric results, they analyze the cost-effectiveness of current pollution control policy in China and make the conclusions that follow. (1) For each pollutant, marginal abatement costs exhibit great differences by sector, scale, and degree of abatem...

  5. ALLOCATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE MARGINAL COSTS OF POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Shortle, James S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the possible use of information on the relative marginal costs of point and nonpoint source water pollution abatement to assess the efficiency implications of shifting a greater portion of the burden for water quality protection to nonpoint sources. The inherent uncertainty about the effects of changes in resource allocation for nonpoint pollution abatement on nonpoint pollution loads is recognized in the analysis. This uncertainty is shown to result in significant limitat...

  6. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SHADOW PRICE AND COST ESTIMATES OF NITROGEN POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    Shaik, Saleem; Helmers, Glenn A.; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The implications of treating environmental pollution as an undesirable output (weak disposability) as well as a normal input (strong disposability) on the direct and indirect shadow price and cost estimates of nitrogen pollution abatement is analyzed using Nebraska agriculture sector data. The shadow price of nitrogen pollution abatement treated as an undesirable output represents the reduced revenue from reducing nitrogen pollution. In contrast, the shadow price of nitrogen pollution abateme...

  7. Yale FICSIT: risk factor abatement strategy for fall prevention.

    Tinetti, M E; Baker, D I; Garrett, P A; Gottschalk, M; Koch, M L; Horwitz, R I

    1993-03-01

    Based on finding a strong association between number of impairments and risk of falling in earlier studies, Yale FICSIT investigators are conducting an intervention trial comparing the effectiveness of usual care plus social visits (SV) and a targeted risk abatement intervention (TI) strategy in reducing falls among at risk community elderly persons. Subjects include members of a participating HMO who are > or = 70 years of age, cognitively intact, not terminally ill, not too physically active, and possess at least one fall risk factor. The targeted risk factors include postural hypotension; sedative use; at least four targeted medications; upper and lower extremity strength and range of motion impairments; foot problems; and balance, gait, and transfer dysfunctions. The interventions include medication adjustments, behavioral change recommendations, education and training, and home-based exercise regimens targeting the identified risk factors. The interventions are carried out by the study nurse practitioner and physical therapist in TI subjects' homes. The SV subjects receive a comparable number of home visits as the TI subjects during which a structured life review is performed by social work students. The primary outcome is occurrence of falls during the 12-month followup. Secondary outcomes include change in mobility performance and fall-related efficacy. PMID:8440856

  8. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  9. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges.

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiantao; Pan, Hua; Su, Qingfa; Liu, Yamin; Shi, Yao

    2010-05-15

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m(3) reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O(3) and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML+dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20mg/kJ. PMID:20116170

  10. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges

    Chen Jie; Yang Jiantao; Pan Hua; Su Qingfa; Liu Yamin [Institute of Industrial Ecology and Environment, Zhejiang University (Yuquan Campus) Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shi Yao, E-mail: shiyao@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Ecology and Environment, Zhejiang University (Yuquan Campus) Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m{sup 3} reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O{sub 3} and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML + dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20 mg/kJ.

  11. Prospects for non-thermal atmospheric plasmas for pollution abatement

    For approximately the past ten years, atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas have been increasingly promoted as a technology for a number of applications in the area of pollution abatement. In such plasmas, the electrons have a significantly higher temperature compared to the ions, atoms and molecules. This paper provides an overview of both the technologies involved and the diverse potential application areas. A general description of these atmospheric plasmas and the basic principles involved in the destruction or removal of gaseous phase pollutants, based on the nature of the processes taking place within these plasmas, are given. A number of examples of the different plasma technologies are described. The technologies described are pulsed corona, microwave and dielectric barrier plasmas. Their suitability and use in various application areas are also discussed including incinerator off gas treatment, industrial process off gas treatment and diesel exhaust aftertreatment. The use of modelling of the physical and chemical processes involved to predict system performance and as a tool for sizing systems to meet customer requirements is also discussed. (author)

  12. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m3 reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O3 and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML + dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20 mg/kJ.

  13. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence. PMID:23343109

  14. CO2 Abatement In The Iron And Steel Industry

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The iron and steel industry is the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions due to the energy intensity of steel production, its reliance on carbon-based fuels and reductants, and the large volume of steel produced -- over 1414 Mt in 2010. With the growing concern over climate change, steel makers are faced with the challenge of finding ways of lowering CO2 emissions without seriously undermining process efficiency or considerably adding to costs. This report examines ways of abating CO2 emissions from raw materials preparation (coking, sintering and pelletising plants) through to the production of liquid steel in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces. Direct reduction and smelting reduction processes are covered, as well as iron making in a blast furnace. A range of technologies and measures exist for lowering CO2 emissions including minimising energy consumption and improving energy efficiency, changing to a fuel and/or reducing agent with a lower CO2 emission factor (such as wood charcoal), and capturing the CO2 and storing it underground. Significant CO2 reductions can be achieved by combining a number of the available technologies. If carbon capture and storage is fitted than steel plants could become near zero emitters of CO2.

  15. Climate and air quality-driven scenarios of ozone and aerosol precursor abatement

    In addition to causing domestic and regional environmental effects, many air pollutants contribute to radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. However, climate effects are not considered when cost-effective abatement targets for these pollutants are established, nor are they included in current international climate agreements. We construct air pollution abatement scenarios in 2030 which target cost-effective reductions in RF in the EU, USA, and China and compare these to abatement scenarios which instead target regional ozone effects and particulate matter concentrations. Our analysis covers emissions of PM (fine, black carbon and organic carbon), SO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and CO. We find that the effect synergies are strong for PM/BC, VOC, CO and CH4. While an air quality strategy targeted at reducing ozone will also reduce RF, this will not be the case for a strategy targeting particulate matter. Abatement in China dominates RF reduction, but there are cheap abatement options also available in the EU and USA. The justification for international cooperation on air quality issues is underlined when the co-benefits of reduced RF are considered. Some species, most importantly SO2, contribute a negative forcing on climate. We suggest that given current knowledge, NOx and SO2 should be ignored in RF-targeted abatement policies.

  16. Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I

    Garza, Sergio

    1977-01-01

    Regional decline of aquifer head due to ground-water withdrawal in the Houston area has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. The NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) in southeastern Harris County, Texas, was about 13 to 19 feet above mean sea level in 1974 and sinking at a rate of more than 0.2 foot per year. NASA-JSC officials, concerned about the hurricane flooding hazard, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to study the feasibility of artificially recharging the aquifers for subsidence abatement. Hydrologic digital models were developed for theoretical determinations of quantities of water needed, under various well-array plans, for artificial recharge of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in order to halt the local subsidence at NASA-JSC. The programs for the models were developed for analysis of three-dimensional ground-water flow. Total injection rates of between 2,000 and 14,000 gallons per minute under three general well-array plans were determined for a range of residual clay pore pressures of 10 to 70 feet of hydraulic head. The space distributions of the resultant hydraulic heads, illustrated for injection rates of 3,600 and 8 ,400 gallons per minute, indicated that, for the same rate, increasing the number and spread of the injection locations reduces the head gradients within NASA-JSC. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. 77 FR 14461 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    2012-03-09

    ... flight procedures for noise abatement were proposed by the airport operator. DATES: Effective Date: The... period shall be deemed to be an approval of such program, seven proposed actions for noise abatement... Creek, Michigan, under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and...

  18. 78 FR 16910 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport, Cleveland, Ohio

    2013-03-19

    ... for noise abatement, land use planning and program management on and off the airport were evaluated... Cleveland, Ohio under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR part 150 (hereinafter referred to...

  19. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  20. Marginal abatement cost curves and the optimal timing of mitigation measures

    Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. Measure-explicit marginal abatement cost curves depict the cost and abating potential of available mitigation options. Using a simple intertemporal optimization model, we demonstrate why this information is not sufficient to design emission reduction strategies. Because the measures required to achieve ambitious emission reductions cannot be implemented overnight, the optimal strategy to reach a short-term target depends on longer-term targets. For instance, the best strategy to achieve European's −20% by 2020 target may be to implement some expensive, high-potential, and long-to-implement options required to meet the −75% by 2050 target. Using just the cheapest abatement options to reach the 2020 target can create a carbon-intensive lock-in and make the 2050 target too expensive to reach. Designing mitigation policies requires information on the speed at which various measures to curb greenhouse gas emissions can be implemented, in addition to the information on the costs and potential of such measures provided by marginal abatement cost curves. - Highlights: • Classification of existing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC). • MACCs do not provide separated data on the speed at which measures can be implemented. • Optimal measures to reach a short-term target depend on longer-term targets. • Unique carbon price or aggregated emission-reduction target may be insufficient. • Room for short-term sectoral policies if agents are myopic or governments cannot commit

  1. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  2. Working Group 'Air pollution abatement' of the University of Stuttgart -ALS. Annual report 1990

    Despite considerable efforts for air pollution abatement - examples are here desulphurization and nitrogen removal in power and large combustion plants as well as catalytic converters for automobiles there are still many problems to solve. Many small and medium-size companies still have to reduce production-related pollutant emissions, traffic still is a major source of pollutants. Air pollution abatement in the new Federal states and other Eastern European countries is a particularly urgent task and reductions of CO2 emissions from energy production processes with fossil fuels are not least a great challenge. Apart from industry, legislation and administration especially science is called upon to find solutions to these problems. The university of Stuttgart takes up the challenge. Numerous institutes - 17 of 8 faculties -united in the working group ''air pollution abatement'' of the university of Stuttgart which carries out in interdisciplinary cooperation research work in the area of air pollution abatement. In this annual report activities of individual member states institutes in the area of air pollution abatement (fields of study, current research projects, cooperations and publications in 1991) as well as joint projects are presented. (orig./KW)

  3. Marginal abatement cost curves for policy recommendation – A method for energy system analysis

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to rank possible measures marginal abatement cost curves have become a tool to graphically represent the relationship between abatement costs and emission reduction. This paper demonstrates how to derive marginal abatement cost curves for well-to-wheel GHG emissions of the transport sector considering the full energy provision chain and the interlinkages and interdependencies within the energy system. Presented marginal abatement cost curves visualize substitution effects between measures for different marginal mitigation costs. The analysis makes use of an application of the energy system model generator TIMES for South Africa (TIMES-GEECO). For the example of Gauteng province, this study exemplary shows that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for cost-efficient reduction of GHG emissions. However, the analysis also demonstrates that several options are available to mitigate transport related GHG emissions at comparable low marginal abatement costs. This methodology can be transferred to other economic sectors as well as to other regions in the world to derive cost-efficient GHG reduction strategies

  4. Electrochemical abatement of chloroethanes in water: Reduction, oxidation and combined processes

    An electrochemical route, based on the anodic oxidation to carbon dioxide coupled with the cathodic reduction to de-halogenated hydrocarbons, was proposed for the treatment of waters contaminated by chloroethanes. The electrochemical abatement of two model compounds, namely 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, was carried out by cathodic reduction at silver, anodic oxidation at boron doped diamond (BDD) and combined processes. The anodic oxidation gives rise to a high abatement of the concentration of both these compounds and of COD. The reduction of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane proceeds also with high abatement but with the formation of some halogenated intermediates and final products, even if in low concentrations. Lower abatements were, on the other hand, obtained for the reduction of 1,2-dichloroethane. When reduction and oxidation processes were carried out simultaneously, a higher abatement of pollutants was obtained with the same amount of the passed charge (e.g., passed time) and applied cell voltage with respect to uncoupled processes. Furthermore, in the case of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, no other halogenated products were detected at the end of the electrolyses when the combined process was performed in an undivided cell.

  5. Emission abatement: Untangling the impacts of the EU ETS and the economic crisis

    In this study we use historical emission data from installations under the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to evaluate the impact of this policy on greenhouse gas emissions during the first two trading phases (2005–2012). As such the analysis seeks to disentangle two causes of emission abatement: that attributable to the EU ETS and that attributable to the economic crisis that hit the EU in 2008/09. To do so, we use a dynamic panel data approach. Our results suggest that, by far, the biggest share of abatement was attributable to the effects of the economic crisis. This finding has serious implications for future policy adjustments affecting core elements of the EU ETS, including the distribution of EU emission allowances. - Highlights: • We untangle the effects of the EU ETS from those of the economic crisis on industrial emission abatement. • The empirical analysis uses verified emission data instead of estimated emission data. • Abatement of emissions in EU in the last years has been mainly due to the impact of the economic crisis. • Low level of abatement attributable to the EU ETS suggests that important changes must be made in environmental policy

  6. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  7. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

  8. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  9. Control of chironamics in milkfish (Chanos chanos) ponds with Abate (Temephos) insecticide

    Tsai, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Larval chironomids (Chironomus longilobus (Kieffer) are serious competitors with milkfish Chanos chanos (Forskal) for benthic algae in commercial milkfish ponds in Taiwan. Chironomid larvae were effectively killed with temephos (Abate, 0, 0, 0', 0'-tetramethyl 0, 0'-thiodi-p-phenylene phosphorothioate) 50% emulsifiable concentrate when it was diluted 1:2,000 with seawater and applied to milkfish ponds to establish a concentration of 0.050 mg/liter of the active ingredient. This treatment did not harm milkfish and benthic algae. Residues found in the edible portions of milkfish after seven applications of Abate 50% emulsifiable concentrate ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/kg, well below the 1.0 mg/liter approved by the World Health Organization for presence in human drinking water. The acute toxicity of Abate 50% emulsifiable concentrate to 13 other species of aquatic animals was determined in the laboratory.

  10. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  11. L’abate Angelo Comolli (1760-1794) e il confronto Raffaello-Dürer

    Stefano Onofri

    2012-01-01

    L’articolo studia l’abate Angelo Comolli e la sua Vita inedita di Raffaello da Urbino, pubblicata per la prima volta a Roma nel 1790. Di questa biografia è interessante, in particolare, il brano sul confronto tra Raffaello e Dürer. Non si sa molto della vita dell’abate Comolli: possiamo ricavarne alcune informazioni da una lettera (Torino, Biblioteca Civica) scritta dal fratello Fermo. Nel suo lavoro su Raffaello, Comolli dichiara di pubblicare con note un’anonima biografia del pittore urbina...

  12. Air pollution abatement as influenced by the structural change in energy supplies and transportation. Papers

    This colloquium was organised by the Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft (KRdL) (Committee on Air Pollution Abatement) within the VDI and DIN in close cooperation with other expert committees and institutions. The aim was, working from the situation in the new Laender, to analyse the focal problems: coordination of the energy economy and ecopolitics; emissions and pollutant input as a function of the primary energy sources used; utilisation of residual energy/thermal waste treatment; and air pollution abatement and traffic. The analysis was to be conducted from the viewpoint of national and international regulations and lead to suggestions of possible solutions. Twenty-seven contributions were abstracted individually. (orig.)

  13. Photovoltaic (PV) electricity: Comparative analyses of CO2 abatement at different fuel mix scales in the US

    Photovoltaic electricity has the potential to mitigate CO2 emissions from the grid. A methodology to more accurately evaluate CO2 abatement by PV electricity is developed. We develop a capacity factor based dispatching model to evaluate marginal abatement in the load zones of ERCOT and CAISO, and compare it to the abatement using national, regional and state average resource profiles. The average cases over-estimated and under-estimated CO2 abatement in ERCOT and CAISO, respectively. Marginal abatement was lower by 17% than the average cases in ERCOT, due to the predominant displacement of the low carbon natural gas plants at the margin. In CASIO, marginal abatement was higher (1.3-2.4 times) than that of the average cases due to the displacement of highly inefficient gas plants at the margin. We demonstrate that actual CO2 abatement of PV electricity is dependent on both peak load resources and capacity of installations. Subsequently, we develop a CO2 indicator that can be used as a guideline for selecting PV installation sites to derive maximum abatement. Installing photovoltaics in regional areas of MRO, SPP and RFC was determined to be most beneficial. The results of this study can guide energy planning and CO2 mitigation policy-making using photovoltaics in the future.

  14. Industrial Competitiveness and Diffusion of New Pollution Abatement Technology – a new look at the Porter-hypothesis

    Greaker, Mads

    2004-01-01

    We study the relationship between industrial competitiveness, adaption of cleaner production techniques and environmental policy. While other contributions have analyzed environmental innovations with point of departure in the polluting firm, we introduce an upstream market for new pollution abatement technology. A strong environmental policy may then benefit industrial competitiveness through its effect on the price on pollution abatement. However, the incentive for a stringen...

  15. Zeolite ZSM5 catalysts for abatement of nitrogen oxide

    Ganemi, Bager

    1999-07-01

    Airborne pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels are a global problem. Emission of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is increasing with the worldwide increase in the use of energy. Atmospheric and photochemical reactions link nitrogen oxides to hydrocarbons and tropospheric ozone. The emission of NO{sub x} has to be tackled urgently in order to limit the harmful effects of anthropogenic activity on the environment. The subject of this thesis is catalytic nitrogen oxide abatement through direct decomposition and reduction by methane over ion-exchanged zeolite ZSM5. The work covers catalytic conversion and surface intermediates, including correlations with the level of exchanged Cu{sup 2+} cations and Ni{sup 2+} or Pd{sup 2+} co-cations. Special attention is given to the aluminium content of the support and changes in structural parameters. It was found that NO{sub x} conversion over cation-exchanged ZSM5 is strongly influenced by the ion-exchange procedure and by the above material parameters. Characterization of Cu-ZSM5 reveals that approximately two molecules of water per Cu{sup 2+} ion desorb at temperatures between 150 and 350 Deg C, in addition to the conventional dehydration at lower temperatures. The desorbed water comes from the decomposition of Cu(OH){sub 2}. Decomposition of hydroxylated copper ions results in the formation Of Cu{sup 2+}-O-Cu{sup 2+} dimers, which are suggested to be the active sites for catalytic decomposition of NO. Acid sites are important for the dispersion of copper ions on the catalyst surface. Acid sites are also important for the interaction between copper species and the zeolite. Increased acidity leads to a stronger interaction between the exchanged cation and the framework, i.e. the exchanged cations become more resistant to mobility. The stronger bond between the exchanged cations and lattice oxygen also prevents dealumination of the catalyst and decreases the thermal expansion at higher temperatures. The temperature of

  16. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methodsand equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during themanufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Threeseparating methods and equipment are presented in this article tocontrol three different groups of electronic wastes. The firstgroup includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes ofsemiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure forthis group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric andmanganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. Thesecond group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus,HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture ofsemiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedureinvolves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with aseparator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions ofAs, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in aflocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test resultsshowed that all waste gases and water after the abatementprocedures presented in this article passed the discharge standardsset by the state Environmental Protection Administrationof china.

  17. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-

  18. Fermentation of Bioenergy Crops Into Ethanol Using Biological Abatement for Removal of Inhibitors

    Conversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals is hampered by the presence of inhibitory compounds contained in sugar streams derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Biological abatement is a promising method for removing these inhibitors because it neither consumes chemicals nor generates wastes. In t...

  19. A Critique of the Public Education Approach to Industrial Pollution Abatement.

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    1973-01-01

    Public education cannot be considered an efficient alternative to industrial pollution abatement. The public education alternative stresses that an informed non-industrial public will, out of civic responsibility, bring about sufficient social pressure on the industrial sector to end pollution. However, evidence suggests that the mere presence of…

  20. Non-thermal plasmas for non-catalytic and catalytic VOC abatement

    Highlights: → We review the current status of catalytic and non-catalytic VOC abatement based on a vast number of research papers. → The underlying mechanisms of plasma-catalysis for VOC abatement are discussed. → Critical process parameters that determine the influent are discussed and compared. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent achievements and the current status of non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many reactor configurations have been developed to generate a NTP at atmospheric pressure. Therefore in this review article, the principles of generating NTPs are outlined. Further on, this paper is divided in two equally important parts: plasma-alone and plasma-catalytic systems. Combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has attracted increased attention in order to overcome the weaknesses of plasma-alone systems. An overview is given of the present understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-catalytic processes. In both parts (plasma-alone systems and plasma-catalysis), literature on the abatement of VOCs is reviewed in close detail. Special attention is given to the influence of critical process parameters on the removal process.

  1. International status of the existing means and techniques for source term abatement

    This paper gives an overview of all existing or potential means and techniques allowing to reduce the source term in PWR reactors. These means belong to three categories: those related to design and fabrication, those related to exploitation, and those calling for curative techniques. For each of these means, the paper gives a brief description of the technique used, evaluates its efficiency in terms of dose rate or contamination improvement, indicates its implementation at the international scale and the position of EDF with respect to this mean: 1 - source term abatement at the design or fabrication stage: reduction of the cobalt amount (reduction of the cobalt content of steam generator (SG) tubes, replacement of the fuel grids alloy, reduction of stellite surfaces); surface treatments (electropolishing of new steam generator water boxes, use of the surface chromium electrodeposition process); 2 - source term abatement by exploitation modification or optimization: surfaces conditioning (preconditioning of replacement SGs, preconditioning of the RCP (elementary system of French PWRs primary loop) before commissioning); chemistry modification or optimization (zinc injection, high and constant pH in the RCP during operation, acid and reductive chemistry during shutdown, abatement of the H2 content of the RCP, use of 10B-enriched boric acid, iron injection), exploitation modification or optimization (low shutdown criteria for primary pumps, purification, use of inert atmosphere in auxiliary water systems, de-oxygenation of the elementary cooling system during shutdown); 4 - curative means for source term abatement: ultrasonic cleaning of the irradiated fuel, circuits decontamination. (J.S.)

  2. Valuation of marginal CO2 abatement options for electric power plants in Korea

    The electricity generation sector in Korea is under pressure to mitigate greenhouse gases as directed by the Kyoto Protocol. The principal compliance options for power companies under the cap-and-trade include the application of direct CO2 emission abatement and the procurement of emission allowances. The objective of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for assessing the cost-effectiveness of these options. We attempt to derive the marginal abatement cost for CO2 using the output distance function and analyze the relative advantages of emission allowance procurement option as compared to direct abatement option. Real-option approach is adopted to incorporate emission allowance price uncertainty. Empirical result shows the marginal abatement cost with an average of Euro 14.04/ton CO2 for fossil-fueled power plants and confirms the existence of substantial cost heterogeneity among plants which is sufficient to achieve trading gains in allowance market. The comparison of two options enables us to identify the optimal position of the compliance for each plant. Sensitivity analyses are also presented with regard to several key parameters including the initial allowance prices and interest rate. The result of this paper may help Korean power plants to prepare for upcoming regulations targeted toward the reduction of domestic greenhouse gases.

  3. Sustainable noise abatement along motorways in Germany – an empirical study in the municipality Frasdorf (Bavaria

    Jürgen Breuste

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecological respects. Sustainable noise abatement should take into consideration ecological and social aspects like landscape integration and contribution to local development due to the unique location of the municipality. Enclosed motorway canopies are particularly beneficial to meet these criteria. The costs for sustainable noise abatement measures should be weighted as less important; however, financial costs are crucial for the federal government due to the requirements of the Federal Pollution Control Act. Hence, residents and experts assume that noise barriers as the cheaper noise abatement measures will be implemented. However, the results of the study and the latest developments in the expansion plans suggest that the implementation of enclosed motorway canopies, which go beyond the legal requirements, is feasible through extensive citizen participation and community-specific planning.

  4. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has bee

  5. Biological inhibitor abatement and ethanol fermentation of sugars from dilute acid-pretreated rice hulls

    Fermentation inhibitors arise from lignin, hemicellulose, and degraded sugar during pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a microbe has been explored for abatement of pretreated biomass in which fermentation inhibitors, if left untreated, can complicate microbial conversion of biomass to f...

  6. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  7. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY, SEPARABILITY AND ABATEMENT COSTS OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    Wossink, Ada; Denaux, Zulal Sogutlu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new framework for analyzing abatement costs of nonpoint-source pollution. Unlike previous studies, this framework treats production and pollution as non-separable and also recognizes that production inefficiency is a fundamental cause of pollution. The implications of this approach are illustrated using an empirical analysis for cotton producers.

  9. Application of Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides as Catalysts for Abatement of N2O Emissions

    Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa; Pacultová, K.; Lacný, Z.

    Prague : JHI, 2008, S.54-55. [Symposium on Catalysis /40./. Prague (CZ), 03.11.2008-05.11.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * mixed oxide catalysts * N2O abatement Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  11. IN-PLACE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF HEPA-FILTRATION SYSTEMS AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    This study was conducted to assess the in-place performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems at asbestos-abatement siteS in New Jersey to determine each systems particle-removal efficiency. n air-generated dioctyl phthalate aerosol was used to challeng...

  12. Methodological lessons and results from UNEP GHG abatement costing studies. The case of Zimbabwe

    This article is based on greenhouse gas emissions and greenhouse gas abatement costing studies carried out for Zimbabwe. The study produced an inventory of GHG emissions for the country and assessed the cost of 17 technological options for reducing emissions on the basis of which was developed a set of abatement cost curves. The study shows that emission levels as at 1991 were 16.9 million tonnes having increased from a 1982 level of 8.9 million tonnes. Abatement costs range from -Z$821.50 (negative costs) per tonne for the cheapest abatement option to Z$31 645.00 for the most expensive option considered. However, omitting the two options at the endpoints of the cost curve the remaining options are in the interval - Z$49.6 to +Z$1673.2. Assessment of these costs was based on cost items such as capital outlay for an option, related fuel costs and a discount rate set at 6% and 10%. (Author)

  13. The Copenhagen Accord: abatement costs and carbon prices resulting from the submissions

    As part of the Copenhagen Accord, individual countries have submitted greenhouse gas reduction proposals for the year 2020. This paper analyses the implications for emission reductions, the carbon price, and abatement costs of these submissions. The submissions of the Annex I (industrialised) countries are estimated to lead to a total reduction target of 12-18% below 1990 levels. The submissions of the seven major emerging economies are estimated to lead to an 11-14% reduction below baseline emissions, depending on international (financial) support. Global abatement costs in 2020 are estimated at about USD 60-100 billion, assuming that at least two-thirds of Annex I emission reduction targets need to be achieved domestically. The largest share of these costs are incurred by Annex I countries, although the costs as share of GDP are similar for Annex I as a group and the seven emerging economies as a group, even when assuming substantial international transfers from Annex I countries to the emerging economies to finance their abatement costs. If the restriction of achieving two-thirds of the emission reduction target domestically is abandoned, it would more than double the international carbon price and at the same time reduce global abatement costs by almost 25%.

  14. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  15. Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

  16. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  17. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  18. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  19. Optimal Acid Rain Abatement Strategies for Eastern Canada

    Mariam, Yohannes; Smith, W.B.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the past environmental management practices have been based on disparate analysis of the impacts of pollutants on selected components of ecosystems. However, holistic analysis of emission reduction strategies is necessary to justify that actions taken to protect the environment would not unduly punish economic growth or vice versa. When environmental management programs are implemented, it would be extremely difficult for the industry to attain the targeted emission reduction in a sing...

  20. Chromate abatement in the Y-12 Plant's New Hope Pond

    Results are reported from a 15-months field study that utilized four nonchromate-based water-treatment programs in 16 low-temperature (less than 1000F) cooling towers using corrosion and deposition studies, microbiological control, and plant effluent creek analyses as evaluation parameters. The study succeeded in bringing the chromate content of effluent of the New Hope Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to the limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency. (auth)

  1. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Research on the application of active sound barriers for the transformer noise abatement

    Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound barriers are a type of measure most commonly used in the noise abatement of transformers. In the noise abatement project of substations, the design of sound barriers is restrained by the portal frames which are used to hold up outgoing lines from the main transformers, which impacts the noise reduction effect. If active sound barriers are utilized in these places, the noise diffraction of sound barriers can be effectively reduced. At a 110kV Substation, an experiment using a 15-channel active sound barrier has been carried out. The result of the experiment shows that the mean noise reduction value (MNRV of the noise measuring points at the substation boundary are 1.5 dB (A. The effect of the active noise control system is impacted by the layout of the active noise control system, the acoustic environment on site and the spectral characteristic of the target area.

  3. Are the costs of pollution abatement lower in Central and Eastern Europe? Evidence from Lithuania

    It is often claimed that pollution reductions can be achieved at lower cost in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, because more possibilities exist to update production processes and reduce waste. To date, however, there has been little or no systematic evaluation of what the costs actually are in these countries. The main purpose of this paper is to partially fill this research gaps using firm-level data from Lithuania. Abatement cost estimates for key air pollutants are presented based on investments made in Lithuania during 1993-4. The paper also attempts to estimate the demand for pollution directly using data on pollution charges from 1994. Using both methods, it is shown that for at least some key pollutants marginal and average abatement costs are probably substantially lower in Lithuania than in western countries. (Author)

  4. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  5. The timing of pollution abatement investments and the business cycle. An international comparison

    A simple equilibrium business-cycle model for an economy with both clean- and dirty-producing plants is developed. The authors derive that the optimal timing of cleaning the production process is during a slowdown of the economy. Due to external effects and market failures the timing of pollution abatement investments is not expected to be optimal in the real world. We test the optimality of the timing of those investments with data for Germany, the Netherlands and the U.S.A. It appears that for more than 25 percent of the sectors pollution abatement investments show counter-cyclical behaviour, while in only one sector these investments are pro-cyclical. 1 tab., 3 appendices, 10 refs

  6. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  7. Privatization and the Environment in a Mixed Duopoly with Pollution Abatement

    Wang, Leonard F.S.; Ya-chin Wang; Lihong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to re-examine whether privatization improves the environment or not in a mixed duopolistic model. In our model, both firms adopt pollution abatement technologies in response to the environmental tax imposed by the government. It is shown that privatization unambiguously reduces the pollution levels of firms. Namely, privatization does improve the environment. Moreover, by implementing partial-privatization policy, social welfare can be enhanced.

  8. The cost of abating CO2 emissions by renewable energy incentives in Germany

    Marcantonini, Claudio; ELLERMAN, A. Denny

    2013-01-01

    Incentives for the development of renewable energy have increasingly become an instrument of climate policy, that is, as a means to reduce GHG emissions. This research analyzes the German experience in promoting renewable energy over the past decade to identify the ex post cost of reducing CO2 emissions through the promotion of renewable energy, specifically, wind and solar. To this propose, we calculated the annual CO2 abatement cost for the years 2006- 2010 as the ratio of the net cost over...

  9. Financial tools for the abatement of traffic congestion: a dynamical analysis

    Angelo Antoci; Marcello Galeotti; Davide Radi

    2011-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple mechanism aimed at implementing and supporting environmental protection policies in urban areas based on innovative financial instruments issued by a policy maker, which can be bought by two categories of involved agents, city users and agencies providing the city services. According to this mechanism, virtuous service providers choosing to offer high quality services can obtain cost abatement. City users, recip- rocally, have to pay for entering into the c...

