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Sample records for abanico east formation

  1. Abanico East Formation: petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks behind the Cenozoic arc front in the Andean Cordillera, central Chile (33°50'S

    Marcia Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphy, chemistry and age of rocks assigned to the eastern portion of the Abanico Formation exposed along the El Volcán river valley, Principal Cordillera east of Santiago (30º50'S/70º12'-70º5'W, are reported and discussed. This ca. 3,300 m thick succession is mainly composed of basalts, basaltic andesites and volcaniclastic rocks. 40Ar/39Ar radiometric dates on plagioclase from the lava flows yield Oligocene-lower Miocene ages with a maximum age of 34.3 ±0.4 Ma for the lower part and a plateau age of 21.4±1.0 Ma for the upper part of the succession. The lava flows show calc-alkaline affinities and have chemical characteristics that are typical of arc volcanic rocks erupted in an active continental margin. A temporal chemical evolution in the sequence is indicated by upward increases in concentrations of LILE and LREE elements and LaN/YbN ratios. This pattern can be attributed to increasing contributions of fluids derived from the subducted lithosphere with time. A chemical comparison of these rocks with Oligocene-lower Miocene volcanic rocks from the Cerro Abanico and Chacabuco areas on the western border of the Principal Cordillera, east of Santiago, and at the northern end of the Central Depression reveals west to east compositional variations. From west to east these variations include: (1 increasing LILE and LREE concentrations, LaN/YbN ratios and Sr and Nd initial isotopic ratios, and (2 decreasing LILE/HFSE and LREE/HFSE ratios. These pattern can be attributed to a west to east decrease in the contribution of slab derived fluids and increase in the influence of crustal contamination processesLa formación Abanico Este: petrología y geoquímica de las rocas volcánicas detrás del arco Cenozoico en la Cordillera Andina, Chile central (33º50'S. Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la estratigrafía, química y edades de rocas asignadas a la franja oriental de la Formación Abanico expuestas en la ladera sur del R

  2. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro; MIT EGS Lab Team

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  3. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

    Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico). Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para i...

  4. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico. Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para integrar la información en estructuras complejas de información.

  5. Sobre el variable marco geotectónico de las formarciones Abanico y Farellones y sus equivalentes al ser de los 35°LS

    Estanislao Godoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Cenozoico de la Cordillera Principal andina, en su vertiente pacífica entre los 32° y 35°S predominan rocas volcánicas y volcanoclásticas, las que han sido agrupadas en dos formaciones: Farellones y Abanico. Se presentan aquí nuevas edades Ar- Ar de 15 Ma en rocas del techo de la Formación Abanico, las cuales confirman que el volcanismo mioceno de la sobrepuesta Formación Farellones, concordante sobre edificios volcánicos erosionados de la formación infrayacente, es diacrónico. El volcanismo calcoalcalino de Farellones comenzó al inicio del Mioceno a los 32° y recién a mediados del Mioceno a los 34°. Esta diacronía es compatible con una mayor y más temprana inversión de la "cuenca Abanico" en el sector norte, la cual estaría ligada a un mayor control de basamento, expresado como un fuerte acortamiento de edad miocena. La corteza presenta otro comportamiento al sur de los 36° S. Ocurre allí un evento orogénico cretácico tardío y el volcanismo mioceno primero desaparece para luego pasar a ocupar áreas restringidas, desplazadas hacia el antepaís. Parte importante del magmatismo de esa edad está representado ahora, en Chile, por masas batolíticas que habrían actuado amortiguando el acortamiento. Un proceso semejante habría ocurrido al sur de los 39°S, en Argentina, donde sucesiones de edades equivalentes a Abanico y Farellones se depositaron sobre un rígido basamento paleozoico. Éste habría actuado reduciendo la deformación, incluso del posterior relleno volcánico plio-pleistoceno reconocido en fosas tectónicas de dicha área.Volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks grouped into the Farellones and Abanico formations make up most of the western Andean Main Range between 32° and 35°SL New 15 Ma Ar-Ar ages from the top of the latter formations show that the overlying succession, which locally onlaps eroded volcanic edifices, is diachronic. The calcalkaline Farellones volcanic activity started during the earliest

  6. Caracterización y modelo de abanicos aluviales en la cuenca Estefaniense de Rengos (Asturias

    Santos García, J. A.

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available The Stephanian deposits of the Rengos Basin are studied in this paper from a sedimenlological point of view. Five lithostratigraphic units are stablished. They are organised in four megasequences which have been attributed lo minar tectonic movements on the northern border. Most of the infilling of the basin was relaled lo longitudinal input of alluvial sediments along former fluvial val1eys. Lateral supply of sediment was developed. After analysing lateral and vertical variations of these material in the first megasequence a transition from proximal lo and distal facies was deduced. The existence of a threshold in the Riolorno zone has been deduced. From the previous data we conclude that these materials deposited in alluvial fans. A model of fan and its dynamic evolution is proposed.En este trabajo se estudia la sedimentología de los depósitos estefanienses, de la cuenca de Rengas. Se establecen 5 unidades litoestratigráficas, dispuestas en 4 megasecuencias, atribuidas a pulsos tectónicos menores sobre el borde norte de la cuenca. El relleno de la cuenca, se realizó condicionado fundamentalmente por los aportes longitudinales de ríos de abanicos aluviales, a lo largo de antiguos valles, mientras que los aportes laterales presentan menor importancia. La variación lateral y vertical de los materiales, en la primera megasecuencia, queda representada por una transición de facies proximales a distales de abanicos aluviales. Se determina la presencia de un umbral en la zona de Riotorno. Finalmente, se establece un modelo de abanico aluvial y su evolución dinámica.

  7. Catahoula Formation as uranium source rock in East Texas

    The Oligocene-Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas Gulf coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, it consists of stream-transported detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent Mexico. This volcaniclastic component has altered to release uranium to mineralization processes in the lower Gulf Coast, but there has not been uranium production in the middle and upper Gulf Coast. To evaluate the potential of the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain for uranium ore deposits, a geochemical study was undertaken. The Catahoula Formation was analyzed for U, Th, K, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Ti to estimate the nature of volcanic glass and its abundance and alteration. Concentrations from three key outcrops were compared. They were also compared to samples from a volcanic area in Trans-Pecos Texas, which is chemically appropriate as a source for the volcanic material in the Catahoula Formation. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, where uranium is produced, the glassy volcanic material has been pervasively altered, but in the upper coastal plain much glass remains. Because glass alteration is necessary for uranium release and concentration, the potential is low for large, shallow uranium ore bodies in the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain

  8. Los sistemas defensivos del castellum de Tamuda. ¿Torres de planta en abanico?

    Bermejo Meléndez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tamuda’s castle, situated next to Tetuan (Morocco, is one the best example of roman military architecture in the Mauritanians Provincies as much for his conservation as dates that we have thanks to the different campaigns developed to Spanish protectorate and today for the University of Huelva. One of more original aspects in this sense are the architectonics dates that we have of different areas of this castellum, specially about SE and NW towers traditionally adscript as fan, hypothesis that today must to be modified since exists news dates.El castellum de Tamuda, ubicado en las proximidades de la actual Tetuán (Marruecos, supone uno de los mejores ejemplos de arquitectura militar romana en las provincias mauritanas tanto por el grado de conservación como por los datos que hasta la fecha se tienen gracias a las campañas de excavación desarrolladas durante el periodo del protectorado español y las que actualmente se están llevando a cabo por parte de la Universidad de Huelva. Uno de los aspectos más novedosos a este respecto son los datos arqueoarquitectónicos que se desprenden del análisis paramental realizado en diversas partes de este campamento, de los cuales tendrán especial relevancia las torres SE y NO tradicionalmente adscritas como de abanico, planteamiento que a día de hoy debe ser modificado dado los nuevos datos con los que se cuentan.

  9. Formation Mechanism and Controlling Factors of Natural Gas Reservoirs of the Jialingjiang Formation in the East Sichuan Basin

    2007-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs are distributed widely in the East Sichuan Basin, which are composed mainly of fractured reservoirs. However, natural gas with high concentration of H2S, ranging from 4% to 7%, was discovered in the Wolonghe Gas pool consisting primarily of porous reservoirs, while the other over 20 fractured gas reservoirs have comparatively low, tiny and even no H2S within natural gases. Researches have proved the H2S of the above reservoirs are all from the TSR origin. Most of the Jialingjiang Formation natural gases are mainly generated from Lower Permian carbonate rocks, the Wolonghe gas pool's natural gases are from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation, and the natural gases of the Huangcaoxia and Fuchengzhai gas pools are all from Lower Silurian mudstone. The formation of H2S is controlled by the characteristics and temperature of reservoirs, and is not necessarily related with gas sources. The Jialingjiang Formation in East Sichuan is buried deeply and its reservoir temperature has ever attained the condition of the TSR reaction. Due to poor reservoir potential, most of the gas pools do not have enough room for hydrocarbon reaction except for the Wolonghe gas pool, and thus natural gases with high H2S concentration are difficult to be generated abundantly. The south part of East Sichuan did not generate natural gases with high H2S concentration because the reservoir was buried relatively shallow, and did not suffer high temperature. Hence, while predicting the distribution of H2S, the characteristics and temperature of reservoirs are the necessary factors to be considerd besides the existence of anhydrite.

  10. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment.

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  11. Catahoula formation as a source of sedimentary uranium deposits in east Texas

    Volcanic glass-rich mudstone and siltstone samples from the Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula formation of Jasper County, Texas, and coeval volcaniclastic rock samples from Trans-Pecos, Texas, have been compared as to U, Th, Zr, Ti, K, Rb, and Sr contents. Uranium is slightly greater in the distal ash (5.85 ppM U) compared to the Trans-Pecos samples (average 5.41 ppM U). Diagenetic and pedogenetic alteration of Catahoula volcanic glass releases uranium to solution and, under favorable conditions, this uranium may accumulate to form ore bodies. Uranium has been produced from such ore bodies in south Texas, but economic deposits are not known in east Texas. Significant differences between south and east Texas include: (1) a greater amount of volcanic debris delivered to south Texas, both as air-fall ash and stream-transported material, (2) delivery of only air-fill ash to east Texas, (3) the possibility of more petroleum-related reductants such as H2S in south Texas, and (4) pervasive glass alteration with subsequent uranium release in south Texas due to late calichification. These differences argue against economic deposits of the south Texas type being found in east Texas. If economic deposits occur they are likely to be far downdip making exploration difficult and expensive

  12. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

    Diosdado Baena García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  13. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales UNAPAL - Abanico 75: new butternut squash cultivar, with high dry matter content in fruit for agribusiness purposes.

    Diosdado Baena García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.Using three diallel crosses among populations of butternut squash, with different levels of inbreeding (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, two hybrids and two inbred lines of butternut squash were selected, for its high dry matter content in fruit and plant production. Seven hybrid populations were formed from the selected genotypes. They are genetically stabilized by fraternal crossing and were evaluated in different environments of Valle del Cauca. Population one was selected, which presented a plant production between 29 to 32 kg; average fruit weight between 5 -6 kg; 4-5 fruit per plant; dry matter in fruit among 24-26%; globular form ribbed bright green external color and deep yellow to orange flesh color (12 to 14 Roche Fan. This population was registered in Institute Colombian Agropecuario ICA, under the name UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  14. Stratigraphy, provenance, and diagenesis of the Cretaceous Horse Range Formation, east Otago, New Zealand

    The Horse Range Formation is a structurally controlled late Early Cretaceous to early Late Cretaceous nonmarine unit in east Otago, South Island, New Zealand, containing immature lithic debris. Clasts are generally rounded, with only minor subangular material. The formation contains clasts derived from two principal basement sources: schist and greywacke. Schist debris is most abundant at the base of the described section, and this material is dominated (>60%) by quartz from the greenschist facies core of the Otago Schist belt. Conglomerates with >70% greywacke clasts constitute most of the upper part of the Horse Range Formation. These greywacke conglomerates have a matrix of sand derived mainly from schist. A 60 m thick wedge of quartz-rich, locally carbonaceous sand occurs interlayered with greywacke conglomerates. The Horse Range Formation rests on sub-greenschist facies semischist, which forms only a small proportion (18OSMOW near +24 permil and δ13CPDB near -2 permil, and was partly dissolved and redeposited from the immature basement debris (metamorphic calcite) and partly introduced from overlying Late Cretaceous and Teriary marine sediments by groundwater. (author). 43 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The formation of a cold-core eddy in the East Australian Current

    Macdonald, H. S.; Roughan, M.; Baird, M. E.; Wilkin, J.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-core eddies (CCEs) frequently form in western boundary currents and can affect continental shelf processes. It is not always clear, however, if baroclinic or barotropic instabilities contribute more to their formation. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) is used to investigate the ocean state during the formation of a CCE in the East Australian Current (EAC) during October 2009. The observed eddy initially appeared as a small billow (approx. 50 km in length) that perturbed the landward edge of the EAC. The billow grew into a mesoscale CCE (approx. 100 km in diameter), diverting the EAC around it. A ROMS simulation with a realistic wind field reproduced a similar eddy. This eddy formed from negative vorticity waters found on the continental shelf south of the EAC separation point. A sensitivity analysis is performed whereby the impact of 3 different wind forcing scenarios, upwelling, downwelling, and no winds, are investigated. A CCE formed in all wind scenarios despite the wind induced changes in hydrographic conditions in the continental shelf and slope waters. As such, the source of energy for eddy formation did not come from the interactions of wind with the continental shelf waters. Analysis of strain and energy transformation confirms this by showing that the prevailing source of CCE energy was kinetic energy of the offshore EAC. These results clearly link the formation of the CCE to the swift flowing EAC and barotropic instabilities.

  16. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of upper Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, east-central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Roberts, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Surface mapping of the basal Mesozoic La Casita Formation (upper Upper Jurassic) in east-central Chihuahua, Mexico, indicates initial Mesozoic sedimentation occurred in a segmented, interconnected subbasin of the Chihuahua trough. La Casite Formation (1200 m thick) is a tectonostratigraphic unit resting with angular unconformity on the Lower Permian Plomosas Formation. It consists primarily of siliciclastic material with sporadic interbedded limestones. The dominant lithofacies, approximately 1000 m thick, consists of turbiditic sandstone units (10-20 m) alternating with thicker, monotonous shale sequences. In the mapped area (approximately 30 km/sup 2/), flute cast measurements indicate flows from both the northeast (N20/degree/E) and southwest (S58/degree/W). Turbiditic sandstone units appear to pinch out and/or interfinger as they extend from the north and south into the central portion of the area. The initial opening of the Chihuahua trough is often associated with Late Jurassic block faulting, related to development of the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Synrift depositional sequences of a similar age have been described in southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, and western Chiapas, Mexico. The subbasin (graben ) examined here may be ascribed a paleoposition near the western edge of the early Chihuahua trough. The western boundary of the early trough may have comprised a series of these subbasins, forming a cuspate or serrated coastline. Late Jurassic ammonites recovered from this and other localities along the length of the Chihuahua trough suggest that the subbasins were interconnected by means of an eastern continuous seaway.