  10. Nitrogen abatement cost comparison for cropping systems under alternative management choices

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for cost-effective methods to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for nitrate-nitrogen pollution in an agricultural watershed are evaluated using estimated crop yield and nitrate pollution production functions for alternative cropping systems. The cropping systems considered in this study included i) two grain corn-based cropping systems; ii) two potato-based cropping systems; and iii) a vegetable-horticulture system, managed under ...

  11. Pollution charges, community pressure, and abatement cost of industrial pollution in China

    WANG Hua

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate stand...

  12. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  13. Institutional analysis for nitrogen pollution abatement in a Waikato river sub-catchment in New Zealand

    Ramilan, Thiagarajah; Scrimgeour, Frank G.; Marsh, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in water resources in the Waikato region are increasing, mainly as a result of non-point source pollution from agricultural activities. Non-point pollution management is a complex issue requiring sufficient information and appropriate institutions. This paper considers the environmental policy literature and analyse how institutions, contract design, and monitoring and transaction costs in the presence of farm heterogeneity encourage optimal abatement. The analysis identifies ...

  14. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    De Giovanni, Marina; Curci, Gabriele; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; SPANTO, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The ...

  15. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Carolyn Fischer; Mads Greaker; Knut Einar Rosendahl

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desi...

  16. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Sarfraz Hashim; Xie Yuebo; Muhammad Saifullah; Ramila Nabi Jan; Adila Muhetaer

    2015-01-01

    Today’s ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River ...

  17. Does Distribution Matter? When Flexibility, Equity and Efficiency in Greenhouse Gas Abatement

    Gunter Stephan; Georg Müller-Fürstenberger

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses banking and borrowing of carbon emission rights within the framework of a simple, integrated assessment model. Breaking the world economy in just two regions it will be shown: (1) Increasing when-flexibility in greenhouse gas abatement through banking and borrowing of carbon emission permits has a positive effect on welfare for regions with a poor endowment in carbon emission rights, but negatively affects rich-endowed regions. (2) Intergenerational fairness advocates inte...

  18. Modelling the Marginal Abatement Cost of Mitigating Nitrogen Loss from Agricultural Land

    Aksana Chyzheuskaya; Cathal O'Donoghue; Cathal Buckley; Mary Ryan; Stuart Green

    2012-01-01

    With the deadline identified by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) approaching in 2015 there is increasing pressure on policymakers to introduce new regulations to achieve water quality targets. Agriculture is one of the contributors of diffuse pollution entering watercourses and will come under pressure to reduce pollutant loads. This paper produces Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) Curves for eight policy measures that could potentially reduce nitrate leaching from agricultural land on ...

  19. Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by thermal power plants

    Thermal power plants using fossil fuels in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary sources of pollutant release. A review of the present possibilities to abate the pollution, mainly by abatement of releases at stack is presented. At present the unique viable solution applicable in Romania thermopower stations appears to be the use of catalytic technology based on NOx selective reduction with ammonia. Investments for pollution abatement installations for intra- or post-combustion burning gases in classic boilers appear to be 1/4 and 1/3 of the cost of a new thermal power plant and the maintenance costs of de-pollution installations even when the resulting products are rendered profitable, the cost of KWh will raise. Replacement of classical boilers by circulating fluidized bed boilers would solve entirely the SO2 and NOx release issue. Investments for such boilers are lower than those implied by a new classical boiler equipped with supplementary installations for the removal of intra- and post-combustion gases. The only remaining drawback is waste resulting desulfurization which is disposed at the dump. (author)

  20. Electrochemical processes in macro and microfluidic cells for the abatement of chloroacetic acid from water

    Highlights: • The electrochemical abatement of chloroacetic acid in water was studied. • The performance of both macro and microfluidic reactors was examined. • Cathodic reduction and anodic oxidation was studied in detail. • Mediated oxidation by electro-Fenton and active chlorine was carried out. • Anodic oxidation at BDD gave better performances. • Microfluidic reactors gave better performances compared to conventional cells. - Abstract: The remediation of solutions contaminated with monochloroacetic acid (CAA), which is one of the most resistant haloacetic acids (HAAs) to chemical degradation, dramatically depends on the adopted electrochemical approach: (i) CAA is only poorly oxidized either by homogeneous hydroxyl radical in electro-Fenton (EF), electrogenerated active chlorine or electro-oxidation on Pt anode; (ii) it is moderately abated by direct reduction on silver or compact graphite cathodes (from 30% in macro cells to 60% in the microfluidic devices); (iii) it is quantitatively removed by direct electro-oxidation on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The use of a microreactor enables operation in the absence of supporting electrolyte and drastically enhances the performance of the cathodic process. Simultaneously performing direct oxidation on BDD and reduction on graphite in a microfluidic cell yields the fastest CAA removal with 100% abatement at low current densities (∼5 mA cm−2)

  1. Energy abatement in Chinese industry: Cost evaluation of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives

    For Chinese industry, the costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated by the method of directional distance function. These scenarios are based on the combinations of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives—the former are sectors and provinces, and the latter include the five principles of average, intensity share, absolute share, discriminatory absolute and discriminatory intensity. For all the scenarios, the quantitative impacts in terms of output potential loss are calculated and compared. Due to less output potential loss for all the allocation alternatives, the sector regulation strategy is shown to be more effective than the province regulation strategy. It is also demonstrated that, among all the scenarios considered, the sector regulation based on the intensity share principle and the province regulation based on the absolute share principle are the two optimal. The performances of energy abatement allocation of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans of China are assessed against the simulated scenarios. - Highlights: ► The costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated for Chinese industry. ► The impacts on all entities under all allocation alternatives are calculated and compared. ► The optimal scenarios for the different strategies are identified. ► The performances of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans are assessed.

  2. Korea's emission trading scheme and policy design issues to achieve market-efficiency and abatement targets

    In 2008, the government of Republic of Korea (Korea) announced the national abatement target aiming at 30% reductions from the Business-as-Usual projections by 2020. Accordingly, the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 onwards. As ETS performance substantially depends on the structural design, it is critically important to examine the details of Korean ETS for the achievement of cost effectiveness and concurrent development of an active emission trading market. This paper addresses several policy design issues for this purpose. After providing an overview on the current framework of Korean ETS, we propose ways to achieve flexibility, consistency and market efficiency of the program in consideration of the preexisting policies. Issues in policy design are discussed by focusing on allowance allocation, market stabilization measures and price mechanism in the emission and energy markets in Korea. This paper will serve as a practical guideline for establishing sustainable and market-efficient Korean ETS that can be compatible with the international standards as in the EU ETS. - Highlights: • Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 in Korea to reduce CO2. • ETS performance substantially depends on structural design. • We provide policy overview on the current framework of Korean ETS. • Several policy design issues are discussed for developing policy consistency. • We focus on allowance allocation, allowance reserve and market stabilization measures

  3. 76 FR 2746 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for San Diego International Airport...

    2011-01-14

    .... 47501 et seq. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and... requirements, effective November 10, 2009, 74 FR 66400-66401. The proposed noise compatibility program will...

  4. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  5. Multiplicação fotoautotrófica in vitro de pereiras 'Abate Fetel' Photoautotrophic multiplication in vitro of 'Abate Fetel' pears

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Novas cultivares de pereira têm sido introduzidas no Brasil, como a 'Abate Fetel'. A produção de mudas de qualidade dessa cultivar é necessária, sendo possível obter tal cultivar pelo uso de técnicas de micropropagação. Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes concentrações de sacarose e tipos de vedação dos frascos na multiplicação in vitro de pereiras 'Abate Fetel'. Segmentos nodais contendo de duas a três gemas axilares, de aproximadamente 1cm de comprimento, oriundos de plantas pré-estabelecidas in vitro, foram inoculados em meio de cultura 'QL', suplementados com mio-inositol (100mg L-1, sacarose (0, 15, 30, 45g L-1, BAP (1mg L-1, AIB (0,1mg L-1 solidificado com 6,5g L-1 de ágar e pH ajustado para 5,7. Os frascos foram vedados com algodão, alumínio ou filme plástico de PVC e mantidos em sala de crescimento a 25±2°C, com intensidade luminosa de 42µmoles m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Os frascos vedados com algodão apresentaram o maior número de folhas na ausência de sacarose, não sendo observado efeito das concentrações de sacarose presentes no meio de cultura sobre o número de brotações e número de folhas formadas. O comprimento médio das brotações e a massa fresca total não diferiram entre os tipos de vedação empregados, porém observou-se aumento expressivo dessas variáveis frente ao aumento da sacarose no meio de cultura. A vedação dos frascos com filme de PVC proporcionou o maior número de brotações por explante quando utilizadas altas concentrações de sacarose.New pear cultivars have been introduced in Brazil as the 'Abate Fetel'. Seedling production with higher quality of this cultivar is needed, and this can be obtained by use of micropropagation techniques. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different sucrose concentrations and types of closure flasks on micropropagation of 'Abate Fetel' pears. Nodal segments with two to three axillary buds, about 1 cm in length, from

  6. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  7. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m−2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs. (letter)

  8. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m−3 h−1 and CO2 yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 103–9.0 × 104 CFU m−3. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m−3 h−1. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m−3 h−1 were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 103 to 9.0 × 104 CFU m−3. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies

  9. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning. (letter)

  10. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  11. Ex-ante evaluation of EU ETS during 2013–2030: EU-internal abatement

    This study investigates CO2 emission reduction within the EU resulting from the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) up to 2030. This is performed by constructing a baseline scenario without the ETS and assessing the impacts of the ETS, as currently designed. The results indicate that the ETS will start to impact emissions primarily after 2025 due to the prevalence of a sizable allowance surplus. The impact of approved (i.e. back-loading and 2.2% linear reduction factor (LRF)) and proposed (i.e. market stability reserve (MSR)) policy interventions and the inclusion of aviation, could accelerate the exhaustion of surplus and increase emission reductions during the investigated period. However, these measures would be insufficient to restore the scarcity of allowances and the corresponding carbon price before the start of ETS Phase IV, and the effectiveness of EU-internal abatement cannot be guaranteed until 2023. The effectiveness could be further reduced in the case of the economic shocks or the exclusion of international aviation. To restore the scarcity of allowances, other reform options are necessary. This paper extends the reasoning for the early removal of the back-loaded 900 Mtonne allowances by 2020 and broadening the scope of ETS to other sectors with potential high demand for allowances. - Highlights: • Quantification of CO2 emission abatement in the EU resulting from the ETS up to 2030. • The impact of policy interventions and the inclusion of aviation is quantified. • The effectiveness of EU ETS in EU-internal abatement is limited until 2023

  12. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  13. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal

  14. Measures for noise pollution abatement in existing cooling tower systems; Massnahmen zur Geraeuschminderung an bestehenden Kuehlturmanlagen

    Niessen, R. [Sulzer-Escher Wyss GmbH, Lindau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The operator`s order discussed by the paper was for planning and performance of backfitting measures for noise pollution abatement in an existing cooling tower system equipped with sound attenuation devices. Although the existing plant was operating in compliance with the legal noise emission limits, residents of neighbouring dwellings had been complaining about noise pollution. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabe, eine nachtraegliche Massnahme zur Laermminderung an einer bestehenden, mit Schalldaempfern ausgeruesteten Anlage zu planen und durchzufuehren, wurde vom Betreiber einer Rueckkuehlanlage gestellt. Der vom Gesetzgeber definierte Grenzwert fuer den Nachtbetrieb wurde mit der bestehenden Anlage zwar erreicht, doch die Anwohner fuehlten eine Belaestigung durch den Anlagenbetrieb. (orig./GL)

  15. Emission Inventories of Carbon-containing Greenhouse Gases in and Technological Measures for Their Abatement

    Zhuang Yahui; Zhang Hongxun; Wang Xiaoke; Li Changsheng

    2004-01-01

    The report summarizes surveys on carbon inventories and initiatives on sustainable carbon cycling taken by the Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Sciences, where the authors work/worked. The first part of the report, which appeared in the preceding issue of this journal, deals with the concept of sustainable carbon cycling, the historic evolution of carbon cycling processes in China, carbon pool enhancement, value addition,carbon sequestration and carbon balance. This very paper, as the second part of the report, covers the results of carbon dynamics modeling, emission inventories of various carbon-containing greenhouse gases and their potential abatement measures.

  16. The timing of biological carbon sequestration and carbon abatement in the energy sector under optimal strategies against climate risks

    This paper addresses the timing of the use of biological carbon sequestration and its capacity to alleviate the carbon constraint on the energy sector. We constructed a stochastic optimal control model balancing the costs of fossil emission abatement, the opportunity costs of lands allocated to afforestation, and the costs of uncertain climate damages. We show that a minor part of the sequestration potential should start immediately as a 'brake', slowing down both the rate of growth of concentrations and the rate of abatement in the energy sector. thus increasing the option value of the emission trajectories. But, most of the potential is put in reserve to be used as a 'safety valve' after the resolution of uncertainty, if a higher and faster decarbonization is required: sequestration cuts off the peaks of costs of fossil abatement and postpones the pivoting of the energy system by up to two decades. (authors)

  17. Asia least-cost greenhouse gas abatement strategy identification and assessment of mitigation options for the energy sector

    The focus of the presentation was on greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy sector for India. Results from the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (ALGAS) project were presented. The presentation comprised of a review of the sources of greenhouse gases, the optimisation model, ie the Markal model, used for determining the least-cost options, discussion of the results from the baseline and the abatement scenarios. The second half of the presentation focussed on a multi-criteria assessment of the abatement options using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model. The emissions of all greenhouse gases, for India, are estimated to be 986.3 Tg of carbon dioxide equivalent for 1990. The energy sector accounted for 58 percent of the total emissions and over 90 percent of the CO2 emissions. Net emissions form land use change and forestry were zero. (au)

  18. CFD modeling of a UV-LED photocatalytic odor abatement process in a continuous reactor

    Highlights: ► A CFD model is developed for a UV-LED based photocatalytic deodorization reactor. ► Radiation field model and Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics are integrated in the model. ► The model can predict the pollutant concentration profile and the reactor performance. ► LED distance is predicted to be a critical parameter in photocatalytic reactor design. - Abstract: This paper presents a model study of a UV light-emitting-diode (UV-LED) based photocatalytic odor abatement process. It integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the gas flow in the reactor with LED-array radiation field calculation and Langmuir–Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. It was applied to simulate the photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a UV-LED reactor based on experimentally determined chemical kinetic parameters. A non-linear power law relating reaction rate to irradiation intensity was adopted. The model could predict the steady state DMS concentration profiles by calculating the advection, diffusion and Langmuir–Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. By affecting the radiation intensity and uniformity, the position of the LED array relative to the catalyst appeared to be a critical parameter determining DMS removal efficiency. Too small distances might yield low quantum efficiency and consequently poor abatement performance. This study provided an example of LED-based photocatalytic process modeling and gave insights into the optimization of light source design for photocatalytic applications.

  19. Marginal CO2 abatement costs: Findings from alternative shadow price estimates for Shanghai industrial sectors

    Shanghai, one of the most developed cities in China, is implementing a pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme. Estimating the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions for the industrial sectors covered in Shanghai's emission trading scheme provides the government and participating firms useful information for devising compliance policies. This paper employs multiple distance function approaches to estimating the shadow prices of CO2 emissions for Shanghai industrial sectors. Our empirical results show that the overall weighted average of shadow price estimates by different approaches ranges between 394.5 and 1906.1 Yuan/ton, which indicates that model choice truly has a significant effect on the shadow price estimation. We have also identified a negative relationship between the shadow price of CO2 emissions and carbon intensity, and the heavy industries with higher carbon intensities tend to have lower shadow prices. It has been suggested that Shanghai municipal government take various measures to improve its carbon market, e.g. using the marginal abatement costs of participating sectors/firms as a criterion in the initial allocation of carbon emission allowances. - Highlights: • We estimate the shadow prices of CO2 emissions for Shanghai's manufacturing sectors. • Multiple distance function approaches are employed in the empirical analysis. • Model selection indeed has a significant effect on the shadow price estimation. • The CO2 shadow price and the carbon intensity have a negative relationship

  20. Two-liquid phase partitioning biotrickling filters for methane abatement: exploring the potential of hydrophobic methanotrophs.

    Lebrero, Raquel; Hernández, Laura; Pérez, Rebeca; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-15

    The potential of two-liquid phase biotrickling filters (BTFs) to overcome mass transfer limitations derived from the poor aqueous solubility of CH4 has been scarcely investigated to date. In this context, the abatement of diluted methane emissions in two-liquid phase BTFs was evaluated using two different inocula: a type II methanotrophs culture in BTF 1 and a hydrophobic microbial consortium capable of growing inside silicone oil in BTF 2. Both BTFs supported stable elimination capacities above 45 g m(-3) h(-1) regardless of the inoculum, whereas no improvement derived from the presence of hydrophobic microorganisms compared to the type II metanotrophs culture was observed. Interestingly, the addition of silicone oil mediated a reduced metabolites concentration in the recycling aqueous phase, thus decreasing the needs for mineral medium renewal. Moreover, a 78% similarity was recorded between the microbial communities enriched in both BTFs at the end of the experimental period in spite of the differences in the initial inoculum structure. The results obtained confirmed the superior performance of two-liquid phase BTFs for CH4 abatement compared with conventional biotrickling filters. PMID:25555135

  1. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  2. Planning the low-carbon city. Thoughts about abatement costs of mobility policies

    This publication proposes a summary of a research thesis which studied how to address urban climate policies from an economic point of view. This thesis shows that it is possible to develop tools for an economic analysis of local climate policies which would take urban peculiarities into account, notably the systemic aspect, and the importance of positive and negative externalities. The author puts forward the abatement cost which relies on a set of conventions, and is studied through a given analysis table. The application of a urban planning-transport model to the Grenoble area with different scenarios of urban development confirms that abatement costs of measures of reduction of greenhouse gases in the field of mobility are high in comparison with other values (building sector, Quinet value). However, taking co-benefits (or positive externalities) into account allows these costs to be reduced, that which makes investments in the transport sector more attractive. The author shows that reaching the factor 4 in urban transports seems difficult

  3. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  4. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh [Economic Analysis Division, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu (Nepal); Skutsch, Margaret [Centro de Investigaciones en Geographia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); University of Twente, PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-economic and resources use data collected from forest users in three sites of Nepal Himalaya. The paper estimates the incremental carbon from forest enhancement on a yearly basis over a five-year period using the value of 1 and 5 per tCO{sub 2} for conservative analysis. The results based on the three sites indicate that community forest management may be one of the least cost ways to abate carbon with a break-even price under Scenario 2 which ranges from 0.55 to 3.70 per tCO{sub 2}. However, bringing community forests into the carbon market may entail high opportunity costs as forests provide numerous non-monetary benefits to the local population, who regard these as the main incentive for conservation and management. An important finding of the research is that if forest resources use by local communities is not permitted, then carbon trading will not be attractive to them as revenue from carbon will not cover the cost foregone by not harvesting forest resources. (author)

  5. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO2, CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  6. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies. PMID:24887128

  7. Macro economic linkages and impacts. Technical and fiscal options in GHG abatement

    This paper discusses some of the main macro economic linkages and feedbacks associated with policies for GHG abatement. The linkages in a global model are described when OECD carbon taxes or alternatively OECD/OPEC joint action raises world oil prices with a smaller OECD carbon tax. The results give a world perspective on the GHG abatement problem. The paper continues with a discussion of the linkages and feedbacks associated with three options: demand-side management (DSM), mainly to improve end-use energy efficiency, reductions in subsidies of fossil fuel production and use, and investment in renewable energy supplies, specifically in energy forestry and associated infrastructure. It concludes that DSM and investment in renewables are unlikely on their own to bring about reduction in GHG emissions, and that new supplies may even lead to increased emissions by driving down the price of energy. However, reductions in emissions may be compatible with increased efficiency and development, as well as with improvements in the quality of the local environment and in rural living, with the new supplies replacing fossil fuel supplies, provided that real fossil fuel prices are increased via removal of subsidies and if required carbon taxes. (au) 15 refs

  8. Noise exposure assessment and abatement strategies at an indoor firing range.

    Kardous, Chucri A; Willson, Robert D; Hayden, Charles S; Szlapa, Piotr; Murphy, William J; Reeves, Efrem R

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to hazardous impulse noise is common during the firing of weapons at indoor firing ranges. The aims of this study were to characterize the impulse noise environment at a law enforcement firing range; document the insufficiencies found at the range from a health and safety standpoint; and provide noise abatement recommendations to reduce the overall health hazard to the auditory system. Ten shooters conducted a typical live-fire exercise using three different weapons--the Beretta.40 caliber pistol, the Remington.308 caliber shotgun, and the M4.223 caliber assault rifle. Measurements were obtained at 12 different positions throughout the firing range and adjacent areas using dosimeters and sound level meters. Personal and area measurements were recorded to a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder for further spectral analysis. Peak pressure levels inside the firing range reached 163 decibels (dB) in peak pressure. Equivalent sound levels (Leq) ranged from 78 decibels, A-weighted (dBA), in office area adjacent to the range to 122 dBA inside the range. Noise reductions from wall structures ranged from 29-44 dB. Noise abatement strategies ranged from simple noise control measures (such as sealing construction joints and leaks) to elaborate design modifications to eliminate structural-borne sounds using acoustical treatments. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of firing weapons in enclosed spaces on hearing and health in general. PMID:12851012

  9. Separating environmental efficiency into production and abatement efficiency. A nonparametric model with application to U.S. power plants

    Hampf, Benjamin

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we present a new approach to evaluate the environmental efficiency of decision making units. We propose a model that describes a two-stage process consisting of a production and an end-of-pipe abatement stage with the environmental efficiency being determined by the efficiency of both stages. Taking the dependencies between the two stages into account, we show how nonparametric methods can be used to measure environmental efficiency and to decompose it into production and abatement efficiency. For an empirical illustration we apply our model to an analysis of U.S. power plants.

  10. The effect of soil abatement on blood lead levels in children living near a former smelting and milling operation.

    Lanphear, Bruce P.; Succop, Paul; Roda, Sandra; Henningsen, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of soil abatement on children's blood lead concentrations and on environmental levels of lead and arsenic. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The first (1989) was of a random sample of 6- to 72-month-old children (n=112). The second (1998) included all 6- to 72-month-old children whose parents agreed to participate in the survey (n=215). From 1993 to 1996, soil abatement was conducted around homes with average soil lead concentration >500 pa...

  11. Economic and environment implications of incorporating CO2 abatement policy measures into the Indian power system. A modelling approach

    The Indian power system is dominated by coal based capacity (64% of the total capacity). India has a large potential of hydro and renewable energy sources, but the absence of an appropriate national policy to develop cleaner technologies leads to adverse impacts of electricity generation on the environment. The power sector is the single largest contributor of CO2 in India. If the current expansion of power generation based on coal continues, the Indian power system, which is expected to grow at 6-7% per year in order to fulfill the rising demand, will pose a serious threat to the environment in the coming years. The paper examines the economic and environmental implications of introducing measures for the reduction of CO2 emission, such as an accelerated development of the hydro potential, and a larger penetration of renewable energy and clean coal technologies for the future expansion of the domestic power system. A mathematical model was developed in the framework of linear programming, to derive the optimal way of capacity expansion for the Indian power system, together with a study of the costs and emissions under different scenarios. The business-as-usual scenario extrapolates the past trend to the future development of the power system, with possible improvements such as the use of imported gas and coal for power generation. Other scenarios assume the introduction of CO2 abatement measures. The study has been performed for a time horizon of 20 years, beginning with 1991/1992. Finally, the paper gives some recommendations regarding policies that would lead the country to environmentally begin power development. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  12. 26 CFR 301.6404-3 - Abatement of penalty or addition to tax attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal...

    2010-04-01

    ... tax law to those facts. (2) Penalty and addition to tax. For purposes of section 6404(f) and the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abatement of penalty or addition to tax... Abatement of penalty or addition to tax attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal...

  13. Programming

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  14. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Saucedo-Lucero, J.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Quijano, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Arriaga, S. [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Muñoz, R., E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and CO{sub 2} yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 10{sup 3}–9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 10{sup 3} to 9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of

  15. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor.

    Kim, J H; Cho, C H; Shin, D H; Hong, Y C; Shin, Y W

    2015-08-30

    Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor. PMID:25841085

  16. Influence of varying nutrient and pesticide mixtures on abatement efficiency using a vegetated free water surface constructed wetland mesocosm

    The efficiency of a vegetated free water surface constructed wetland in abating agrichemicals was examined using varying types of pollutant mixtures. Three different mixture conditions were assessed: nutrients only (N and P); pesticides only (2 herbicides and 1 insecticide); and a mixture of nutrie...

  17. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  18. Marginal abatement costs of greenhouse gas emissions: A meta-analysis

    Kuik, Onno [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: onno.kuik@ivm.vu.nl; Brander, Luke [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tol, Richard S.J. [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin (Ireland); Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Spatial Economics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, we carry out a meta-analysis of recent studies into the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation policies that aim at the long-term stabilisation of these gases in the atmosphere. We find the cost estimates of the studies to be sensitive to the stringency of the stabilisation target, the assumed emissions baseline, the way in which the time profile of emissions is determined in the model, the choice of control variable (CO{sub 2} only versus multigas), the number of regions and energy sources in the model and, to a lesser degree, the scientific 'forum' in which the study was developed. We find that marginal abatement costs of the stringent long-term targets that are currently considered by the European Commission are still very uncertain but might exceed the costs that have been suggested by recent policy assessments.

  19. Marginal abatement costs of greenhouse gas emissions. A meta-analysis

    Kuik, Onno; Brander, Luke [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tol, Richard S.J. [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Spatial Economics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, we carry out a meta-analysis of recent studies into the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation policies that aim at the long-term stabilisation of these gases in the atmosphere. We find the cost estimates of the studies to be sensitive to the stringency of the stabilisation target, the assumed emissions baseline, the way in which the time profile of emissions is determined in the model, the choice of control variable (CO{sub 2} only versus multigas), the number of regions and energy sources in the model and, to a lesser degree, the scientific 'forum' in which the study was developed. We find that marginal abatement costs of the stringent long-term targets that are currently considered by the European Commission are still very uncertain but might exceed the costs that have been suggested by recent policy assessments. (author)

  20. Report on developing bottom-up Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCS) for representative farm types

    Eory, V.; MacLeod, M.; Faverdin, P.;

    2015-01-01

    past 15 years, discussing the variability in these estimates. The second study reports on marginal abatement cost curves for beef cattle production in Brazil. Finally, the last report presents the conceptual basis of a tool to assess the financial implications of the mitigation measures to be used in...... number of reports done in developed countries show a high variability in the country-level cost-effectiveness estimates, and suggest that approaches providing higher granularity at the spatial and farm type could suit better to the purpose of regional policy development. At the same time, there is still...... a gap in our understanding of economic mitigation potential of agriculture in developing and newly industrialised countries. To address these questions this report presents three studies. The first is a literature review of the cost-effectiveness estimates of mitigation measures published in the...

  1. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    Tahvonen, O. [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Current decisions on greenhouse gas emissions may have effects on human well being for centuries. This project has aimed to extend the economic models designed for analyzing this particular issue. A closely related topic follows from the fact that emitting CO{sub 2} can be interpreted as a utilization of a free access resource, i.e., when countries gain from utilizing cheap fossil fuels (relative to noncarbon energy sources), the possible loss any country suffers from climate change is only a negligible fraction of the total loss of all countries. Thus, from a global point of view, the incentives for an individual country to abate emissions is low. Economic understanding of these problems calls for dynamic game-theoretical models

  2. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  3. China’s regional industrial energy efficiency and carbon emissions abatement costs

    Graphical abstract: Major cities in eight economy-geography regions of China. - Highlights: • Industrial energy and emissions efficiency were evaluated for China’s major cities. • Shadow prices of CO2 emissions were estimated for China’s major cities. • Efficiency increase potentials on energy utilization and CO2 emissions are 19% and 17%. • N-shaped EKC exists between levels of CO2 emissions efficiency and income. • Average industrial CO2 emissions abatement cost for China’s major cities is 45 US$. - Abstract: Evaluating the energy and emissions efficiency, measuring the energy saving and emissions reduction potential, and estimating the carbon price in China at the regional level are considered a crucial way to identify the regional efficiency levels and efficiency promotion potentials, as well as to explore the marginal abatement costs of carbon emissions in China. This study applies a newly developed Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based method to evaluate the regional energy and emissions efficiencies and the energy saving and emissions reduction potentials of the industrial sector of 30 Chinese major cities during 2006–2010. In addition, the CO2 shadow prices, i.e., the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions from industrial sector of these cities are estimated during the same period. The main findings are: (i) The coast area cities have the highest total factor industrial energy and emissions efficiency, but efficiency of the west area cities are lowest, and there is statistically significant efficiency difference between these cities. (ii) Economically well-developed cities evidence higher efficiency, and there is still obviously unbalanced and inequitable growth in the nationwide industrial development of China. (iii) Fortunately, the energy utilization and CO2 emissions efficiency gaps among different Chinese cities were decreasing since 2006, and the problem of inequitable nationwide development has started to mitigate. (iv) The

  4. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino

    Rossi Júnior O.D.; Amaral L.A.; Nader Filho A; Schocken-Iturrino R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  5. Preparation and characterization of magnesium aluminate spinel for FCC SOx abatement

    Bhattacharyya, A.A.; Woltermann, G.M.; Cormier, W.E. (Katalistiks International, Inc., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cerium containing magnesium aluminate spinels such as MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 5} are very effective SO{sub x} reduction catalysts for FCC units. These magnesium aluminate spinels can be prepared by three different techniques: (1) thermal co-condensation, (2) co-precipitation, and (3) Co-gel formation. Some of the important physical and chemical properties of a spinel depends on the preparative route used. This paper will discuss the preparation methods and characterization techniques utilized for these spinels and how the SO{sub x} abatement activity of these spinels are related to the preparative route used.

  6. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation. PMID:26347931

  7. Mashad trigeneration potential – An opportunity for CO2 abatement in Iran

    Highlights: ► Utilization of trigeneration system is investigated for Mashad town center. ► The case study is the main tourist destination in Iran. ► Two CHCP scenarios are considered to meet thermal demand regarding the hourly load. ► Thermodynamic performance criteria of both scenarios are discussed. ► Environmental and financial features of both scenarios are proposed. - Abstract: Trigeneration, referred to as Combined Heating, Cooling and Power (CHCP), is an efficient energy conversion technology which offers several merits, including fuel consumption saving, CO2 emission abatement and reduced expenses. In this article, the viability of trigeneration system in Mashad city, the main tourist destination in Iran, has been studied. For this aim, two scenarios have been proposed to meet thermal energy demand which is about 80 MWth at peak time. In the first scenario, the plan is developed on the basis of heat recovery opportunity from hot exhaust gases of two gas turbines installed near Mashad town center, and in the second scenario, an onside CHCP plant with optimum capacity is considered. Then, some performance criteria are investigated to assess the effectiveness of projected scenarios. Finally, both options are analyzed from technical and financial point of view. Finally, although CO2 abatement is approximately 311,500 ton per year for the first scenario, and four times lower for the second one, the latter presents better economic features (internal rate of return: 14.27% versus 12.93%). Accordingly, the onside CHCP proposal is recommended to be installed.

  8. Exploring the limits for CO2 emission abatement in the EU power and industry sectors—Awaiting a breakthrough

    This study assesses the prospects for presently available abatement technologies to achieve significant reductions in CO2 emissions from large stationary sources of CO2 in the EU up to year 2050. The study covers power generation, petroleum refining, iron and steel, and cement production. By simulating capital stock turnover, scenarios that assume future developments in the technology stock, energy intensities, fuel and production mixes, and the resulting CO2 emissions were generated for each sector. The results confirm that the EU goal for reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emission in the sectors covered by the EU Emission Trading System, i.e., 21% reduction by 2020 as compared to the levels in 2005, is attainable with the abatement measures that are already available. However, despite the optimism regarding the potential for, and implementation of, available abatement strategies within current production processes, our results indicate that the power and industrial sectors will fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in both the medium term (2030) and long term (2050). Deliberate exclusion from the analysis of mitigation technologies that are still in the early phases of development (e.g., CO2 capture and storage) provides an indirect measure of the requirements for novel low-carbon technologies and production processes. - Highlights: • Explore the limits for CO2 emission abatement within current production processes. • Analysis of scenarios for CO2 emissions from EU power and industrial sectors 2010–2050. • Short-term (2020) emission targets are attainable with available abatement measures. • Fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in the long term (2050). • Efforts to develop new low-carbon production processes need to be accelerated

  9. Energy-saving and emission-abatement potential of Chinese coal-fired power enterprise: A non-parametric analysis

    In the context of soaring demand for electricity, mitigating and controlling greenhouse gas emissions is a great challenge for China's power sector. Increasing attention has been placed on the evaluation of energy efficiency and CO2 abatement potential in the power sector. However, studies at the micro-level are relatively rare due to serious data limitations. This study uses the 2004 and 2008 Census data of Zhejiang province to construct a non-parametric frontier in order to assess the abatement space of energy and associated CO2 emission from China's coal-fired power enterprises. A Weighted Russell Directional Distance Function (WRDDF) is applied to construct an energy-saving potential index and a CO2 emission-abatement potential index. Both indicators depict the inefficiency level in terms of energy utilization and CO2 emissions of electric power plants. Our results show a substantial variation of energy-saving potential and CO2 abatement potential among enterprises. We find that large power enterprises are less efficient in 2004, but become more efficient than smaller enterprises in 2008. State-owned enterprises (SOE) are not significantly different in 2008 from 2004, but perform better than their non-SOE counterparts in 2008. This change in performance for large enterprises and SOE might be driven by the “top-1000 Enterprise Energy Conservation Action” that was implemented in 2006. - Highlights: • Energy-saving potential and CO2 abatement-potential for Chinese power enterprise are evaluated. • The potential to curb energy and emission shows great variation and dynamic changes. • Large enterprise is less efficient than small enterprise in 2004, but more efficient in 2008. • The state-owned enterprise performs better than non-state-owned enterprise in 2008

  10. Efeito da idade de abate no valor nutritivo e sensorial da carne caprina de animais mestiços

    MADRUGA M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da idade de abate na composição centesimal e mineral, no pH, na atividade de água e nas qualidades sensoriais da carne caprina foi estudado, utilizando-se para tanto animais machos abatidos ao completarem 175, 220, 265 e 310 dias de nascimento. Após o abate e a desossa, a carne caprina foi submetida às análises físico-químicas de pH, Aw, Ca, Fe e P; às determinações de composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas e gorduras e à análise sensorial, onde foram observados os atributos de: aparência, aroma "caprino", aroma de carne assada, sabor, suculência, maciez, textura e a qualidade da carne. A análise de Variância (ANOVA dos dados mostrou que as concentrações de umidade, proteínas, cálcio, ferro e pH foram significativamente influenciadas pelo fator idade de abate. Os teores de gordura, proteína e ferro aumentaram com a idade de abate, enquanto que a umidade diminuiu. Através dos teste da análise sensorial, ficou evidente que a idade dos caprinos apresentou um efeito significativo nos atributos sensoriais analisados, tendo-se detectado diferenças significativas entre os caprinos de diferentes idades de abate nos atributos de aparência, aroma "caprino", aroma de carne assada, suculência e maciez. A partir dos resultados das análises físico-químicas e sensoriais pôde-se observar, que o abate de animais mais velhos, isto é, com 310 dias, resultou em ganho nos parâmetros químicos (composição centesimal e mineral investigados, embora a carne de caprinos abatidos com menor idade (175 dias tivesse a preferência dos provadores.

  11. Exploring the 'permanent forest' paradigm: might renewable commercial forest estates lead to greater net greenhouse abatement over the longer term?

    Full text: Understanding permanence: A common perception exists which suggests that long term or 'permanent' tree plantings are considered a superior form of (post 1990) carbon sink, and commercial plantations (which allow for harvesting and replanting) are less useful for abatement. However, common to all forms of forest carbon sink is the issue of permanence. None of these are truly permanent stores of carbon because at any point either a fire, disease, harvest or major event can mean part of the carbon store is released. Why then the perceived bias against sink projects which allow for commercial harvesting and replanting? Let's not forget - things are getting hotter: Australian projections for climate change provide plenty of challenges for current and future forest managers. Over the next century many key forest species may have to endure conditions outside their'current growing range. This poses risks for the emergent offsets industry which needs to be actively managed. Simply planting local indigenous species alone may no longer be the only best practice. Think 'true fate of carbon': It is important that our thinking is not constrained by current rules, as these will continually be refined as our knowledge about carbon systems improves over the next century (between now and 2100 there will be 22 post-Kyoto negotiation periods). Our key focus should be in considering the 'true fate' of carbon, and the real contribution to greenhouse abatement. Policy makers need to keep this in mind, and ensure that the entire carbon life cycle is considered in their decision making. 'Standing forest' versus 'Net abatement effect': There are two effective means for forests to achieve genuine greenhouse abatement. One is the carbon sequestered and stored in the 'standing forest', the other is the greenhouse benefit (carbon flow or net abatement effect) of an ongoing and renewable supply of tree based products from the site (wood, fibre, biomass, biofuel), which replace

  12. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  13. L’abate Angelo Comolli (1760-1794 e il confronto Raffaello-Dürer

    Stefano Onofri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo studia l’abate Angelo Comolli e la sua Vita inedita di Raffaello da Urbino, pubblicata per la prima volta a Roma nel 1790. Di questa biografia è interessante, in particolare, il brano sul confronto tra Raffaello e Dürer. Non si sa molto della vita dell’abate Comolli: possiamo ricavarne alcune informazioni da una lettera (Torino, Biblioteca Civica scritta dal fratello Fermo. Nel suo lavoro su Raffaello, Comolli dichiara di pubblicare con note un’anonima biografia del pittore urbinate, scritta prima del Vasari e trovata in un manoscritto del XVI secolo proveniente dalla Certosa di Pavia. Sul frontespizio dell’edizione del 1790 è raffigurata una medaglia (in quegli anni conservata a Roma, nella collezione di monsignor Giuseppe Muti Papazzurri già Casali ed ora a Londra, British Museum con un ritratto di Raffaello sul dritto, e sul rovescio una Diana polimaste, simbolo della forza generatrice della Natura, associata ad una frase tratta dal distico del Bembo sulla tomba di Raffaello: Timuit quo sospite vinci; un’iconografia che simboleggia l’ideale disputa tra la Natura e l’arte di Raffaello. Oggi sappiamo che la biografia del Comolli è un falso ricalcato sulle Vite del Vasari; Anton Springer lo dimostrò accuratamente nel 1882. Ma ebbe comunque un certo successo: fu pubblicata di nuovo a Roma nel 1791; nel 1817 fu tradotta in tedesco dall’archivista Maximilian Prokop von Freyberg e pubblicata a Monaco; Ingres si ispirò alla Vita del Comolli quando dipinse due scene tratte dalla biografia del pittore urbinate (Raffaello e la Fornarina e Il fidanzamento di Raffaello; Gaetano Milanesi, nella sua edizione delle Vite del Vasari del 1879, ancora considerò la Vita del Comolli come un documento autentico. L’abate Comolli si mostra erudito, nelle note alla sua biografia di Raffaello e nell’altro suo lavoro, la Bibliografia storico-critica dell’architettura civile ed arti subalterne, pubblicata sempre a Roma negli

  14. Efficiency and abatement costs of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: A slacks-based efficiency measure

    Highlights: ► We employ a slacks-based DEA model to estimate the energy efficiency and shadow prices of CO2 emissions in China. ► The empirical study shows that China was not performing CO2-efficiently. ► The average of estimated shadow prices of CO2 emissions is about $7.2. -- Abstract: This paper uses nonparametric efficiency analysis technique to estimate the energy efficiency, potential emission reductions and marginal abatement costs of energy-related CO2 emissions in China. We employ a non-radial slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for estimating the potential reductions and efficiency of CO2 emissions for China. The dual model of the slacks-based DEA model is then used to estimate the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions. An empirical study based on China’s panel data (2001–2010) is carried out and some policy implications are also discussed.

  15. 75 FR 48411 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort Worth, TX

    2010-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice; Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed noise compatibility program that was submitted for... Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR Part 150 by the city of...

  16. 78 FR 64264 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Southwest Florida International...

    2013-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Southwest... Noise Compatibility Program that was submitted for Southwest Florida International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47504 et seq (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act hereinafter referred to...

  17. Application of Primary Abatement Technology for Reduction of N2O Emmision in Petrokemija Nitric Acid Production

    Ćosić, L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial nitric acid production by oxidation of gaseous ammonia with Ostwald procedure produces an unwanted by-product – colorless nitrous oxide, N2O. As emission of N2O represents a very serious problem due of its huge contribution to global warming, certain measures focused on its maximum reduction should be undertaken. Minimization of N2O emission in nitric acid production can be achieved in different parts of the process flow, depending on the applied available technologies. For the abatement of N2O emissions in Petrokemija's nitric acid production processes from the list of the best available technologies chosen were primary and secondary abatement technologies. The mentioned ensures reduction of N2O by use of improved selective heterogeneous catalysts in the step of gaseous ammonia oxidation. Precious metals in the shape of gauzes are used as selective heterogeneous catalyst in primary technology, while in the case of secondary technology the Fe2 O3 catalyst on Al2O3 support in the shape of spherical pellets is chosen. Shown is the application of primary technology for the abatement of N2O in both nitric acid production facilities and their comparison with classical heterogeneous catalyst and preparation for the installation of secondary selective catalyst. N2O emissions with the application of primary technology in both production facilities were reduced from 12 kg of N2O to 7 kg of N2O per ton of pure HNO3. With the primary reduction in N2O emissions the foundation was established for further reduction with the secondary technology to the final value of 0.7 kg of N2O per ton of pure HNO3, which represents mass concentration in the tail gas below 200 mg m-3 (at n. c.. With the applied technologies for the abatement of N2O emissions in Petrokemija's nitric acid production the future prescribed emission limit value will be satisfied.

  18. Comparison of bioaugmented EGSB and GAC–FBB reactors and their combination with aerobic SBR for the abatement of chlorophenols

    Puyol, Daniel; Monsalve, Víctor Manuel; Sanchís, Sonia; Sanz, José Luis; Fernández Mohedano, Ángel; Rodríguez, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The biological abatement of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (246TCP) and its chlorinated degradation byproducts using anaerobic and aerobic biological reactors coupled in series has been studied. The performance of an anaerobic fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors bioaugmented with Desulfitobacterium strains was compared within a wide range of 246TCP loading rates. The bioaugmentation of an EGSB reactor with Desulfitobacterium strains enhanced the chloro...

  19. Determinants of willingness-to-pay for water pollution abatement: a point and interval data payment card application.

    Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Riera, Pere; Giergiczny, Marek

    2012-10-15

    This paper shows a contingent valuation exercise of pollution abatement in remote lakes. In addition to estimating the usual interval data model, it applies a point and interval statistical approach allowing for uncensored data, left-censored data, right-censored data and left- and right-censored data to explore the determinants of willingness-to-pay in a payment card survey. Results suggest that the estimations between models may diverge under certain conditions. PMID:22658990

  20. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor

    Highlights: • We developed a microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). • We calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste. • The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased from 29% to 43% than conventional vortex reactor. - Abstract: Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6 kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6 kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor

  1. Intensidade e épocas de poda verde em pereira 'Abate Fetel' sobre dois porta-enxertos

    Leo Rufato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos maiores importadores mundiais de pera europeias. A falta de material genético adaptado e a deficiência de tecnologias de manejo, bem como o abortamento de gemas florais das cultivares europeias plantadas têm desestimulado os produtores, ocasionando a redução de áreas plantadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer uma metodologia de poda verde na cultivar Abate Fetel a fim de aumentar a frutificação e controlar o vigor das plantas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nos pomares da Frutirol Agrícola Ltda., em Vacaria-RS, nas safras de 2006/2007 e 2007/2008. Utilizou-se a cultivar Abate Fetel sobre dois porta enxertos: marmeleiros 'Adams' e 'EMC'. Foram avaliados os efeitos de dois níveis de poda verde em três diferentes épocas de realização. Os tratamentos consistiram na poda verde, com retirada de 1/3 e 2/3 do comprimento dos ramos do ano, nas épocas de janeiro, fevereiro e março, e uma testemunha, sem poda verde. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subsubdivididas, com cinco repetições e duas plantas por repetição. Conclui-se que o porta-enxerto 'EMC' induz melhor controle de vigor e aumenta os índices de produtividade para a cv Abate Fetel, comparado com o marmeleiro 'Adams'. A poda verde, com intensidade de 2/3 de retirada dos ramos, independentemente do mês de realização, aumenta a produtividade da pereira cv Abate Fetel.

  2. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor

    Kim, J.H.; Cho, C.H.; Shin, D.H. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Y.C., E-mail: ychong@nfri.re.kr [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Y.W. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Oxikdo-dong, Gunsan-city, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Green Energy and Environments, Handong Global University, Heunghae-eup, Buk-gu, Pohang-city, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • We developed a microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). • We calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste. • The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased from 29% to 43% than conventional vortex reactor. - Abstract: Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF{sub 6}, NF{sub 3} by varying plasma power and N{sub 2} flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF{sub 3} and SF{sub 6} in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF{sub 3} was achieved without an additive gas at the N{sub 2} flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6 kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF{sub 6} was 99.99% at the N{sub 2} flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6 kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF{sub 3} and 29% of SF{sub 6} abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor.

  3. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? Conclusions from a case study. I: Energy production and carbon dioxide abatement

    This study examines the renewable energy production of crops used for phytoremediation. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region (Belgium and The Netherlands), where agricultural soils are diffusely contaminated with cadmium, lead, and zinc, with an enhanced risk for uptake of these metals in crops and leaching to the groundwater. However, the area has such a large extent (700 km2) that conventional remediation is not applicable. Cultivation of crops for energy purposes on such land offers the opportunity to come up with an approach that efficiently uses contaminated agricultural land and that can be beneficial for both farmer and society. Performing a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), we examined the energy and CO2 abatement potential of willow (Salix spp.), silage maize (Zea mays L.), and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) originating from contaminated land. Taking into account the marginal impact of the metals in the biomass on the energy conversion efficiency and on the potential use of the biomass and its rest products after conversion, digestion of silage maize with combustion of the contaminated digestate shows the best energetic and CO2 abating perspectives. The replacement of cokes based electricity by willow is more efficient in CO2 abatement than willow used in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, despite lower net energy production in the former option. Willow reaches the same energy production and same CO2 abatement per hectare per year as silage maize when its biomass yield is respectively 13 and 8.7 Mg dm ha−1 y−1. -- Highlights: ► We study the energy potential of Salix, Zea mays and Brassica after phytoremediation. ► The case study contains agricultural soils that are contaminated with cadmium. ► We include the impact of metals on energy conversion efficiency and rest product use. ► Higher biomass yields for Salix would make it energetically competitive with Z. mays.

  4. Abatement of Helminth Eggs and Bacterial and Viral Indicators in Soil after Land Application of Treated Sludges

    Claudia Campos; Milena Beltrán; Marcela Duarte; Luz Medina; Francisco Lucena; Juan Jofre

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of helminth eggs, fecal coliforms and somatic coliphages present in sewage sludge after treatments and abatement by application to soil was determined. Traditional stabilization processes produced small changes in the concentrations of the parameters studied. In contrast, thermal treatments and liming produced dramatic reductions. Fecal coliforms were the most affected by both types of treatments; somatic coliphages showed some persistence after 30 minutes at 60°C; and both...

  5. Biomass for electricity in the EU-27: Potential demand, CO2 abatements and breakeven prices for co-firing

    This paper analyses the potential of biomass-based electricity in the EU-27 countries, and interactions with climate policy and the EU ETS. We estimate the potential biomass demand from the existing power plants, and we match our estimates with the potential biomass supply in Europe. Furthermore, we compute the CO2 abatement associated with the co-firing opportunities in European coal plants. We find that the biomass demand from the power sector may be very high compared with potential supply. We also identify that co-firing can produce high volumes of CO2 abatements, which may be two times larger than that of the coal-to-gas fuel switching. We also compute biomass and CO2 breakeven prices for co-firing. Results indicate that biomass-based electricity remains profitable with high biomass prices, when the carbon price is high: a Euros 16–24 (25–35, respectively) biomass price (per MWhprim) for a Euros 20 (50, respectively) carbon price. Hence, the carbon price appears as an important driver, which can make profitable a high share of the potential biomass demand from the power sector, even with high biomass prices. This aims to gain insights on how biomass market may be impacted by the EU ETS and others climate policies. - Highlights: • Technical potential of biomass (demand and CO2 abatement) in European electricity. • Calculation for co-firing and biomass power plants; comparison with potential biomass supply in EU-27 countries. • Calculation of biomass and CO2 breakeven prices for co-firing. • Potential demand is 8–148% of potential supply (up to 80% of demand from co-firing). • High potential abatement from co-firing (up to 365 Mt/yr); Profitable co-firing with €16-24 (25–35) biomass price for €20 (50) CO2 price

  6. An economic assessment of the Kyoto Protocol using a global model based on the marginal abatement costs of 12 regions

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism to help Annex 1 countries to meet their Kyoto targets at a lower overall cost. Using a global model based on the marginal abatement costs of 12 countries and regions, this paper estimates the contributions of the three Kyoto flexibility mechanisms to meet the total greenhouse gas emissions reductions required of Annex 1 countries under the three trading scenarios respectively. Our resul...

  7. THE USE OF ESTIMATED POLLUTION FLOWS IN AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION CONTROL POLICY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ABATEMENT AND POLICY INSTRUMENTS

    Shortle, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Flows of water pollutants from agricultural sources are, for all practical purposes, unobservable by direct monitoring. These flows can, however, be estimated using hydrological models. The analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that uncertainty on estimated flows is not neutral with respect to the optimal level and allocation of estimated abatement or with respect to the expected net benefits of alternative pollution control policy instruments. Policy implications are noted.

  8. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  9. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    LIU Xiaoshou; CHEUNG Siu Gin; SHIN Paul K.S

    2011-01-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution,a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam,which is a non-polluted,shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island.The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution,and one site in the outside-harbor area,which was relatively clean.In addition,sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control.Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites,placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam.Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-,3-,and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics.The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods,while it took three and eight weeks,respectively,for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control.These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  10. A Study on Portfolio of Domestic Policies and Measures for GHG emission Abatement

    Lim, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    After the climate change negotiation reaches an agreement in COP7, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments and the development of domestic policies and measures to achieve GHG emission reduction target. Many Annex I countries have developed and implemented policies and measures to achieve its quantified GHG emission reduction target. The purpose of this paper is to propose a portfolio of policies and measures, that is, which policies and measures Korea will have to take in preparing future commitment for GHG emission reduction as well as in strengthening mitigation of climate change. Various policies and measures can be used, such as regulations, economic instruments, and covenants, etc., but it is desirable to implement them in some portfolio, taking advantage of their characteristics. Among the possible policies and measures, this study found that economic instruments such as carbon tax and domestic emissions trading have attracted considerable interest recently due to their cost effectiveness. This study also found that, in practice, many developed countries have used these policy instruments in achieving their quantified GHG emission reduction target. In order to develop a portfolio of policies and measures, the comprehension of the features of each policy and measure and the synergetic reconciliation with other objectives than climate change is important. (author). 82 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Driving gear for cooling towers - design, noise abatement, maintenance; Antriebssysteme fuer Kuehltuerme - Auslegung, Schallschutz, Instandhaltung

    Niestegge, J.; Plesser, J. [Flender (A.F.) und Co., Bocholt (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Any optimal design of a cooling tower driving gear requires as precise as possible information on the operating conditions in practice. In addition, design engineers use verified data warranting reliable operation of the driving gears. From those data together with information on the specific operating environment and position in the cooling system, engineers derive the application-specific design data for the driving mechanisms, such as for instance special protective coatings, or specific bearing geometries. Other requirements considered include aspects of maintenance and noise abatement. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eine optimale Auslegung von Kuehlturmantrieben bedingt eine moeglichst exakte Angabe der Betriebsbedingungen. Darueber hinaus fliessen in die Auslegung Erfahrungswerte ein, die einen stoerungsfreien Betrieb der Getriebe gewaehrleisten. Mit diesen Daten und unter Beruecksichtigung des speziellen Aufstellortes ergibt sich ein kuehlturmspezifisches Getriebe, das z.B. durch den vergroesserten Lagerabstand oder durch die Sonderlackierung den Anforderungen im Kuehlturmbau in groesstmoeglicher Weise gerecht wird. Massgaben hinsichtlich der Wartungsfreundlichkeit und des Geraeuschverhaltens werden bei der Auslegung ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  12. The economics of particulate pollution abatement technologies for wood-waste-fired combustors

    A study was conducted to quantify the impact of new and improved particulate abatement equipment (PAE) on the economics of new and existing wood waste combustion systems. The operating characteristics of current PAE technology are summarized and the basis for cost estimates is established. The technologies include multicyclone collectors, wet scrubbers, fabric filter baghouses, electrostatic precipitators, and new versus retrofit installations. Capital costs were determined for 4 generic types of PAE and 4 cases for each PAE type according to GJ/h in steam enthalpy. Cost information was developed for wood waste energy systems with and without PAE. In the cost analysis, a hypothetical steam selling price is determined which will give a 25% return on pretax cash flow over a 20-year period. Additional costs of the PAE are applied to the energy system cash flows and the impact on average annual return is calculated. Results indicate reductions in internal rate of return of 3-6% for most PAE systems. 54 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs

  13. Abating New York city transit noise: A matter of will, not way

    Arline L Bronzaft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the latter part of the 19 th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City′s Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City′s transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York′s transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority′s efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  14. Abatement by Naringenin of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Rats

    Doxorubicin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in current use. It has proven efficacy in various malignancies either alone or combined with other cytocidal agents. The clinical usefulness of the anthracycline drug has been precluded by cardiac toxicity. Many therapeutic interventions have been attempted to improve the therapeutic benefits of the drug. Few, however, have been efficacious in this setting. Purpose: We have addressed in the current study the possible protective effects of naringenin, a flavonoid known to have anti-oxidant properties, on doxorubicin induced cardiac toxicity in male Swiss albino rats. Methods: Forty male Swiss albino rats were used in this study. Naringenin (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily by gavage for 7 consecutive days before a cumulative single dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body weight, ip). Doxorubicin induced marked biochemical alterations characteristic of cardiac toxicity including, elevated activities of serum total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), enhanced lipid peroxidation measured as malonaldehyde (MDA). The anthracycline drug has also reduced the cardiac enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). Besides, it reduced significantly the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, but it increased the total NO content in heart tissue. Prior administration of naringenin ahead of doxorubicin challenge ameliorated all these biochemical markers. Taken together, one could conclude that naringenin has a protective role in the abatement of doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity that resides, at least in part, on its anti-radical effects and regulatory role on NO production

  15. Household Solar Photovoltaics: Supplier of Marginal Abatement, or Primary Source of Low-Emission Power?

    Graham Palmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With declining system costs and assuming a short energy payback period, photovoltaics (PV should, at face value, be able to make a meaningful contribution to reducing the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system. However, solar is an intermittent power source and households remain completely dependent on a “less than green” electricity grid for reliable electricity. Further, much of the energy impact of PV occurs outside of the conventional boundaries of PV life-cycle analyses (LCA. This paper examines these competing observations and explores the broader impacts of a high penetration of household PV using Melbourne, Victoria as a reference. It concludes that in a grid dominated by unsequestered coal and gas, PV provides a legitimate source of emission abatement at high, but declining costs, with the potential for network and peak demand support. It may be technically possible to integrate a high penetration of PV, but the economic and energy cost of accommodating high-penetration PV erodes much of the benefits. Future developments in PV, storage, and integration technologies may allow PV to take on a greater long term role, but in the time horizon usually discussed in climate policy, a large-scale expansion of household PV may hinder rather than assist deep cuts to the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system.

  16. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    Hamad, Juma

    2014-11-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ~2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Toxicity of Abate? 4E (temephos) in mallard ducklings and the influence of cold

    Fleming, W.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Franson, J.C.; Rattner, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diets mixed to contain 0,0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ppm temephos (determined chemically to contain less than 0.5, less than 0.5, 0.89, 6..0 and 59 ppm temephos, respectively) in an Abate ? 4E formulation, were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 7 d. During this period, half of the ducklings in each dietary treatment group were housed in a heated brooder (39 to 41?C) and half were housed in an unheated brooder (10 to 18?C). Mortality in all dietary groups in the unheated brooder was higher than in the heated brooder. High temephos-related mortality occurred in the 100 ppm group in the unheated brooder but not in any other diet-temperature groups. Ingestion of the 100 ppm temephos diet inhibited plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity, but other selected plasma chemistries were not affected in a dose-related manner. Brain ChE activity was depressed only in the 100 ppm dietary groups; maximum inhibition of brain ChE activity was 48%. These findings suggest that diets containing up to 10 ppm temephos do not directly affect duckling survival during the first week of life and that the toxicity of 100 ppm temephos is markedly enhanced by cold.

  18. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures. (paper)

  19. Injection of alkaline ashes into underground coal mines for acid mine drainage abatement

    The injection of alkaline coal combustion waste products into abandoned underground coal mines for acid mine drainage (AMD) abatement has obvious conceptual appeal. This paper summarizes the findings of the baseline hydrogeologic and water quality evaluations at two sites--one in West Virginia and one in Maryland--where field demonstrations of the technique are being pursued in cooperative efforts among State and Federal agencies and/or private companies. The West Virginia site produces severe AMD from three to seven AMD sources that are spaced over about a 1.2 km stretch of the down-dip side of the mine workings. By completely filling the most problematic portion of the mine workings with coal combustion ashes, the State expects that the costs and problems associated with AMD treatment will be greatly reduced. At the Maryland site, it is expected that the AMD from a relatively small target mine will be eliminated completely by filling the entire mine void with a grout composed of a mixture of fly ash, fluidized-bed combustion ash, and flue gas desulfurization sludge. This project will also demonstrate the potential cost-effectiveness of the technique at other sites, both for the purpose of AMD remediation and control of land subsidence

  20. Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change

    With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.

  1. External costs from electricity generation of China up to 2030 in energy and abatement scenarios

    This paper presents estimated external costs of electricity generation in China under different scenarios of long-term energy and environmental policies. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) software is used to develop a simple model of electricity demand and to estimate gross electricity generation in China up to 2030 under these scenarios. Because external costs for unit of electricity from fossil fuel will vary in different government regulation periods, airborne pollutant external costs of SO2, NOx, PM10, and CO2 from fired power plants are then estimated based on emission inventories and environmental cost for unit of pollutants, while external costs of non-fossil power generation are evaluated with external cost for unit of electricity. The developed model is run to study the impact of different energy efficiency and environmental abatement policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement and also reduce external costs of electricity generation. It is shown that external costs of electricity generation may reduce 24-55% with three energy policies scenarios and may further reduce by 20.9-26.7% with two environmental policies scenarios. The total reduction of external costs may reach 58.2%. (author)

  2. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Sarfraz Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU; Gankeng River (GKS; Xia Zhang River (XZY; Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR; Jiu Haogang River (JHH in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, dissolved oxygen (DO, total phosphorus (TP, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP. The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river’s water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  3. Abatement of VOCs with Alternate Adsorption and Plasma-Assisted Regeneration: A Review

    Sharmin Sultana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important concern for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from waste air with non-thermal plasma (NTP. Although the combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has shown to reduce the formation of unwanted by-products and improve the energy efficiency of the process, further optimization of these hybrid systems is still necessary to evolve to a competitive air purification technology. A newly developed innovative technique, i.e., the cyclic operation of VOC adsorption and NTP-assisted regeneration has attracted growing interest of researchers due to the optimized energy consumption and cost-effectiveness. This paper reviews this new technique for the abatement of VOCs as well as for regeneration of adsorbents. In the first part, a comparison of the energy consumption between sequential and continuous treatment is given. Next, studies dealing with adsorption followed by NTP oxidation are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the adsorption mechanisms and the regeneration of catalysts with in-plasma and post-plasma processes. Finally, the influence of critical process parameters on the adsorption and regeneration steps is summarized.

  4. The effect of wind power on CO2 abatement in the Nordic Countries

    Simulations with the power market model EMPS and the energy system model EFOM have been made to assess the effects of large-scale wind production on the CO2 abatement in the Nordic countries. We are mostly focusing on the year 2010, comparing the results with substantial wind power amounts to a base case scenario. The results for the EMPS simulations with 16-46 TWh/a wind production in Nordic countries (4-12% of electricity consumption), show that wind power replaces mostly coal-fired power generation. As a result of all fuels replaced by wind production a CO2 reduction is achieved, of 700-620 g CO2/kWh. The results for the simulations of Finnish energy system show similarly that new wind power capacity replaces mainly coal-fired generation. In another scenario it has been assumed that the use of coal-fired generation is prohibited in order to meet the Finnish Kyoto target. In this case new wind power capacity would replace mainly natural gas combined-cycle capacity in separate electricity production and the average CO2 reduction would be about 300 g CO2/kWh. This case reflects the situation in the future, when there is possibly no more coal to be replaced

  5. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

  6. Abatement characteristics of N2O in low-pressure plasma reactor

    Hur, M.; Lee, J. O.; Lee, J. Y.; Kang, W. S.; Song, Y.-H.