  17. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation. PMID:12859005

  18. Massive Star Formation of the Sgr A East HII Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Whitney, B; Bushouse, H; Roberts, D A; Arendt, R G

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact HII regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of ~6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [NeII] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, HST Pa alpha and Spitzer IRAC observations of the most compact member of the HII group, Sgr A East HII D. The radio continuum image at 6cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The SED of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25\\pm3 solar mass, star with a luminosity of 8\\pm3x10^4 solar luminosity. The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x10^...

  19. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  20. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION OF THE SGR A EAST H II REGIONS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km s-1 molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of ∼6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 μm) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Paα, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 ± 3 Msun star with a luminosity of 8 ± 3 x 104 Lsun. The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3 x 104 years giving a mass flux ∼3 x 10-5 Msun yr-1 and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  1. A motion instability formation mechanism of the multi-core structure of the East China Sea Kuroshio

    YUAN; Yeli; (袁业立); WAN; Zhenwen; (万振文); ZHANG; Qinghua; (张庆华)

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the inductive analysis of observation and calculation results, this paper presents a motion instability formation mechanism of the multi-core structure of the East China Sea Kuroshio. This theoretical work includes presentation of the simplified model, derivation of the existence condition of the instable solution and some scaling estimation of the multi-core structure. Theoretical results are in good consistence with the observations.

  2. Using isotopes to understand methane formation, removal and transport in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Sapart, Célia Julia; Shakhova, Natalia; Semiletov, Igor; Jansen, Joachim; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Methane is a strong greenhouse gas emitted by human activity, but also by natural processes. Large uncertainties exist on the future contribution of natural methane sources (e.g. wetlands and geological sources) to the radiative forcing of the Earth. The Arctic regions are of special concern, because they undergo above average warming causing the thawing of permafrost thus the remobilization of large amount of organic carbon as potential methane precursor. The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is the shallowest and broadest continental shelf on Earth and is overlaid by thawing sub-sea permafrost. In this carbon-enriched environment, in presence of microbes and under anoxic conditions, microbial methane production is enhanced in the seafloor sediment. The methane produced can be stored in the sediment as gas hydrate, oxidized by methanotrophs or diffuse through the water column to the atmosphere. Moreover, old methane (microbial or thermogenic) from the deep ocean crust can be transported to the surface and undergo similar processes. Since a few years, large methane fluxes have been identified to the atmosphere of the ESAS, but the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the methane formation/removal/transport mechanisms remains poor. Between 2008 and 2012, several winter (ice drilling) and summer (cruise) campaigns have been performed to retrieve methane samples from different depths in the sediment and in the water column of the ESAS. We performed chemical analyses as well as measurements of methane mixing ratio and isotopic composition (stable and radioactive) on those samples. Our results allow identifying and potentially quantifying different types of methane formation/removal pathways. Moreover, they show that transport throughout the sediment and the water column can significantly alter the stable isotopic signature of the methane produced in the sediment. Hence analyzing methane stable isotopes on atmospheric samples only cannot allow discriminating

  3. Palynology and paleoecology of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Baghak section (east of Kopeh-Dagh

    Mahjooneh Keshmiri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Introduction The Kopeh-Dagh as an inverted basin (Allen et al. 2003 is extended from the east of the Caspian Sea to NE Iran, north Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Following the closure of palaeo-Tethys in the Middle Triassic and the opening of Neo-Tethys during the early to middle Jurassic, the Kopeh-Dagh basin formed during the early to middle Jurasic. Sedimentation took place continuously from the Jurassic through the Neogene time in the Kopeh-Dagh basin (Afshar-Harb 1979. The first geological study on these strata was done by Amiranian oil company from 1937 to 1938. Many biological and stratigraphical studies had been carried on later on this basin. Kalantari (1969, Seyed-Emami (1980, Seyed-Emami and Aryai (1981, Seyed-Emami et al. (1984, 1994, 1996, Immel et al (1997, Raisossadat and Mousavi-Harami (2000, Raisossadat (2004, 2006 and Mahanipour et al. (2011 are among those who studied the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cretaceous strata of this basin. In this paper we report on palynological and paleoecological data from two mid-Cretaceous formations (Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh in Baghak section situated in eastern part of Kopeh-Dagh basin. 2-Materials and Methods Fifteen samples from the Sarcheshmeh and thirty five samples from Sanganeh formation were processed palynologically. The preparation method of Traverse, 2007 was used. Cold hydrochloric (20% and hydrofluoric (50% acids were used to dissolve carbonates and silicates. The residue was neutralized and centrifuged in ZnCl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved at 15 um using a nylon mesh, and mounted on microscope slides using liquid Canada balsam. Three slides were made from each sample. The microscope slides were examined under a light microscope and the index dinocysts were photographed and presented in two plates. In order to study palynofacies, in each slide numbers of organic materials including phytoclasts, marine palynomorphs and non-structural organic materials were

  4. Sobre el variable marco geotectónico de las formarciones Abanico y Farellones y sus equivalentes al ser de los 35°LS

    Estanislao Godoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Cenozoico de la Cordillera Principal andina, en su vertiente pacífica entre los 32° y 35°S predominan rocas volcánicas y volcanoclásticas, las que han sido agrupadas en dos formaciones: Farellones y Abanico. Se presentan aquí nuevas edades Ar- Ar de 15 Ma en rocas del techo de la Formación Abanico, las cuales confirman que el volcanismo mioceno de la sobrepuesta Formación Farellones, concordante sobre edificios volcánicos erosionados de la formación infrayacente, es diacrónico. El volcanismo calcoalcalino de Farellones comenzó al inicio del Mioceno a los 32° y recién a mediados del Mioceno a los 34°. Esta diacronía es compatible con una mayor y más temprana inversión de la "cuenca Abanico" en el sector norte, la cual estaría ligada a un mayor control de basamento, expresado como un fuerte acortamiento de edad miocena. La corteza presenta otro comportamiento al sur de los 36° S. Ocurre allí un evento orogénico cretácico tardío y el volcanismo mioceno primero desaparece para luego pasar a ocupar áreas restringidas, desplazadas hacia el antepaís. Parte importante del magmatismo de esa edad está representado ahora, en Chile, por masas batolíticas que habrían actuado amortiguando el acortamiento. Un proceso semejante habría ocurrido al sur de los 39°S, en Argentina, donde sucesiones de edades equivalentes a Abanico y Farellones se depositaron sobre un rígido basamento paleozoico. Éste habría actuado reduciendo la deformación, incluso del posterior relleno volcánico plio-pleistoceno reconocido en fosas tectónicas de dicha área.

  5. The formation of the integration priorities of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of the global world order transformation

    Tetyana Oriekhova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of activation process of the international integration cooperation of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of ongoing transformations, which are obviously taking place in the global world order. The article gives the author’s definition of “integration maturity”, its characteristic features; concluded the integration maturity level of the Middle East Arab countries; identified the place of the Arab countries as players of the global economic system formation process. By virtue of the cluster analysis there was generalized the idea concerning the restructuring of approaches in the formation of the Middle East countries integration strategies.

  6. UNAPAL –Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

    Estrada Salazar Edgar Iván

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  7. Detrital zircon geochronology of the Adams Argillite and Nation River Formation, east-central Alaska, U.S.A

    Gehrels, G.E.; Johnsson, M.J.; Howell, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian Adams Argillite and the Devonian Nation River Formation are two sandstone-bearing units within a remarkably complete Paleozoic stratigraphic section in east-central Alaska. These strata, now foreshortened and fault-bounded, were originally contiguous with miogeoclinal strata to the east that formed as a passive-margin sequence along the northwestern margin of the North American continent. Seventy-five detrital zircon grains from the Adams Argillite and the Nation River Formation were analyzed in an effort to provide constraints on the original sources of the grains, and to generate a detrital zircon reference for miogeoclinal strata in the northern Cordillera. Thirty-five single zircon grains from a quartzite in the Adams Argillite yield dominant age clusters of 1047-1094 (n = 6), 1801-1868 (n = 10), and 2564-2687 (n = 5) Ma. Forty zircons extracted from a sandstone in the Nation River Formation yield clusters primarily of 424-434 (n = 6), 1815-1838 (n = 6), 1874-1921 (n = 7), and 2653-2771 (n = 4) Ma. The Early Proterozoic and Archean grains in both units probably originated in basement rocks in a broad region of the Canadian Shield. In contrast, the original igneous sources for mid-Protcrozoic grains in the Adams Argillite and ??? 430 Ma grains in the Nation River Formation are more difficult to identify. Possible original sources for the mid-Proterozoic grains include: (1) the Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia, (2) the Pearya terrane along the Arctic margin, and (3) mid-Proterozoic igneous rocks that may have been widespread along or outboard of the Cordilleran margin. The ??? 430 Ma grains may have originated in: (1) arc-type sources along the Cordilleran margin, (2) the Caledonian orogen, or (3) a landmass, such as Pearya, Siberia, or crustal fragments now in northern Asia, that resided outboard of the Innuitian orogen during mid-Paleozoic time. Copyright ?? 1999, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  8. Stratigraphy on Oxygen and Carbon Isotope of Paciran Formation East Java

    Paleotemperature fluctuation in tropical zone (centennial and decad al scale) has been known. It's based on stable isotopic analysis from each of unconformity zones. Those boundaries have derived on reef units of shallows marine reef complex of Paciran Formation, Tuban area in Northeast Java Basin. From 25 samples have been choosen on undeformed calcite and analyzed by oxygen and carbon stable isotope. It used to validizing a sea level changes during the formation to Reef 1 to Reef 17 from Paciran formation with sea surface temperature (SST) since 4 Ma until now. On early forming of Reef 1 to Reef 3 (since 4 Ma - 2,88 Ma), sea level occurred marine flooding surface. Since the formation of reef 4 (2,59 Ma) to Reef 8 (1,4 Ma) occurred stagnant temperature and almost to warmer condition. Then, δ18O have arise up drastically to 5 0/00 and shows warmer condition to Reef 8 formation, in contrary, the sea level have been arised to Reef 10 formation (0,7 Ma). The temperature have been fluctuated between 0,5o and 1oC until the formation of Reef 17 (Early Holocene) and continued to Reef 17 formation at 2oC based on the rapidity sampling of Po rites sp. Wholly, in centennial scale, since the formation of Reef 4 (2,59 Ma) to Reef 17 (1 Ma), the curve of oxygen stable isotope shows decrease or cooler condition. Those condition have conducted to sea level drop since the formation to Reef 7 and Reef 8. There are 4 periods of interglacial since the formation of Reef 4. The warmer condition indicated since the formation of Reef 9, Reef 11 and Reef 17. Recently, a curve of oxygen isotopes reveals warmer drastically or sea level have been arisen. (author)

  9. Evolution of the East Philippine Arc : experimental constraints on magmatic phase relations and adakitic melt formation.

    Coldwell, B.; Adam, J.; Rushmer, T.; Macpherson, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Piston-cylinder experiments on a Pleistocene adakite from Mindanao in the Philippines have been used to establish near-liquidus and sub-liquidus phase relationships relevant to conditions in the East Philippines subduction zone. The experimental starting material belongs to a consanguineous suite of adakitic andesites. Experiments were conducted at pressures from 0.5 to 2 GPa and temperatures from 950 to 1,150°C. With 5 wt. % of dissolved H2O in the starting mix, garnet, clinopyroxene and ort...

  10. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  11. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)

    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as the relationships between the underlying mechanisms and the syn-rift basin evolution. In these experiments, we explore the impact of the lithostratigraphic and thermo-rheological structure of the crust. We also examine the lithosphere thickness, strain softening, extension rate, and surface erosion/ sedimentation processes. The experiments demonstrate that high thermal gradients and crustal heterogeneities result only in a symmetric spreading dome, which is geometrically incompatible with the observations of the MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula. According to our further findings, the strain softening should play a key role in the development of asymmetric strain localization and domal topography uplift, while synchronous surface erosion controls the polarity of the syn-rift basin. The synthetic model data are compatible with the geological observations and cooling history based on the thermo-chronology for the eastern part of the East Asia during the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. The model-predicted P-T-t paths are essentially different from those inferred for the other known MCCs, confirming the exceptional character of the MCC formation in the wide rift system of the East Asia.

  12. Stratigraphy of the Lower and Middle Triassic Union Wash Formation, east-central California

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Orchard, Michael J.

    The authors describe the lithology, stratigraphy, and contact relations of the Union Wash Formation at its type locality and at two additional localities: the Cerro Gordo area near the crest of the Inyo Mountians, 25 km southeast of Union Wash, and the Darwin area, another 35 km to the southeast. The descriptions given are largely based on recent work and are intended to supercede previous descriptions of the formation by the authors and their coworkers. In addition, they list new conodont identifications that, together with ammonoids identified by previous workers, constrain the age of the Union Wash Formation in those three areas to Early and Middle Triassic.

  13. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  14. Sedimentología y petrología de los abanicos aluviales y facies adyacentes en el Neogeno de Paracuellos de Jarama (Madrid

    Alonso, M.

    1986-06-01

    arcosas gruesas en el Conjunto Superior. Para el Conjunto Inferior se concluye unas relaciones de facies correspondientes a la progradación paulatina de depósitos propios de abanicos aluviales sobre depósitos palustres. Así mismo, el Conjunto Superior representa una progradación brusca de los sistemas de abanicos aluviales, con superposición de facies intermedias de estos abanicos sobre las facies más distales, que caracterizan el Conjunto Inferior. Dentro del contexto estratigráfico general de la Cuenca de Madrid, estas Unidades se incluyen básicamente en la Unidad Intermedia del Mioceno.
    La presencia de nivelesde calcreta, sepiolita y sílex en la parte más meridional de la sección es un hecho destacable en las partes más distales de los sistemas de abanicos aluviales y sU transición a las facies palustres. La gran abundancia de estos niveles en la zona, nos ha llevado a estudiar más específicamente los rasgos petrológicos de estos tipos de materiales, no siempre bien definidos en depósitos de ambiente continental.