    2016-02-01

    The abatement characteristics of N2O were investigated in a plasma reactor positioned in front of a vacuum pump. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for evaluating the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and the identification of byproducts. The concentration of NO x (NO and NO2) was quantified by using an NO x analyzer. The DRE of N2O was enhanced by increasing the power or decreasing the N2O flow rate. A higher pressure yields a higher DRE of N2O and a lower concentration of NO x in the destroyed N2O. For understanding this phenomenon, the discharge characteristics were analyzed by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The spatial distribution of emission spectra from the discharge in a mixture of N2O and Ar gases was measured by varying the pressure. The mechanisms underlying the pressure effect on the N2O DRE and NO x concentration are discussed in terms of the electron density and the concentration of O radicals.

  7. Top-down or bottom-up modelling. An application to CO2 abatement

    In four articles a comparison is made of bottom-up, or engineers'' models, and top-down models, which comprise macro-econometric models, computable general equilibrium models and also models in the system dynamics tradition. In the first article the history of economic modelling is outlined. In the second article the multi-sector macro-economic Computable General Equilibrium model for the Netherlands is described. It can be used to study the long-term effects of fiscal policy measures on economic and environmental indicators, in particular the effects on the level of CO2-emissions. The aim of article 3 is to describe the structure of the electricity supply industry in the UK and how it can be represented in a bottom-up sub-model within a more general E3 sectoral model of the UK economy. The objective of the last paper (4) is mainly a methodological discussion about integrating top-down and bottom-up models which can be used to assess CO2 abatement policies impacts on economic activity

  8. Transport Sector Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Tippichai, Atit; Fukuda, Atsushi; Morisugi, Hisayoshi

    In the last decade, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have emerged a standard tool for climate policy evaluation due to their abilities to prospectively elucidate the character and magnitude of the economic impacts of energy and environmental policies. Furthermore, marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves which represent GHG emissions reduction potentials and costs can be derived from these top-down economic models. However, most studies have never address MAC curves for a specific sector that have a large coverage of countries which are needed for allocation of optimal emission reductions. This paper aims to explicitly describe the meaning and character of MAC curves for transport sector in a CGE context through using the AIM/CGE Model developed by Toshihiko Masui. It found that the MAC curves derived in this study are the inverse of the general equilibrium reduction function for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the transport sector MAC curves for six regions including USA, EU-15, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, derived from this study are compared to the reduction potentials under 100 USD/tCO2 in 2020 from a bottom-up study. The results showed that the ranking of the regional reduction potentials in transport sector from this study are almost same with the bottom-up study except the ranks of the EU-15 and China. In addition, the range of the reduction potentials from this study is wider and only the USA has higher potentials than those derived from the bottom-up study.

  9. The effect of wind power on CO{sub 2} abatement in the Nordic Countries

    Holttinen, Hannele E-mail: hannele.holttinen@vtt.fi; Tuhkanen, Sami

    2004-09-01

    Simulations with the power market model EMPS and the energy system model EFOM have been made to assess the effects of large-scale wind production on the CO{sub 2} abatement in the Nordic countries. We are mostly focusing on the year 2010, comparing the results with substantial wind power amounts to a base case scenario. The results for the EMPS simulations with 16-46 TWh/a wind production in Nordic countries (4-12% of electricity consumption), show that wind power replaces mostly coal-fired power generation. As a result of all fuels replaced by wind production a CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved, of 700-620 g CO{sub 2}/kWh. The results for the simulations of Finnish energy system show similarly that new wind power capacity replaces mainly coal-fired generation. In another scenario it has been assumed that the use of coal-fired generation is prohibited in order to meet the Finnish Kyoto target. In this case new wind power capacity would replace mainly natural gas combined-cycle capacity in separate electricity production and the average CO{sub 2} reduction would be about 300 g CO{sub 2}/kWh. This case reflects the situation in the future, when there is possibly no more coal to be replaced.

  10. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons.

    Hamad, Juma Z; Dua, Rubal; Kurniasari, Novita; Kennedy, Maria D; Wang, Peng; Amy, Gary L

    2014-11-15

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ∼2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45 μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. PMID:25128660

  11. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  12. Provincial carbon intensity abatement potential estimation in China: A PSO–GA-optimized multi-factor environmental learning curve method

    This study aims to estimate carbon intensity abatement potential in China at the regional level by proposing a particle swarm optimization–genetic algorithm (PSO–GA) multivariate environmental learning curve estimation method. The model uses two independent variables, namely, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the proportion of the tertiary industry in GDP, to construct carbon intensity learning curves (CILCs), i.e., CO2 emissions per unit of GDP, of 30 provinces in China. Instead of the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) method, a PSO–GA intelligent optimization algorithm is used to optimize the coefficients of a learning curve. The carbon intensity abatement potentials of the 30 Chinese provinces are estimated via PSO–GA under the business-as-usual scenario. The estimation reveals the following results. (1) For most provinces, the abatement potentials from improving a unit of the proportion of the tertiary industry in GDP are higher than the potentials from raising a unit of per capita GDP. (2) The average potential of the 30 provinces in 2020 will be 37.6% based on the emission's level of 2005. The potentials of Jiangsu, Tianjin, Shandong, Beijing, and Heilongjiang are over 60%. Ningxia is the only province without intensity abatement potential. (3) The total carbon intensity in China weighted by the GDP shares of the 30 provinces will decline by 39.4% in 2020 compared with that in 2005. This intensity cannot achieve the 40%–45% carbon intensity reduction target set by the Chinese government. Additional mitigation policies should be developed to uncover the potentials of Ningxia and Inner Mongolia. In addition, the simulation accuracy of the CILCs optimized by PSO–GA is higher than that of the CILCs optimized by the traditional OLS method. - Highlights: • A PSO–GA-optimized multi-factor environmental learning curve method is proposed. • The carbon intensity abatement potentials of the 30 Chinese provinces are estimated by

  13. Evaluation and assessment of the efficacy of an abatement strategy in a former lead smelter community, Boolaroo, Australia.

    Harvey, P J; Taylor, M P; Kristensen, L J; Grant-Vest, S; Rouillon, M; Wu, L; Handley, H K

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the recent soil Lead Abatement Strategy (LAS) in Boolaroo, New South Wales, Australia, that was designed to "achieve a reduction in human exposure to lead dust contamination in surface soils". The abatement programme addressed legacy contamination of residential areas following closure of lead smelting operations in 2003 at the Pasminco Cockle Creek Smelter (PCCS). The principal objective of the LAS was to "cap and cover" lead-contaminated soils within the urban environment surrounding the PCCS. Soil lead concentrations of 2500-5000 mg/kg were scheduled for removal and replacement, while concentrations between 1500 and 2500 mg/kg were replaced only under limited circumstances. To date, there has been no industry, government or independent assessment of the clean-up programme that involved >2000 homes in the township of Boolaroo. Thus, by measuring post-abatement soil lead concentrations in Boolaroo, this study addresses this knowledge gap and evaluates the effectiveness of the LAS for reducing the potential for lead exposure. Soil lead concentrations above the Australian residential soil health investigation level value for residential soils (300 mg/kg) were identified at all but one of the residential properties examined (n = 19). Vacuum dust samples (n = 17) from the same homes had a mean lead concentration of 495 mg/kg (median 380 mg/kg). Bio-accessibility testing revealed that lead in household vacuum dust was readily accessible (% bio-accessible) (mean = 92 %, median = 90 %), demonstrating that the risk of exposure via this pathway remains. Assessment of a limited number of properties (n = 8) where pre-abatement soil lead levels were available for comparison showed they were not statistically different to post-abatement. Although the LAS did not include treatment of non-residential properties, sampling of community areas including public sports fields, playgrounds and schools (n = 32) was undertaken to determine the

  14. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  15. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira

    Full Text Available By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2 abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks, offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  16. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  17. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  18. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of greenhouse gas emission abatement. The case of Finland

    Lehtilae, A.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1999-11-01

    In Finland greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase during the next decades due to economic growth, particularly in the energy intensive industrial sectors. The role of these industries is very central in the national economy. The emission control according to the Kyoto Protocol will therefore be quite difficult and costly. The study analyses the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Finland. The analysis is performed with the help of a comprehensive energy system model for Finland, which has been extended to cover all major sources of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the energy sector, industry, waste management and agriculture. The focus being on technical options, no consideration is given to possible policy measures, emission trading or joint implementation in the study. Under the boundary conditions given for the development of the Finnish energy economy, cost-effective technical measures in the energy system include increases in the use of wood biomass, natural gas and wind energy, increases in the contribution of CHP to the power supply, and intensified energy conservation in all end-use sectors. Additional cost-effective measures are landfill gas recovery, utilisation of the combustible fraction of waste and catalytic conversion of N{sub 2}O in nitric acid production. With baseline assumptions, the direct annual costs of emission abatement are calculated to be about 2000 MFIM (330 M{epsilon}) in 2010. The marginal costs are estimated to be about 230 FIM (40 {epsilon}) per tonne of CO{sub 2}-equivalent in 2010. The cost curie derived from the analysis could be used in further analyses concerning emissions trading. (orig.) 109 refs. SIHTI Research Programme

  19. An investigation into feasibility of impingement heat transfer and acoustic abatement of meso scale synthetic jets

    While synthetic jets have found more applications in controlling fluid flow especially in aerospace applications, more recently they captured a lot of attention for the thermal management of electronics. While the jet sizes vary and may be large for microfluidic applications, it is preferred that they should be in the meso scale range for removing heat from electronics components. Current study focuses on the heat transfer and acoustic aspects of the small-scale synthetic jets. Synthetic jets designed and developed at the General Electric Global Research Center can provide peak air velocities in excess of 90 m/s from a 1 mm hydraulic diameter rectangular orifice. The jets are driven by a sine wave with an operating frequency of between 3 and 4.5 kHz, providing the highest thermal performance for the current jets. An infrared thermal imaging technique was used to acquire fine scale temperature measurements. Two heater sizes have been studied in the current study to understand the effect of the characteristic length. Several parameters are varied to find the change in the heat transfer rates with the jet location, driving voltage, driving frequency, and heater power. Heat transfer enhancements over the specific heater sizes are presented for the same jet. It is found that the enhancement can be between 4 and 10 times depends on the heater size showing that smaller sizes provide the best jet effectiveness. It is also noted that jet noise can be as large at 73 dB, but possible abatement techniques can decrease this noise level as low as to 30 dB

  20. Abatement of atmospheric emissions in North America: Progress to date and promise for the future

    Much progress has been made in acidic rain abatement in North America. This progress is examined with a focus on man-made emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that contribute to acidic deposition. A review of US historical trends of SO2 and nitrogen oxides emissions since 1900 and projections of future emissions through the end of this century shoe emissions of SO2 decreasing from a peak in 1970 of 29 Tg/yr to about 26 Tg/yr, but nitrogen oxides emissions continuing an upward trend to about 25 Tg/yr. In Canada, SO2, NO and NO2 emissions are less than 20% of those in the US, and the trends are similar, with SO2 showing future decreases and NO and NO2 continuing to increase. Future industry in North America is expected to emit much lower levels of SO2, NO, and NO2. Technology is also available to limit nitrogen oxides emissions from future motor vehicles. Recent acidic deposition legislation in the US Congress to reduce electric utility and industrial emissions of SO2 by 9 to 13 Tg/yr is reviewed. The estimates of the cost to implement the proposals range from $2 billion to $23 billion over a 5-year period. Retrofitting existing utility and industrial boilers for maximum SO2, NO, and NO2 reduction carries the highest price tag. Several environmental policy options are explored for preventing emission increases and also promoting decreases in future emissions of SO2, NO, and NO2 in North America. Focus on nitrogen oxides emissions may be critical because population growth could cause significant increases in NO and NO2 from motor vehicle use

  1. 75 FR 68667 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for Kona International Airport at...

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for Kona... noise compatibility program that was submitted for Kona International Airport at Keahole under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred...

  2. Underlying chemistry research for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    This document reviews the underlying chemistry research part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, carried out in the Research Chemistry Branch. This research is concerned with developing the basic chemical knowledge and under-standing required in other parts of the Program. There are four areas of underlying research: Waste Form Chemistry, Solute and Solution Chemistry, Rock-Water-Waste Interactions, and Abatement and Monitoring of Gas-Phase Radionuclides

  3. Estimating the environmental efficiency and marginal CO2 abatement cost of coal-fired power plants in China

    We estimate the environmental efficiency, reduction potential and marginal abatement cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in China using a novel plant-level dataset derived from the first and second waves of the National Economic Survey, which were implemented in 2004 and 2008, respectively. The results indicate that there are large opportunities for CO2 emissions reduction in China's coal-fired power plants. Given that all power plants operate fully efficiently, China's CO2 emissions in 2004 and 2008 could have been reduced by 52% and 70%, respectively, accompanied by an expansion in electricity output. In other words, the opportunities for ‘double dividend’ exist. In 2004, the average marginal abatement cost of CO2 emissions for China's power plants was approximately 955 Yuan/ton, whereas in 2008, the cost increased to 1142 Yuan/ton. The empirical analyses show that subsidies from the government can reduce environmental inefficiency, but the subsidies significantly increase the shadow price of the power plants. Older and larger power plants have a lower environmental efficiency and marginal CO2 abatement cost. The ratio of coal consumption negatively affects the environmental efficiencies of power plants. -- Highlights: •A novel plant-level dataset derived from the National Economic Survey in China is used. •There are large opportunities for CO2 emissions reduction in China's coal-fired power plants. •Subsidies can reduce environmental inefficiency but increase shadow price

  4. Effects of temephos (Abate? 4E) on fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax and Uca minax) on a Delaware salt marsh

    Pinkney, A.E.; McGowan, P.C.; Murphy, D.R.; Lowe, T.P.; Sparling, D.W.; Meredith, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    The non-target effects of temephos (as Abate 4E, 44.6% active ingredient) on fiddler crabs were examined on the salt marsh at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), near Dover, DE. Six 170 x 170 m plots were established; 3 were sprayed on 4 occasions at a rate of 1.5 fl oz/acre (0.054 kg active ingredient/ha) and 3 were controls. On each plot, marsh fiddler crab (Uca pugnax) populations were monitored by repeatedly counting the number of burrow holes in 2 counting areas marked out along tidal guts. One half of each counting area was covered with bird netting to evaluate sublethal toxic effects, which, if present, could result in increased susceptibility to bird predation. A statistically significant linear association was established between the number of holes and the number of crabs. No significant differences were found in the numbers of holes (or crabs) in the sprayed vs. control plots and in the covered vs. uncovered sections. However, survival of juvenile crabs in in situ bioassays was significantly reduced (16% lower) by the spraying. Median acetylcholinesterase activity in claw muscle of red-jointed fiddler crabs (U. minax) collected 2 days after an operational spray with Abate 4E was significantly reduced (28% lower) compared to unsprayed crabs. In view of the toxicity to juvenile crabs and the cholinesterase inhibition, we recommend continued monitoring and research for non-target impacts of Abate 4E on fiddler crabs to establish whether the reported level of cholinesterase inhibition results in acute or chronic toxicity.

  5. IOC-UNEP regional workshop to review priorities for marine pollution monitoring, research, control and abatement in the wider Caribbean

    The IOC-UNEP Regional Workshop to Review Priorities for Marine Pollution Monitoring, Research, Control and Abatement in the Wider Caribbean Region (San Jose, 24-30 August 1989) examined a possible general framework for a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP programme for marine pollution assessment and control in the Wider Caribbean region (CEPPOL). The overall objective of CEPPOL is to establish a regionally co-ordinated comprehensive joint IOC/UNEP Marine Pollution Assessment and Control Programme catering to the immediate and long-term requirements of the Cartagena Convention as well as the requirements of the member States of IOCARIBE. The specific objectives of the programmes are: (i) To organize and carry out a regionally co-ordinated marine pollution monitoring and research programme concentrating on contaminants and pollutants affecting the quality of the marine and coastal environment, as well as the human health in the Wider Caribbean and to interpret/assess the results of the programme as part of the scientific basis for the region; (ii) To generate information on the sources, levels, amounts, trends and effects of marine pollution within the Wider Caribbean region as an additional component of the scientific basis upon which the formulation of proposals for preventive and remedial actions can be based; (iii) To formulate proposals for technical, administrative and legal pollution control, abatement, and preventive measures and to assist the Governments in the region in implementing and evaluating their effectiveness; and (iv) To strengthen and , when necessary, to develop/establish the capabilities of national institutions to carry out marine pollution monitoring and research, as well as to formulate and apply pollution control and abatement measures

  6. Modelaje del efecto de las trampas con abate sobre la población de aedes aegypti

    Alfredo Valera Sales; Aimara Castillo Escriba

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una investigación de modelaje, con el objetivo de estudiar los efectos sobre la población del mosquito aedes aegypti, de la incorporación de recipientes con Temephos (trampas con abate), adicionalmente a los recipientes naturales o artificiales que ellos colonizan en su hábitat; debido a que se conoce que el control del vector del dengue es aún la única medida disponible para disminuir la emergencia y transmisión de esta enfermedad viral. Se utilizó la matemática como ciencia princ...

  7. Non-thermal plasma technology for the abatement of NOx and SOx from the exhaust of marine diesel engine

    Manivannan, N; W. Balachandran; Beleca, R; Abbod, M

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma based technology is proposed to the abatement of NOx and SOx of the exhaust gas from marine diesel engine. Proposed technology uses electron gun and microwave energy to generate the plasma. Fundamentals of non-thermal plasma and chemistry are presented with a set of simulation results of the reduction of NOx and SO2 for a typical two stoke marine diesel exhaust engine which is supported by an experimental results obtained with microwave plasma. A new scheme is also propo...

  8. Science Letters:Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regenerated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  9. Aplicação da metodologia de DMAIC a uma unidade de abate : Lusiaves, S.A.

    Loureiro, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    A unidade de abate da Lusiaves apresentava uma elevada percentagem de frangos com traumatismos. Estes frangos, classificados por isso como classe B, eram rejeitados pelos clientes da empresa, originando um elevado número de devoluções. O objetivo do presente trabalho pretende reduzir em 50% as devoluções de clientes, aumentar em 10% a produtividade, reduzir em 10% as horas não produtivas e reduzir em 20% as horas de retrabalho. Para tal utilizou-se o processo Definir, Medir,...

  10. Environmental research program. 1992 annual report

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and ecological effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental and applied research in chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and ecology. The program undertakes research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollution abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group investigates combustion, atmospheric processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  11. Estimating greenhouse gas abatement potential of biomass crops in Scotland under various management options

    Bioenergy crops are one of the renewable energy options available to decarbonise the energy sector in Scotland and help to achieve the overall planned target of 80% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. A process-based model for poplar and willow developed for simulating the effect of different environmental and management options on growth and biomass yield was used to estimate the GHG abatement potential (GHG-AP) under different crop management options in Scotland. The model results of annual wood yield did not show a strong relation with any of the environmental factors except that of initial soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Increasing plant density and decreasing harvest frequency increased GHG-AP. Application of N-fertilizers at a rate of 50–100 kg N ha−1 resulted in the buildup of carbon in soils with less than 180 Mg C ha−1. However, in soils with greater SOC contents, annual emissions resulting from N fertilizer application were greater than the carbon saving through marginal increases in wood yield and SOC changes. The best management scenario in terms of economic and environmental objectives depends on identifying an optimum plant density based on the site specific conditions with a fertilizer application of 20–100 kg ha−1 y−1 and a five year harvest interval. Even under the best economic scenarios, SRC willow and poplar have a GHG-AP ranging from 9.9 to 11.6 and 8.8–10.0 Mg CO2 eq. ha−1 y−1, respectively. Under the best environmental scenarios this range increases to 10.5- 13.2 and 9–11.1 Mg CO2 eq. ha−1 y−1 for willow and poplar, respectively. -- Highlights: ► A process model for willow and poplar was used to estimate the GHG-AP in Scotland. ► Increasing plant density and decreasing harvest frequency increased GHG-AP. ► The best crop management is to use 20–100 kg N ha−1 y−1 and 5 year harvest interval. ► GHG-AP range from 8.8 to 11.6 Mg CO2 eq. ha−1 y−1 under the best economic scenarios.

  12. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  13. Comparing Tax and Tax Reallocations Payments in Financing Rail Noise Abatement Programs: Results from a CE valuation study in Italy

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Travisi, Chiara M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the use of choice experiments (CE) to assess the economic value of alternative rail noise reduction interventions on the so-called Brennero railway, Italy. The novelty of this paper is threefold. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the valuation of noise conducted in Italy and it is the first example of CE applied in the field of rail noise valuation. Second, we consider not only the economic value assessment of noise reduction but also how this reduction is achiev...

  14. Current status on the Florida Abate Monitoring program--susceptibility levels of three species of mosquitoes during 1984.

    Boike, A H; Rathburn, C B; Lang, K L; Masters, H M; Floore, T G

    1985-12-01

    During 1984, larval susceptibility tests of temephos were performed on Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex nigripalpus collected from the same general areas as in 1980-82, and the results compared to the susceptible laboratory strains. No resistance was detected against these two species. When strains of Culex quinquefasciatus from some new areas were tested against temephos, malathion, naled, fenthion and chlorpyrifos, their tolerance varied according to the insecticide tested and the origin of the strain. Some strains ranged from 1.6 to 43.0X more tolerant to temephos when compared to the West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory strain (WFARL strain). PMID:2466107

  15. Cost estimate of multi-pollutant abatement from the power sector in the Yangtze River Delta region of China

    Coal-fired power plants in China have emitted multiple pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and fine particulates, contributing to serious environmental impairments and human health issues. To meet ambient air quality standards, the installation of effective pollution control technologies are required and consequently, the cost of installing or retrofitting control technologies is an important economic and political concern. A multi-pollutant control cost model, CoST CE, is developed to calculate the cost of multi-pollutant control strategies in the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD) of China, adopting an LP algorithm to optimize the sorting of control technology costs and quickly obtain a solution. The output shows that total costs will increase along with emission abatement. Meanwhile, the slope becomes steeper as greater emission reductions are pursued, due to the need to install highly effective, but expensive, technologies like SCR and FF. Moreover, it is evident that the cost curve shapes, maximum abatement potential and total cost for the three provinces in the YRD region are quite different due to differences in power plant type and technologies, current emission levels and existing pollution controls. The results from this study can aid policy makers to develop cost-effective control strategies for the power sector

  16. Abatement cost of SF6 emissions from medium voltage switchgear. Validation of recent studies for the European Commission

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-05-15

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas with applications including use as an insulator and switching medium in medium voltage (MV) switchgear. While having certain unique properties, it is also a greenhouse gas, with a 22,800 times greater impact than CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of over 3,000 years. Although the use of SF6 in MV switchgear can be avoided, according to recent studies for the European Commission, the abatement costs are high. This study validates the calculated cost levels as well as the general feasibility of determining a fixed cost figure for this purpose. This analysis yields a result which differs from the earlier studies, particularly with respect to the cost aspect, but also in other areas. CE Delft concludes that for the majority of applications cost-effective SF6-free options are available, leading to abatement costs for the use of SF6 in MV switchgear that range from - 40 to 0 euro/tCO2 eq., for all types of switchgear, with voltage levels below 25 kV and situated on relatively dry locations.

  17. Optimizing the performance of catalytic traps for hydrocarbon abatement during the cold-start of a gasoline engine.

    Puértolas, B; Navlani-García, M; García, T; Navarro, M V; Lozano-Castelló, D; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2014-08-30

    A key target to reduce current hydrocarbon emissions from vehicular exhaust is to improve their abatement under cold-start conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of factorial analysis to design a highly efficient catalytic trap. The impact of the synthesis conditions on the preparation of copper-loaded ZSM-5 is clearly revealed by XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, NH3-TPD, SEM and TEM. A high concentration of copper nitrate precursor in the synthesis improves the removal of hydrocarbons, providing both strong adsorption sites for hydrocarbon retention at low temperature and copper oxide nanoparticles for full hydrocarbon catalytic combustion at high temperature. The use of copper acetate precursor leads to a more homogeneous dispersion of copper oxide nanoparticles also providing enough catalytic sites for the total oxidation of hydrocarbons released from the adsorption sites, although lower copper loadings are achieved. Thus, synthesis conditions leading to high copper loadings jointly with highly dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles would result in an exceptional catalytic trap able to reach superior hydrocarbon abatement under highly demanding operational conditions. PMID:25108828

  18. Demolition Range Noise Abatement Technique Demonstration and Evaluation for the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant; TOPICAL

    Public concern regarding the effects of noise generated by the detonation of excess and obsolete explosive munitions at U.S. Army demolition ranges is a continuing issue for the Army's demilitarization and disposal groups. Recent concerns of citizens living near the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) in Oklahoma have lead the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) to conduct a demonstration and evaluation of noise abatement techniques that could be applied to the MCAAP demolition range. With the support of the DAC, MCAAP, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), three types of noise abatement techniques were applied: aqueous foams, overburden (using combinations of sand beds and dirt coverings), and rubber or steel blast mats. Eight test configurations were studied and twenty-four experiments were conducted on the MCAAP demolition range in July of 2000. Instrumentation and data acquisition systems were fielded for the collection of near-field blast pressures, far-field acoustic pressures, plant boundary seismic signals, and demolition range meteorological conditions. The resulting data has been analyzed and reported, and a ranking of each technique's effects has been provided to the DAC

  19. Modelaje del efecto de las trampas con abate sobre la población de aedes aegypti

    Alfredo Valera Sales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación de modelaje, con el objetivo de estudiar los efectos sobre la población del mosquito aedes aegypti, de la incorporación de recipientes con Temephos (trampas con abate, adicionalmente a los recipientes naturales o artificiales que ellos colonizan en su hábitat; debido a que se conoce que el control del vector del dengue es aún la única medida disponible para disminuir la emergencia y transmisión de esta enfermedad viral. Se utilizó la matemática como ciencia principal para la respuesta científica. Los principales resultados indicaron que la probabilidad de sobrevivir los huevos de aedes aegypti, es inversamente proporcional al número de trampas con Temephos, debido a la letalidad de las mismas. Este porciento aumenta si se utilizan como trampas objetos preferidos por este mosquito y se usan colores o químicos que lo atraigan más. Disminuir las posibilidades de la puesta de los huevos en los tanques hogareños, contribuye a minimizar una de las desventajas del empleo de abate, la disminución de su efectividad por el recambio de agua. La incorporación de trampas de Temephos en el hábitat de estos culícidos, disminuye la población de aedes aegypti, propiciando su control o erradicación

  20. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  1. Energy recovery and abatement potential of CO2 emissions for an integrated iron and steel making enterprise

    2010-01-01

    The typical features for an integrated iron & steelmaking industry are high energy consumption and CO2 emission.The traditional BF-BOF process in an integrated Iron and steelmaking enterprise produces a large amount of residual heat and energy,which has great potential for recovery and abatement potential of CO2 emissions.In this paper,for an integrated Iron & steelmaking enterprise of 10 million tons per year in capacity,the residual heat and energy recovery analysis was conducted.It is indicateded that the residual heat and energy can be recovered as electric power by using present advanced process technology.By means of the distributed power generation,the residual heat and energy can be recovered,with a power generation capacity of 419.5 kWh per ton steel product.Accordingly,the abatement potential of CO2 emissions for an integrated iron & steel making enterprise was also evaluated,which indicated that about 398.5 kg CO2 could be reduced per ton steel product.

  2. 76 FR 18294 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Kissimmee Gateway Airport...

    2011-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review.... SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed Noise... et seq. (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and...

  3. 76 FR 72025 - Noise Compatibility Program Notice for W.M. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Compatibility Program Notice for W.M. Kellogg Airport, Battle Creek... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the City of Battle... Safety and Noise Abatement Act, herein after referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of...

  4. 78 FR 19355 - Noise Exposure Map Notice: Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice: Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Tucson... Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 CFR Part 150 are...

  5. Catalytic abatement of CO and volatile organic compounds in waste gases by gold catalysts supported on ceria-modified mesoporous titania and zirconia

    Vasko Idakiev; Dimitar Dimitrov; Tatyana Tabakova; Krasimir Ivanov; Zhong-Yong Yuan; Bao-Lian Su

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous oxides TiO2 and ZrO2, synthesized by surfactant templating via a neutral C13(EO)6–Zr(OC3H7)4 assembly pathway, and ceria‐modified TiO2 and ZrO2, prepared by a deposi‐tion–precipitation (DP) method, featuring high surface areas and uniform pore size distributions were used as supports for gold catalysts. The supported gold catalysts were assessed for the cata‐lytic abatement of air pollutants, i.e., CO, CH3OH, and (CH3)2O. The gold was supported on the mes‐oporous oxides by a DP method. The supports and catalysts were characterized by powder X‐ray diffraction, high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption analysis, and temperature‐programmed reduction technique. A high degree of synergistic interaction be‐tween ceria and mesoporous ZrO2 and TiO2 as well as a positive modification of the structural and catalytic properties by ceria was observed. The ceria additive interacts with the mesoporous oxides and induces a strong effect on the reducibility of the supports. The catalytic behavior of the catalysts was discussed to determine the role of the ceria modifying additive and possible interaction be‐tween the gold nanoparticles and ceria‐mesoporous oxide supports. The gold catalysts supported on ceria‐modified mesoporous ZrO2 displayed superior catalytic activity (~100%conversion of CO at 10 °C and CH3OH at 60 °C). The high catalytic activity can be attributed to the ability of the sup‐port to assist oxygen vacancies formation. The studies indicate that the ceria‐modified mesoporous oxide supports have potential as supports for gold‐based catalysts.

  6. Thermal analysis of K(x)/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Active catalysts for the abatement of diesel exhaust contaminants

    Milt, V.G.; Querini, C.A.; Miro, E.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica-INCAPE (FIQ, UNL-CONICET) Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2003-09-04

    Potassium loaded lanthana is a promising catalyst to be used for the abatement of diesel exhaust pollutants. In this paper we have combined several thermal techniques to study relevant processes that take place during the soot combustion reaction. Temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments show that with potassium loadings between 4.5 and 10wt.% and calcination temperatures between 400 and 700C, these catalysts mixed with soot give maximum combustion rates between 350 and 400C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicate that the reaction coexists with the thermal decomposition of bulk hydroxide species. For the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid, the La(OH){sub 3} -> LaO(OH) and LaO(OH) -> La{sub 2}O{sub 3} processes occur at circa 360 and 500C, respectively, whereas the presence of K in the K(x)/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts provokes a shift of these endothermic peaks to higher temperatures. In all the studied solids, oxycarbonates decompose in the 550-800C temperature range. On the other hand, microbalance results show that the bulk carbonate formation depends on both the potassium content and the calcination temperature. The High Frequency CO{sub 2} Pulses technique is useful to study the dynamics of the CO{sub 2} adsorption-desorption process and to characterize the surface basicity of the solids. When both La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} solids are calcined at 700C, a strong decrease on the CO{sub 2}-surface interaction takes place, which correlates with a small decrease in catalytic activity and with an increase in the K/La surface ratio. These effects may be originated, at least in part, by a decrease in oxygen vacancies concentration and a thermal dehydroxylation of the catalysts.

  7. Energy use, efficiency gains and emission abatement in transitional industrialised economies. Poland and the Baltic states

    Salay, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    with lower sulphur and ash content. Because of higher coal prices and the introduction of hard budget constraints, power plants improved their generation efficiency, which also contributed to the reduction of emissions. After 1994, the decline in SO{sub 2} emissions has continued thanks to the installation of pollution abatement equipment. The final article (Article 6) analyses the conversion of small boilers for heat production from fossil to biomass fuels. It compares the results of six boiler conversion projects in the Baltic states with seven projects in Russia and the Czech Republic. The results show that the conversions in the Baltic states reduced the fuel cost of heat production and achieved cost-effective reductions of SO{sub 2} and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It also resulted in transfer of technology and know-how, less dependence on imported fuels and the creation of local markets for biofuels 73 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Reproductive effects assessment of fish in streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    The Department of Energy has three large facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation Site, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Several Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs (BMAP) monitor and assess the effects of these facilities on the aquatic and terrestrial resources of the reservation. One BMAP task concerns the potential role of contaminant-related reproductive dysfunction in shaping the composition of fish communities in creeks draining the facilities. This task addresses specific questions concerning (1) the reproductive competence of adult fish in the streams, and (2) the capacity of fish embryos and fry to survive and develop sequent reproductive cohorts. Evidence for current or potential reproductive impacts in several of the streams include abnormal fecundity at some sites, increased incidences of oocyte atresia, and a marked toxicity of surface water samples from several stream reaches to fish embryos in periodic embryo-larval tests. Recovery of certain of the monitored streams in response to ongoing remedial actions is documented by positive changes over time in many these indicators of reproductive dysfunction. These results suggest that the monitoring of reproductive indicators can be a sensitive tool for assessing the effects of both industrial discharges and remedial activities on the fish resources of receiving streams

  9. Environmental Research Program. 1994 annual report

    Brown, N.J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multi-disciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally-benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  10. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  11. Mercury abatement report on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant for fiscal year 1995

    This Annual Mercury Abatement Report for fiscal year 1995 summarizes the status of activities and the levels of mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulting from activities at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The report outlines the status of the on-going project activities in support of project compliance, the results of the ongoing sampling and characterization efforts, the biological monitoring activities, and our conclusions relative to the progress in demonstrating compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit. Overall, the pace of mercury activities at the Y-12 Plant is ahead of the compliance schedules in the NPDES permit and new and exciting opportunities are being recognized for achieving additional mercury reductions. These opportunities were not felt to be achievable several years ago

  12. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis: From Unselective Abatement of Noxious Species to Selective Production of High-Value Chemicals.

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Giovanni; Palmisano, Leonardo; Soria, Javier; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2015-05-21

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have been considered as oxidation technologies to abate unselectively noxious species. This article focuses instead on the utilization of these methods for selective syntheses of organic molecules. Some promising reactions have been reported in the presence of various TiO2 samples and the important role played by the amorphous phase has been discussed. The low solubility of most of the organic compounds in water limits the utilization of photocatalysis. Dimethyl carbonate has been proposed as an alternative green organic solvent. The recovery of the products by coupling photocatalysis with pervaporation membrane technology seems to be a solution for future industrial applications. As far as photoelectrocatalysis is concerned, a decrease in recombination of the photogenerated pairs occurs, enhancing the rate of the oxidation reactions and the quantum yield. Another benefit is to avoid reaction(s) between the intermediates and the substrate, as anodic and cathodic reactions take place in different places. PMID:26263277

  13. Carbon dioxide abatement in an empirical model of the Indian economy: an integration of micro and macro analysis

    Global warming and associated climate change are the likely results of an enhanced greenhouse effect due to excessive emission of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest contributor to the greenhouse effect. The costs of stabilising or reducing CO2 emissions are estimated by two types of models. Macro models based on aggregate macroeconomic relationships, study the macroeconomic impacts of and responses to different policies. These overestimate costs as technological responses are not adequately modelled. Micro models contain the necessary technical information to assess the abatement potential, but exclude indirect costs. In this study, a methodology for integrating the two approaches for developing countries is proposed and illustrated for India. The problems associated with modelling developing economies are recognized in the integrated model proposed. (Author)

  14. Abatement of morphine-induced slowing in gastrointestinal transit by Dai-kenchu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine.

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Sakai, Akiko; Isogami, Issei; Noda, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Koichi; Yano, Shingo

    2002-02-01

    As a way of alleviating severe constipation in cancer patients taking morphine to relieve pain, effects of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), on gastrointestinal transit in mice or on the isolated guinea pig ileum were studied in special reference to morphine. Without altering the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine, DKT was significantly effective against morphine-induced disorder of gastrointestinal transit in mice as assessed by the charcoal meal test for the intestine and measurement of transit time for the colon tract. The results of in vitro studies with guinea pig ileum suggest that abatement of morphine-induced disorder of transit by DKT is caused by both moderate contraction of morphine-treated longitudinal muscle and relaxation of morphine-induced tonic contraction of circular muscle. PMID:11928724

  15. Reaping the carbon rent: Abatement and overallocation profits in the European cement industry, insights from an LMDI decomposition analysis

    We analyse variations of carbon emissions in the European cement industry from 1990 to 2012, at the European level (EU 27), and at the national level for six major producers (Germany, France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy and Poland). We apply a Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, cross-referencing data from three databases: the Getting the Numbers Right (GNR) database developed by the Cement Sustainability Initiative, the European Union Transaction Log (EUTL), and the Eurostat International Trade database. Our decomposition method allows seven channels of emission change to be distinguished: activity, clinker trade, clinker share, alternative fuels, thermal and electrical energy efficiency, and electricity decarbonisation. We find that, apart from a slow trend of emission reductions coming from technological improvements (first from a decrease in the clinker share, then from an increase in alternative fuels), most of the emission change can be attributed to the activity effect. Using counterfactual scenarios, we estimate that the introduction of the EU ETS brought small but positive technological abatement (2.2% ± 1.3% between 2005 and 2012). Moreover, we find that the European cement industry has gained 3.5 billion Euros of “overallocation profits”, mostly due to the slowdown of production. - Highlights: • We analyse variations of carbon emissions in the European cement industry. • We apply a Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. • Most of the emission changes can be attributed to the activity effect. • The EU ETS brought small but positive technological abatement. • The European cement industry has gained 3.5 billion Euros of “overallocation profits”

  16. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  17. Manejo pré-abate de ovelhas de descarte: perdas de peso corporal, qualidade da carne e comportamento animal

    R.S.B. Pinheiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo conhecer o comportamento de ovelhas da raça Santa Inês em diferentes estágios fisiológicos durante o manejo pré-abate, assim como a perda de peso corporal, valores de hematócrito do sangue das mesmas e a qualidade da carne. Utilizaram-se 21 ovelhas de descarte, que foram distribuídas nos respectivos tratamentos: T1 = ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em lactação com seus respectivos cordeiros e abatidas um dia após o desmame dos mesmos; T2 = ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em lactação com seus respectivos cordeiros e mais um período aproximado de 30 dias sem os cordeiros e posteriormente foram abatidas; e T3 = ovelhas que permaneceram por 60 dias em confinamento e que não pariram durante o ano. O peso das ovelhas após o transporte foi menor para as do tratamento 1 em comparação às do tratamento 2. Os valores de hematócrito no sangue das ovelhas antes do transporte, após o mesmo e após o jejum dos animais no curral de espera não diferiram entre si, com valor médio de 58,50%. Concluiu-se que a qualidade da carne proveniente de ovelhas de descarte em diferentes estágios fisiológicos não é alterada pelo manejo pré-abate, quando realizado de maneira correta (evitando o estresse animal, quanto ao pH da carne.

  18. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural soils are contaminated with mainly cadmium. We use Life Cycle Analysis to show for the most relevant crops (willow (Salix spp), energy maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus)), that phytoremediation, used for renewable energy production, could abate CO2. Converting this in economic numbers through the Marginal Abatement Cost of CO2 (€ 20 ton−1) we can integrate this in the economic analysis to compare phytoremediation crops among each other, and phytoremediation with conventional technologies. The external benefit of CO2 abatement when using phytoremediation crops for land management ranges between € 55 and € 501 per hectare. The purpose of these calculations is not to calculate a subsidy for phytoremediation. There is no reason why one would prefer phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production over “normal” biomass. Moreover, subsidies for renewable energy already exist. Therefore, we should not integrate these numbers in the economic analysis again. However, these numbers could contribute to making explicit the competitive advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation technologies, but also add to a more sustainably funded decision on which crop should be grown on contaminated land. -- Highlights: ► We add CO2 abatement for each remediation crop to the private economic analysis. ► This values the advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation. ► This leads to a crop choice that considers an important

  19. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement, economic assessment and conclusions

    In part I we described the gasification technology and characterised the physio-chemical properties and environmental impacts of the rice husk char (RHC) by-product. In part II we present summary results from field trials using the RHC, and provide an estimate of the carbon abatement and economic evaluation of the system. Statistically significant yield increases are demonstrated for RHC addition in irrigated rice cultivation (33% increase in paddy rice yield for a 41.5 t (dry weight) RHC application per hectare). The carbon abatement from the RHC addition is approximately 0.42 t CO2 t−1 rice husk; including energy generation from gasification this increases to ca. 0.86 tCO2 t−1. Assuming a carbon value of $5 t CO2 t−1, and agronomic value of $3 t−1 RHC based on the field trials, the economic value of the RHC varies from $9 t−1 (including only recalcitrant carbon) to $15 t−1 (including avoided emissions from energy production). We summarise results from parts I and II, concluding that the gasification–biochar system meets many of the criteria of sustainability, but requires better waste water management and more field trials to demonstrate repeatable agronomic efficacy of RHC application. - Highlights: ► Field trials show statistically significant rice yield increases using rice husk char (RHC). ► Carbon abatement of 0.42 t CO2 t−1 rice husk from RHC production. ► Bioenergy generation via gasification gives carbon abatement of 0.44 t CO2 t−1 husk. ► Total carbon abatement is therefore ca. 0.86 t CO2 t−1 husk. ► Agronomic value from trials is $3 t−1 char; assuming $5 CO2 t−1, the total value of RHC is $9–$15 t−1.

  20. Impact of electric range and fossil fuel price level on the economics of plug-in hybrid vehicles and greenhouse gas abatement costs

    In this paper, the energy consumption shares of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) for electricity from the grid and conventional fuel depending on electric driving range are estimated. The resulting mobility costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs per vehicle kilometer for the year 2030 are calculated and optimal electric driving range (which indicates the size of the battery) is found for different oil price levels with the help of a MATLAB based model for a typical compact passenger car (e.g. VW Golf). The results show that the optimum electric driving range for minimum mobility costs of a PHEV is between 12 and 32 km. Furthermore, optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with an electric driving range between 16 and 23 km. These results are considerable lower than most market ready PHEVs (electric driving range of 50 to 100 km), which shows that the automobile industry should concentrate on shorter electric driving range for PHEVs in the near future to offer cost optimum mobility and low GHG abatement costs. However, the oil price level and the consumer driving habits impact heavily on the cost performance as well as the optimum electric driving range of plug-in hybrid vehicles. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption (and share of grid electricity) of plug-in hybrid vehicles. ► We analyzed the mobility costs and GHG abatement costs depending on electric driving range. ► Mobility costs of plug-in hybrid vehicles can be lower than those of conventional diesel vehicles in 2030. ► The optimum mobility costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 12 and 32 km. ► The optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 16 and 23 km.

  1. 78 FR 78469 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Martin County Airport/Witham Field...

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Martin.... SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed Noise.... 47504 et. seq (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'')...

  2. 78 FR 77548 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review Seattle...

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the Port of Seattle for the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et. seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 8685 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review: Tweed...

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... determination that the noise exposure map for Tweed New Haven Regional Airport, as submitted by the Tweed New Haven Airport Authority under the provisions of Title I of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement...

  4. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  5. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow's XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas' Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies

  6. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

  7. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R; Van Passel, S.; Van Slycken, S; Weyens, N; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Vanheusden, B.; Vangronsveld, J

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural s...

  8. Exploring a decision framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness and utility of CO2 abatement measures in shipping : A methodology applied to the cast fleet of Grieg Shipping Group

    Girard, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Selecting greenhouse gas abatement measures for a specific fleet of ships is not an easy task and many factors are to be considered by ship operators. Current methodologies for assessing measures are based on cost-effectiveness evaluations. The main aim of this paper is to explore new ways to evaluate and select greenhouse gas abatement measures in shipping. To address this, a case study regarding the open hatch bulk fleet of Grieg Shipping Group is presented in order to illustrate the decisi...

  9. Investigation of nitrous oxide (N2O) abatement technologies. 2; Asanka chisso (N2O) no teigen taisaku ni kansuru chosa. 2

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Emission amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) from anthropogenic sources is analyzed, and reduction effects by the abatement technologies are evaluated. The concentration of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere continues to increase and emissions from agricultural and ecosystem sources are drawing particular attention. For the emission of N2O in Japan, 8.28 Gg-N2O per year is emitted from fossil fuel combustion facilities, 6.95 from waste incineration facilities, 22.5 from transportation vehicles including automobiles, 26.7 from the chemical industry including establishments engaged in adipic acid production, 2.1 from sewage treatment facilities including septic tanks, 6.3 from farmland, and 7.1 from livestock excrement. For the N2O abatement technologies for different sources, fuel improvement, high temperature combustion, acceleration of reduction decomposition reaction, and development of catalysts are significant for the combustion technologies. In connection with N2O discharged in the process of adipic acid production, major businesses have internationally committed to up to 99% abatement of the N2O emissions by 1998. With regard to wastewater and sewage treatment facilities and septic tanks, improvement in COD/NO-N ratio, retention period, pH level, and reduction process is pointed out. 204 refs., 70 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. Power and cogeneration technology environomic performance typification in the context of CO2 abatement part I: Power generation

    In this series of two articles, the concepts and approaches of environomic (thermodynamic, economic and environmental) performance 'Typification' of power generation technologies (Part I) and of combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration technologies (Part II) in the context of CO2 abatement are introduced. A methodology is then proposed for a flexible and fast project based power or CHP cogeneration system design evaluation though post-optimization integration of the operating and capital costs. This allows to effectively deal with the uncertainty of the project specific design and operation conditions (fuel, electricity and heat selling prices, project financial conditions such as investment amortization periods, annual operating hours, etc). Furthermore, the uncertainties linked to the external cost such as the CO2 tax level under a tax scheme or the CO2 permit price in the emission trading market can be assessed. Application examples, including gas turbine and combined cycles are treated with the proposed methodology, by using the superstructure based generic environomic models and a multi-objective optimizer. Furthermore an extension of the methodology using statistical approach is also presented and illustrated with different generation technologies.

  11. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  12. Evaluation of road traffic noise abatement by vegetation treatment in a 1:10 urban scale model.

    Jang, Hyung Suk; Lee, Sung Chan; Jeon, Jin Yong; Kang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A 1:10 scale of a street canyon and courtyard was constructed to evaluate sound propagation when various vegetation treatments including trees, shrubs, vegetated facades, and green roofs were installed in the urban environment. Noise reductions in the street canyon and courtyard were measured for both single and combined vegetation treatments. Vegetated facades mitigated the overall noise level up to 1.6 dBA in the street canyon, and greening facades were effective to reduce low frequency noise levels below 1 kHz. Trees increased the noise level at high frequency bands to some extent in the street canyon, while the noise level over 1 kHz decreased in the courtyard after installing the street trees. This is because tree crowns diffused and reflected high frequency sounds into the street canyon. Green roofs offered significant noise abatement over 1 kHz in the courtyard, while the vegetated facade was effective to reduce noise levels at low frequencies. In terms of the integrated effects of vegetation treatments, a combined vegetation treatment was less effective than the sum of single treatments in the street canyon. The maximum noise reduction observed for all combinations of vegetation treatments provided 3.4 dBA of insertion loss in the courtyard. PMID:26723343

  13. Photocatalytic NOx abatement by calcium aluminate cements modified with TiO2: Improved NO2 conversion

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was studied in two types of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) under two different curing regimes. The effect of the TiO2 addition on the setting time, consistency and mechanical properties of the CACs was evaluated. The abatement of gaseous pollutants (NOx) under UV irradiation was also assessed. These cementitious matrices were found to successfully retain NO2: more abundant presence of aluminates in white cement (w-CAC, iron-lean) helped to better adsorb NO2, thus improving the conversion performance of the catalyst resulting in a larger NOx removal under UV irradiation. As evidenced by XRD, SEM, EDAX and zeta potential analyses, the presence of ferrite in dark cement (d-CAC, iron-reach) induced a certain chemical interaction with TiO2. The experimental findings suggest the formation of new iron titanate phases, namely pseudobrookite. The reduced band-gap energy of these compounds compared with that of TiO2 accounts for the photocatalytic activity of these samples

  14. Life cycle of meats: an opportunity to abate the greenhouse gas emission from meat industry in Japan.

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Thammawong, Manasikan; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Xu, Qingyi; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is one of the world's largest industrial sectors, hence a large contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. This study evaluates the life cycle of various types of meat to determine if the GHG emission from the meat industry in Japan could be reduced if the population makes different dietary choices. It was confirmed that the GHG emission of beef was greater than that of pork or chicken. The GHG emission from meat in general also depends on the per capita caloric intake (if meat supplies the recommended animal protein or contributes to it at the present rate). In a healthy and balanced diet (9.2 MJ i.e., 2200 kcal in total, where either mixed meat or chicken or pork or beef contributes 2.2%), the GHG emission is estimated to be 0.28 or 0.17 or 0.15 or 0.77 kg CO₂ eq/person/day, respectively. A change in consumption patterns (from beef to chicken or pork) and the adoption of a healthy and balanced diet would help to abate about 2.5-54.0 million tons (CO₂ eq) produced by the meat industry each year in Japan. PMID:22054588

  15. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  16. Silent discharge plasma for point-of-use abatement of VOC emissions. Final report ESHCOO3(b)

    Coogan, J.J.; Jassal, A.

    1997-02-14

    Los Alamos and SEMATECH have evaluated a silent discharge plasma (SDP) device for point-of-use (POU) control of specific semiconductor VOC emissions at the source. Destruction efficiencies were initially determined at the bench scale using controlled gas mixtures and system performance was measured for simulated emissions containing a variety of volatile organic compounds (including HMDS) and PFCs. Based on this work, a field-pilot unit was designed and tested at a SEMATECH member site using two slip-streams: (1) PGMEA and HMDS gas mixture from lithography tools and the, (2) acetone, PCE and methanol from a wet bench cleaning tool. Based on the pilot test data, CoO estimates for the SDP technology show annual operating expenses (including amortized capital and installation costs, maintenance, and utilities) are $8.3K for a single 250 scfm lithotrack tool. End-of-pipe (EOP) system costs are $33.3K per 1000 scfm as compared to about $22K per 1000 scfm for a typical EOP concentrator/thermal abatement system. LANL does not recommend replacing existing EOP systems with SDP. However SDP could be easily installed in {open_quotes}niche{close_quotes} circumstances for POU control of VOCs from lithotrack tools.

  17. When we don't know the costs or the benefits: adaptive strategies for abating climate change

    Most quantitative studies of climate-change policy attempt to predict the greenhouse-gas reduction plan that will have the optimum balance of long-term costs and benefits. The authors find that the large uncertainties associated with the climate-change problem can make the policy prescriptions of this traditional approach unreliable. In this study the authors construct a large uncertainty space that includes the possibility of large and/or abrupt climate changes and/or of technology breakthroughs that radically reduce projected abatement costs. Computational experiments are used on a linked system of climate and economic models to compare the performance of a simple adaptive strategy - one that can make midcourse corrections based on observations of the climate and economic systems - and two commonly advocated 'best-estimate' policies based on different expectations about the long-term consequences of climate change. It was found that the 'Do-a-Little' and 'Emissions-Stabilization' best-estimate policies perform well in the respective regions of the uncertainty space where their estimates are valid, but can fail severely in those regions where their estimates are wrong. In contrast, the adaptive strategy can make midcourse corrections and avoid significant errors. While its success is no surprise, the adaptive-strategy approach provides an analytic framework to examine important policy and research issues that will likely arise as society adapts to climate change, which cannot be easily addressed in studies using best-estimate approaches. 44 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Single and Coupled Electrochemical Processes and Reactors for the Abatement of Organic Water Pollutants: A Critical Review.

    Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sirés, Ignasi; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2015-12-23

    Traditional physicochemical and biological techniques, as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are often inadequate, ineffective, or expensive for industrial water reclamation. Within this context, the electrochemical technologies have found a niche where they can become dominant in the near future, especially for the abatement of biorefractory substances. In this critical review, some of the most promising electrochemical tools for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants are discussed in detail with the following goals: (1) to present the fundamental aspects of the selected processes; (2) to discuss the effect of both the main operating parameters and the reactor design on their performance; (3) to critically evaluate their advantages and disadvantages; and (4) to forecast the prospect of their utilization on an applicable scale by identifying the key points to be further investigated. The review is focused on the direct electrochemical oxidation, the indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by electrogenerated active chlorine, and the coupling between anodic and cathodic processes. The last part of the review is devoted to the critical assessment of the reactors that can be used to put these technologies into practice. PMID:26654466

  19. Role of technology transfer in abating greenhouse gas emissions: the case of Sri Lanka

    Gnanalingam, K.; Siyambalapitiya, T. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    1994-12-31

    Measures introduced by the Sri Lanka government to reduce energy consumption are outlined. These include introduction of improved cookstoves, promotion of gas use in place of electricity, introduction of efficient lighting, energy management programs in industry, and research into more appropriate agricultural machinery. Self-reliance in energy planning is advocated. Foreign expertise may be needed to initiate a process but emphasis is put on eventual transition to national staffing. The article outlines Sri Lanka`s foreign investment policy. It then describes the efforts made so far to improve the efficiency of lighting systems in households, together with details of costs and benefits of a possible state sponsored or private sector funded popularization programme for efficient lighting systems. 1 fig.

  20. Organic Contaminant Abatement in Reclaimed Water by UV/H2O2 and a Combined Process Consisting of O3/H2O2 Followed by UV/H2O2: Prediction of Abatement Efficiency, Energy Consumption, and Byproduct Formation.

    Lee, Yunho; Gerrity, Daniel; Lee, Minju; Gamage, Sujanie; Pisarenko, Aleksey; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Canonica, Silvio; Snyder, Shane A; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-01

    UV/H2O2 processes can be applied to improve the quality of effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants by attenuating trace organic contaminants (micropollutants). This study presents a kinetic model based on UV photolysis parameters, including UV absorption rate and quantum yield, and hydroxyl radical (·OH) oxidation parameters, including second-order rate constants for ·OH reactions and steady-state ·OH concentrations, that can be used to predict micropollutant abatement in wastewater. The UV/H2O2 kinetic model successfully predicted the abatement efficiencies of 16 target micropollutants in bench-scale UV and UV/H2O2 experiments in 10 secondary wastewater effluents. The model was then used to calculate the electric energies required to achieve specific levels of micropollutant abatement in several advanced wastewater treatment scenarios using various combinations of ozone, UV, and H2O2. UV/H2O2 is more energy-intensive than ozonation for abatement of most micropollutants. Nevertheless, UV/H2O2 is not limited by the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and bromate whereas ozonation may produce significant concentrations of these oxidation byproducts, as observed in some of the tested wastewater effluents. The combined process of O3/H2O2 followed by UV/H2O2, which may be warranted in some potable reuse applications, can achieve superior micropollutant abatement with reduced energy consumption compared to UV/H2O2 and reduced oxidation byproduct formation (i.e., NDMA and/or bromate) compared to conventional ozonation. PMID:26909504

  1. Response of PCB contamination in stream fish to abatement actions at an industrial site

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, used large quantities of PCBs in equipment associated with the great electric power requirements of isotopic enrichment of uranium. Historic losses of PCBs in the 1950s and 1960s have left a legacy of contamination at the site. A biological monitoring program implemented in 1987 found PCBs in PGDP effluents and in fish downstream from facility discharges. As a consequence, a fish consumption advisory was posted on Little Bayou Creek by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1987, and regulatory discharge limits for PCBs at PGDP were reduced. Monitoring at multiple locations in receiving streams indicated that PGDP discharges were more important than in stream sediment contamination as sources of PCBs to fish. Environmental management and compliance staff at PGDP led an effort to reduce PCB discharges and monitor the effects of those actions. The active discharge of uncontaminated process water to historically PCB-contaminated drainage systems was found to mobilize PCBs into KPDES (Clean Water Act) regulated effluents. Efforts to locate PCB sources within the plant, coupled with improvements in management practices and remedial actions, appear to have been successful in reducing PCB discharges from these sources. Actions included emplacing passive monitors in the plant drainage system to identify this as a chronic source, and consolidating and re-routing effluents to minimize flow through PCB-contaminated channels. As a consequence, PCB contamination in fish in small streams receiving plant discharges decreased 75% over from 1992--1995

  2. An evaluation of the effect of greenhouse gas accounting methods on a marginal abatement cost curve for Irish agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    Highlights: • Improving productivity was the most effective strategy to reduce emissions and costs. • The accounting methods disagreed on the total abatement potential of mitigation measures. • Thus, it may be difficult to convince farmers to adopt certain abatement measures. • Domestic offsetting and consumption based accounting are options to overcome current methodological issues. - Abstract: Marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis allows the evaluation of strategies to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to some reference scenario and encompasses their costs or benefits. A popular approach to quantify the potential to abate national agricultural emissions is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines for national GHG inventories (IPCC-NI method). This methodology is the standard for assessing compliance with binding national GHG reduction targets and uses a sector based framework to attribute emissions. There is however an alternative to the IPCC-NI method, known as life cycle assessment (LCA), which is the preferred method to assess the GHG intensity of food production (kg of GHG/unit of food). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of using the IPCC-NI and LCA methodologies when completing a MACC analysis of national agricultural GHG emissions. The MACC was applied to the Irish agricultural sector and mitigation measures were only constrained by the biophysical environment. The reference scenario chosen assumed that the 2020 growth targets set by the Irish agricultural industry would be achieved. The comparison of methodologies showed that only 1.1 Mt of the annual GHG abatement potential that can be achieved at zero or negative cost could be attributed to agricultural sector using the IPCC-NI method, which was only 44% of the zero or negative cost abatement potential attributed to the sector using the LCA method. The difference between methodologies was because the IPCC-NI method attributes the

  3. Ethyl Acetate Abatement on Copper Catalysts Supported on Ceria Doped with Rare Earth Oxides.

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia; Konsolakis, Michalis; Marnellos, George Emmanouil-Nontas; Asad, Muhammad Faizan; Soares, Olívia Salomé Gonçalves Pinto; Tavares, Pedro Bandeira; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Órfão, José Joaquim de Melo; Figueiredo, José Luís

    2016-01-01

    Different lanthanide (Ln)-doped cerium oxides (Ce0.5Ln0.5O1.75, where Ln: Gd, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were loaded with Cu (20 wt. %) and used as catalysts for the oxidation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), a common volatile organic compound (VOC). For comparison, both Cu-free (Ce-Ln) and supported Cu (Cu/Ce-Ln) samples were characterized by N₂ adsorption at -196 °C, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction in H₂. The following activity sequence, in terms of EtOAc conversion, was found for bare supports: CeO₂ ≈ Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Gd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5La0.5O1.75. Cu addition improved the catalytic performance, without affecting the activity order. The best catalytic performance was obtained for Cu/CeO₂ and Cu/Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 samples, both achieving complete EtOAc conversion below ca. 290 °C. A strong correlation was revealed between the catalytic performance and the redox properties of the samples, in terms of reducibility and lattice oxygen availability. Νo particular correlation between the VOC oxidation performance and textural characteristics was found. The obtained results can be explained in terms of a Mars-van Krevelen type redox mechanism involving the participation of weakly bound (easily reduced) lattice oxygen and its consequent replenishment by gas phase oxygen. PMID:27196886

  4. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Christensen, Sigurd W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  5. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo,Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; GAD, ADEL M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discu...

  6. Pollutant removal from industrial discharge water using individual and combined effects of adsorption and ion-exchange processes: Chemical abatement

    Jérémie Charles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorption-oriented processes for pollutant removal from metal polycontaminated surface-finishing discharge water were applied individually as well as in combination with ion-exchange treatment to remove the remaining metal ions and organic load. Several materials were compared using batch experiments, namely an activated carbon, three ion-exchange resins (IRA 402Cl, IR 120H and TP 207, and two non-conventional cross-linked polysaccharide-based biosorbents (starch and cyclodextrin. This article presents the abatements obtained in chemical pollution as monitored by complete chemical analysis. For the same experimental conditions (similar discharge water, pollutant concentrations, stirring rate, contact time, and initial pH, the highest levels of pollutant removal were attained with the combined use of two materials, an activated carbon and a mixture of two ion-exchange resins. This physicochemical treatment effectively lowered the main pollutants present in the discharge water such as Cu, Ni and COD, by more than 96%, 79% and 74% respectively (average values for three samples, while the treatment with carbon alone lowered them by 58%, 9% and 70%, and resins alone by 85%, 61% and 16%. Similar interesting results were obtained with the cyclodextrin-based adsorbent and its use alone was sufficient to obtain decreases in Cu, Ni and COD of more than 94%, 77% and 67% respectively. The adsorption-oriented process using cyclodextrin polymer could be an advantageous approach for removing organic and metallic pollutants from metal surface-finishing discharge water due to the non-toxic character of CD to humans and the environment.