  15. Estimating the age of formation of lakes: An example from Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    Cohen, A.; Soreghan, M.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Scholz, C.A. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Age estimates for ancient lakes are important for determining their histories and their rates of biotic and tectonic evolution. In the absence of dated core material from the lake`s sedimentary basement, several techniques have been used to generate such age estimates. The most common of these, herein called the reflection seismic-radiocarbon method (RSRM), combines estimates of short-term sediment-accumulation rates derived from radiocarbon-dated cores and depth-to-basement estimates derived from reflection-seismic data at or near the same locality to estimate an age to basement. Age estimates form the RSRM suggest that the structural basins of central Lake Tanganyika began to form between 9 and 12 Ma. Estimates for the northern and southern basins are younger (7 to 8 Ma and 2 to 4 Ma, respectively). The diachroneity of estimates for different segments of the lake is equivocal, and may be due to erosional loss of record in the northern and southern structural basins or to progressive opening of the rift. The RSRM age estimates for Lake Tanganyika are considerably younger than most prior estimates and clarify the extensional history of the western branch of the East African Rift system. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Formation mechanism and model for sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin, East China

    LI; Pilong; PANG; Xiongqi; CHEN; Dongxia; ZHANG; Shanwen

    2004-01-01

    The Bohai Bay basin comprises some very important and well documented subtle traps known in China, which have been the major exploration focus and have become a major petroleum play since the 1990s. However, recent exploration showed that the oil-bearing properties of some sand lens reservoirs may vary significantly and the accumulation mechanisms for these lithological subtle traps are not well understood. Based on statistical analysis of oil-bearing properties for 123 sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin and combined with detailed anatomy of typical sand lens reservoirs and NMR experiments, it has been shown that the structural and sedimentary factors, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions of the surrounding source rocks, as well as the petrophysical properties of sand lens reservoirs are the main controlling factors for the formation of sand lens reservoirs. The formation of a sand lens reservoir depends on the interaction between the hydrocarbon accumulation driving force and the resistance force. The driving force is made up of the differential capillary pressure between sandstones and sources rocks and the hydrocarbon diffusion force, and as well as the hydrocarbon expansion force. The resistance force is the friction resistance force for hydrocarbons and water to move through the pore throats of the sand lens. The sedimentary environment, source rock condition and sand reservoir properties can change from unfavorable to favorable depending on the combination of these factors. When these three factors all reach certain thresholds, the sand lens reservoirs may begin to be filled by hydrocarbons. When all of these conditions become favorable for the formation of sand lens reservoirs, the reservoir would have high oil saturation. This approach has been applied to evaluating the potential of petroleum accumulation in the sand lens reservoirs in the third member of the Neogene Shahejie Formation in the Jiyang Sub-basin.

  17. Holocene Formation of Heald Sand Bank on the East Texas Inner Continental Shelf

    Swartz, J. M.; Cleveland, V.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Heald Bank is a Gulf of Mexico sand bank located ~50 km off the coast of east Texas on the inner continental shelf. The bank is proposed to be a remnant of barrier islands drowned and thus preserved during an episode of rapid sea level rise. For this hypothesis to be true, the transgressive ravinement that marks the erosion by the shoreline moving from shelf edge towards the modern location would by definition postdate and thus be stratigraphically above the bank. To test this hypothesis we present ~90 km of Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) and Multi-channel seismic (MCS) data collected from the University of Texas Geophysics marine field course during 2008, 2013, and 2014. In these data, there are several visible underlying channels beneath Heald Bank. These channels have channel fill which are truncated by an overlying erosional surface, which we interpret to be the transgressive ravinement from sea level rise. However, this interpretation places the ravinement below the sand bank, meaning it could not have been drowned and buried by a rapid sea level rise event. Thus, Heald Bank and potentially the related inner shelf banks (Thomas, Shepard, and Sabine) from eastern Texas to western Louisiana cannot be used as an example of coastal response to climate change and sea level rise. We examine alternate origins for the banks and their sand using published cores as well as age models and integrating them with our seismic data. One possibility is that the sand was sourced from the nearby Sabine River system immediately following local transgression or the sand was remobilized from sediment fill within underlying paleo-river channels imaged below the Heald Bank. In either case Heald Bank appears not to serve as an indicator for rapid sea-level rise, yet could be an important analog for sand transport mechanisms offshore.

  18. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Engkilde, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine

  19. Pb-Sr-O-C isotope compositions of metacarbonate rocks of the Derbina Formation (East Sayan): Chemostratigraphic and geochronological significance

    Gorokhov, I. M.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Ovchinnikova, G. V.; Nozhkin, A. D.; Azimov, P. Ya.; Kaurova, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Pb-Sr-O-C isotope compositions of calcite marbles of the Derbina Formation, exposed in the northwestern part of the Derbina block of the East Sayan, were studied. Rocks of the Derbina Formation were metamorphosed under high-temperature amphibolite facies conditions. The carbonate constituent of marbles contains (ppm) 15-130 Mn, 130-160 Fe, 0.008-0.039 Rb, 645-2190 Sr, 0.565-0.894 U, and 0.288-1.42 Pb. These concentrations are similar to those in modern carbonate sediments. The values of δ13C in marbles of the Derbina Formation range from-0.6 to +1.4‰ PDB; the values of δ18O range from 21.5 to 28.6‰ SMOW. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio values in the two least altered rocks, which meet geochemical criteria of the Rb-Sr system preservation in high-grade carbonate rocks, are 0.70804 and 0.70829. The protolith ages of marbles determined using Sr and C chemostratigraphy lie within the interval of 560-530 Ma, which is regarded as the period of carbonate sedimentation. The slope of the straight line on the 206Pb/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb diagram ( n = 9, MSWD = 19) constructed on the basis of the data points of bulk carbonate constituents of all samples studied and those representing leachate steps of one of them in 0.5N HBr yields Late Vendian age (556 ± 31 (2σ) Ma. Taking into account the data on Sr and C isotope systematics of Derbina marbles, this age is regarded as the age of early diagenesis of carbonate sediments close to the age of sedimentation. Thus, metacarbonate rocks of the Derbina Formation preserved the pre-metamorphic chemostratigraphic and isotope-geochronological information. The age obtained testifies that formation of the carbonate cover of the Derbina block occurred in the Late Vendian. At the end of the Cambrian, carbonate deposits were metamorphosed during the Early Caledonian tectonic event in the southeastern part of the Central Asian Fold Belt.

  20. Comparing palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of Sarcheshmeh Formation in Joragh and Sheikh section (east and west of Kopeh-Dagh Basin

    Mohsen Allameh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Introduction: Kopeh-Dagh sedimentary basin is located in NE of Iran and is mainly composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks (35 30ˊ-38 15ˊ N, 54 00-61 31ˊE(Afshar-Harb 1994. The Sarcheshmeh Formation is one of the lower Cretaceous strata in Kopeh-Dagh. In this investigation, the mentioned Formation is investigated in two stratigraphic sections which are as follow: 1 Jooragh village which is located between 59 10ˊ7 E and 36 58ˊ16 N geographical coordinates with 950 m elevatuion, in 65 km far from Mashhad city in the Mashhad-Quchan road in the east of Chenaran township. 2 Sheikh village which is located between 37 32ˊ48 N and 5731ˊ22 E geographical coordinates with 1125 m elevatuion, in 20 km far from Bojnourd city. 2- Matherial & Method The main porpose of this research in determination and analysis of the existed palynofacies according to the changed percentage of 3 main groups of palynological elements (AOM, Phytoclasts, Marine Palynomorph. Relative analysis of the sedimentary environment are according to the palynofacies and the existed index dinoflagellates for environment and also evaluation of Oxygen and its changes in different parts and as well the determination of sedimentation rate in the Sracheshmeh Formation in the east and west of Koept-Dagh sedimentary basin. The material used, inclues 35 outcrop sample collected from shale and marly shale layer throughout the Sarcheshme Formation in Jorgh section and collected 41 sample from Sheikh section. Laboratory maceration procedures of Travers (2007 were used to prepare sample. These procedures include chemical treatment of 15-20 gr of each sample with cold HCL (20% and HF (37% acids were used to dissolve carbonate and silicates. No oxidants or Alkalis were used, because such treatments can be affect the natural colors of palynomorphs and phytoclast. The residue was neutralized centrifuged in Zncl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved

  1. Holocene ice dynamics and bottom-water formation associated with Cape Darnley polynya activity recorded in Burton Basin, East Antarctica

    Borchers, Andreas; Dietze, Elisabeth; Kuhn, Gerhard; Esper, Oliver; Voigt, Ines; Hartmann, Kai; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, mineralogical, biogeochemical and micropaleontological methods was conducted on sediment core PS69/849-2 retrieved from Burton Basin, MacRobertson Shelf, East Antarctica. The goal of this study was to depict the deglacial and Holocene environmental history of the MacRobertson Land-Prydz Bay region. A special focus was put on the timing of ice-sheet retreat and the variability of bottom-water formation due to sea ice formation through the Holocene. Results from site PS69/849-2 provide the first paleo-environmental record of Holocene variations in bottom-water production probably associated to the Cape Darnley polynya, which is the second largest polynya in the Antarctic. Methods included end-member modeling of laser-derived high-resolution grain size data to reconstruct the depositional regimes and bottom-water activity. The provenance of current-derived and ice-transported material was reconstructed using clay-mineral and heavy-mineral analysis. Conclusions on biogenic production were drawn by determination of biogenic opal and total organic carbon. It was found that the ice shelf front started to retreat from the site around 12.8 ka BP. This coincides with results from other records in Prydz Bay and suggests warming during the early Holocene optimum next to global sea level rise as the main trigger. Ice-rafted debris was then supplied to the site until 5.5 cal. ka BP, when Holocene global sea level rise stabilized and glacial isostatic rebound on MacRobertson Land commenced. Throughout the Holocene, three episodes of enhanced bottom-water activity probably due to elevated brine rejection in Cape Darnley polynya occured between 11.5 and 9 cal. ka BP, 5.6 and 4.5 cal. ka BP and since 1.5 cal. ka BP. These periods are related to shifts from warmer to cooler conditions at the end of Holocene warm periods, in particular the early Holocene optimum, the mid-Holocene warm period and at the beginning of the neoglacial. In

  2. Análisis markoviano de las sucesiones de abanicos aluviales de la cuenca de Madrid y de la depresión intermedia (Madrid y Guadalajara, España central)

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    1996-01-01

    En este trabajo se aplica el análisis por cadenas de Markov a sucesiones estratigráficas del Neógeno de la Cuenca de Madrid y de la Depresión Intermedia. Los datos proceden de sondeos mecánicos de reconocimiento que atraviesan depósitos de abanico aluvial y de playa fangosa. El análisis por cadenas de Markov permite determinar la aparición de procesos repetitivos en el espacio y en el tiempo y, en el caso que nos ocupa, detectar aquellos estados (facies>, cuya aparición depe...

  3. Tracing the origin of water and solute transfers in deep groundwater from Oxfordian, Dogger and Trias formations in the east of the Paris Basin - France

    In order to assess the feasibility for long lived radioactive wastes storage facilities in deep geological formation, solute transport processes must be investigated in the vicinity of the host formation. In France, the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone layers surrounding the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite in the east of the Paris Basin are investigated for this purpose. More than 60 samples of Oxfordian and Dogger formation groundwater and one sample of Triassic formation groundwater, located at the bottom section of the investigated sedimentary cover, were collected over a 250 km2 area, and were analysed for major ions, δ18O and δ2H of water, 87Sr/86Sr/, and δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate. Oxfordian and Dogger formation water is from meteoric origin, and no direct water flow between Oxfordian, Dogger, nor Triassic formations was evidenced. Mineralization processes of the Dogger limestone groundwater were fully investigated. These processes correspond to a series of geochemical reactions including: calcite dissolution, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, ion addition from upward vertical diffusion through the sedimentary pile inducing cation exchange and further dissolution due to the increased ionic strength of the solutions. A PHREEQC model was developed to simulate inferred chemical processes. The model output is consistent with observed data. (authors)

  4. Carbonate leaching processes in the Red Clay Formation, Chinese Loess Plateau: Fingerprinting East Asian summer monsoon variability during the late Miocene and Pliocene

    He, Tong; Chen, Yang; Balsam, William; Qiang, Xiaoke; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution variations in carbonate minerals from the Jiaxian Red Clay section, located at the northern limit of the present East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) on Chinese Loess Plateau were quantified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We analyzed a large quantity of sediments dated from the late Miocene to Pliocene (8.2-2.6 Ma). The carbonates in this interval show high-frequency variations alternating between leached and calcareous horizons. The low carbonate contents and high values of magnetic susceptibility and high Rb/Sr ratios were found in the leached zones, a pattern that is consistent with that observed in the overlying Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences. This pattern suggests that East Asian Monsoon (EAM) rainwater enhanced leaching and accumulation processes of carbonate minerals in the Red Clay Formation in a way similar to the loess-paleosol sequence. Seven alternating leached and calcareous zones are identified, suggesting oscillations of the EASM and East Asian winter monsoon intervals. The calcareous zones were also found to have high Zr/Rb ratio. These indications of shifts from a strong EASM to East Asian winter monsoon dominance correlate well with the cooling transition indicated by deep sea δ18O isotopes. This evidence suggests that the EAM was active during the late Miocene and Pliocene and was similar to the Quaternary monsoon. The presence of a strong EAM during the Pliocene Warm Period also raises questions about the hypothesis that past and future warm climate conditions could produce a permanent El Niño-like state.

  5. Morphological alterations in cryopreserved spermatozoa of scallop Argopecten purpuratus Alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides criopreservados de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus

    Carlos Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR, spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS. Spermatozoa of ICS treatment remained motile longer than those of CTR, whereas those of FTS treatment were lowest. Morphology of the spermatozoa was affected in several ways by the freeze-thawing treatment; some had their head deformed or swollen, others had their cell membrane folded or broken; acrosome reaction; anomalous positions or absence of mitochondria as well as broken, stiff or loss of lineal structure of tail. CTR and ICS treatments had higher percentages of undamaged sperm (87.7% and 79.0% respectively, while FTS samples had 14.2% of undamaged sperm. The tail was the spermatic structure most commonly injured in FTS (77.0%, the percentage of sperm with head injury was 55.1% and with acrosome reaction was 28.7%, whereas middle piece was affected in 23.9% of sperm. Percentages of fertilization were 68.3%, 67.9% and 58.2% for CTR, ICS and FTS respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a higher correlation between injuries and motility than between injuries and fertilization success. Correlation between motility and fertilization was low (0.605 and 0.668 with motility at 5 and 30 min, respectively.El presente trabajo identifica y cuantifica las alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides de concha de abanico A. purpuratus causadas por la criopreservación en nitrógeno líquido. Porcentajes de motilidad, fecundación de ovocitos frescos y espermatozoides lesionados (en cabeza, acrosoma, pieza media y flagelo fueron determinados bajo microscopía óptica y electr

  6. Incorporation of new particle formation and early growth treatments into WRF/Chem: Model improvement, evaluation, and impacts of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia

    Cai, Changjie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin; Yu, Shao-Cai

    2016-01-01

    New particle formation (NPF) provides an important source of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei, which may result in enhanced cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and cloud shortwave albedo. In this work, several nucleation parameterizations and one particle early growth parameterization are implemented into the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem) to improve the model's capability in simulating NPF and early growth of ultrafine particles over East Asia. The default 8-bin over the size range of 39 nm-10 μm used in the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry aerosol module is expanded to the 12-bin over 1 nm-10 μm to explicitly track the formation and evolution of new particles. Although model biases remain in simulating H2SO4, condensation sink, growth rate, and formation rate, the evaluation of July 2008 simulation identifies a combination of three nucleation parameterizations (i.e., COMB) that can best represent the atmospheric nucleation processes in terms of both surface nucleation events and the resulting vertical distribution of ultrafine particle concentrations. COMB consists of a power law of Wang et al. (2011) based on activation theory for urban areas in planetary boundary layer (PBL), a power law of Boy et al. (2008) based on activation theory for non-urban areas in PBL, and the ion-mediated nucleation parameterization of YU10 for above PBL. The application and evaluation of the improved model with 12-bin and the COMB nucleation parameterization in East Asia during January, April, July, and October in 2001 show that the model has an overall reasonably good skill in reproducing most observed meteorological variables and surface and column chemical concentrations. Relatively large biases in simulated precipitation and wind speeds are due to inaccurate surface roughness and limitations in model treatments of cloud formation and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of new particle formation in East Asia using an NPF-explicit WRF-chem model: North-south contrast in new particle formation frequency

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Takamura, T.; Yoon, Soh-joung; Kim, S. W.; Lim, Hyuntae; Fast, Jerome D.