  7. Acid mine drainage abatement from small, buried piles of tipple refuse using fluidized bed fly ash grout

    Buried, pyrite-rich tipple refuse and pit cleanings on a reclaimed 37 acre surface coal mine site in Pennsylvania were found to be producing severe acid mine drainage (AMD). The pyritic material is located in discrete piles or pods in the backfill. The pods and the resulting contaminant plumes were initially defined using geophysical techniques and were confirmed by drilling. A fluidized bed combustion (FBC) fly ash was used as a grout in two different ways to isolate the pyritic material from water and oxygen, thus preventing AMD production. The first was pressure injecting grout directly into the buried pods to fill the void spaces within the pods and to coat the pyritic materials with a cementitious layer. Pods which would not accept the grout because of a clayey matrix were isolated from percolating water with a cap and trench seal of the grout. In certain areas, the AMD migrates to the groundwater table below the mine through fractures in the pit floor. The FBC ash grout was used in some of these areas in an attempt to seal the pit floor. A combination of geophysical mapping and monitoring wells is being used to monitor changes in the water quality. Minimal surface disturbance is required because only the sources of severe AMD production were targeted with the grout applications. Reduced costs are also possible since the FBC ash is a waste product. This methodology is designed as a true abatement technique requiring no future maintenance. The project was nearing completion at the time of this writing. This paper is an interim report

  8. Energy conservation, an economically beneficial air pollution abatement measure. Final report; Energiesparen - Klimaschutz, der sich rechnet. Endbericht

    Ostertag, K.; Jochem, E.; Schleich, J.; Walz, R.; Krenicky, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kohlhaas, M.; Diekmann, J.; Ziesing, H.J. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Strebel, H. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Australia). Inst. fuer Innovationsmanagement

    1998-11-01

    The book intends to put the discussion of economic effects of air pollution abatement and energy efficiency increasing measures on a more rational basis. It addresses all parties taking part in the political discussion. ARguments are presented in a clear and transparent form that will also help the layman. The reader is enabled to interpret data and analyze them critically. A very important basis is the recognition of the various decision making patterns in which the cost and benefits of energy efficiency increasing patterns are key arguments. [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Argumentationshilfe ist es, die Diskussion um die wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von Klimaschutzmassnahmen, und insbesondere von energieeffizienzsteigernden Massnahmen, zu versachlichen und transparent zu machen. Sie richtet sich insbesondere an Politiker, aber auch an Vertreter von Wirtschaftsverbaenden und anderen Nicht-Regierungsorganisationen, die an dieser politischen Diskussion teilnehmen. Insofern wurde besonderes Gewicht auf eine einfache, klare und anschauliche Argumentation gelegt, die auch fuer betriebs- oder volkswirtschaftliche Laien verstaendlich ist. Die Argumentationshilfe versetzt den Leser in die Lage, die Zahlenangaben zur wirtschaftlichen Bewertung von Massnahmen zur Energieeinsparung zu interpretieren und ihre Herleitung kritisch zu bewerten. Eine erste wichtige Grundlage dafuer ist das Erkennen der verschiedenen Entscheidungszusammenhaenge, in denen mit Kosten und Nutzen von energieeffizienzsteigernden Massnahmen argumentiert wird. Nach einer kurzen Beschreibung und Abgrenzung dieser verschiedenen Argumentationsebenen im Ueberblick (Abschnitt 2) werden anschliessend fuer jede Ebene (Abschnitt 3 bis 5) die zentralen Einflussparameter aufgezeigt, die bestimmen, ob eine eher positive oder eher negative wirtschaftliche Bewertung von Massnahmen zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz ausgewiesen wird und in welcher Groessenordnung sich die Werte bewegen. Die Annahmen, die in die

  9. CO2 emissions abatement in the Nordic carbon-intensive industry – An end-game in sight?

    Analysing different future trajectories of technological developments we assess the prospects for Nordic carbon-intensive industries to significantly reduce direct CO2 emissions in the period 2010–2050. This analysis covers petroleum refining, integrated iron and steel production, and cement manufacturing in the four largest Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Our results show that the implementation of currently available abatement measures will not be enough to meet the ambitious emissions reduction targets envisaged for the Year 2050. We show how an extensive deployment of CCS (carbon capture and storage) could result in emissions reductions that are in line with such targets. However, large-scale introduction of CCS would come at a significant price in terms of energy use and the associated flows of captured CO2 would place high requirements on timely planning of infrastructure for the transportation and storage of CO2. Further the assessment highlights the importance of, especially in the absence of successful deployment of CO2 capture, encouraging increased use of biomass in the cement and integrated iron and steel industries, and of promoting the utilisation of alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing to complement efforts to improve energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Scenarios exploring the potential for reducing CO2 emissions in Nordic industry. • Current measures not sufficient to comply with stringent emission reduction targets. • CCS enables carbon-intensive industries to comply with stringent reduction targets. • CCS would come at a high price in terms of energy use. • Without CO2 capture increased use of biomass and alternative raw materials vital

  10. Evaluating environmental policies under uncertainty through application of robust nonlinear programming

    Doole, Graeme; Pannell, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policy evaluation is characterised by a paucity of information. The novel technique of robust mathematical programming is introduced as a means to proactively account for this uncertainty in policy analysis. The procedure allows identification of expected bounds on the range of abatement costs associated with environmental policy. It also has the advantage of not limiting conclusions to realisations of specific point estimates or probability distributions. Empirical insights are...

  11. National energy cost optimization and project implementation: Two different worlds?. Discussion paper in the framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies

    One of the main targets of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study is combining the techno-economic and purely economic modelling approaches into one overall modelling methodology for greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. This type of models can be categorized as bottom-up models, since technology data on a very detailed level result in costs and emissions on a national level. In contrast with, but not necessarily in conflict with these models, macro-economists rely in general on macro-economic models which derive economic projections from aggregated national and sectorial economic data. These so called top-down models describe the complete national economy. Therefore the energy sector is modelled in a very aggregated way. Since the micro-economic and techno-economic approaches can be classified both as bottom-up approaches, it could be expected that mutual understanding exists. However, this is not true for all issues in this field. Techno-economical views and micro-economic views differ for instance on the implementation of options. This topic drew attention during the UNEP study, next to other items as techno-economic and macro-economic model assessments of the costs of CO2 abatement. One of the most important implementation issues is the so-called negative cost (benefit) potential of energy saving options, which exists in the techno-economic view at this very moment, but which is not implemented yet. In the view of micro-economic analysis this potential does not exist, since options which are profitable would have been implemented according to presently adopted cost-benefit theory. Several aspects of this controversy have been discussed extensively elsewhere. In this paper the two visions are summarized and it is discussed whether it is fruitful to combine techno-economic and micro-economic approaches in an overall methodological framework. 1 tabs., 8 refs

  12. Nitrogen-modified nano-titania: True phase composition, microstructure and visible-light induced photocatalytic NOx abatement

    Tobaldi, D. M.; Pullar, R. C.; Gualtieri, A. F.; Otero-Irurueta, G.; Singh, M. K.; Seabra, M. P.; Labrincha, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a popular photocatalyst used for many environmental and anti-pollution applications, but it normally operates under UV light, exploiting ∼5% of the solar spectrum. Nitrification of titania to form N-doped TiO2 has been explored as a way to increase its photocatalytic activity under visible light, and anionic doping is a promising method to enable TiO2 to harvest visible-light by changing its photo-absorption properties. In this paper, we explore the insertion of nitrogen into the TiO2 lattice using our green sol-gel nanosynthesis method, used to create 10 nm TiO2 NPs. Two parallel routes were studied to produce nitrogen-modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), using HNO3+NH3 (acid-precipitated base-peptised) and NH4OH (totally base catalysed) as nitrogen sources. These NPs were thermally treated between 450 and 800 °C. Their true phase composition (crystalline and amorphous phases), as well as their micro-/nanostructure (crystalline domain shape, size and size distribution, edge and screw dislocation density) was fully characterised through advanced X-ray methods (Rietveld-reference intensity ratio, RIR, and whole powder pattern modelling, WPPM). As pollutants, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are of particular concern for human health, so the photocatalytic activity of the NPs was assessed by monitoring NOx abatement, using both solar and white-light (indoor artificial lighting), simulating outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Results showed that the onset of the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation (ART) occurred at temperatures above 450 °C, and NPs heated to 450 °C possessed excellent photocatalytic activity (PCA) under visible white-light (indoor artificial lighting), with a PCA double than that of the standard P25 TiO2 NPs. However, higher thermal treatment temperatures were found to be detrimental for visible-light photocatalytic activity, due to the effects of four simultaneous occurrences: (i) loss of OH groups and water adsorbed

  13. Optimal strategies for the abatement of gaseous air pollutant emissions produced by human mobility. The Rome case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di inquinanti gassosi prodotte dalla mobilita' urbana. Un'applicazione al caso di Roma

    Santostefano, S.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness of gaseous vehicular emission reduction has been carried out for human mobility, over the transport network in Rome: in other words, once a reduction target of total emissions has been fixed for each pollutant, the most efficient abatement measures from a technical-economic point of view are selected. The optimization problem has been formalized considering linear functions both for the objective function and for constrains, i.e. within the classic linear programming framework, the objective being that of finding the diversion of present vehicular traffic to alternative technologies with lower emissions at minimum costs. A set of transport alternative measures has been considered and emission abatement cost minimization has been assumed as an objective function; specified abatements for CO (Carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions have been introduced as constraints to the problem, expressed as reduction rates of estimated present emissions in the considered area. Model results show the distribution of present transportation capacity among possible alternatives for different hypothesis of emission reduction rates (reduction of 25%, 50%, 75%, 85% of present emissions and maximum feasible reduction within the specified constraints), and related costs. [Italian] In questo rapporto e' stata condotta un'analisi costi-efficacia relativa alla riduzione delle emissioni gassose veicolari dovute alla mobilita' urbana sulla rete di trasporto di Roma: in altre parole, fissata una quota di abbattimento delle emissioni complessive per ogni inquinante, sono state individuate le misure piu' efficienti dal punto di vista tecnico-economico che permettono di perseguire la riduzione prefissata. Il problema di ottimizzazione e' stato formalizzato definendo sia la funzione obiettivo che i relativi vincoli come funzioni lineari, e quindi nell'ambito della programmazione

  14. Catalysis in VOC Abatement

    Ojala, S.; Pitkäaho, S.; Laitinen, T.; Koivikko, N.N.; Brahmi, R.; Gaálová, Jana; Matějová, Lenka; Kucherov, A.; Päivärinta, S.; Hirschmann, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, 16-18 (2011), s. 1224-1256. ISSN 1022-5528. [Nordic Symposium on Catalysis /14./. Marienlyst, Helsingør, 29.08.2010-31.08.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : voc emissions * voc regulation * effects of VOC's Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.624, year: 2011

  15. Investment in risky R and D programs in the face of climate uncertainty

    We analyze how the socially optimal technology R and D investment changes with the risk-profile of the R and D program and with uncertainty about climate damages. We show that how technology is represented in the model is crucial to the results; and that uncertainty in damages interacts with uncertainty in the returns to R and D. We consider R and D that reduces the cost of abatement multiplicatively, and argue that this is a good representation of R and D into non-carbon technologies; and R and D that reduces the emissions-to-output ratio, and argue that this is a good representation of R and D into fossil fuel technologies. For R and D programs into non-carbon technologies, optimal investment is higher in riskier programs. Our empirical model indicates that the optimal investment in a risky program is about 3 1/2 times larger than in a program with certain returns. For R and D programs aimed at reducing emissions in fossil fuel based technologies, our results show that, qualitatively, investment is higher in less risky programs under most uncertain damage scenarios. Our empirical model shows, however, that the risk-profile of fossil fuel based R and D programs generally has little quantitative impact on optimal investment. The exception is that when the probability of a catastrophe inducing full abatement is very high, investment is about twice as high in risky programs compared to programs with certain returns. (author)

  16. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26147156

  17. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SEROTYPE H - 14 (BACTIMOS W.P. , ABATE AND FUEL OIL AGAINST ANOPHELES AND CULEX IN SOUTH OF IRAN

    H.Kasir

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Optimum dosage for field application bactimos (W.P. was determined as 0.04g/m , when efficacy of four concentration of 0.01 , 0.02 , 0.04 and 0.08 gim2 were compared in 1 x I m2 artificial breeding sites. This dosage caused 69.8%, 55.6% and 43.6% anopheline and 83%, 47.8% and 29.7% culicine larval mortality, in 24.48% and 72 hrs post treatment, respectively. Abate and fuel oil were significantly more effective than hactimos (W.P as they caused 100% , 99.7% and 87.2% anopheline and 100% , 93.5% and 87% culicine lavrval mortality , in 24 hr post treatment , respectivelly. In natural breeding sites Abate, fuel oil and Bactimos (W.P. caused 100%, 98% and 69% anopheline and 99.9%, 99% and 79.3% culicine larval mortality, in 24 hr post treatment, respectively. The wettable powder formulation of Bactimos was not regarded as a suitable formulation for anopheline control in Southern Iran.

  18. Environmental impact of a coal combustion-desulphurisation plant: Abatement capacity of desulphurisation process and environmental characterisation of combustion by-products

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E.; Querol, X.; Tomas, A. [Inst. of Earth Science Jaume Almera, (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Geology

    2006-12-15

    The fate of trace elements in a combustion power plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) installation was studied in order to evaluate its emission abatement capacity. With this aim representative samples of feed coal, boiler slag, fly ash, limestone, FGD gypsum and FGD process water and wastewater were analysed for major and trace elements using the following techniques: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ion chromatography (IC), ion selective electrode (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mass balances were established allowing to determine the element partitioning behaviour. It was found that, together with S, Hg, Cl, F, Se and As were those elements entering in the FGD plant primarily as gaseous species. The abatement capacity of the FGD plant for such elements offered values ranged from 96% to 100% for As, Cl, F, S and Se, and about 60% for Hg. The environmental characterisation of combustion by-products (boiler slag fly ash and FGD gypsum) were also established according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. To this end, water leaching tests (EN-12457-4) were performed, analysing the elements with environmental concern by means of the aforementioned techniques. According to the leaching behaviour of combustion by-products studied, these could be disposed of in landfills for non-hazardous wastes.

  19. Energy conservation, an economically efficient way of air pollution abatement. Economic arguments in air pollution policy; Energiesparen - Klimaschutz, der sich rechnet. Oekonomische Argumente in der Klimapolitik

    Ostertag, K.; Jochem, E.; Schleich, J.; Walz, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kohlhaas, M.; Diekmann, J.; Ziesing, H.J. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Experts tend to disagree about the economic effects of air pollution abatement measures. This book, which addresses also non-experts, explains the analytical background on the basis of available data. The authors conclude that there is a wide range of political options for achieving the goal of air pollution abatement. They differentiate between the various levels of discussion and show how misinterpretations of scientific results come about, thus making an important contribution to a discussion that is based on facts rather than emotions. [German] Die Einschaetzungen zur wirtschaftlichen Bewertung von Klimaschutzmassnahmen, insbesondere zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz, sind sehr widerspruechlich. Dieses Buch erlaeutert anhand von Zahlenmaterial die analytischen Hintergruende und ist auch fuer Nicht-Oekonomen verstaendlich geschrieben. Die Autoren kommen zu dem Schluss, dass in vielen Bereichen rentable Energiesparpotentiale nicht erkannt und umgesetzt werden. Sie zeigen, dass die Politik bei der Verfolgung von Klimaschutzzielen und der Vorbeugung gegen Klimaschaeden ueber erheblichen Gestaltungsspielraum verfuegt. Mit der Entflechtung verschiedener Diskussionsebenen und dem Aufzeigen der Quellen fuer Fehlinterpretationen von Studienergebnissen leistet das Buch einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Versachlichung der Klimaschutzdiskussion. (orig.)

  20. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  1. Environmental impact of a coal combustion-desulphurisation plant: abatement capacity of desulphurisation process and environmental characterisation of combustion by-products.

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Tomás, A

    2006-12-01

    The fate of trace elements in a combustion power plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) installation was studied in order to evaluate its emission abatement capacity. With this aim representative samples of feed coal, boiler slag, fly ash, limestone, FGD gypsum and FGD process water and wastewater were analysed for major and trace elements using the following techniques: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ion chromatography (IC), ion selective electrode (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mass balances were established allowing to determine the element partitioning behaviour. It was found that, together with S, Hg, Cl, F, Se and As were those elements entering in the FGD plant primarily as gaseous species. The abatement capacity of the FGD plant for such elements offered values ranged from 96% to 100% for As, Cl, F, S and Se, and about 60% for Hg. The environmental characterisation of combustion by-products (boiler slag, fly ash and FGD gypsum) were also established according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. To this end, water leaching tests (EN-12457-4) were performed, analysing the elements with environmental concern by means of the aforementioned techniques. According to the leaching behaviour of combustion by-products studied, these could be disposed of in landfills for non-hazardous wastes. PMID:16890268

  2. A PREVENÇÃO DOS RISCOS AMBIENTAIS NA INDÚSTRIA DO ABATE E PROCESSAMENTO DE CARNES E DERIVADOS: A SAÚDE COLETIVA E DOS TRABALHADORES

    Gustavo Abrahão dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de abate de carnes e derivados produz um grave risco de contaminação do meio ambiente, da saúde coletiva e dos trabalhadores, por meio de suas externalidades negativas. Neste contexto, o artigo analisa os instrumentos jurídicos de prevenção dos riscos ambientais no abate de carnes em matadouros, especialmente do licenciamento ambiental, e destaca a incidência da clandestinidade e da ineficiência da fiscalização como elementos potencializadores do risco à qualidade ambiental. Destaca, ainda, os riscos da atividade que afetam diretamente a saúde dos trabalhadores e os instrumentos de proteção decorrentes do direito ambiental do trabalho. E preconiza a necessidade do cumprimento das normas ambientais e a eficiência de sua fiscalização como elementos essenciais a sustentabilidade ambiental, social e econômica da atividade. 

  3. Coupled Climate–Economy–Biosphere (CoCEB model – Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    K. B. Z. Ogutu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Coupled Climate–Economy–Biosphere (CoCEB model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  4. Transferentiality :|bmapping the margins of postmodern fiction / H. de G. Laurie.

    Laurie, Henri De Guise

    2013-01-01

    This thesis starts from the observation that, while it is common for commentators to divide postmodern fiction into two general fields – one experimental and anti-mimetic, the other cautiously mimetic, there remains a fairly significant field of postmodern texts that use largely mimetic approaches but represent worlds that are categorically distinct from actuality. This third group is even more pronounced if popular culture and “commercial” fiction, in particular sf and fantasy, are taken int...

  5. Exploring a decision framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness and utility of CO2 abatement measures in shipping: A methodology applied to the cast fleet of Grieg Shipping Group

    Girard, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Selecting greenhouse gas abatement measures for a specific fleet of ships is not an easy task and many factors are to be considered by ship operators. Current methodologies for assessing measures are based on cost-effectiveness evaluations. The main aim of this paper is to explore new ways to evaluate and select greenhouse gas abatement measures in shipping.To address this, a case study regarding the open hatch bulk fleet of Grieg Shipping Group is presented in order to illustrate the decisio...

  6. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  7. Product and market changes expected in view of the Motor Vehicle/Mineral Oil Program

    At the beginning of this decade the European Motor Vehicle/Mineral Oil Program was initiated by the European Commission to develop strategies and measures for further road traffic air pollution abatement in preparation for the time after 2000. The effects of several measures on improvements in air pollution abatement and air quality were investigated, and a comparative cost-benefit analysis was made. The most cost-effective variant of the gloabal and local measures suggested will be chosen to reach the EU air quality objectives. For the first time, measures and regulations will not be fixed considering the state of the art while neglecting the cost. Emphasis will be on the most cost-effective measures that comply with the latest scientific knowledge and meet the requirements of economic efficiency. (orig./UA)

  8. Características de carcaça de suínos de três linhagens genéticas em diferentes idades ao abate Carcass characteristics from three swine stocks in different slaughters ages

    Alessandra Fernandes Rosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características da carcaça de suínos de diferentes linhagens genéticas, em diferentes idades ao abate. Foram utilizados 88 suínos por linhagem, fêmeas e machos castrados, com idade e peso médio iniciais de 74 dias e 30kg, respectivamente, pertencentes a três linhagens genéticas distintas, designadas de AgroceresPic, Dalland e Seghers. A etapa experimental foi dividida em quatro fases (Crescimento I, Crescimento II, Terminação I e Terminação II. Ao final de cada etapa, foram abatidos 60 animais (10 por linhagem/sexo, para as caracterizações: Peso (PCQ e Rendimento de Carcaça Quente (RCQ, Área de Olho de Lombo (AOL e Espessura de Toucinho (ET. Na análise dos resultados foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com desdobramento dos graus de liberdade em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 2, sendo quatro idades ao abate (90, 119, 150 e 186 dias, três linhagens (AgroceresPic, Dalland e Seghers e dois sexos (fêmea e macho castrado, com 10 repetições por tratamento, sendo utilizado o pacote PROC MIXED do Softwear SAS. Os valores médios de peso vivo apresentaram diferença entre as linhagens e interação entre fase e linhagem (PThe aim of this research was to study the carcasses characteristics of swine sire lines from different slaughter weights. In this study were used 88 castrated piglets (castrated males and females per sire line (AgroceresPic, Dalland and Seghers, with initial age of 74 days and live weight of 30kg. The experiment was divided in four phases (Growing I, Growing II, Finishing I and Finishing II. Sixty animals were slaughtered (10 by stock/sex at the end of each experimental phase to determine the post mortem measurements: Carcass Weight (CW, Hot Carcass Yield (HCW, Loin Eye Muscle Area (LMA and Back Fat Thickness (BT. This study was conducted using a completely randomized design, with treatments in complete factorial 4 x 3 x 2, being 4 slaughters ages (90, 119, 150

  9. 纺织印染工业大气污染物分析与治理%Analysis and abatement of air pollutants in textile printing and dyeing industry

    杨爱民; 黄楚辉; 郑君仪

    2013-01-01

    The generation of waste gas and related auxiliaries in textile printing and dyeing industry processes were analyzed. Suggestions and ideas about the abatement of air pollutants were presented, and the pollutants generation processes were summarized. Pollutants factors of the waste gas from textile printing and dyeing processes, and suggestions of air pollutants detection were presented.%根据纺织印染工业的生产流程,分析各个生产工序的废气产生情况以及相关的助剂。对各个生产阶段的废气治理提出了意见和看法,对印染生产过程的废气产生进行了总结,提出了纺织印染工业大气检测的污染物因子,对检测方法提出建议。

  10. EFEITOS DOS MÉTODOS DE ABATE DE BOVINOS NA EFICIÊNCIA DA SANGRIA EFFECTS OF SLAUGHTER METHODS ON EFFICIENCY

    ROÇA Roberto de Oliveira; Carlos Roberto PADOVANI; Mário Carlos de FILIPI; Erich SCHWACH; Alberto UEMI; SHINKAI Roberto Takeo; Germano Francisco BIONDI

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos métodos de abate de bovinos com insensibilização prévia através de marreta e pistola pneumática de penetração e sem insensibilização, realizada pelo método kasher, na eficiência da sangria. A eficiência da sangria foi avaliada pela determinação da hemoglobina no sangue e na carne. Foram utilizados 240 bovinos sãos, da raça Nelore, abatidos em matadouro-frigorífico sob Serviço de Inspeção Federal, sendo 60 animais abatidos pelo método ...

  11. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution programs in two Lake Erie tributaries.

    Forster, D Lynn; Rausch, Jonathan N

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades, numerous government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of this paper summarizes these state and federal government agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved) are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from 1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30 per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large (small) funding. PMID:11837427

  12. How to reduce risk of climate change: Domestic hot water production methanization and programmed timing of heaters

    This paper first identifies a significant and deleterious trend, in terms of poor energy efficiency and high carbon dioxide emissions, towards the increased use of electric water heaters for sanitary hot water production in single family units. It then points out how the use of wall mounted methane fired boilers can result in overall energy savings (overall electric power consumption for domestic hot water production is estimated to represent one- quarter of Italy's total domestic power demand), as well as air pollution abatement. The feasibility of other methods of energy conservation and pollution abatement in domestic water heating are also examined. These include the use of solar hot water heaters, computerized timers which allow users to program the operation of their heating plants, and the adoption by residential communities of methane fuelled district heating plants

  13. Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    Haselow, J.S.; Jarosch, T.R.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.; Lombard, K.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development`s Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies.

  14. Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

  15. Influência da Idade de Abate e da Castração nas Qualidades Físico-Químicas, Sensoriais e Aromáticas da Carne Caprina

    Marta Suely Madruga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Grupos de caprinos mestiços castrados e inteiros foram abatidos com idades de 175, 220, 265 e 310 dias. Os efeitos da castração e idade de abate nas qualidades físico-químicas, sensoriais e aromáticos da carne caprina foi pesquisado. O efeito castração foi observado apenas para o conteúdo de cálcio, no entanto a idade de abate apresentou um efeito significativo nos teores de umidade, proteína, cálcio, ferro e pH. Os fatores idade de abate e castração não apresentaram efeito significativo nos percentuais de fosfolipídeos porém, a idade de abate afetou os percentuais de colesterol. Caprinos castrados apresentaram maior percentual de ácidos graxos insaturados e, conseqüentemente, maior relação PUFA/SFA. Os ácidos graxos foram afetados significativamente pela castração. Não foram observadas variações nos percentuais dos ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados da carne caprina de animais abatidos com diferentes idades. O fator idade de abate apresentou maior efeito nos atributos sensoriais analisados do que o fator castração. Nos extratos da carne caprina foram identificados um total de cento e oito voláteis, sendo estes: 41 hidrocarbonetos alifáticos, 12 hidrocarbonetos alicíclicos, 19 aldeídos, 9 compostos benzênicos, 9 álcoois, 7 cetonas, 4 compostos sulfurados, 2 terpenoídes, 2 ésteres e 3 outros compostos. Os extratos da carne de caprinos castrados continham maior número de compostos voláteis do que os extratos de animais inteiros. O fator idade de abate foi o parâmetro que mais afetou as características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne caprina. O fator castração afetou diretamente a produção de voláteis.

  16. Rendimentos do abate e composição da carne de ema (Rhea americana Slaughtering yield and composition of great rhea meat (Rhea americana

    Amanda Vieira Pereira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho zootécnico da ema (Rhea americana, rendimentos do abate, composição química e análise sensorial da carne. Onze animais foram submetidos a um sistema de confinamento, recebendo ração balanceada à vontade e com acesso a um piquete. Antes do abate as emas permaneceram em jejum hídrico por 12 h, foram pesadas e submetidas ao processamento: insensibilização, sangria, depenagem manual, esfola e evisceração. As emas apresentaram peso vivo médio, no momento do abate, de 19,393 kg, desempenho médio de 529,82 de consumo de ração/dia, 53,20 g de ganho de peso/dia e 9,44 de conversão alimentar. Em relação ao peso de carcaça, mostraram rendimento médio de 63,33% de carne, 5,09% de gordura e 22% de ossos. A composição centesimal média da carne de ema foi de 22,81% de proteína, 1,59% de lipídios, 1,62% de cinzas e de 74,72% de umidade. O conteúdo de colágeno variou de 0,94% a 1,12% e o teor de colesterol foi de 65,44 mg por 100 g de carne. Pela análise sensorial, verificou-se que a carne de ema processada foi bem aceita pelos provadores. Assim, admite-se que a carne de ema pode ser consumida como fonte de proteína animal com baixo teor de lipídios.The aim of this project is to study the zootechnical performance of rhea (Rhea americana, including slaughtering yields, chemical composition and sensorial analysis of its meat. Eleven birds were kept under confinement and each had a balanced ration on demand and access to run. Before slaughtering, the rhea were not allowed to drink water for 12 h, they were weighed and underwent the following: stunning, bleeding, manual feather plucking, skinning, and evisceration. The average rhea weight at the time of slaughtering was 19.393 kg, their average performance for food intake 529.82 g ration/day, weight gain of 53.20 g/day, and 9.44 food conversion. Relative to the carcass weight, the average meat yield was 63.33%, whereby 5.09% was fat

  17. Importância e encadeamento dos setores de produção e abate e processamento da cadeia suinícola em Minas Gerais

    Marielce de Cássia Ribeiro Tosta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a importância e os encadeamentos dos setores de produção e abate e processamento da cadeia suinícola em Minas Gerais, nos anos de 1980 e 1995, por meio dos índices de Rasmussen-Hirschman, do campo de influência e do índice puro de ligação (GHS. De acordo com os resultados, ambos os setores analisados foram considerados setores-chave com base apenas no índice de Rasmussen-Hirschman e no campo de influência, ou seja, apresentaram maior relevância quando considerados os seus impactos na demanda final e os seus poderes de encadeamento na economia. Apesar de não terem sido considerados setores-chave pelo GHS, os setores de produção e abate e processamento apresentaram grande potencialidade de impactos para trás. Em face desses resultados e dado que esses setores continuaram aumentando a sua participação na economia de Minas Gerais nos anos subseqüentes a 1995, tem-se indicação de que estes devam ter prioridade na alocação de recursos e na estratégia de promoções industriais por meio de políticas estaduais.The main objective of this study was to establish the importance and the enchainment of the production sector and butchery/making up sector of pork chain in Minas Gerais, in the years of 1980 and 1995, applying the Rasmussen-Hirschman index, the influence field index and GHS index. The results showed that both sectors were considered key sectors only by the Rasmussen-Hirschman index and the influence field index, i.e., they presented greater importance when observed its impacts on the final demand and its power of enchainment in the economy. Despite not being considered key sectors by the GHS index, they presented great potential of backward impacts. This result, and the fact that the participation of these sectors had been increasing in the Minas Gerais economy since 1995, suggests that those sectors the state policy makers need to give priority in resources allocation and in the

  18. Global and local - air pollution abatement in the 21st century. Seminar No. 14 of Zentrale Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern; Global und Lokal - Klimaschutz fuer das 21. Jahrhundert. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 14

    Koller, U.; Behling, G.; Rauh, K.; Haury, H.J. (comps.)

    1999-08-01

    Scientists of Germany's major climate research institutes and an expert of the world climate research programme presented current information on climate trends. They informed on the results of international efforts to prevent global warming after the Buenos Aires conference and presented global climate scenarios of the future. Further issues were local air pollution abatement (energy management, thermal insulation), communal air pollution abatement concepts, and state funding in Bavaria and elsewhere. [German] Wissenschaftler aus den bedeutendsten Instituten deutscher Klimaforschung sowie ein Vertreter des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms stellten aktuelle Erkenntnisse zur Entwicklung unseres Klimas vor. Sie informierten ueber Ergebnisse internationaler Klimaschutzpolitik nach der Klimakonferenz in Buenos Aires und praesentierten Szenarien fuer das globale Klima der Zukunft. Sie widmeten sich ausserdem Fragen des lokalen Klimaschutzes unter den Aspekten Energiemanagement, Waermeschutz und diskutierten ueber kommunale Klimaschutzkonzepte sowie Foerdermoeglichkeiten in und ausserhalb Bayerns. (orig.)

  19. Photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement by calcium aluminate cements modified with TiO{sub 2}: Improved NO{sub 2} conversion

    Pérez-Nicolás, M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Balbuena, J.; Cruz-Yusta, M.; Sánchez, L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernández, J.M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, J.I., E-mail: jalvarez@unav.es [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was studied in two types of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) under two different curing regimes. The effect of the TiO{sub 2} addition on the setting time, consistency and mechanical properties of the CACs was evaluated. The abatement of gaseous pollutants (NO{sub x}) under UV irradiation was also assessed. These cementitious matrices were found to successfully retain NO{sub 2}: more abundant presence of aluminates in white cement (w-CAC, iron-lean) helped to better adsorb NO{sub 2}, thus improving the conversion performance of the catalyst resulting in a larger NO{sub x} removal under UV irradiation. As evidenced by XRD, SEM, EDAX and zeta potential analyses, the presence of ferrite in dark cement (d-CAC, iron-reach) induced a certain chemical interaction with TiO{sub 2}. The experimental findings suggest the formation of new iron titanate phases, namely pseudobrookite. The reduced band-gap energy of these compounds compared with that of TiO{sub 2} accounts for the photocatalytic activity of these samples.