    2013-10-27

    The new particle formation (NPF)-explicit version of the WRF-chem model, which we developed recently, can calculate the growth and sink of nucleated clusters explicitly with 20 aerosol size bins from 1 nm to 10 μm. In this study, the model is used to understand spatial and temporal variations of the frequency of NPF events and the concentrations of aerosols (condensation nuclei, CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within the boundary layer in East Asia in spring 2009. Model simulations show distinct north-south contrast in the frequency and mechanism of NPF in East Asia. NPF mostly occurred over limited periods and regions between 30° and 45°N, such as northeast China, Korea, and Japan, including regions around active volcanoes (Miyakejima and Sakurajima). At these latitudes, NPF was considerably suppressed by high concentrations of preexisting particles under stagnant air conditions associated with high-pressure systems, while nucleation occurred more extensively on most days during the simulation period. Conversely, neither nucleation nor NPF occurred frequently south of 30°N because of lower SO2 emissions and H2SO4 concentrations. The period-averaged NPF frequency was 3 times higher at latitudes of 30° - 45°N than at latitudes of 20° - 30°N. The north-south contrast of NPF frequency is validated by surface measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. The period- and domain-averaged contribution of secondary particles is estimated to be 44% for CN (> 10 nm) and 26% for CCN at a supersaturation of 1.0% in our simulation, though the contribution is highly sensitive to the magnitudes and size distributions of primary aerosol emissions and the coefficients in the nucleation parameterizations.

  8. Provenance records of the North Jiangsu Basin,East China:Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry from the Paleogene Dainan Formation in the Gaoyou Sag

    Chun-Ming; Lin; Xia; Zhang; Ni; Zhang; Shun-Yong; Chen; Jian; Zhou; Yu-Rui; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Detailed zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses were carried out on the sedimentary rocks of the Paleogene Dainan Formation from Gaoyou Sag in the North Jiangsu Basin,East China.Whole-rock rare earth element characteristics suggest that the provenance was mainly from the Late Proterozoic low-grade metamorphic felsic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,with the parent rocks probably being the I-type high-potassium granite gneiss.Cathodoluminescence images indicate that most of the detrital zircons are originally magmatic.A few zircons show overgrowths,indicating multiple-episode tectonic events.The U-Pb age distribution patterns of the detrital zircons suggest four main magmatic episodes in the provenance:Late Archean-Early Proterozoic(2450-2600 Ma),Early Proterozoic(1700-1900 Ma),Late Proterozoic(700-850 Ma),and Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic(100-300 Ma).These zircon U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical results suggest that the sediments of the Dainan Formation were mainly sourced from the recycled orogenic belts within and/or around the North Jiangsu Basin,including the basement of the Yangtze Block,the Neoproterozoic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,and the Mesozoic igneous rocks in the south part of Zhangbaling Uplift.

  9. 3D Seismic Reflection Imaging of Crustal Formation Processes on the East Pacific Rise, 9°57-42'N

    Purdy, G. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J. P.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Carton, H.; Newman, K. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Xu, M.; Aghaei, O.; Stowe, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Between June 29th and August 19th 2008 the research vessel Marcus G Langseth carried out its first multi- streamer 3D seismic reflection imaging cruise, MGL08-12, by conducting a program research on the East Pacific Rise centered around 9°50'N. The primary goals were to create an accurate 3D seismic reflection image of the magmatic-hydrothermal system at this Integrated Study Site of the Ridge2000 program by imaging the structure of the axial magma chamber (AMC) lid and oceanic crust at a resolution, accuracy, and scale comparable to seafloor observations. The vessel acquired data with four, 6-kilometer solid streamers each comprising 468 active channels deployed with a total separation of 450 meters. Four gun strings with total volume of 3300 cubic inches in two groups fired alternately provide the source for a shot spacing of 37.5 meters. This configuration yields eight CMP lines for each of the sail lines that were spaced 300 m apart, and a static bin size of 6.25 m × 37.5 m in the along-track and across-track directions, respectively, providing a nominal fold of 40. The cruise accomplished the acquisition of ~3,782 km of sail line data. There are 111 across axis lines that required 10 repeated lines and 14 infills. Average feathering during the cruise was 0° ± 5° (one standard deviation), with maximum values of up to 11°. This means that 18% of the total cross axis acquisition was needed for reshoots and infilling. A 25% multiplier on planned lines for a 3D grid is probably a useful figure to use in cruise planning and is fairly standard in the seismic industry. Data quality meets or exceeds industry standards. 3D coverage was achieved in two areas. The larger comprises a set of 93 equally spaced lines forming the 3D grid between 9°57'N and 9°42'N. This grid is made up of lines from all of racetracks #1 and #2 and the northern lines of racetrack#3 and covers two principal hydrothermal vent areas in a continuous fashion. The second 3D area is comprised

  10. Evaluation of the Catahoula Formation as a source rock for uranium mineralization, with emphasis on East Texas

    The Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash and, in the lower coastal plain, also stream-transported erosion detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent northern Mexico, the nearest source of appropriate age and chemical affinity. Pedogenic and shallow-burial alteration of the labile volcanic glass component of the sediment resulted in ubiquitous secondary montmorillonite and solubilization of elements which are mobile in a HCO3-rich, near-surface environment. Primary uranium present in the glass at 5 to 6 ppMU was similarly mobilized and, under favorable conditions, accumulated by precipitation of tetravalent uranium phases at sites of lower Eh. Known economic deposits are restricted to the lower coastal plain where there has been uranium production for more than twenty years. Although there are differences between the productive lower coastal plain and the middle and upper as to stratigraphy, mineralogical composition, and weathering history, labile volcaniclastic material and its alteration products are abundant throughout the Catahoula outcrop and shallow subsurface in Texas. To provide a geochemical basis of comparison, samples from the upper, middle, and lower Texas coastal plain and the Trans-Pecos source area were analyzed for uranium, thorium, potassium, rubidium, strontium, zirconium, and titanium. These include both labile and immobile elements. Typical levels of these elements in the source material and relatively unaltered Catahoula volcanic glass allows estimation of uranium loss from highly altered sections based on their immobile element content

  11. Air oxidation of samples from different clay formations of East Paris basin: quantitative and qualitative consequences on the dissolved organic matter

    Document available in extended abstract form only. During the excavation and the building of an underground research laboratory in clay geological formations, exposure to air is one of the most important parameters affecting the composition of fossil organic matter. Indeed the net effect of air oxidation of the organic matter is enrichment in oxygen and carbon combined with a loss of hydrogen. Effluents formed are CO2 and water as well as the liberation of hydrocarbons. This process may have an impact on water chemistry of the clay, especially on the quantity and composition of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM). The clays studied were the following and may be distinguished on the basis of their organic matter content: - The Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, collected in the Bure Underground Research Laboratory (Meuse, France), which contains a mixture of type II and III kerogen; - The Toarcian shales of East Paris Basin collected from drilling EST 204 (Meuse, France) contains type II kerogen; - The Kimmeridgian shales of East Paris Basin collected from drilling HTM 102 (Meuse, France) also contains type II kerogen. The powdered clay samples were oxidized in a ventilated oven at 100 C under air flow during 2, 256, 512 and 1088 hours for Callovo-Oxfordian samples and during 512 and 2048 hours for Toarcian and Kimmeridgian samples. The DOM of each sample was extracted by soxhlet using pure water. Different analyses were carried out: - Quantitative evolution of DOM with the oxidation process; - Evolution of several chemical parameters of DOM with oxidation using molecular analyses (PyGC-MS) molecular weight distribution (GPC-HPLC) as well as spectroscopic measurements (3D-Fluorescence). Increasing oxidation induces an increase of DOC values for all samples. Also, Changes in the chemical composition of the DOM are observed: decrease in the molecular weight range; enrichment in acidic functional groups (alkane-dioic acids, alkanoic acids, aromatics poly acids). Moreover the

  12. EARA2014 (East Asia Radially Anisotropic Model Based on Adjoint Tomography) and its Interpretations: Insights to the Formation of the Hangai Dome and the Tibetan Plateau

    Chen, M.; Niu, F.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    EARA2014 -a 3-D radially anisotropic model of the crust and mantle beneath East Asia down to 900 km depth- is developed by adjoint tomography based on a spectral element method. The data set used for the inversion comprises 1.7 million frequency-dependent traveltime measurements from waveforms of 227 earthquakes recorded by 1869 stations. After 20 iterations, the new model (named EARA2014) exhibits sharp and detailed wave speed anomalies with improved correlations with surface tectonic units compared to previous models. As part of tectonic interpretations of EARA2014, we investigated the seismic wavespeed anomalies beneath two prominent uplifted regions in East Asia: (1) Hangai Dome, an intra-continental low-relief surface with more than 2 km elevation in central Mongolia, and (2) Tibetan Plateau, a vast continental-margin surface with an average elevation of 4.5 km in west China. We discover beneath Hangai Dome a deep low shear wavespeed (low-V) conduit indicating a slightly warmer (54 K-127 K) upwelling from the transition zone. We propose that the mantle upwelling induced decompression melting in the uppermost mantle and that excess heat associated with melt transport modified the lithosphere that isostatically compensates the surface uplift of Hangai Dome at upper mantle depths (> 80 km). On the other hand, we observe no discernable focused deep mantle upwelling directly beneath Tibetan Plateau, which is instead dominated by a strong high-V structure, appearing below 100 km depth and extending to the bottom of the mantle transition zone. However, we find a very strong and localized low-V anomaly beneath the Tibetan Plateau in the crust and uppermost mantle (at depths of ~50 km and 100 km) mainly confined within the Songpan Ganzi Fold Belt and the northern Qiangtang Block. This low-V anomaly is spatially linked to a low-V anomaly beneath the Chuandian Block in the same depth range, which is fed by a deep mantle upwelling directly beneath Hainan Volcano in south

  13. Análisis sedimentológico de la Cuenca estefaniense de Tineoo (Asturias. Ejemplo de depósitos de carbón en abanicos aluviales

    Santos García, J. A.

    1991-04-01

    septentrional, dando lugar a los depósitos de la U. Conglomerática. El relleno de la cuenca, se asimila con un modelo de abanicos aluviales en una cuenca tectónicamente activa, en la que los depósitos de carbón se relacionan con las facies más distales y las etapas de mayor tranquilidad, caracterizándose la existencia de un abanico principal y otros coalescentes de menor entidad.

  14. Procesos naturales y antropogénicos asociados al evento de mortalidad de conchas de abanico ocurrido en la bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú en junio del 2000

    Rita Cabello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar los procesos que desencadenaron el evento de mortalidad de concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus el 6 de junio del 2000, se analizaron las condiciones ambientales naturales y antropogénicas en la Bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú durante el período de actividad pesquera industrial pesquera, entre el 17 de mayo y el 13 de junio del 2000. Se evaluaron diariamente las variables oceanográficas de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, volumen de fitoplancton y variables de calidad acuática, aceites y grasas, sólidos suspendidos totales, DBO5 , pH, sulfuros y coliformes termotolerantes, en 5 estaciones de la Bahía de Paracas. Desde mediados de mayo, se registraron altos contenidos de aceites y grasas provenientes de efluentes pesqueros. A fines de mayo se observó la presencia de una marea roja asociada a un incremento en los sólidos suspendidos totales, pH y oxígeno disuelto, especialmente frente a Atenas y El Chaco. A inicios de junio en superficie se produjo una disminución de los sólidos suspendidos totales (< 25 mg.L-1 y oxígeno (< 3 mL.L-1, llegando a un máximo las concentraciones de grasa (m·x.: 10,1 mg.L-1, mientras que en los fondos el proceso acumulativo de carga orgánica produjo un estado anóxico con alto contenido de sulfuros (m·x.: 19,73 µg-at.L-1. Estas condiciones redujeron la calidad del ambiente marino, y produjeron la mortalidad de los organismos bentónicos. El aporte de materia org·nica proveniente de efluentes pesqueros, junto con el aporte proveniente de la floración algal nociva, ejerció un efecto sinérgico negativo sobre la calidad de la columna de agua y los sedimentos, lo que provocó la mortalidad de especies bentónicas, entre ellas la concha de abanico.

  15. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  16. Analysis of naticid gastropod predation across the trans-Arctic invasion in the Tjörnes beds, Iceland, and the Red Crag Formation, East Anglia, England

    Neely, Samuel H.; Kelley, Patricia H.

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species are wreaking havoc on modern ecosystems; however, species invasions are not new threats to ecosystems. The fossil record allows conservationists to acquire deep-time perspectives on long-term effects of natural invasions before anthropogenic impacts. Drill holes from invasive naticid gastropod predators on bivalve prey can be quantified to provide evidence of the impact of these invasive predators on ecosystems. An asymmetrical faunal interchange, known as the trans-Arctic invasion (TAI), occurred between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans during the Pliocene (˜3.5 Ma) because of the opening of the Bering Strait. This interchange could have changed naticid gastropod drilling predation on bivalves due to the migration of Pacific fauna into the Atlantic Ocean. The Tjörnes locality of northeast Iceland well characterizes the TAI because this site has preserved genera in three distinct levels that divide the invasion into the pre-invasion (Tapes and Mactra zones) and the post-invasion (Serripes zone). Temporal comparisons can be made between these pre- and post-invasion zones to analyze drilling predation across the TAI. Spatial comparisons of drilling predation in the post-invasion deposits can be made by correlating the Serripes zone (3.6-2.6 Ma) to the Red Crag Formation (2.54 Ma) of East Anglia, England, because these localities are of similar age and contain similar taxa. Specimens from the Tjörnes Beds, Iceland, were analyzed in collections housed at the Icelandic Institute of Natural History. Red Crag Formation specimens were analyzed at the Academy of Natural Sciences at Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Height and length of bivalve specimens were measured. The occurrence of complete and incomplete (unsuccessful) drill holes and drill hole diameter were recorded for all whole bivalves. Drilling frequency (DF = % mortality) and prey effectiveness (PE = % of attempted drill holes that were incomplete) were calculated. Icelandic samples

  17. Formation of the soft-sediment deformation structures and its constraints on dinosaur fossil burial of the Cretaceous in Zhucheng, Shandong province, East China

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Cai, Zhihui; Tian, Hongshui; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-04-01

    The triangular-shaped Zhucheng depression is located in the southwestern part of the Jiaolai basin, Jiaodong peninsula, East China. Various soft-sediment deformation structures are recognized in the southern Zhucheng depression, which have behaviour are plastic and/or brittle. Soft-sediment deformation structures mainly include undulate fold, mound and sag, diapir, convolute deformation and seismic-unconformity in the Lower Cretaceous, which are composed of fine-grained sediments in lacustrine environment, while load structure, ball and pillow structure, plunged sediment mixtures structure, fault-graded occurred in the Upper Cretaceous, which formed in a conglomeratic or coarse arenaceous alluvial fan and flood-plain setting. These soft-sediment deformation structures are proposed triggered by paleoearthquake. The deformed layers and undeformed layers developed in intervals, suggesting frequent seismic activities. In studied area, numerous giant hadrosaurid skeleton fossils have been found in the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group science 1958, and unusual and abundant dinosaur track fossils have been discovered in the Lower Cretaceous Yangzhuang Formation of Laiyang Group. The widespread identified soft-sediment deformation structures are proximately underlying or overlying these dinosaur fossil bearing strata. The depositional setting changed while multiple paleo-seismic events and tectonic activity happened. In the Early Cretaceous, after the occurrence of paleo-earthquakes and environmental changes, dinosaurs migrated and a lot of tracks with similar orientation on lacustrine offshore were preserved. In the Late Cretaceous, a large-scale dinosaur fossil layers and paleo-earthquake records occurred in intervals, indicating that the dinosaur fossils may be associated with large-scale debris flow and frequent earthquake events. Based on regional tectonic setting, distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures and predicted magnitude of paleo-earthquakes, the

  18. The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East: Terranes and the formation of continental lithosphere based on geological and isotopic data

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Kemkin, I. V.; Kruk, N. N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East, consists of folded terranes made up of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, turbidite basins, and island arc terranes that are overlapped unconformably by undeformed upper Cenomanian to Cenozoic volcanic deposits. The Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, together with the Early Cretaceous island arc, are related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The turbidite basin, which began to form at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous, is related to left-lateral movement of the Paleo-Pacific plate along the Paleo-Asian continental margin. The collage of terranes that make up the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt was amalgamated in two stages. The first began after Jurassic subduction beneath the Asian continent was terminated, and the second took place in the late Albian, when the Early Cretaceous island arc collided with the continental margin. Intense deformation of the terranes took place along the continental margin in the form of large-scale translations from south to north, together with oroclinal folding. The deformation resulted in rapid thickening of sediments in the upper crust, resulting in turn in the formation of granitic-metamorphic material in the continental lithosphere. In the southwestern part of the Sikhote-Alin orogen, granites were intruded during the Hauterivian-Aptian, while the entire orogenic belt was affected by intrusions in the late Albian-early Cenomanian. Synorogenic intraplate volcanic rocks and alkaline ultramafic-mafic intrusions also testify to the fact that the orogenic processes in the Sikhote-Alin were related to a transform continental margin, and not to subduction. Geochemical and Nd isotopic data indicate, the primary continental crust of the Sikhote-Alin was of a "hybrid" nature, consisting of juvenile basic components accreted from an oceanic plate and recycled sedimentary material derived from the erosion of ancient blocks.

  19. 3D seismic structure of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain in the East sub-basin of the South China Sea and its mechanism of formation

    Zhao, M.; Wang, J.; Qiu, X.; Sibuet, J. C.; He, E.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The post-spreading volcanic ridge (PSVR) is oriented approximately E-W in its western part called the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. Where is the extinct spreading ridge (ESR) of the East Sub-basin located? beneath the PSVR (Li et al., 2014)? Or intersecting with the PSVR by N055° orientation (Sibuet et al., submitted)? A three-dimensional Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) survey covered both the central extinct spreading ridge and the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, the IODP Site U1431 (Li et al., 2014) being located just north of the chain. The results of this experiment will provide the essential information to understand the emplacement of the PSVR within the previously formed oceanic crust. The comprehensive seismic record sections of 39 OBSs are of high quality and show clear and reliable P-wave seismic phases, such as Pg, Pn and PmP. These seismic arrivals provide strong constrains for modeling the detailed three-dimensional velocity structure. We will show that the crust is oceanic on each side of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, where is the location of the ESR and what is the genetic relationship between the magma chambers and the overlying Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. We suggest that the large thickness of the upper crust is possibly due to volcanic extrusions and the thickened lower crust to magmatic underplating. Combining previous geochemical study of PSVR outcropping samples, the formation mechanism of the seamount chain might be explained by a buoyancy decompression melting mechanism (Castillo et al., 2010). This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 91428204, 41176053). ReferencesSibuet J.-C., Yeh Y.-C. and Lee C.-S., 2015 submitted. Geodynamics of the South China Sea: A review with emphasis on solved and unsolved questions. Tectonophysics. Li, C. F., et al. 2014. Ages and magnetic structures of the South China Sea constrained by deep tow magnetic surveys and IODP Expedition 349. Geochemistry

  20. Formation and evolution stages of gold rich Barika massive sulfide deposit, east of Sardasht, northern Sanandaj-Sirjan zone: based on structural, textural and fluid inclusion studies

    Hossein Ali Tajeddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Barika gold (and silver rich massive sulfide deposit is located 18 km east of Sardasht, north western part of Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone. Rock units outcropped in this area are Cretaceous metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks in green schist facies, and include association of meta-andesite, meta-tuffite, phyllite and slate rocks, where the meta-andesitic unit (Kmv1 is host rock to the deposit. Barika deposit is composed of stratiform ore and stringer zone. Stratiform part contains massive and banded sulfide and barite associated with subordinary silica bands underlain by stringer silicic zone. The massive and banded ore is surrounded by an extensive zone of silicic stringer veins and disseminated mineralization within strongly altered and deformed andesitic volcanic rocks. Ore mineral assemblages in stratiform part of the deposit are quite variable and consist of pyrite, sphalerite, galena, stibnite, a variety of sulfosalt minerals and gold (electrum. Ore mineral assemblages in silicic veins in the stringer zone are simpler and consist of pyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrrite and trace chalcopyrite. Average gold and silver grades in stratiform ore are 8.3 and 420 g/t respectively and in silicic stringer veins are 0.7 and 30 g/t. Base metal content in both parts of the deposit are less than 1%. Based on our research, Barika is an immature Kuroko type massive sulfide deposit, which contains only black ore. The Barika deposit underwent low-grade metamorphism and high grade deformation after the ore deposition event. Geologic processes appear to control the mode of occurrence of gold in the deposit. In synvolcanism stage, deposition of a gold–bearing low temperature (140-200°C and low salinity (1-9.6 wt% NaCl hydrothermal fluid formed a Kuroko black ore type deposit. In the stage of mineralization, invisible gold was concentrated in framboidal pyrite and other sulfide minerals. The main effect of progressive metamorphism (D1 on gold

  1. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  2. Formation of the modern current system in the East China Sea since the early Holocene and its relationship with sea level and the monsoon system

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Yin, Xueming; Lu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a natural laboratory for the study of air-sea interaction and paleoenvironmental change. It has been demonstrated that present offshore export of particles in the bottom nepheloid layer occur primarily with downwelling from the northeast winter monsoon, which is inhibited by a transverse circulation pattern in summer. This current system was very different during the Last Glacial Maximum owing to low sea level (-120 m) and exposure of a large shelf area. We collected sediment core Oki01 from the middle Okinawa Trough during 2012 using R/V Kexue No. 1 to elucidate the timing and cause of the current system transition in the East China Sea. Clay mineral, dry density, and elemental (Ti, Ca) composition of core Oki01 was analyzed. The results indicate that clay minerals derived mainly from the Huanghe (Yellow) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) Rivers during 16.0-11.6 ka, and the modern current system in the East China Sea formed beginning in the early Holocene. Therefore, mixing of East China Sea continental shelf, Changjiang River and partially Taiwan Island sediment are the major contributors. The decrease of log(Ti/Ca) and alternating provenance since the early Holocene indicate less sediment from the East China in summer because of resistance of the modern current system, i.e., a "water barrier" and upwelling. Conversely, sediment delivery persists in winter and log(Ti/Ca) indicates the winter monsoon signal since the early Holocene. Our evidence also suggests that sediment from Taiwan Island could be transported by the Kuroshio Current to the middle Okinawa Trough, where it mingles with winter monsoon-induced export of sediment from the Changjiang River and East China Sea continental shelf. Although the present research advances understanding of the evolutionary history of paleoenvironmental change in the Okinawa Trough, more sediment cores should be retrieved over wide areas to construct a larger scenario.

  3. Middle East

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphs the energy profile of Middle East: production, imports, exports, stock change and consumption of crude oil and LNG, oil products, natural gas, coal and lignite, electricity, global primary consumption and energy balance. (J.S.)

  4. The Formation of Barrier Winds East of the Loess Plateau and Their Effects on Dispersion Conditions in the North China Plains

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Xingliang; Xue, Ming; Wu, Dui; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2016-04-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) to the east of the Loess Plateau is one of the most heavily polluted areas in the world. Weak surface flow in the western part of the NCP exacerbates the air pollution in this region. Deceleration of low-level flow when approaching the Loess Plateau, together with enhanced roughness associated with large cities, were previously ascribed as the causes for low wind speeds in the NCP. Using numerical simulations with a one-layer dispersion model, we identify that dynamic modification of airflow by the Loess Plateau (not just simple deceleration due to mountain blocking) plays an important role in reducing the wind speed over the NCP. Dynamically-induced northerly barrier winds, superimposed on the prevailing southerly/south-easterly flow, reduce the wind speed in a 50-100 km wide region to the east of the Plateau, partially explaining the weak winds in the western part of the NCP. Poor dispersion conditions due to weak horizontal winds likely contribute to the accumulation of pollutants in this region.

  5. The impact of vegetation on humus formation and morphology of brown forest soils in coastal areas of the southeastern part of Russian far east

    Pshenichnikov, B. F.; Pshenichnikova, N. F.

    2015-04-01

    Specific features of brown forest soils (burozems, Cambisols) in coastal areas of the southeastern part of Russian Far East are discussed. It is shown that the color of the illuvial horizons in these soils depends on the character of vegetation; it is reddish brown under oak forests and dark gray under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities. These soils combine the features shaped by the humus-accumulative and humus-illuvial processes. In the soils under oak forests, the humate-fulvate type of humus predominates; in the soils under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities, the fulvate-humate humus is formed. The dynamics of humus and its separate fractions in the soil profiles control the morphochromatic differentiation of brown forest soils under different vegetation communities. In the soils under oak forests, the maximum precipitation of the aggressive fraction of fulvic acids (fraction FA-1a) in the illuvial-humus horizons coincides with the maximum concentration of oxalate-extractable iron oxides; these substances ensure the reddish brown color of the illuvial horizons in these soils. In the brown forest soils under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities, the illuvial horizon is the zone of accumulation of not only the aggressive fraction of fulvic acids but also the second (Ca-bound) fractions of fulvic and humic acids ensuring the dark gray color of this horizon.

  6. Role of wind and thermal forcing in the formation of the water circulation variability in the Japan/East Sea Central Basin in 1958-2006

    Diansky, N. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Novotryasov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the numerical experiment on simulation of the Japan/East Sea (JES) water circulation response to the atmospheric forcing for 1958-2006, the analysis is made of its long-term variability in the JES Central Basin (CB). It was found that during the climatic year, the circulation remains cyclonic, strengthening in spring and weakening in autumn. The analysis of mean relative vorticity (MRV) at intermediate depths in the JES CB showed one that the spectrum of its interannual variability is formed mainly by oscillations of periods ˜2, ˜4 and ˜5 years, and in the decadal range with ˜10 and ˜14 years. Along the depth, the spectral composition of MRV variability does not change, but there is a noticeable weakening of decadal variability amplitude, which does not occur with the 4- and 5-year oscillations. Using SVD-analysis, the connection is established between MRV variability, wind stress curl (WSC), as well as sensible heat flux. The strong connection between MRV and WSC is revealed in the range of 4-5 years, and in the decadal range (period is 10 years) the significant connection is with both WSC and air-sea temperature as a result of winter cooling and following deep convection.

  7. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  8. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  9. Simulated experiment evidences of the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate reservoirs: an example of Feixianguan Formation, east Sichuan

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir of Feixianguan Formation of the Lower Triassic in the Sichuan Basin is the deepest buried carbonate reservoir in China, with developed secondary corrosion holes, high quantities carbonate reservoir, maximum effective carbonate reservoir thickness. Also Feixianguan gas reservoir has the highest quantities of H2S. Research discovers that there are close relationships between the formation of reservoir and H2S. The mutual actions between acidity fluid and carbonate promoted the forming of secondary carbonate holes. Through the experiment of corrosion of the samples of Feixianguan carbonate reservoir in saturated aqueous solution of hydrogen sulfide, the porosity and permeability increased greatly, porosity increased 2% and permeability increased nearly two quantity degrees, also the density became light, which confirm the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate.

  10. Foraminiferal biofacies in the San José Calcareous Silt Member (Manzanilla Formation, Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene) in the Manzanilla Bay area, north-east Trinidad, and their environmental significance

    Wilson, Brent

    2013-10-01

    The Miocene-Pliocene Manzanilla Formation of northern Trinidad marks the arrival of the east-west flowing Orinoco River. Foraminifera were examined quantitatively in samples obtained at ˜5 m intervals from the lowest member of the formation, the San José Calcareous Silt Member, where exposed at eastern Manzanilla Bay and Point Noir. Recovery of Globorotalia merotumida indicates an age within the Globorotalia acostaensis Zone through Globorotalia margaritae evoluta Subzone, (N16-N19). Values of the information function (H) and the percentage of the total assemblage as planktonic foraminifera (%P), both traditionally used as palaeodepth indicators, were uncorrelated. The low values of H are indicative of freshwater influence. Cluster analysis revealed two major biofacies dominated by Pseudononion atlanticum and Hanzawaia carstensi respectively, for which similar values of mean H and mean %P suggest similar, inner to middle neritic palaeodepths, the P. atlanticum Biofacies indicating times of hypoxia. Entrained within these were rarer samples from a biofacies indicative of shallowing and increased freshwater input (Ammonia parkinsonia gr. Biofacies). An Amphistegina gibbosa Biofacies marked an interval in which water because sufficiently clear to support foraminifera symbiotic with algae, while a sample containing only Haplophragmoides wilberti was indicative of intertidal conditions. Some samples containing reddened foraminifera showed that deposition occasionally became very slow, but these were not limited to any one biofacies. The range of palaeodepths in which the San José Calcareous Silt Member was deposited is far less than in the underlying Brasso Formation, indicating that tectonic induction of transgressive-regressive cycles was slighter during San José times.