  20. Power and cogeneration technology environomic performance typification in the context of CO2 abatement part II: Combined heat and power cogeneration

    This is the second of a series of two articles, dealing with a new approach of environomic (thermodynamic, economic and environmental) performance 'Typification' and optimization of power generation technologies. This part treats specifically of combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration technologies in the context of CO2 abatement and provides a methodology for a flexible and fast project based CHP system design evaluation. One of the aspect of the approach is the post-optimization integration of the operating and capital costs, in order to effectively deal with the uncertainty of the project specific design and operation conditions (fuel, electricity and heat selling prices, project financial conditions such as investment amortization periods, annual operating hours, etc). In addition the approach also allows to efficiently evaluate the influence of the external cost such as the CO2 tax level under a tax scheme or the CO2 permit price in the emission trading market. Application examples, including gas turbine and combined cycles are treated with the proposed methodology, by using superstructure based generic environomic models and a multi-objective optimizer.

  1. Coupling Noble Metals and Carbon Supports in the Development of Combustion Catalysts for the Abatement of BTX Compounds in Air Streams

    Sergio Morales-Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs is one of the most important techniques to remove these pollutants from the air stream, but it should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature, saving energy and avoiding the simultaneous formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx. Under these experimental conditions, the chemisorption of water generated from VOCs combustion may inhibit hydrophilic catalysts. Nowadays, a wide variety of carbon materials is available to be used in catalysis. The behavior of these hydrophobic materials in the development of highly active and selective combustion catalysts is analyzed in this manuscript. The support characteristics (porosity, hydrophobicity, structure, surface chemistry, etc. and the active phase nature (noble metals: Pt, Pd and dispersion were analyzed by several techniques and the results correlated with the dual adsorptive and/or catalytic performance of the corresponding catalysts. The coupling of highly active phases and carbon materials (activated carbons, honeycomb coated monoliths, carbon aerogels, etc. with tuneable physicochemical properties leads to the complete abatement of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX from dilute air streams, being selectively oxidized to CO2 at low temperatures.

  2. Potential impact on air pollution from ambitious national CO2 emission abatement strategies in the Nordic countries – environmental links between the UNFCCC and the UNECE – CLRTAP

    This article presents results from a meta-study of Nordic low carbon dioxide (CO2) emission scenarios. The focus of the study was to explore possible environmental impacts if selected Nordic low CO2 emission scenarios were achieved by 2020. The impacts of concern were climate change, acidification, eutrophication and human health. Results from this study indicate that large scale reduction of CO2 emissions by 2020 in a Nordic energy system requires large scale penetration of technical measures and structural changes. The environmental improvements achieved would most often facilitate achievement of air pollution targets as well as post-Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. All scenarios do, however, not imply co-benefits between air pollution and CO2 emission reductions and the net impact on climate change could be smaller than anticipated. A conclusion is that co-benefits and risks for trade-offs between air quality and climate change should be emphasised in the development of low-CO2 energy and emission strategies. - Highlights: ► CO2 abatement strategies differ in impact on environment, human health and climate. ► Bio fuel CO2 strategies can imply smaller climate and environmental benefits. ► Nordic ‘clean’ electricity export can give environmental benefits if replacing coal.

  3. A Cu/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve: application in the abatement of no in exhaust gases

    M. S. Batista

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propane oxidation and reduction of NO to N2 with propane under oxidative conditions on a Cu-Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve and Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites were studied. Both types of catalysts were prepared by ion exchange in aqueous solutions of copper acetate and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen sorption measurement, diffuse reflectance ultra-violet spectroscopy (DRS-UV, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS of the adsorption of CO on Cu+ and temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen (H2-TPR. The NO reduction was performed between 200 and 500 ºC using a GHSV = 42,000 h-1. H2-TPR data showed that in the prepared Cu-Al-MCM-41 all the Cu atoms are on the surface of the mesopores as highly dispersed CuO, which results in a decrease in specific surface area and in mesopore volume. H2-TPR together with DRIFTS data provided evidence that in Cu/ZSM-5 catalysts, Cu atoms are found as two different Cu2+ cations: Cualpha2+ and Cubeta2+, which are located on charge compensation sites, and their thermo-redox properties were different from those of Cu atoms in Cu-Al-MCM-41. The specific activity of the Cu2+ exchangeable cations in Cu-ZSM-5, irrespective of their nature, was much greater than that of the Cu2+ in Cu-Al-MCM-41, where they are found as CuO.

  4. Determination, control and abatement of the bias and uncertainties on the reactivity of the Jules Horowitz reactor

    The neutronics calculation scheme HORUS3D/N is dedicated to the design and safety studies of the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The control of the whole neutronics parameters of the JHR must be ensured for the safety report. This work focuses in the determination and control of uncertainties on the reactivity of the Jules Horowitz reactor due to nuclear data. A rigorous and consistent method was used. It leads to the identification and quantification of the bias and the uncertainty bias due to nuclear data on the reactivity of the considered case: the Jules Horowitz Reactor. Several steps were followed: - the set-up of a reliable dataset of covariance matrices on nuclear data of the isotopes of interest, - the sensitivity studies to nuclear data of the representative experiment and the reactor, - an accurate determination of the technological uncertainties using an innovative method, - a transposition stage of the experimental bias and the associated uncertainty due to nuclear data using the representativity method applied to the JHR. These steps were performed using the CEA's reference calculation tools (Monte-Carlo calculation code TRIPOLI4, deterministic codes APOLLO2 and CRONOS2, evaluation code CONRAD), the European JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data evaluation and a suitable set of uncertainty propagation, marginalization and transposition techniques. The propagation of uncertainties on nuclear data contained by the variance-covariance matrices concludes to a prior uncertainty of 637 pcm (1σ) on the JHR reactivity for U3Si2Al fuel enriched to 19.75% in 235U. The interpretation of the oscillations of the VALMONT program allowed the experimental validation of the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data concerning the JHR fuel and highlights the good agreement of their uncertainties. Thus, the interpretation of the reactivity of the AMMON/Reference core was done with the JEFF-3.1.1 evaluation (and Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI4) and shows a bias of + 376 pcm. A fine study of the technological

  5. Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris

    Lefèvre, Roger; Ionescu, Anda; Desplat, Julien; Kounkou-Arnaud, Raphaëlle; Perrussel, Olivier; Languille, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris R.-A. Lefèvre1, A. Ionescu1, J. Desplat2, R. Kounkou-Arnaud2, O. Perrussel3, B. Languille4 At the beginning of the 21st century air pollution in Paris continued to considerably decrease. An evident visual consequence was the replacement of thick gypseous black crusts by thin grey coverings on the façades. A quantitative approach of this phenomenon was taken by measurement in the field, followed by calculation using Dose-Response Functions (DRF) and mapping the geographic distribution on a grid of 100m x100m of: 1) The total surface of façades of buildings and monuments in the part of Paris inscribed on the UNESCO List between the Ile Saint-Louis and the Concorde Square; 2) The surface of limestone and window glass present on each façade; 3) The distribution of SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentration every year from 1997 to 2014; 4) The response of materials to climatic and pollution doses; 5) The effective damage to limestone and window glass. Results of measurements in the field: 1) The 772 buildings and monuments inventoried have 20 674 m in length and 414 811 m2 in façade surface: they are representative of the centre of Paris; 2) Limestone occupies 348 268 m2 and window glass 207 394 m2; 3) The mean annual concentration in SO2 dropped from 20 to less than 3 μg m-3; NO2 from 60 to 40 μg m-3 and PM10 from 30 to 20 μg m-3. Results by application of DRF: 4) Limestone recession was divided by 5 in 18 years, from 10 to 2 μm y-1, but with only a spatial variation of 2%; 5) Limestone reflectance increased from 70.5 to 72.5 %; 6) The annual mass of deposited and neo-formed particles on window glass decreased from 100 to 20 μg cm-2; 7) The annual haze of window glass decreased from 8 to 3.5%. Effective damage to stone and glass: 8) The mean annual mass of limestone eroded on the façades decreased according to time but with an irregular

  6. Comparative performance evaluation of conventional and two-phase hydrophobic stirred tank reactors for methane abatement: Mass transfer and biological considerations.

    Cantera, Sara; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrated for the first time the capability of methanotrophs to grow inside silicone oil (SO200) and identified the optimum cultivation conditions for enrichment of hydrophobic methanotrophs (high dilution rates (D) and low CH4 transfer rates). The potential of the hydrophobic methanotrophs enriched was assessed in a single-phase stirred tank reactor (1P-STR) and in a two-phase stirred tank reactor (2P-STR). Different operational conditions were systematically evaluated in both reactors (SO200 fractions of 30 and 60 %, stirring rates of 250 and 500 rpm, and D of 0.1-0.35 day(-1) with and without biomass retention). The results showed that the TPPB only supported a superior CH4 abatement performance compared to the 1P-STR (40% enhancement at 250 rpm and 25% enhancement at 500 rpm) at a D of 0.3 day(-1) due to the retention of the biocatalytic activity inside the SO200, while the 1P-STR achieved higher elimination capacities (EC up to ≈3 times) than the TPPB under the rest of conditions tested (ECmax  = 91.1 g m(-3)  h(-1) ). Furthermore, the microscopic examination and DGGE-sequencing of the communities showed that the presence of SO200 influenced the microbial population structure, impacting on bacterial biodiversity and favoring the growth of methanotrophs such as Methylosarcina. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1203-1212. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26615043

  7. Feed withdrawal abate regimens lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome symptoms, such as glucose tolerance, are associated with the diameter of retroperitoneal adipocytes in rats.

    He, Mao L; Sharma, Ranjana; Mir, Priya S; Okine, Erasmus; Dodson, Michael V

    2010-02-01

    Adipocyte numbers were increased by feed withdrawal (FW) regimens in cattle; thus, the effect of FW regimens was studied in male Wistar and fa/fa obese rats, as models for humans, in 2 completely randomized design experiments to abate lipodystrophy and progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms. The hypothesis was that application of FW regimens could alter adipose tissue cellularity, adipocyte size, and affect area under the curve (AUC) during glucose tolerance tests. Objectives were to determine associations among retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue adipocyte number, diameter, and AUC, as affected by fortnightly or a single (at age 50 days) 24-hour FW regimen. Adipocyte marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression was elevated (P = .054) in the retroperitoneal tissue of fa/fa obese rats in the fortnightly FW treatment because of a 13% increase in tissue cell density (cells per gram; P = .13). Average cell diameter in retroperitoneal adipose and AUC were negatively corelated. Regression analyses after including the square of average cell diameter indicated that average retroperitoneal adipocyte diameter (between 65 and 135 mum) and the AUC were related in a quadratic manner (R(2) = 0.14; n = 49; P = .03) for Wistar rats. Cell number of the inguinal and retroperitoneal adipocytes tended to be positively corelated (r = 0.24; P = .09 and r = 0.26; P = .07, n = 49, respectively) to the AUC and are indexes of adiposity. Results suggest that maintenance of retroperitoneal adipocytes at appropriate diameters may control progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms such as glucose tolerance. PMID:20226998

  8. Abatement of biofouling and corrosion in OTEC heat exchangers using low energy surfaces. Final technical report, May 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

    Ostrozynski, R.L.; Jones, P.E.

    1976-06-01

    The economic viability of OTEC as a means of harnessing solar thermal energy depends on the ability to control marine fouling and corrosion on OTEC heat exchanger surfaces. During the past year under ERDA sponsorship, Allied Chemical Corporation demonstrated the concept that fouling and corrosion are minimized on low energy metal surfaces treated with fluorochemicals without impairing their heat transport properties. Experimentally, the surfaces of selected metals were chemically modified with a fluorochemical monolayer to minimize their surface energy. The treated metals were then observed for fouling and corrosion in the ocean at Miami, Florida in an attempt to simulate the OTEC operational environment. Antifouling and anticorrosion performance was judged by comparing the extent of barnacle, algae and corrosion coverage of the treated surface to one that was untreated. Other components, viz. tributyltin bearing agents and organoreactive silanes were combined with the fluorochemical in an effort to improve monolayer performance. Lower energy surfaces produced by a fluorochemical monolayer abated algae fouling on aluminum alloy No. 3003-H14 and commercially pure titanium throughout the test period of six weeks. Also, they protected the aluminum and 90/10 copper-nickel alloy No. 706 from seawater corrosion for the same duration. However, barnacle fouling was observed on all panel surfaces. Electron spectroscopic and electron microscopic analysis of the outermost surface pointed to the possible reasons for this growth. Evidently in most instances and particularly on titanium, the surfaces were not covered with a continuous film of monolayer. Moreover, the treatments left the surfaces with a rough texture and hence in a state predisposed to barnacle fouling.

  9. Climate Benefits of U.S. EPA Programs and Policies That Reduced Methane Emissions 1993-2013.

    Melvin, April M; Sarofim, Marcus C; Crimmins, Allison R

    2016-07-01

    The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established voluntary programs to reduce methane (CH4) emissions, and regulations that either directly reduce CH4 or provide co-benefits of reducing CH4 emissions while controlling for other air pollutants. These programs and regulations address four sectors that are among the largest domestic CH4 emissions sources: municipal solid waste landfills, oil and natural gas, coal mining, and agricultural manure management. Over the 1993-2013 time period, 127.9 Tg of CH4 emissions reductions were attributed to these programs, equal to about 18% of the counterfactual (or potential) domestic emissions over that time, with almost 70% of the abatement due to landfill sector regulations. Reductions attributed to the voluntary programs increased nearly continuously during the study period. We quantified how these reductions influenced atmospheric CH4 concentration and global temperature, finding a decrease in concentration of 28 ppb and an avoided temperature rise of 0.006 °C by 2013. Further, we monetized the climate and ozone-health impacts of the CH4 reductions, yielding an estimated benefit of $255 billion. These results indicate that EPA programs and policies have made a strong contribution to CH4 abatement, with climate and air quality benefits. PMID:27227378

  10. National program of struggle against the climate change; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique

    NONE

    2000-01-17

    The French national program of struggle against the climate change deals with the principal sources of pollution i.e. industry, transports, buildings, agriculture and forests wastes, gas refrigerants and power production. The document contains 12 chapters. First chapter concerns the France's responsibilities regarding the climatic change. The following issues are addressed: 1. The phenomenon, the gas releases and the potential impact; 2. The international negotiations and the European engagements; 3. France's effort for pollutant release abatement. The second chapter describes the principal options of the program. It presents: measures, economical constraints, long term structure actions upon offer. The third and the forth chapters deal with the industrial and transport releases and relating abatement measures. Chapter number five concerns the pollutant released in the building sector, i.e. those related to the dwelling houses, the current and proposed measures for reducing the harmful releases. The issue of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxide releases and absorptions in the sector agriculture-forests is addressed in chapter 6. The contribution of these releases to the greenhouse effect amounts up to 18% (with 11, 33% and 56%, fractions from the three gas emissions, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively). Measures for release reduction are presented as well as actions to improve the knowledge of the processes. A special addendum gives estimates and the implications the storms of December 1999 had upon the national program. The waste sector contributes by 3% to the greenhouse effect while the power production sector, by 8%. The fraction of release of the three principal pollutant gases are 87%, 12% and 1%, respectively. The results of a scenario based on extant and proposed measures for release abatement are presented for the period 1990-2010. The chapter 8 devoted to the power production sector presents also the results obtained from the

  11. 78 FR 29428 - Availability of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Midway International Airport, Chicago...

    2013-05-20

    .... seq (formerly the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and... comment. Under 49 U.S.C., section 47503 (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter...

  12. Construction of Abatement Pattern for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Based on Polycentric Co-operation%基于多中心合作的农业面源污染治理模式构建

    洪燕婷; 仇蕾

    2015-01-01

    近年来,我国农业面源污染负荷与危害同步增长,给农村环境乃至整个生态环境带来了严重的威胁。本文在分析我国农业面源污染现状的基础上,剖析了传统治理模式弊端,引入多中心合作思想,对农业面源污染涉及到的多元主体角色进行重新定位,将农户、市场和社会力量纳入其中,进而构建了基于多中心合作的农业面源污染治理模式,以期为我国农业面源污染的有效治理提供借鉴。%In recent years , the load of agricultural non -point source pollution grew in step with its harm in China .And it has brought serious threats to the rural environment and even the whole ecological environ-ment.Based on the analysis of current situation of agricultural non -point source pollution in China , the dis-advantages of traditional abatement pattern were analyzed .And then the multi-subject roles involved in were relocated.Under the polycentric co-operative theory, the farmers, market and social forces were taken into account.Based on those, the agricultural non -point source pollution abatement pattern was constructed , which was expected to provide theoretical references to effective abatement for the agricultural non -point source pollution in China .

  13. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental

  14. Estimativa da gordura de cobertura ao abate, por ultra-som, em tourinhos Brangus e Nelore Prediction of backfat at slaughter, by ultrasound, in Nellore and Brangus young bulls

    Saulo Da Luz e Silva; Paulo Roberto Leme; Soraia Marques Putrino; Luciane Silva Martello; César Gonçalves de Lima; Dante Pazzanese Duarte Lanna

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a viabilidade da utilização da ultra-sonografia para estimar a espessura de gordura na carcaça (EGSC) no momento do abate. Foram confinados 24 machos inteiros Brangus e 24 Nelore com dietas contendo 20, 40, 60 ou 80% de concentrado. A área de olho de lombo (AOLU) e a espessura de gordura (EGSU) entre a 12ª e a 13ª costelas e a espessura de gordura sobre o músculo Biceps femoris (EGPU), foram obtidas com equipamento de ultra-som PieMedical Scanner 200 Ve...

  15. Aplicação do programa Seis Sigma em uma indústria de abate de frangos - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i2.527

    Roselis Natalina Mazzuchetti; Miguel Angel Uribe Opazo; Regio Marcio Toesca Gimenes

    2010-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, a indústria de abate de frango busca fortalecer seus processos, visando atender às necessidades de mercado e, para contribuir com o desenvolvimento desses processos, novos métodos têm sido implantados, entre os quais se destaca o programa Seis Sigma. O presente estudo mostra a utilização deste Programa em um abatedouro de frangos com o objetivo de demonstrar as melhores práticas para a definição e condução de um projeto centrado na melhoria da qualidade dos processos. Para t...

  16. De la Historia moral a la Historia civil en el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 del abate Juan Ignacio Molina

    Luis Hachim Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El jesuíta Juan Ignacio Molina escribió el Compendio de la Historia Geográfica, Natural y Civil deIReynodeChile (1776 y el Compendio de la HistoriaCivil del ReynodeChile (1787 en el exilio italiano. En los estudios sobre los jesuítas, sus Historias naturales no han sido exploradas en cuanto a la importancia cultural, literaria y crítica que implican. En este trabajo se tratarán algunos rasgos de la escritura de la Historia que constituyen el discurso de la ciencia y que muestran el desarrollo que va desde la Historia naturaly moral -que desde Aristótelesy Plinio representa la ciencia clásica- a los nuevos modos de conocer que representa el modelo de ciencia de la Ilustración. En consecuencia, el aporte del Abate Molina en su Compendio de la Historia Civil consiste en incorporar la concepción de progreso en los usos y costumbres de los indígenas, aportando una visión de integración diferente a la civilidad. Sabemos que con posterioridad al siglo dieciocho el aporte de muchos astrónomos, médicos y científicos jesuítas -en América- construyeron las bases de la ciencia moderna y progresiva, representando la continuidad más que la regresión en el desarrollo científico tal como lo concebimos actualmente.TheJesuit Juan Ignacio Molina vimte the Compendiode la Historia Geográfica, natural y Civil del Reyno de Chile (1776 y el Compendio de la Historia Civil del Reyno de Chile (1787 in exile in Italy. In relation to criticism, the thinking of the naturalist of the company in the transition -some see opposition-from the model of traditional and scholastic science to the paradigm of modern and enlightened science was importantThis assignment will consider some of the characteristics of the writing of history, which constitute the discourse of science and show the development from the moral and natural history -the classical science of Aristotle and Plinio- to the new forms of knowledge that represent the model of science of the enlight

  17. Pericardite em suínos ao abate no Rio Grande Sul: avaliação de agentes bacterianos e lesões associadas

    Carolini F. Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a frequência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e dos agentes bacterianos envolvidos em pericardites em suínos no abate no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em frigoríficos de suínos com Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF entre fevereiro a outubro de 2010 e a condenação por pericardite dos animais acompanhados foi de 3,9% (299/7.571. No total foram investigados 91 casos de pericardites, 89% deles foram classificados como crônicos por histopatologia e pleurite crônica foi observada em 47% dos pulmões correspondentes, todavia não houve associação significativa entre as duas lesões. Os agentes bacterianos isolados a partir dos corações foram Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis e Streptococcus suis. DNA bacterianos mais detectados pela PCR foram de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Houve associação significativa entre isolamento de P. multocida e Streptococcus sp. nos corações e pulmões correspondentes. Esses resultados sugerem que a infecção no pulmão possa ter servido de porta de entrada para a colonização do pericárdio adjacente. Apesar de M. hyopneumoniae ter sido o agente detectado com maior frequência pela PCR em corações e pulmões correspondentes, não houve associação significativa da detecção dos agentes nos órgãos. Isto sugere que as infecções foram eventos independentes. Os demais agentes investigados não apresentaram associação significativa entre isolamento ou detecção de DNA em coração e pulmão correspondente. Outro achado importante foi a presença de coinfecções bacterianas em 2% dos corações e por PCR foi detectado DNA bacteriano de dois ou mais agentes em 16,5% dos corações. Esses resultados sugerem que as coinfecções em pericardites precisam ser melhor estudadas.

  18. Economic rationale for an emission allowance trading program

    The assumption behind the economic model of allowance trading is that managers of firms are better at solving pollution abatement problems than government overseers. This is because firms know more than an environmental regulator about their own operations and because the profit motive, rather than direct government mandate of compliance decisions, may be more effective at minimizing emission control costs. The allowance trading program in the CAAA is designed to provide firms with an incentive to make good choices about how to reduce emissions by allowing the firm to reduce compliance cost and profit from trading. This chapter discusses the benefits of allowance trading and summarizes the economic literature on tradable pollution rights. 17 refs., 2 figs

  19. Vienna international airport noise abatement

    Heidelinde Jelinek-Nigitz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: On the topic of sustainable aviation a study was carried out to measure the difference between the actual change in air traffic noise and the airport’s residents’ perception of the noise change at Vienna International Airport. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the airport and an online survey was conducted. Design/methodology/approach: For the survey of the opinion of the affected population of the surrounding communities, a web based online questionnai...

  20. Vienna international airport noise abatement

    Heidelinde Jelinek-Nigitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: On the topic of sustainable aviation a study was carried out to measure the difference between the actual change in air traffic noise and the airport’s residents’ perception of the noise change at Vienna International Airport. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the airport and an online survey was conducted. Design/methodology/approach: For the survey of the opinion of the affected population of the surrounding communities, a web based online questionnaire is created and distributed via various channels including e-mail, and online forums. After the basic structure of the questionnaire had been defined, the questions were developed in cooperation with employees form the environmental department of VIE, who had a sustainable influence on the questions’ order and formulation. As the survey was supposed to be answered by residents around VIE. Findings: Results of the online study show that only parts of the participants are affected by air traffic noise at VIE. Even less experienced a significant change over the last five years. About one third of the participants stated that they are affected by air traffic noise in one way or another. The majority of these people live in Lower Austria, the federal state in which the airport is located. The participants obviously judge air traffic noise during day time more importantly than air traffic noise at night. Research limitations/implications: Due to the low number of returns, no statistically relevant conclusions can be drawn, the results of the survey can be used to make some general statements. Originality/value: Economic growth and deregulation lead to growing aircraft operations. Vienna International Airport with its approximately 260,000 flight movements per year is the biggest airport in Austria and a major hub in Europe. The combination of constantly growing air transport and the resulting noise exposure, as well as the steadily increasing sensitization of the population, bring the issue of aircraft noise emission into the increased interest of the stakeholder of an airport. The study compares the extent of the subjective perceived and the actual noise emissions’ change over the last years.

  1. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha;

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in....... The effect of acidification on emissions of H2S differed between experiments. Implications of slurry acidification for subsequent field application, including N and S availability, and soil pH, are discussed....... rates were generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was <50%. There was some evidence for reduced CH4 emissions from acidified slurry, but CH4 emissions were generally low and apparently dominated by enteric fermentation. No effect on N2O emissions was observed...

  2. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  3. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  4. Environmental research program. 1995 Annual report

    Brown, N.J.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and noncriteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems. Combustion chemistry research emphasizes modeling at microscopic and macroscopic scales. At the microscopic scale, functional sensitivity analysis is used to explore the nature of the potential-to-dynamics relationships for reacting systems. Rate coefficients are estimated using quantum dynamics and path integral approaches. At the macroscopic level, combustion processes are modelled using chemical mechanisms at the appropriate level of detail dictated by the requirements of predicting particular aspects of combustion behavior. Parallel computing has facilitated the efforts to use detailed chemistry in models of turbulent reacting flow to predict minor species concentrations.

  5. A fuzzy fractional chance-constrained programming model for air quality management under uncertainty

    Liu, Feng; Wen, Zhi; Xu, Ye

    2016-01-01

    A fuzzy fractional chance-constrained programming model (FFCCPM) was developed for dealing with air quality management under uncertainty. FFCCPM integrates a fractional programming model and a double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained programming model. It considers the ratio between total treated pollutant amounts and system cost in the objective function; the constraints with fuzzy variables can be satisfied under some predetermined confidence levels and reliability scenarios. The air quality management system in Fengrun district, Tangshan City, China, was used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. The obtained results indicated that the proposed model was suitable in describing and providing an overview of a studied management system for decision makers, generating various cost-effective air pollution-abatement alternatives. The strategy with a balance between system economy and reliability was recommended for decision makers. The successful application of FFCCPM in Fengrun district provides a good example of real-world regional air quality management.

  6. Program specialization

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  7. Inexact Programming

    Mahmood, Muhammad Yasir

    2012-01-01

    Two types of fuzzy linear programming i.e. fuzzy number linear programming and interval number linear programming are used for optimization problems. In interval form of linear programming we convert the inequalities from the feasible region, containing intervals as coefficients, to two groups of inequalities characterized by real, exact coefficients values. Then classical programming has been used to achieve an optimal solution in the feasible region. In fuzzy number linear programming, α‐cu...

  8. Programs To Aid FORTRAN Programming

    Ragosta, Arthur E.

    1987-01-01

    Program-development time decreased while program quality increased. FORTRAN Programming Tools are series of programming tools used to support development and maintenance of FORTRAN 77 source codes. Included are debugging aid, central-processing-unit time-monitoring program, source-code maintenance aids, print utilities, and library of useful, well-documented programs. Tools assist in reducing development time and encouraging high-quality programming. Although intended primarily for FORTRAN programmers, some tools used on data files and other programming languages. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. Abatement of diesel-exhaust pollutants. NO{sub x} storage and soot combustion on K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Milt, V.G.; Pissarello, M.L.; Miro, E.E.; Querini, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica, INCAPE, CONICET, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe 3000 (Argentina)

    2003-03-31

    Potassium-loaded lanthana is a promising catalyst to be used for the simultaneous abatement of soot and NO{sub x}, which are the main diesel-exhaust pollutants. With potassium loadings between 4.5 and 10wt.% and calcination temperatures between 400 and 700C, this catalyst mixed with soot gave maximum combustion rates between 350 and 400C in TPO experiments, showing a good hydrothermal stability. There was no difference in activity when it was either mixed by grinding in an agate mortar or mixed by shaking in a sample bottle (tight and loose conditions, respectively). Moreover, when the K-loaded La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is used as washcoat for a cordierite monolith, there were found no significant differences in the catalytic behaviour of the system, which implies its potentiality for practical purposes. The influence of poisons as water and SO{sub 2} was investigated. While water does not affect the soot combustion activity, SO{sub 2} slightly shift the TPO peak to higher temperature. Surface basicity, which is a key factor, was analysed by measuring the interactions of the catalytic surface with CO{sub 2} using the high frequency CO{sub 2} pulses technique, which proved to be very sensitive, detecting minor changes by modifications in the dynamics of the CO{sub 2} adsorption-desorption process. Water diminishes the interaction with CO{sub 2}, probably as a consequence of an adsorption competition. The SO{sub 2} treated catalyst is equilibrated with the CO{sub 2} atmosphere more rapidly if compared with the untreated one, also showing a lower interaction. The lower the interaction with the CO{sub 2}, the lower the activity. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) results indicate that the soot combustion reaction coexists with the thermal decomposition of hydroxide and carbonate species, occurring in the same temperature range (350-460C). The presence of potassium increases surface basicity shifting the endothermic decomposition signal to higher temperatures. We also

  10. Sources of poultry meat contamination with thermophilic Campylobacter before slaughter Fontes de contaminação da carne de frango com Campylobacter termofílico antes do abate

    Paulo Rogério Franchin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible sources of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat before slaughter were studied by examining samples of feathers, cloaca swabs, litter swabs, transport coops, rinse water from coop washing equipment, and chicken breast supports in the slaughter line just before stunning. The samples were collected from 8 broiler houses and from 8 different producers, from a poultry integration system in southern Brazil. The study was carried out over a 12-month period, and each broiler house was sampled in three consecutive flocks, for a total of 24 flocks/broiler house. Campylobacter was found in 79.2% of the feather samples, followed by cloacal swabs (75.0% and transport coop (50.0%, litter (37.5%, breast support (33.3% and coop rinse water (25.0% samples. Considering the combined results of cloacal, feather and litter samples, 21 (87.5% of the 24 chicken batches contained thermophilic Campylobacter in at least one of these samples prior to slaughter. Thermophilic Campylobacter were found in 22 of 24 chicken batches destined to slaughter, corresponding to 91.7% contaminated batches.As possíveis fontes de contaminação com Campylobacter termofílicos em carne de frango, antes do abate, foram estudadas através da análise de amostras de penas, cloaca, cama de aviário, gaiolas de transporte, água de lavagem da máquina de lavar gaiola e o suporte para peito de frango na linha de abate, imediatamente antes do atordoamento. As amostras foram coletadas em 8 aviários de 8 produtores diferentes, da região Sul do Brasil. O estudo foi realizado durante o período de um ano, onde cada aviário foi amostrado três vezes, perfazendo um total de 24 coletas nos aviários.Campylobacter foi encontrado em 79,2% das amostras de penas, seguido por cloaca (75,0%, gaiola de transporte (50,0%, cama de aviário (37,5%, suporte para peito (33,3% e água de lavagem de gaiola (25,0%. Considerando-se a combinação dos resultados encontrados entre amostras de cloaca

  11. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

  12. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  13. Exigências nutricionais de caprinos da raça Alpina em crescimento: 1. Exigência nutricional de fósforo para mantença: perdas endógenas e abate comparativo

    Queiroz Augusto César de; Gouveia Leonardo José de; Pereira José Carlos; Rodrigues Marcelo Teixeira; Resende Kleber Tomás De; Sousa Heloisa Maria Holtz

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a exigência dietética de fósforo (P) para mantença de caprinos da raça Alpina em crescimento pelo método das perdas endógenas e pela técnica do abate comparativo. Foram usados 21 animais, machos, castrados, com idade média de quatro a seis meses e 18 kg PV. Destes, três foram abatidos no início do experimento, como referência, e os 18 restantes, distribuídos em tratamentos com dietas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas, em um delineamento inteiramente casual...