  11. 东昆仑地区赛什腾组碎屑锆石U-Pb年代学:对其物质来源及地层时代的约束%U-Pb Age of the Detrital Zircon from the Serteng Formation in East Kunlun:Constraints on its Provenance and Formation Time

    靳立杰; 周汉文; 朱云海; 林启祥

    2015-01-01

    The Serteng Formation outcrops in the south part of the East Kunlun consisting mainly of metaclastic rocks, which experienced the regional metamorphism and contact metamorphism. From the bottom up, the sedimentary facies of the Serteng Formation are deepwater turbidite, shallow water sediment, and coastal-shallow water sedimentary, which constitute a regressive sequence. The sedimentary characteristics of the Serteng Formation indicate that it was formed during the closure of the Proto-Tethys. The ever existing controversy about the formation time of the Serteng Formation is primarily due to the absence of fossil. We expect to provide some valuable information about the provenance and stratigraphic formation time of the Serteng Formation through detrital zircon U-Pb dating. We have obtained five age ranges, such as>2500 Ma, 2300~2600 Ma, 1600~1800 Ma, 800~1200 Ma, and 421~600 Ma. The existence of zircon grains with ages older than 2500 Ma may indicate the existence of ancient crystalline basement in the East Kunlun. The rest age ranges indicate the source regions of the Serteng Formation have experienced complex multi-phase geological events, which corresponding to the Early Paleoproterozoic, Late Paleoproterozoic, Late Mesoproterozoic, Early Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic tectono-magmatic events, respectively. The paleocurrent direction abstracted from cross bedding indicates the clastics in the Serteng Formation are mainly from the north adjacent regions. Comparing the detrital zircon ages from the Serteng Formation with the adjacent stratigraphic units, we conclude that the Baishahe Group, Xiaomiao Group, Wanbaogou Group, granite formed during early Neoproterozoic tectono-magmatic event, and the evolution of the Proto-Tethys are the mainly provenance of the Serteng Formation. Combining the youngest zircon age 421±7 Ma and the age of rocks which intrude the Serteng Formation, we narrow the formation time of the Serteng Formation to 421~413 Ma. Furthermore

  12. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  13. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  14. Recovery in the East

    2010-01-01

    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  15. IEA studies Middle East

    Oil production policy in most of the major producing countries of the Middle East looks likely to change as a result of financial constraints and pressures on demand. This -implicitly rather than explicitly - is perhaps the main conclusion to be drawn from the International Energy Agency's (IEA) magisterial study on Middle East oil and gas, in which the production capacities, energy development policies and the structural economic problems of six major oil and gas producers in the region are examined. ''Middle East Oil and Gas'' is available from the IEA/OECD Publications Service. (author)

  16. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  17. East African odontopygid millipedes

    Frederiksen, Sara B.

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera and three new species in the millipede family Odontopygidae are described; Lamelloramus rhombiformis, L. triangularis and Aquattuor denticulatus. All three species are found in the East Usambara Mountains. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press....

  18. East Asia's Security System

    Hojzáková, Věra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the master thesis is to characterize and evaluate the current security system in East Asia, to show the security strategies of the system actors and the existing friction points, and to assess the future development of the security system in place. For this purpose the author first defines the East Asia's security system using the conceptual tools of three international relations theories, namely neo-realism, neo-liberalism, and constructivism. In the following section, the securit...

  19. Leukaemia in East Suffolk

    An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)

  20. Geochronology of Triassic-Jurassic granitoids in the southern frames of Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt and the principles of early mesozoic granitic formation in the Central and East Asia

    Results of U-Pb and U-Pb-Th-isotope dating of zircon from biotite and leucocratic granites in the southern frames of the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt are presented. The similar estimates of the above mentioned granite ages (208±9 and 190±3 mln. years), the granites being referred traditionally to different intrusive complexes, permit defining essentially the scale of the early mesozoic magmatism manifestations in the Central and East Asia

  1. Causes of East-West Bi-cultural Formation in Russia and the Cultural Manifestation%俄罗斯东西方双重文化的成因及其表征

    林立娟

    2012-01-01

    Russia covers Europe and Asia with people of multi-ethnic groups from the East and the West. Russian culture has been influence deeply by both the eastern cultures and the western cultures. Features of such bi-cultural environment in Russia manifest as follows, emblem with a double-headed eagle; diplo-matic policy of Eurasianism; Sagittarius personality; East-West divisions among social strata and the intel-lectuals; East-West mixture of life styles; an incorporated vocabulary.%俄罗斯地处欧亚两大洲,东西方各种民族汇集交融于此。其文化不仅受到东方文化的熏陶,而且受到西方文化的影响;其文化具有既非东方又非西方,既是东方又是西方的独特的双重性。俄罗斯东西方双重文化的表征主要体现在:双头鹰国徽、欧亚主义的外交政策、人马座的民族个性、社会阶层和知识分子的东西分化与东西兼具的生活方式及俄语词汇方面。

  2. World review: Middle East

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  3. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  4. East African institutions

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  5. Middle East Reform Halts

    2006-01-01

    The chaos in Iraq poses a great threat to the U.S. plan in the Middle East While the fighting between Israel and Lebanon-based Hezbollah becomes fiercer, security in Iraq also keeps deteriorating, making the region a petrol can that may blow up anytime.

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  7. Structure Contour of the Top of the Travis Peak-Hosston Formations, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the structural configuration of the top of the Travis Peak or Hosston Formations in feet below sea level. The map was produced by calculating the...

  8. Estimated Thickness of the Cotton Valley Group to the Top of the Smackover Formation, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Cotton Valley Group to the top of the Smackover Formation. It was necessary to contour this...

  9. Estimated Thickness of the Travis Peak-Hosston Formations to the Top of the Cotton Valley Group, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Travis Peak or Hosston Formations to the top of the Cotton Valley Group. The map was...

  10. The Crustal Structure Character of East China Sea

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents actuality of investigation and study of the crustal structure characters of East China Sea at home and abroad. Based on lots of investigation and study achievements and the difference of the crustal velocity structure from west to east, the East China Sea is divided into three parts - East China Sea shelf zone, Okinawa Trough zone and Ryukyu arc-trench zone. The East China Sea sheff zone mostly has three velocity layers, i.e.,the sediment blanket layer (the velocity is 5.8-5.9 km/s), the basement layer (the velocity is 6.0-6.3 km/s), and the lower crustal layer (the velocity is 6.8-7.6 km/s). So the East China Sea shelf zone belongs to the typical continental crust. The Okinawa Trough zone is located at the transitional belt between the continental crust and the oceanic crust. It still has the structural characters of the continental crust, and no formation of the oceanic crust, but the crust of the central trough has become to thinning down. The Ryukyu arc-trench zone belongs to the transitional type crust as a whole, but the ocean side of the trench already belongs to the oceanic crust. And the northwest Philippine Basin to the east of the Ryukyu Trench absolutely belongs to the typical oceanic crust.

  11. Shift to the East

    Gabor Hunya; Monika Schwarzhappel

    2007-01-01

    The FDI inflow to Central, East and Southeast Europe reached a new high in 2006, EUR 77 billion, 30% more than in the previous year. But the FDI inflow and its growth were unevenly distributed. The inflow was stagnating in the NMS-5 but increasing in Southeast Europe and the European CIS. This publication provides an analysis of recent developments and prospects of FDI. It tackles all major issues brought forward by the latest statistics FDI inflows and outflows, inward and outward stocks, fo...

  12. Serbia in the East

    Marković, Svetozar

    2013-01-01

    Title: Srbija na istoku (Serbia in the East) Originally published: Novi Sad, Srpska narodna zadružna Štamparija, 1872 Language: SerbianThe excerpts used are from Svetozar Marković, Srbija na istoku (NiŠ: Gradina, 1972), pp. 172–173. About the author Svetozar Marković [1846, Jagodina (present-day central Serbia) – 1875, Trieste]: the founder of the socialist movement in Serbia. As an exceptional student of the Velika Škola, the first high school and later university in Serbia, he won a state s...

  13. Natural processes involved in the formation of Pleistocene bone assemblages in continental South-East Asian caves : the case of the cave of the monk (Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand).

    Lenoble, Arnaud; Zeitoun, Valéry; Laudet, Frédéric; Seveau, Arnoult; Doyasa, Tasana

    2006-01-01

    A large paleontological assemblage typical of Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna was discovered in the Cave of the Monk, in northern Thailand. Geological and taphonomic approaches were conducted in order to determine site formation processes. A sedimentological study indicated that the fossiliferous layer resulted from mediumsize burrowing animals occupying the cave. Bone surface analysis confirmed that Porcupine was the main, if not exclusive, bone accumulator. A bone accumulation rate was calculated...

  14. Deposición transversal de líquido de las boquillas de doble abanico TTJ60-11004 y TTJ60-11002 en distintas condiciones operacionales The transversal spray deposition of double plain spurt nozzles TTJ60-11004 and TTJ60-11002 in different operational conditions

    R.G. Viana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar la deposición transversal de caldo de las boquillas pulverizadoras de doble abanico TTJ60-11004 y TTJ60-11002 en distintas condiciones operacionales. Se utilizaron 5 muestras de cada boquilla pulverizadora siendo considerada cada unidad, una repetición. La distribución de caldo fue evaluada por medio de una mesa de evaluación de distribución construida de acuerdo con la norma ISO 56821. Se evaluó el perfil de distribución individual, la distribución volumétrica simulada de la superposición de los chorros por medio del coeficiente de variación (CV% de los volúmenes colectados, el caudal y el ángulo de abertura de los chorros. Las condiciones operacionales fueron: presión de trabajo de 200, 300 y 400 Kpa, altura de 30, 40 y 50 cm en relación al blanco y espaciamiento entre boquillas simulados en Software (Microsoft Excel entre 45 y 100 cm. Las boquillas presentaron perfil individual descontinuo con la mayor deposición de líquido en la región central y reducción del volumen gradual en dirección a las extremidades. El aumento de la presión promovió alargamiento del perfil y de la franja de aplicación. Las boquillas proporcionaron perfil uniforme que dependió del espaciamiento entre las boquillas, con valores menores con reducción en el espaciamiento y en presiones mayores. El caudal y el ángulo del chorro aumentaron con el incremento en la presión.The objective of this work was evaluate the transversal spray deposition of double plain spurt nozzles TTJ60-11004 and TTJ60-11002 in different operational conditions. Was used five samples of each nozzle and considerate a unite one repetition. The spray deposition was evaluate on a table of evaluation distribution constructed in accordance with norm ISO 5682-1. Was evaluate a single spray distribution, volumetric distribution of the overlapping spurts by means of the coefficient of variation (CV%, outflow and angle of opening of the

  15. East African Rift

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. The Lebanon place on the Middle-East oil scene

    Lebanon is the only country of the Middle-East without oil or natural gas production. Elements of the libanese policy are given in the fields of exploration, refining, transportation, petrochemistry, staff formation, environmental problems, safety, and oil importations weight on economy. The place of Lebanon in the the regional oil industry is shortly presented. (A.B.). 4 tabs

  17. Middle East gas

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  18. The Danish East India Company

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  19. Mass Media in East Germany.

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  20. Formation Mechanism of Disaster Chain and Countermeasures of Disaster Deduction in the Chaohu Lake Basin, East China%巢湖流域灾害链成因机制与减灾对策

    吴立; 王传辉; 王心源; 李枫; 朱诚

    2012-01-01

    Based on the study of natural disasters in the Chaohu Lake Basin, this paper analyzes the function mechanism and formation mechanism of disaster chain which are affected by natural and human factors with "basin" as the border condition. Regional disaster reduction measures are emphatically established on the basis of regulation on man-earth relation regional system, and scientific theoretical basis and practical guidance are provided for sustainable development of the basin. According to the 4 reasons (geology-physiognomy, weather-hydrology, environment of transition district, civilization and economy) which related with the disaster formation, three disaster chains are got in the Chaohu Basin. In view of these, disaster preventing and mitigating must take the node as the center and carry on the biological measure and the project measure unified in the Chaohu Basin. Six countermeasures of coordination control are also proposed finally.%在对巢湖流域灾害进行深入研究的基础上,提出以“流域”为边界条件,自然和人文因素叠加下的灾害链作用机制和成因机理,着重从人-地关系地域系统的调控上来制定区域减灾对策,为流域可持续发展提供科学的理论依据与实践指导.从流域内灾害产生的地质-地貌、气象-水文、过渡区环境以及灾害产生的文化与经济四方面原因,分析灾害链产生的三条途径.针对性地提出了该流域减灾防灾必须以关键点为中心,采取生物措施与工程措施相结合、上下协同控制的六条减灾对策措施.

  1. The East African rift system

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  2. Luxury consumption moves East

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage.......Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... success factors to consider when developing a business strategy to enter the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Practical implications – The findings could guide managers that are developing a business case for entering the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Originality/value – This case study provides...

  3. Project Radiation Protection - East

    The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 37.1 million for cooperation projects in radiation protection with countries in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (SSI) is in charge of this program, which is often referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The general background of this cooperation program, its objectives, practical organization of the work etc. have been presented in the following reports: SSI Report No.93-08: Projekt Straalskydd Oest - Laegesrapport (March 1993); SSI Report No.93-29: Swedish Cooperation Program for Radiation Protection in Eastern and Central Europe (November 1993). The present report summarizes the work carried out up to and including September 1994. The more than 70 cooperation projects have been divided into the following categories: Upgrading of national authorities; Emergency preparedness, early warning; Nuclear power and research reactors; Instrumentation; Decommissioning, waste, environmental control; General radiation protection; Other projects; Project management and administrative support. Project criteria and a simple program for quality assurance and follow-up are presented briefly. A status report, including an economic overview, is given for all ongoing or already finished projects, together with future plans and a suggested budget for the next fiscal year

  4. Sedimentitas marinas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Marine sediments of the Barranca Final Formation (Middle-Upper Miocence of the Colorado Basin in south-east La Pampa province, Argentina

    G. Visconti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen sedimentitas carbonáticas, silicoclásticas y evaporíticas del Mioceno de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Sobre la base de la litología, las estructuras sedimentarias y los fósiles se identificaron siete facies y dos asociaciones de facies, correspondientes a ambientes marino somero (intermareal a supramareal y fluvial, para las secciones analizadas. Las sedimentitas marinas infrayacen a las areniscas fluviales de la Formación Río Negro y se consideran correlacionables con las sedimentitas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior, depositadas en la cuenca del Colorado durante la transgresión "Entrerriense". El hallazgo de estos niveles confirma la presencia de este mar en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa.This paper describes Miocene carbonatic, siliciclastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Basin, from southeast of La Pampa Province, Argentina. Seven facies and two facies assemblages of shallow marine (intertidal and supratidal settings and fluvial environments are inferred on the basis of lithology, sedimentary structures, and fossil content. The thin marine level underlies the fluvial sandstones of the Río Negro Formation, and is considered contemporary with the Barranca Final Formation (middle-upper Miocene, of the Colorado Basin, which is the depositional record of the "Entrerriense" transgression. The occurrence of these sedimentary rocks confirms the presence of the "Entrerriense" sea in the south-east of La Pampa Province during the Miocene.

  5. Social Protection in East Asia

    Cook, Sarah; Kwon, Huck-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Social Protection in East Asia (Cook, Sarah) (Kwon, Huck-Ju) University of Sussex - UNITED KINGDOM (Cook, Sarah) Sung Kyun Kwan University - KOREA, REPUBLIC OF (Kwon, Huck-Ju) KOREA, REPUBLIC OF UNITED KINGDOM

  6. Petroleum products in East countries

    This paper presents a study about petroleum and natural gas reserves in East countries (former USSR, Middle Europe). Statistical data about petroleum production and petroleum products consumption are also given. 10 figs

  7. East of Eden / M. A.

    M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Palmses toimub sel nädalal rahvusvahelise stsenaariumikoolituse East of Eden seminar. Koolituse koordinatsioonikeskus tegutseb alates 2005.aastast Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse juures, Eesti--poolseks koordinaatoriks Anu Ernits

  8. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  9. Regionalism in East Asia: The Role of North East Asian Nations

    Fithra F. Hastiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For the past few years, regionalism has been progressing in East Asia with the likes of China, Japan and Korea (CJK as the most prominent actors. Unfortunately, with the absence of trade arrangement amongst the CJK, the present regional trade scheme is not sufficient to reach sustainability. Thus, the study aims to give the solution to the problem. This study found the inefficient trade scheme through Engle-Granger Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism. Two Stage Least Squares in a static panel fixed effect model were also employed to proof the spill-over effect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study underlines the importance of triangular trade agreement for accelerating the phase of growth in CJK which eventually created a spillover effect to East Asia as a whole. Moreover, the study argued that the spillover effect would function as an impetus for creating region-wide FTA. Furthermore, the study also identified a number of economic and political factors that can support the formation of East Asian Regionalism.

  10. East articulated maintenance arm for East and West

    A project to upgrade the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) into a fully operational robot EAMA (EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm) has been set between IRFM and ASIPP in an associated laboratory. EAMA consists of an articulated serial arm with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) and a 3-DOF gripper. The total length is 8.867 meters. As planned, it will work in Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak (EAST) and W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak (WEST) vacuum vessel (VV) to perform a remote inspection and maintenance tasks after plasma shutting down. The EAMA system will be demonstrated under EAST conditioning, namely ultra-high vacuum and temperature conditions. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the EAMA system and present the obtained results of the test campaign

  11. UKRAINE AND THE EAST: CULTUROLOGICAL ASPECT

    Oleh Pylypiuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Oriental studies regard the East as the cradle of the world’s civilization, a web of unique cultural formations. Within the modern East–West paradigm, the research into the values of tradition should be underpinned by dominant axiological concepts in order to systematize contemporary ideas of the world, nature, the individual and mentality. In accordance with the central methodological principle of the research, archetypes are regarded as cultural universals. In the article, the typology of the cosmological and the spiritual elements (the Moon and the Word respectively in the Oriental and Ukrainian traditions are highlighted, the emphasis being laid on the analysis of the semantic and thematic fields of the two archetypes.

  12. Lessons Learned from EAST's Failures

    Full text: Significant progresses have been obtained on EAST tokamak partially based on lessons from its failures marked by more than 20 times leakages from PFC and 1.6 ton water inside of vacuum chamber. Lessons learned from major failures in EAST have been summarized in this paper. Major failures came from design, construction, commissioning and operation phases have been described which have been classified as imperfect design, QA control, failure of components and lack of understanding. Predictions for further risks and possible ways to mitigating these risks have been given in this paper. (author)

  13. The Cretaceous of Lebanon in the Middle East (Levant) context

    2007-01-01

    The Cretaceous succession of Lebanon was first described and dated mainly by Dubertret & Vautrin (1937), Dubertret (1955), and Saint-Marc (1974), supplemented by the later contributions of Smirnova & Mroueh (1980) for the Chouf Sandstones, Noujaim-Clark & Boudagher-Fadel (2001, 2002) for the Salima Formation. After two years of field work using facies sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy, and as part of the Middle East Basins Evolution (MEBE) Programme, we propose to divide the Cretaceous ...

  14. The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon: Recent progress

    He, Jinhai; Liu, Boqi

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we firstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land-sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the effect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast and the influences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate difference between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its influential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  15. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is...

  16. Criswell Leads FEMA IMAT East

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School & The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Center for Homeland Defense and Security. Since the end of December 2013, the Center for Homeland Defense and Security master’s degree and Executive Leaders Program alumnae has held the job of Team Leader with the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Incident Management Assistance Team (IMAT) East.

  17. State Building, Modernization and Political Islam: The Search for Political Community(s) in the Middle East

    Gamal A. G. Soltan

    1997-01-01

    To appreciate the dynamics involved in identity formation and re-formation is the key to understanding the processes by which nation and state building in the Middle East have adapted to modernization and political Islam. Soltan affirms that four identities–primordial, national, regional and universal– cast the basic scope of Middle East politics. And these, far from facilitating a national consensus or healthy coexistence in each country, have instead found that they interact in an arena of ...

  18. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  19. East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival - 2012

    Marina Tkacheva

    2012-01-01

    Catalogue East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival 2012Chronicle of the East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival 2012Our Guest, Totan KuzembaevThe List of Participants of the East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival XIIBuilt ProjectsUn-built ProjectsPropaganda of Architecture Creation of Young Architects and StudentsChildren’s Architectural and Artistic Creation

  20. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  1. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    the emplacement of small volumes of basalts of the Vindtoppen Formation to the south of Scoresby Sund.Although the basalts were extruded close to sea level, this part of East Greenland is a plateau raised to c. 2 km, but the timing of uplift is controversial. Superimposed on the plateau is a major dome at Kangerlussuaq.East Greenland presents a rich interplay between magmatic and tectonic events reflecting the birth of the North Atlantic Ocean. It was active over a much longer period (36 Ma than other parts of the province (5 Ma in the Hebrides, Northern Ireland and the Faroe Islands and contains a wider range of products, including carbonatites, and felsic rocks tend to be granitic rather than syenitic. As expected, there are many similarities with Iceland, the present-day expression of activity in the province. Differences are readily explained by higher production rates and the thicker lithospheric lid during the early stages of development in East Greenland. The igneous and related activity clearly results from plate-tectonic factors, but the relationship is not understood in detail. In particular, the nature of the underlying mantle processes, primarily the presence or absence of a plume, is still not resolved.

  2. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    O'Keefe, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging infectious disease that can present with flu-like symptoms. In individuals with comorbidities or who are immunosuppressed, it can be deadly. The disease is transmitted through contact with someone who has MERS-CoV. The occupational health nurse must be cognizant of and educate the workforce about MERS-CoV transmission, prevention, and treatment. PMID:26407596

  3. Estratigrafía de la Formación del Crestón, sierra de Famatina, Argentina: Sedimentación paleógena en el antepaís andino? Geology of the Del Creston Formation, Famatina Ranges, Argentina: Paleogene sedimentation in the Andean Foreland?

    F. M. Dávila

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescriben y analizan los espesos depósitos de la Formación del Crestón (>1700m en el antepaís andino en la región del Famatina (Provincia de La Rioja, que en el pasado han sido relegados. Se definen sus paleoambientes y se discute su posición estratigráfica, edad y significado en el contexto de los depósitos sinorogénicos de la región del antepaís fragmentado. La unidad, dominantemente areno-conglomerádica y de color rojo-morada registra una evolución en dos megaciclos granoestratocrecientes que representan una progresión desde etapas con escaso relieve a depósitos gruesos que caracterizan sectores proximales de abanicos aluviales. En el megaciclo inferior se suceden barreales (fangosos y salinos, abanicos terminales y abanicos aluviales de baja eficiencia mientras que en el ciclo superior se suceden depósitos de barreales, depósitos de sistemas entrelazados mixtos y abanicos aluviales de alta eficiencia. La diferencia composicional entre los conglomerados cuspidales de cada ciclo permite asociar el primero a devastación de cúpulas y coladas volcánicas andesíticas mientras que el segundo se vincula con exhumación de cuerpos granitos que conforman parte del marco de antepaís fragmentado. En este trabajo, y a partir de relaciones de campo, los depósitos de la Formación del Crestón se consideran como antecesores de los clásicos depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos (Grupo Angulos y se relacionan con evidencias aportadas por trazas de fisión y actividad orogénica en otras regiones de los Andes centrales para sostener que la unidad puede representar el registro más antiguo de la sedimentación de antepaís preservado en esta región. Asimismo, se infiere que el inicio de la fragmentación del antepaís andino y la evolución geológica de la región de Famatina es bastante más compleja de lo establecido con anterioridad.Largely ignored thick (>1700m dominantly conglomeratic and sandy red-purple strata of the Del

  4. Electromagnetic and structural analysis of EAST passive stabilizers loop

    The passive stabilizers loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilizing system built in the EAST. Its purpose is to provide passive feedback control of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. To accommodate with the new stage for high performance plasma and enhance the control of vertical stabilization in EAST, the project of PSL has been carried out. The eddy currents are induced by the vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruption. The distribution of the eddy currents depend on the structure of the PSL and the formation of the induction. The FE model is created and meshed by the ANSYS software. Base on the simulation of plasma VDEs and disruption, the distribution and decay curve of the eddy currents on the PSL are obtained. The stress and the strain caused by the eddy currents and the magnetic fields are calculated. (author)

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  6. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  7. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist

  8. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    唐海燕; 张会清

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  9. Stellar formation

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  10. How international economic links affect East Asia

    Nehru, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The author applies the theme of the last two papers in the Global Economic Prospects series, written by the International Economics Department, to the case of one developing region: East Asia. He documents the rapid integration of the East Asian economies into the world economy through trade and foreign direct investment, and suggests that this has helped create a relatively well-diversified structure of production and of external markets. As a result, East Asia was relatively unaffected by t...

  11. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  12. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    Regina T. Riphahn; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  13. Swell prediction for the East Korean coast

    J. H. Yuk; Kim, K. O.; Choi, B. H.; K. T. Jung

    2013-01-01

    Long-period abnormally high swell waves have been generated in the East Sea near Hokkaido, Japan, in winter during the atmospheric depression. These waves, named Yorimawari in Japanese, occasionally attack the coasts of both Korea and Japan. Waves significantly higher than normal years were recorded along the east Korean coast in 2006. In 2008, the swell caused considerable damages in Toyama and the Niigata coastal area of Japan and in Anmok east coast of Korea. This paper attempts to hindcas...

  14. Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

    Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik H.; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Steve

    2016-04-01

    On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing. The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately 4 billions to Indonesia. Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids. To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi's structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies. Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

  15. Middle East oil and gas

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  16. Galaxy formation

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  17. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  18. The New District of East Belitung: the Review Poliferation Process

    Hendri Yani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The regional autonomy conducted in many functions of government. One of its forms is proliferation of region. The aim of this study was to overview the proceed of proliferation in East Belitung District. This research was a qualitative research consisted of two main techniques to collect the data; they were interview and secondary data from documentations. The findings show that there were ten steps to create the new East Belitung District. The steps started from the preparations of local’s planning and administration to the final steps in the hand of national parliaments. This study found that the number of local government in Indonesia has increases, and the process at the central government level seem relatively easy. But, the eligibility criteria being compromised. Then, the political will from communities were not clear mention. Also there was a conflict interest between local government and central government in the feasibility study for proliferation in Belitung District. It concluded that we could not deny that political intervention in the bureaucracy has facilitated the formation of East Belitung districts.

  19. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  20. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts and…

  1. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  2. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  3. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  4. East Capital suunab investorid Venemaale / Gert Tiivas ; interv. Raivo Sormunen

    Tiivas, Gert, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Rootsi investeerimispanga East Capitali Balti regiooni juht Gert Tiivas soovitab investeerida Baltimaadest suurema potentsiaaliga riikide börsidele. Vt. samas: CV: Gert Tiivas; East Capitali fondid. Diagramm: East Capitali Venemaa fondis on enim raha

  5. Gravity Investigation in Area East of River Nile (Khartoum State)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the subsurface geology of the area. For quantitative interpretation of the resulting Bouguer anomalies, borehole data are explored. This is done along several profiles obtained from software program G. model C version 2. 2 No. 175. This program is based on two -dimensional mass distribution. The interpretation reveals two basinal features filling depressions in the basement complex named as Abu Harira basin and Kabbashi basin. They are structurally related to Khartoum basin. As a result, a geological/structural map of the area in east of the Nile is produced. The basinal features in the study area are considered as parts of the central Sudan (Khartoum basin) that had been subjected to several tectonic events that resulted in the formation of several fracture systems associated with block subsidence and formation of these basins.

  6. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  7. The Cathaysia Flora and the Mixed Late Permian Cathaysian-Angaran Floras in East Asia

    2006-01-01

    The Cathaysia flora, one of the most prominent floras of the Carboniferous and Permian, was mainly distributed in East Asia and was characterized by numerous endemic elements. China is one of the most important localities of the Cathaysia flora and it is also the center of origin of this flora. This paper reviews and discusses the characteristics of the Cathaysia flora and the biogeographically mixed Permian Cathaysian-Angaran floras of East Asia. In addition, the formative mechanism of the mixed Permian floras is also discussed.

  8. East African English. Linguistic Features and Background

    Hermann Ingi Ragnarsson 1983

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the most notable features and background of English in East Africa. That is: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. For this to be possible, English as a second language has to be discussed, since English is the second, third, or even fourth language of East Africa’s inhabitants. The development and characteristics of English in Africa generally will thus be discussed before the discussion turns to East African English with a special emphasis on Kenya. One of the ...

  9. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  10. Networks model of the East Turkistan terrorism

    Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo

    2015-02-01

    The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.

  11. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  12. Simulation Analysis of Divertor Performance in EAST

    Zhu Sizheng; Zha Xuejun

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study of the divertor performance in the EAST has been conducted for both its double null and single null configurations. The results of the application of the SOLPS (B2/Eirene) code package to the analysis of the EAST divertor are summarized. Here we concentrate on the effects of the increased geometrical closure and variation in the magnetic topology on the behavior of divertor plasmas. The results of numerical predictions for the EAST divertor's operational window are also described in this paper.

  13. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  14. EAST OJAI HYDROLOGY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The basis of the hydrologic data for East Ojai FIS is the HSPF study for Ventura River watershed documented in a report entitled...

  15. Lots, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset depicts the polygon boundaries of the parcels of land within the Parish of East Baton Rouge, with the exception of those parcels that fall within the...

  16. Parish Boundary, 2004, East Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset depicts polygon boundary of East Baton Rouge Parish. This dataset was derived from many data sources such as aerial photographs and mylars and conveys...

  17. Hydrography, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Hydrography layer is an area geometry depicting the various water features that include the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, etc of East Baton Rouge Parish.

  18. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  19. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  20. Queerness and Chinese modernity : the politics of reading between East and East

    Wong, Alvin Ka Hin

    2012-01-01

    Queerness and Chinese Modernity examines the explosion of alternative sexuality in the People's Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Drawing on methodologies in Chinese cultural studies, East Asian and area studies, and queer theory, I propose an inter-regional, East-East transnational approach that juxtaposes queer literature, films, new media, and cultural politics in the PRC alongside cultural productions in post-Martial Law (post- 1987) Taiwan, and Hong Kong before and after th...