  14. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino Enterotoxigenicity of Aeromonas sp. strains isolated from differents points in the cattle slaughtering processing line

    O.D. Rossi Júnior; L.A. Amaral; A. Nader Filho; R.P. Schocken-Iturrino

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas) ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7%) cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele i...

  15. Estimativa da gordura de cobertura ao abate, por ultra-som, em tourinhos Brangus e Nelore Prediction of backfat at slaughter, by ultrasound, in Nellore and Brangus young bulls

    Saulo da Luz e Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a viabilidade da utilização da ultra-sonografia para estimar a espessura de gordura na carcaça (EGSC no momento do abate. Foram confinados 24 machos inteiros Brangus e 24 Nelore com dietas contendo 20, 40, 60 ou 80% de concentrado. A área de olho de lombo (AOLU e a espessura de gordura (EGSU entre a 12ª e a 13ª costelas e a espessura de gordura sobre o músculo Biceps femoris (EGPU, foram obtidas com equipamento de ultra-som PieMedical Scanner 200 Vet com transdutor linear de 178 mm e guia acústica, a cada intervalo de aproximadamente 28 dias. Após 142 dias de confinamento, os animais foram abatidos e 24 h após foi obtida a EGSC. As correlações entre EGSU e EGSC foram de 0,19, 0,64, 0,74, 0,78, 0,82, 080 e 0,86, quando obtidas aos 0, 26, 53, 84, 109, 125 e 142 dias de confinamento. Equações de regressão múltipla entre raças para estimar a EGSC apresentaram R² = 0,10 e Sy,x = 2,04 quando realizadas 142 dias antes do abate e R² = 0,78 e Sy,x = 0,10 imediatamente antes do abate. Medidas de ultra-som podem ser úteis para classificar grupos de animais para abate em igual acabamento.The objective of this work was to verify the usefullness of ultrasound to estimate the carcass backfat thickness (EGSC at slaughter. Twenty four Brangus and 24 Nelore, intact males, were fed with diets containing 20, 40, 60 or 80% of concentrate. Ribeye area (AOLU and backfat thickness (EGSU between 12ª and 13ª ribs and the fat thickness over Biceps femoris muscle (EGPU were collected with a PieMedical Scanner 200 Vet equipment, with linear array transducer of 178 mm coupled with standoff guide, on intervals of approximately 28 days. After 142 days on fed, animals were slaughtered and the carcass backfat thickness (EGSC was taken, 24 hours after. The correlations between EGSU and EGSC were 0.19, 0.64, 0.74, 0.78, 0.82, 0.80 and 0.86 when taken at 0, 26, 53, 84, 109, 125 and 142 days on fed. Multiple regression

  16. Quasiconvex Programming

    Eppstein, David

    2004-01-01

    We define quasiconvex programming, a form of generalized linear programming in which one seeks the point minimizing the pointwise maximum of a collection of quasiconvex functions. We survey algorithms for solving quasiconvex programs either numerically or via generalizations of the dual simplex method from linear programming, and describe varied applications of this geometric optimization technique in meshing, scientific computation, information visualization, automated algorithm analysis, an...

  17. The program of the Department of Energy (DOE) about the end of the nuclear fuel cycle in the USA

    In January 2003, the US DOE published a report made by the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology about its 'Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative' (AFCI) program. This report treats of the end of the fuel cycle and of the different options of spent fuel reprocessing and transmutation. This article presents: the directives of the US congress (comparison between the different options, cost estimation, proliferation risk, strategy of facility setting up..), the general overview of the AFCI program (context, interaction between AFCI and Generation IV programs, optimization of the site for the ultimate storage of spent fuels (reduction of wastes volume), development of proliferation-resistant techniques of radioactivity abatement (evaluation of basic technologies, compatibility with transmutation, demonstration of efficiency). (J.S.)

  18. A two-stage inexact-stochastic programming model for planning carbon dioxide emission trading under uncertainty

    Chen, W.T.; Li, Y.F. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Y.P. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, G.H. [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chen, X. [Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology and Desert Environment, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China)

    2010-03-15

    In this study, a two-stage inexact-stochastic programming (TISP) method is developed for planning carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission trading under uncertainty. The developed TISP incorporates techniques of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and two-stage stochastic programming (TSP) within a general optimization framework. The TISP can not only tackle uncertainties expressed as probabilistic distributions and discrete intervals, but also provide an effective linkage between the pre-regulated greenhouse gas (GHG) management policies and the associated economic implications. The developed method is applied to a case study of energy systems and CO{sub 2} emission trading planning under uncertainty. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated. They can be used for generating decision alternatives and thus help decision makers identify desired GHG abatement policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints. (author)

  19. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise management program handbook

    Feather, Timothy D.; Shekell, Ted K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  20. Effective Programming

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  1. Program Fullerene

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  2. Programming F#

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  3. Programming Interactivity

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  4. Cicop program

    It is described the input data for using in the Cicop computer code in the Honeywell Bull computer of CNEN. It is a program to prepare microscopic cross section library in a proper format to be directly used by the Citation program from the Macroscopic cross section and isotope concentration. (Author)

  5. BASIC Programming.

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  6. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  7. Choreographic Programming

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... endpoint described in a choreography can then be automatically generated, ensuring that such implementations are safe by construction. However, current formal models for choreographies do not deal with critical aspects of distributed programming, such as asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...

  8. Preliminary data from {gamma}-cardiography during the abatement of an asthmatic attack (1961); Premieres donnees de la {gamma}-cardiographie au decours de l'etat de mal asthmatique (1961)

    Georges, R.; Vernejoul, P. de; Raynaud, C.; Blanchon, P.; Kellershohn, C.; Turiaf, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The authors used gamma cardiology during the abatement of 16 cases of asthma with a view to detecting heart attacks not otherwise visible with routine methods of examination: clinical, radiological and electro-cardio-graphical. In gamma cardiology, a radioactive indicator is used and its path followed in the cavities of the heart. The method makes it possible to study the circulation in the right heart, the pulmonary crossing, and the left heart, as well as evaluation of the heart-flow. As a result of their investigations the authors, after having discussed the significance of the data obtained with the method, suggest that it is possible by the use of gamma cardiography during the abatement of an asthma attack: 1- To confirm attacks of the right heart which have already been detected by ordinary methods. 2- To confirm the presence of modifications in the recorded curves which suggest, in the case of the left heart, possible attack; such on attack is also indicated, in a small number of cases, by electrocardiography curves. Some considerations are put forward by the authors concerning the physiopathology of attacks on the left heart. (authors) [French] Les auteurs ont fait appel a la gammacardiographie au decours de 16 cas d'etat de mal asthmatique, dans le but d'objectiver des atteintes cardiaques incapables d'etre revelees par les moyens d'exploration de routine: cliniques, radiologiques et electrocardiographiques. La gammacardiographie est un procede qui enregistre a l'aide d'un indicateur radioactif, le trajet de celui-ci dans les cavites cardiaques. Elle permet l'etude de la circulation dans le coeur droit, de la traversee pulmonaire, et le coeur gauche, de meme que le calcul du debit cardiaque. Au terme de leurs investigations, les auteurs apres avoir discute la signification des donnees fournies par la methode admettent que la gammacardiographie objective au secours de l'etat de mal asthmatique: 1- La confirmation de l

  9. Programming Python

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  10. NORD program

    A procedure of estimating the state of the WWER-1000 core power density on the basic of the in-core instrumentation system data is presented. A NORD program realizing this procedure in BASIC has been developed for on-line processing of experimental data. The program is designed for operation in dialog mode, has a service input-output unit and a unit for statistical processing of experimental results. The program makes it possible to evaluate quantitatively the differences of the power density fields obtained on the basis of readings taken from temperature control detectors and detectors of the neutron measuring channels. 5 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. Clean Coal Technology Program: Completing the mission. Comprehensive report to Congress

    1994-05-01

    With its roots in the acid rain debate of the 1980`s, the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program initially emphasized acid rain abatement technologies in its early phases. With the subsequent passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments and growing concern with global climate change, the emphasis of the Program shifted in the later rounds to highly efficient technologies. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 provides a background of the CCT Program including the legislative history, the projects currently in the program, and the lessons that have been learned from the five rounds to date. Chapter 3 discusses the commercial potential of the technologies represented in the program and is based on a continuing series of interviews that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to solicit the views of senior management in those companies and organizations that will be making or affecting commercial decisions on the use of these technologies. Chapter 4 provides an accounting of the funds that have been appropriated for the CCT Program. Chapter 5 presents the options available for the Government to further assist in the commercial implementation of these technologies. Chapter 6 presents a discussion of these options with recommendations.

  12. Fertilidade de solos afectados por práticas de silvicultura intensiva : 1. Efeitos da gestão dos resíduos de abate e da sua composição química nas dinâmicas do C e do N

    Azevedo, António; M. Madeira; Hilário, L.; Marques, P.

    2004-01-01

    Estudou-se o efeito da gestão dos resíduos de abate (folhas, cascas e ramos), nas dinâmicas do C e do N, em plantações adultas de Eucalyptus globulus, estabelecidas em Arenossolos na região Centro de Portugal (39º 15’ N, 8º 59’ W). Os tratamentos consistiram na redistribuição dos resíduos de abate na superfície do solo (S) e na sua incorporação por gradagem (I). O posicionamento dos resíduos no solo influenciou significativamente a decomposição dos mesmos, verificando-se que os resíduos incor...

  13. Program overview

    The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex

  14. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  15. [Mentoring program].

    Watanabe, N

    2001-11-01

    Due to drastic changes in the business environment and prolonged recession, stress management practices in business organizations have been encountering two kinds of problems: budget cuts and difficulties in the delivery of services. The feasibility of mentoring programs to cope with these two problems is discussed. Through an extensive review of the literature, it becomes clear that mentoring programs have the following features and advantages; (1) One to one relationship between elder mentor and younger protégé has a favorable effect on the both mentor and protégé's mental health. (2) Formal mentoring programs are widely used in the U.S. for the prevention of juvenile delinquency, professional education, and human resource development in business settings. (3) Mentoring programs, in general, are practiced with the cooperation of kindred volunteers and professionals who monitor the mentor-protégé relationships. (4) Since a mentoring program utilizes a wide range of human resources in work organizations, it is able to overcome the "budget and delivery" problems. Further discussions are about the comparison with listener programs as well as the relationship with the total human resource management system. PMID:11802451

  16. Chance-constrained/stochastic linear programming model for acid rain abatement—I. Complete colinearity and noncolinearity

    Ellis, J. H.; McBean, E. A.; Farquhar, G. J.

    A Linear Programming model is presented for development of acid rain abatement strategies in eastern North America. For a system comprised of 235 large controllable point sources and 83 uncontrolled area sources, it determines the least-cost method of reducing SO 2 emissions to satisfy maximum wet sulfur deposition limits at 20 sensitive receptor locations. In this paper, the purely deterministic model is extended to a probabilistic form by incorporating the effects of meteorologic variability on the long-range pollutant transport processes. These processes are represented by source-receptor-specific transfer coefficients. Experiments for quantifying the spatial variability of transfer coefficients showed their distributions to be approximately lognormal with logarithmic standard deviations consistently about unity. Three methods of incorporating second-moment random variable uncertainty into the deterministic LP framework are described: Two-Stage Programming Under Uncertainty (LPUU), Chance-Constrained Programming (CCP) and Stochastic Linear Programming (SLP). A composite CCP-SLP model is developed which embodies the two-dimensional characteristics of transfer coefficient uncertainty. Two probabilistic formulations are described involving complete colinearity and complete noncolinearity for the transfer coefficient covariance-correlation structure. Complete colinearity assumes complete dependence between transfer coefficients. Complete noncolinearity assumes complete independence. The completely colinear and noncolinear formulations are considered extreme bounds in a meteorologic sense and yield abatement strategies of largely didactic value. Such strategies can be characterized as having excessive costs and undesirable deposition results in the completely colinear case and absence of a clearly defined system risk level (other than expected-value) in the noncolinear formulation.

  17. On Guangxi's CO_2 Abatement by Using Catastrophe Progression Method and Scenario Analysis Method%基于突变级数法与情景分析法的广西CO_2减排研究

    蒙瑞海

    2012-01-01

    Based on related indices from the year 1978 to 2009,using catastrophe progression method,Guangxi's CO2 emissions are analyzed and evaluated.By using scenario analysis method,the impact of different scenarios on Guangxi's CO2 emissions is analyzed,and Guangxi's CO2 emissions of year 2015 are forecasted under different scenarios,in order to make reasonable suggestions for Guangxi's CO2 abatement.%依据广西1978—2009年CO2排放的相关指标数据,采用突变级数法对广西1978—2009年CO2减排作出了相关分析评价.在此基础上,运用情景分析法预测不同情景下广西2015年CO2排放,分析不同情景选择对广西CO2排放的影响,以期为广西开展CO2减排提出合理化建议.

  18. CO{sub 2} capture - technologies for greenhouse gas emissions abatement; Le captage du CO{sub 2} - des technologies pour reduire les emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Lecomte, F.; Broutin, P.; Lebas, E

    2009-07-01

    CO{sub 2} capture and geologic sequestration is now recognized as one of the technologies to implement for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and to fight against global warming. Where, how and at what price CO{sub 2} can be captured? This book tries to answer these questions by taking stock of the state-of-the-art of the technologies needed. It presents the three main ways involving CO{sub 2} capture technologies that have been considered: the post-combustion way which aims at extracting the CO{sub 2} content of industrial smokes; the oxi-combustion way which consists in using oxygen combustion to obtain CO{sub 2}-enriched smokes; and the pre-combustion way which is used to extract carbon from the source fuel for the production of hydrogen. For each of these ways, the technologies available today or under development are described with precision and with their respective costs. (J.S.)

  19. The abatement of indigo carmine using active chlorine electrogenerated on ternary Sb2O5-doped Ti/RuO2-ZrO2 anodes in a filter-press FM01-LC reactor

    Dimensionally Stable Anodes (DSA) of Sb2O5-doped Ti/RuO2-ZrO2 are prepared by the Pechini method to perform the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) under conditions similar to textile wastewater effluents. XRD results along with Rietveld refinement reveal that the co-deposited phases on the DSA exhibit a tetragonal crystal structure (P4/mmm) for RuO2 and monoclinic structure (P2/m) for ZrO2. Degradation tests conducted in solutions containing 0.64 mM IC and 0.05 M NaCl using a filter-press reactor (FM01-LC) show that the degradation rate is faster and more efficient at 200 A m−2 with a flow rate of 5 L min−1, although the energy consumption is moderately higher. Under this condition, the pollutant is efficiently removed, and converted to aliphatic acid compounds of low molecular weight, as indicated by 90 % Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 22 % Total Organic Carbon (TOC) elimination, along with an Average Oxidation State (AOS) value equal to 3.0. The energy consumptions revealed that it is feasible to carry out the IC degradation under reasonable operating costs. Topological and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses are computed using density functional theory (DFT), and combined with experimental results to propose a reaction pathway for IC abatement

  20. Integer programming

    Conforti, Michele; Zambelli, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    This book is an elegant and rigorous presentation of integer programming, exposing the subject’s mathematical depth and broad applicability. Special attention is given to the theory behind the algorithms used in state-of-the-art solvers. An abundance of concrete examples and exercises of both theoretical and real-world interest explore the wide range of applications and ramifications of the theory. Each chapter is accompanied by an expertly informed guide to the literature and special topics, rounding out the reader’s understanding and serving as a gateway to deeper study. Key topics include: formulations polyhedral theory cutting planes decomposition enumeration semidefinite relaxations Written by renowned experts in integer programming and combinatorial optimization, Integer Programming is destined to become an essential text in the field.

  1. Programming Algol

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J

    2014-01-01

    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  2. Programming Interactivity

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  3. Influência da castração e da idade de abate sobre as características subjetivas e instrumentais da carne de cordeiros Corriedale Effects of castration and slaughtering age on the subjective and instrumental characteristics of meat from Corriedale lambs

    Eunice de Leon Rota

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da castração e da idade de abate sobre as características subjetivas e instrumentais da carne de cordeiros Corriedale criados em condições extensivas de pastagem natural. Foram utilizados 60 cordeiros machos (30 não-castrados e 30 castrados abatidos no ano de 2003, aos 120, 210 e 360 dias de idade, nos meses de fevereiro, maio e outubro, respectivamente. As avaliações da carne foram realizadas no músculo Longissimus dorsi. Pela análise da variância, verificou-se que não houve efeito da interação castração × idade de abate nas características estudadas. Foi encontrada significância para a idade de abate nas características subjetivas espessura de gordura de cobertura e marmoreio (os índices foram mais baixos nos animais mais velhos e em todas as características instrumentais avaliadas, principalmente maciez, que diminuiu com o aumento da idade de abate. O efeito da castração foi significativo somente no componente de cor L*. A qualidade da carne foi similar entre cordeiros Corriedale castrados e não-castrados criados extensivamente em pastagem natural, entretanto, a idade de abate influenciou a qualidade da carne, que foi melhor nos animais abatidos aos 120 dias.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of castration and slaughtering age on subjective and instrumental characteristics of meat from Corriedale lambs raised on native pasture. Sixty male lambs (30 castrated and 30 intact slaughtered at 120, 210 and 360 days of age were used in this experiment. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was used for all meat evaluations and analysis. No significant castration × slaughtering age interaction was observed for the studied variables. A significant slaughtering age effect was found for meat fat thickness and marbling, which had lower scores in animals slaughtered at more advanced age as well as for all instrumental characteristics of the meat, mainly

  4. SLED program

    A FORTRAN program is described which, for a given cavity and timing, yields all fields as a (piecewise) function of time, and which, for any mix of SLEDded and non-SLEDded klystrons of any given energy/klystron, yields the SLED operation parameters. The note explains the input and output parameters as they appear in the code output. 3 figures, 19 tables

  5. ORGEL program

    none

    1963-09-01

    Parameter optimization studies for an ORGEL power plant are reported, and the ESSOR test reactor used in the program is described. Research at Ispra in reactor physics, technology, metallurgy, heat transfer, chemistry, and physical chemistry associated with ORGEL development is also summarized. (D.C.W.)

  6. Tempo de jejum na granja sobre o perfil hormonal e os parâmetros fisiológicos em suínos de abate pesados Fasting time at farm on hormonal status and physiological parameters of heavy-weight slaughter pigs

    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o tempo de jejum na granja e a posição dos animais na carroceria do caminhão durante o transporte ao abatedouro sobre o status hormonal e fisiológico de suínos de abate pesados visando obter melhorias no manejo pré-abate e reduzir perdas na qualidade de carne. Foram utilizadas 64 fêmeas com peso médio de 133+11kg, oriundas de duas granjas de terminação. Os tempos de jejum avaliados foram nove, 12, 15 e 18h, enquanto que as posições consideradas na carroceria foram box (frente, meio e atrás, piso (inferior e superior e lado (lateral direita e esquerda. Ao abate, foram medidos os níveis de glicose, lactato e CPK no sangue. A concentração de cortisol na saliva (CCS foi medida nas granjas (24 horas antes e após embarque e no abatedouro (logo após o descarregamento e antes do abate. A freqüência cardíaca foi monitorada durante todo o manejo pré-abate. Foi observado o efeito da interação entre TJG e o local de avaliação sobre a CCS e a freqüência cardíaca. A CCS e a freqüência cardíaca aumentaram significativamente da granja ao desembarque no abatedouro em relação ao descanso pré-abate no abatedouro foi observada uma redução (P0,05 os níveis de glicose, lactato e CPK no abate dos suínos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fasting time on the farm (TJG and the position of the animals on truck compartment during transport to slaughterhouse in the hormonal and physiological status of heavy-weight swine in order to obtain future management improvements and to reduce meat quality downgrades. Sixty-four females obtained from two farms and averaging 133+11kg body weight were used. Fasting time evaluated on farms were 9, 12, 15 and 18 h while the positions considered in the truck were Box (front, middle, and back, Deck (under and upper level e Side (right and left. Swine blood concentration of glucose, lactate and CPK were evaluated at slaughter. Cortisol concentration

  7. Program overview: Subsurface science program

    The OHER Subsurface Science Program is DOE's core basic research program concerned with subsoils and groundwater. These practices have resulted in contamination by mixtures of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. A primary long-term goal is to provide a foundation of knowledge that will lead to the reduction of environmental risks and to cost-effective cleanup strategies. Since the Program was initiated in 1985, a substantial amount of research in hydrogeology, subsurface microbiology, and the geochemistry of organically complexed radionuclides has been completed, leading to a better understanding of contaminant transport in groundwater and to new insights into microbial distribution and function in the subsurface environments. The Subsurface Science Program focuses on achieving long-term scientific advances that will assist DOE in the following key areas: providing the scientific basis for innovative in situ remediation technologies that are based on a concept of decontamination through benign manipulation of natural systems; understanding the complex mechanisms and process interactions that occur in the subsurface; determining the influence of chemical and geochemical-microbial processes on co-contaminant mobility to reduce environmental risks; improving predictions of contaminant transport that draw on fundamental knowledge of contaminant behavior in the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneities to improve cleanup effectiveness and to predict environmental risks

  8. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  9. Linear programming

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  10. Biological programming

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  11. Program summary

    The operating, construction, and development activities of the Department of Energy in the areas of uranium enrichment are described. The DOE supplies the enrichment service through toll enrichment contracts with foreign and domestic utilities by enriching uranium supplied by the utility to the desired U-235 level. This role will continue well into the next century. In addition it provides enriched uranium for US Government needs and for R and D purposes. At the present time, almost all the world's capacity to produce enriched uranium uses the gaseous diffusion process. The United States built the first gaseous diffusion plant during World War II. Later this plant was expanded and two additional plants were built. There is presently a $1.5 billion improvement and uprating program near completion which will improve the plant efficiency and increase the total capacity of the three plants by 60 percent to 27.3 million SWU per year. The Administration's energy message in 1977 provided for a further expansion of this capacity by using gas centrifuge technology. The new gas centrifuge plant is being built near the existing GDP near Portsmouth, Ohio. The normal capacity of an 8 building process plant will be 13.2 million SWU per year. The first 2.2 million SWU of capacity is scheduled to be available in 1989. The remaining capacity will be added as needed to meet demand and the overall goal of the program. The goal of the Uranium Enrichment Program is to meet domestic, foreign, and US Government requirements for uranium enrichment services in an economical, reliable, safe and environmentally acceptable manner. To ensure accomplishment of this goal, the overall program is broken down into three areas of implementation; Enrichment Operations; Capacity Upgrading Operations; and Business Operations

  12. Aplicação do programa Seis Sigma em uma indústria de abate de frangos - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i2.527

    Roselis Natalina Mazzuchetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a indústria de abate de frango busca fortalecer seus processos, visando atender às necessidades de mercado e, para contribuir com o desenvolvimento desses processos, novos métodos têm sido implantados, entre os quais se destaca o programa Seis Sigma. O presente estudo mostra a utilização deste Programa em um abatedouro de frangos com o objetivo de demonstrar as melhores práticas para a definição e condução de um projeto centrado na melhoria da qualidade dos processos. Para tanto, foram definidos a metodologia e os critérios para a identificação de problemas e a seleção de projetos, além de se ter aplicado o programa Seis Sigma com a utilização do DMAIC em um projeto previamente selecionado, buscando-se demonstrar o desenvolvimento do Programa e utilizando-se mapa de raciocínio. A aplicação do projeto é demonstrada em seis fases, por meio de um mapa de raciocínio para cada fase ou etapa do programa, que detalha as técnicas estatísticas utilizadas até a fase do plano de ação. As fases de verificação e padronização dos processos não são contempladas neste estudo. Os resultados finais demonstram os benefícios da utilização do Programa e a importância da manutenção de banco de dados com o envolvimento das pessoas para o seu sucesso.

  13. NO{sub x}-abatement in bio-fuelled combustion units through catalytic reburning; Minskning av NO{sub x}-emissioner fraan biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar genom katalytisk reburning

    Silversand, F.A. [Katator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    A study concerning the possibility of using catalytic reburning in the abatement of nitrogen oxides from bio-fuelled combustion units has been accomplished. In catalytic reburning, the fuel is combusted at a low excess-air-ratio to minimize the necessary amount of reburning gas added downstream the combustion chamber. The reburning fuel (a reducing agent, e.g. natural gas or LPG) will react catalytically with oxygen and nitrogen oxides in the reburning catalyst to produce carbon oxides, water and nitrogen. Secondary air is injected downstream the reburning catalyst to facilitate an effective combustion of remaining CO and hydrocarbons in the oxidation catalyst, usually in a tail-end position. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale combustion unit (10-20 kW{sub fuel} for pellets of bio-fuel). The results indicate possible conversion degrees of 90% with respect to nitrogen oxides, without increased emissions of CO and hydrocarbons. The economic evaluation indicates a great sensitivity to the price of the reburning fuel. Problems with uneven flow conditions and concentration gradients are expected to reduce the performance of catalytic reburning. Damages caused by corrosion at low oxygen concentrations are likely to occur in positions with high metal temperatures, e.g. in the super-heater-portion of the flue-gas-channel. Hydrocarbon-SCR is an alternative method to obtain a reasonable reduction of the emissions of nitrogen oxides. Small amounts of certain hydrocarbons (e.g. LPG) are added to the flue-gas-stream at a normal excess-air-ratio to obtain a conversion degree of 50 - 70% over a transition-metal-exchanged zeolite catalyst. Continued experiments should focus on installations in large bio-fuelled appliances, where a detailed technical and economical evaluation is possible. Especially catalyst deactivation needs to be evaluated further.

  14. Simulação da dinâmica operacional de uma linha industrial de abate de suínos Dynamic operacional simulation of an industrial slaughterline for swine

    Carlos Aparecido Fernandes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo implementar um modelo computacional para simular a dinâmica operacional de uma linha industrial de abate de suínos. O sistema real modelado pertence à empresa Frigorífico Frimesa, sediada no município de Medianeira (PR. O modelo implementado é tipo dinâmico, discreto e estocástico. Este simula 34 operações unitárias e foi estruturado com o uso da linguagem de simulação EXTEND TM. Para validação do modelo foram coletados dados relativos a cinco dias de operação, em que foram abatidos 1.346, 1.630, 1.360, 1.585 e 1.550 suínos, respectivamente. Como parâmetros de comparação entre os dados obtidos a partir do sistema e gerados pelo modelo foram selecionadas as seguintes variáveis: (i tempo de duração da operação; (ii tempo de deslocamento da insensibilização até a depiladeira; (iii tempo deslocamento da insensibilização até a câmara fria; (iv número de carcaças re-inspecionadas; e (v número final de carcaças. Na validação do modelo, foi constatado que, para a variável tempo de duração da operação por meio do teste Tukey a 1% de significância, não foram detectadas diferenças estatísticas entre os valores obtidos do sistema real e os gerados pelo modelo. Considerando-se esta e outras análises, foi concluído que o modelo aplica-se à finalidade para a qual foi implementado. Sendo assim, foram realizadas duas análises de sensibilidade. Na primeira, ao alterar o número de suínos a abater de 1 mil para 2 mil, foi determinado que os tempos de duração da operação variariam de 6,20 a 10,10 h, respectivamente. Para a segunda, ao abater 1.340 suínos e alterar a velocidade das nórias de 300 para 600 animais por hora, o tempo de duração da operação passou de 8,10 para 7,40 h, respectivamente.This work was carried out with the objective to implement a computational model for simulating the dynamics of an industrial slaughtering for swine. Modeled real system belongs

  15. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. PMID:21067860

  16. Economic efficiency of CO2 reduction programs

    A highly simplified time-dependent low-dimensional system has been designed to describe conceptually the interaction of climate and economy. Enhanced emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) is understood as the agent that not only favors instantaneous consumption but also causes unfavorable climate changes at a later time. The problem of balancing these two counterproductive effects of CO2 emissions on a finite time horizon is considered. The climate system is represented by just two parameters, namely a globally averaged near-surface air-temperature and a globally averaged troposheric CO2 concentration. The costs of abating CO2 emissions are monitored by a function which depends quadratically on the percentage reduction of emission compared to an 'uncontrolled emission' scenario. Parameters are fitted to historical climate data and to estimates from studies of CO2 abatement costs. Two optimization approaches, which differ from earlier attempts to describe the interaction of economy and climate, are discussed. In the 'cost oriented' strategy an optimal emission path is identified which balances the abatement costs and explicitly formulated damage costs. These damage costs, whose estimates are very uncertain, are hypothesized to be a linear function of the time-derivative of temperature. In the 'target oriented' strategy an emission path is chosen so that the abatement costs are minimal while certain restrictions on the terminal temperature and concentration change are met. (orig.)

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Full Text Available ... Standards News Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison ... Validation Programs Accredited Education Institutes CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Program for Validation and Verification of ...

  18. Programming Pig

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  19. RADARSAT program

    Mcnally, J.; Parashar, S.

    1993-01-01

    Work on the RADARSAT system is progressing towards the currently scheduled launch date of early 1995. The spacecraft bus and the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload are at various stages of development. Requirements for the ground segment have been mostly established. The design of the ground elements such as the mission control facility and the SAR data processor is underway. The SAR applications development work is continuing and the chosen distributor, RADARSAT International Inc. (RSI) is making preparations to market RADARSAT data internationally. A plan for the follow-on to RADARSAT 1 is being finalized to ensure continuity of SAR data under the Radarsat program.

  20. Programming Razor

    Chadwick, Jess

    2011-01-01

    Take Razor for a test drive and discover first hand how this scripting syntax simplifies the way you create dynamic, data-driven websites. With this concise guide, you'll work with Razor syntax by building example websites with Microsoft WebMatrix and ASP.NET MVC. You'll quickly learn how Razor lets you combine code and content in a fluid and expressive manner on Windows-based servers. Programming Razor also explores components of the Razor API, and shows you how Razor templates are turned into rendered HTML. By the end of this book, you'll be able to create Razor-based websites with custom