  1. Cultures of the east (1984-1992)

    Pajin Dušan

    2013-01-01

    The quarterly journal, Cultures of the East (1984-92), was founded with the intention of presenting Near and Far East cultures to academics, as well as a wider audience, and illuminate some of its rich cultural heritage. The subtitle defined the journal as a “journal for Eastern philosophy, literature and art”. However it also contained other issues, such as religion. Some issues had a comparative approach, compiling studies (on philosophy, religion, etc.) of Eastern as well as Western ...

  2. Coinfections in East African Shorthorn Zebu

    Callaby, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project followed 548 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) calves in Western Kenya for the first year of life and monitored the sequelae of infections by multiple parasites. More than 50 different parasites were identified during this time. The IDEAL project also gathered environmental information about the farm and collected phenotypic data on the calf and its dam. Calves were also genotyped for 55,777 single nucleotide po...

  3. Equality of opportunity: East vs. West Germany

    Peichl, Andreas; Ungerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The case of German reunification has been subject to extensive research on earnings inequality and labor market integration. however, little is known about the development of equality of opportunity (EOp) in East and West Germany after 1990.Using German micro data, we empirically analyze how circumstances beyond the sphere of individual control explain inequality in East and West Germany. Our results suggest that equal opportunities in Germany have grown since reunification. Interestingly, EO...

  4. New Turbulence in the Middle East

    Li Shaoxian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Americans often say that September 11 has transformed the world, but in fact, it has primarily changed the U. S. itself. The Middle East, as well, due to a shift in U.S. policies and strategies,has gone through significant changes. This in turn has exerted substantial influence on future development of the international situation.What kind of change has taken place in the Middle East? We might find some answers from historical and realistic perspectives.

  5. Is East Africa an Optimum Currency Area?

    Mkenda, Beatrice Kalinda

    2001-01-01

    The paper investigates whether the East African Community, comprising of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, constitutes an optimum currency area or not. The East African Community has been revived, and one of the long-term objectives of the Community is to have a common currency. The paper employs the Generalised Purchasing Power Parity method, and various criteria suggested by the theory of Optimum Currency Areas to investigate the optimality of the Community as a currency area. While the various ...

  6. Geochemistry of Crystalline Rocks from the East of the Upper East Region of Ghana

    K.B. Pelig-Ba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Selected rock samples were collected from outcrops from the eastern part of the Upper East Region with the aim of determining their chemical composition and classification. Samples were obtained from granitoids and the Birrimian formation located in Bongo, Talensi-Nabdam, Bawku West and Garu-Tempane Districts. Rocks were identified mineralogically using hand lenses. The composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF after which several quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data. Some of these techniques included physical examination, Chemical Alteration Index (CIA, scatter plots, discrimination diagrams and Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI. The mineralogical analysis showed that the rocks generally contained K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, hornblende, quartz and biotite as major minerals. Physical examination revealed that samples had undergone some alteration that was not evident at the time of sampling and this was confirmed by calculations using the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA. The CIA values of the fresh rocks ranged from 70 to 125 suggesting that the samples had undergone intensive alteration. Scatter plots and discrimination diagrams suggested that the samples were not of basaltic origin but were thoeleiitic in character. The Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI revealed that most samples were metaluminus and that the majority of samples were sub-alkaline and therefore basic in character.

  7. Metallogenic Model and Prospecting Indicators of the Boron Deposits in East Liaoning Area

    Qu Hongxiang; Zhang Guoren; Li Xiandong; Chen Shuliang; Yang Zhongzhu; Wang Zhongjiang

    2001-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic boron deposits in east Liaoning occur in Mg- rich marble of Li' eryu Formation of Liaohe group. The mineralization was controlled by stratigraphic lithology. The volcano ~ sedimentation is the material base of ore-formation. Boron mainly derived from volcanic source. Boron in Li' eryu formation was activated and transferred by migmatization and then deposited into ore when metasomatism occurrs in Mg - rich marble. Structural deformation reconstructed the boron ore bodies. Meanwhile, ore - bearing hyd~othermal solution produced by structural deformation and remetasomated the host - ore rocks or filled in fissure of ore. Boron deposit is a stratabound deposit, which formed by migmatization and structural deformation mineralization.

  8. Bulge Formation

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The currently discussed theories of bulge formation are reviewed, including the primordial scenario, where bulges form rapidly and then accrete disks, the secular scenario, where bulges are formed by dynamical evolution of disks through bars and galaxy interactions, and some combinations of both, where formation of bulges and disks are more continuous and interleaved. The various scenarios make specific predictions about the relative masses, angular momenta, colours, metallicities of bulges relative to disks, and the bulge-to-disk ratio as a function of time. Dynamical processes relevant to the formation of bulges (bar instabilities, mergers) are described and tested against observed statistics. Current data suggest a dynamical feedback from gravitational instabilities in bulge and disk formation. It is very difficult to discriminate between the various scenarios from surveys at z=0 only, and observations at high redshift are presently the best hope for large progress.

  9. The first case of anoxia in waters of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve

    Stunzhas, P. A.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Ivin, V. V.; Barabanshchikov, Yu. A.; Volkova, T. I.; Vyshkvartsev, D. I.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Mikhailik, T. A.; Semkin, P. Ju.; Tishchenko, P. P.; Khodorenko, N. D.; Shvetsova, M. G.; Golovchenko, F. M.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2013, anoxia of the bottom waters was established in the southern region of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Science, in the depression between Furugelm Island and coastal waters. Death of the benthic community was registered using a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The hydrochemical studies revealed that the area of the absence and/or presence of low oxygen contents corresponds to an area of anomalously high contents of ammonium, phosphates, and silicates, a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide and normalized alkalinity, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. The microbiological decomposition of diatoms precipitated on the seafloor in the absence of oxygen regeneration was the reason for anoxia. Its formation in summer of 2013 was caused by anomalously abundant precipitates in the Far East.

  10. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change. PMID:26691316

  11. Case history report on East Mesa and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields

    Davis, DG.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-06-01

    Well log analysis as applied to the geothermal industry is one of the areas of technology in great need of further development. One means of improving log analysis technology is to study case histories of the past uses of log analysis as applied to specific fields. The project described in this report involved case history studies on two well-known geothermal areas in North America: the East Mesa field in California and the Cerro Prieto field in Mexico. Since there was considerably more pertinent material available on East Mesa, a major part of the effort on this project was devoted to studying the East Mesa field. One particular problem that first came to attention when studying the Cerro Prieto data was the difficulty in determining actual formation temperature at the time of logging. Since the temperature can have a significant effect on well log readings, an accurate temperature determination was considered to be important.

  12. Effects of drifts and ballooning instability on the divertor in–out asymmetry in EAST tokamak

    The divertor in–out asymmetry (DIOA) of the disconnected double null (DDN) configuration with the active X-point at the bottom in EAST has been investigated using the SOLPS code package to explore its forming mechanism. Effects of classical drifts and ballooning-like transport (BLT) instability are evaluated individually and compared to the DIOA during H-mode. The results show that the BLT plays a much larger role in forming the DIOA. It is further found that the combined effects of the classical drifts and BLT can account for the formation of the DIOA observed experimentally in EAST. In addition, the results also imply that reversing the toroidal magnetic field may be used to mitigate the EAST DIOA under certain circumstances

  13. R and D on passive stabilization loop at EAST

    Ji, X., E-mail: jixiang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Song, Y.T.; Wu, S.T.; Shen, G.; Wang, Z.; Cao, L.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, X.; Peng, X.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Zhu, N.; Zhang, P.; Wu, J.; Gong, X.; Shen, B.; Gao, D.; Fu, P.; Wan, B.; Li, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. The project of PSL has been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EM and structural analysis of PSL has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The R and D of the silvered craft for the PSL is done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The R and D of the insulation structure for the PSL is done. - Abstract: The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. Its purpose is to provide passive feedback control of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. To accommodate with the new stage for high performance plasma and enhance the control of vertical stabilization in EAST, the project of PSL has been carried out. The eddy currents are induced by the vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruption. The distribution of the eddy currents depend on the structure of the PSL and the formation of the induction. The global model is created and meshed by the ANSYS software. Based on the simulation of plasma VDEs and disruption, the distribution and decay curve of the eddy currents on the PSL are obtained. The stress and the strain caused by the eddy currents and the magnetic field are calculated. To decrease the resistance of the joint and enhance anti-corrosion of the joint surface, the silvered craft is used. In the experiment of test model, the resistance is decreased to half after silvered with the same matrix material and under the same preload. The PSL is insulated from the vacuum vessel at the supports of passive stabilizers. The insulation structure is designed and tested with ceramic material. The PSL is designed, fabricated and assembled with the total resistance 150 {mu}{Omega}. It can supply passive feedback control to the plasma by the eddy currents induced by the VDEs, which could enhance the vertical placement control of plasma.

  14. The great East Japan earthquake

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  15. Progress of the EAST project in China

    Full text: The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) project is one of the National Mega-Projects of Science Research (MPSR) in China, which was approved by Chinese government in 1997. The name of the project was changed from HT-7U ( Hefei Tokamak 7 Upgrade) to EAST last October. EAST is a full superconducting tokamak with the elongated cross-section.The main parameters of EAST tokamak (for the first phase) are Bt = 3.5T, R0 = 1.75m,Ip = 1MA, a = 0.4m, κ(b/a) = 1 ∼ 2 with double and single null divertor, PLHCD = 3.5 - 4MW, PICRH = 3 - 4MW, PECRH = 0.5MW and the maximum pulse long will be 1000 seconds. If the working temperature can achieve at 3.8 K the second phase will be with Bt 4.0T and Ip = 1.5MA. The mission of EAST project is to investigate both the physics and technology for the steady-state and advanced tokamak as well as the power and particle handling under the steady-state operation condition. Since the EAST project was approved in 1998 the significant progress has been achieved including: the physical and engineering design; the most of R and D activities; cabling and jacking of CICC; vacuum vessel, thermal shield and cryostat; most of TF, CS and PF magnet and their testing; most of other subsystem. The final assembly of EAST is under way. It is plane to get the first plasma around end of 2005. The detail information of design and the testing results of TF, CS and large PF magnets as well as the experimental plane will be given in this paper. (author)

  16. Star formation

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  17. Galaxy Formation

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function of...

  18. Oil resource wealth of the Middle East

    The economics of the Middle East oil industry are examined. The inexhaustible nature of oil resources, ultimate recovery, inventory turnover in 1960-1990, growth in oil fields, the balance between oil price rises due to continued extraction and lowering costs due to technology improvement, recent investment requirements in five areas, myths about cost, price and investment, the unbalance in the world industry, objectives of the Middle East nations, economic aspects of the Gulf War, and the impact of Middle East factors on the price of oil are discussed. Resource extraction has little, if any impact on oil costs and prices. Oil production costs have exhibited a falling long run trend, and the cost to produce oil in the Middle East is much lower than elsewhere. Having defended very high prices in the early 1980s, Middle East producers experienced a sharp reduction in their sales. To improve their ability to manage the oil market and control prices, the producers must expand their market share. This presupposes a period of prices that are even lower than in the late 1980s, which producers seem unwilling to accept. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Abanicos aluviales cuaternarios del Baix Camp (provincia de Tarragona): resultados de dataciones radiométricas

    Villamarín, J. A.; Masana, E; Calderón, T.; Julià, Ramón; Santanach, P.

    1998-01-01

    The Quaternary fans which cover the southernmost part of the El Camp Basin belong to three generations. Noticeable calcrete levels developed on the top of fans from the first and second generation. Radiometric dating by means of U/Th and termolumiscence techniques of the mentioned caliche levels allow us to attribute a minimal age of ca. 300000 years to the top of the first generation fans, and ca. 100000 years to the top of the second generation alluvial fans

  20. A coastal hazards data base for the US East Coast

    Gornitz, V.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; White, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniels, R.C. [Energy, Environment and Resources Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) and non-GIS data bases to assess the risk of coastlines to erosion or sea level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US East Coast into 0.250 latitude {times} 0.250 longitude grid cells. Each coastal grid cell contains data on geology, geomorpholog,elevation, wave heights, tidal ranges, shoreline displacement (erosion), and sea-level trends. These data are available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, consisting of this document and a set of computerized data files. The documentation contains information on the methods used in calculating each variable, detailed descriptions of file contents and formats, and a discussion of the sources, restrictions, and limitations of the data. The data files are available on magnetic tape, on floppy diskettes, or through INTERNET.

  1. A coastal hazards data base for the US East Coast

    Gornitz, V.M. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Daniels, R.C. (Energy, Environment and Resources Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) and non-GIS data bases to assess the risk of coastlines to erosion or sea level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US East Coast into 0.250 latitude [times] 0.250 longitude grid cells. Each coastal grid cell contains data on geology, geomorpholog,elevation, wave heights, tidal ranges, shoreline displacement (erosion), and sea-level trends. These data are available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, consisting of this document and a set of computerized data files. The documentation contains information on the methods used in calculating each variable, detailed descriptions of file contents and formats, and a discussion of the sources, restrictions, and limitations of the data. The data files are available on magnetic tape, on floppy diskettes, or through INTERNET.

  2. Evaluation of Petroleum System in Xihu Depression, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    2001-01-01

    According to the theory of petroleum system and the characteristics of petroleum geology, the Xihu depression in the East China Sea shelf basin is divided into four petroleum systems: the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock, the Huagang Formation as source rock and reservoir rock, the Paleocene as source rock and the burial-hill as reservoir rock, and the Miocene as source rock and reservoir rock. The system with the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock is the most important one in the depression, which has high hydrocarbon generation and accumulation efficiency and is the most important object to hydrocarbon exploration at present.

  3. Middle East gas: a brighter outlook?

    Over the past year, the prospects for both oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East have greatly improved. Apart from the increase in the price of oil, a long term strategy for better exploitation of gas reserves is enhancing the prospects for growth throughout the Middle East. The effect of the fall in oil prices hit Qatar particularly hard: the knock-on effect was felt throughout the whole of Qatar. The current objectives in Qatar are to develop the export market and make better use of the gas reserves at home: developments toward this aim are discussed. Developments in Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Iran and Egypt are discussed. Some speculative intra-regional and export pipeline projects are discussed. The main markets for middle east gas are mentioned

  4. Modelling of First Discharge in EAST Tokamak

    LIU Chengyue; WU Bin; XIAO Bingjia; SHU Shuangbao

    2008-01-01

    An 1.5D equilibrium evolution code was used to model the time evolution of the first ohmic discharges in the EAST experiment. Good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was obtained in the plasma current, major radius, electron temperature, loop voltage and poloidal field (PF) current for the entire duration of the discharge, which indicates that the code is highly reliable and will allow to further study the EAST discharge. At the same time, the code also simulates some important plasma parameters without experimental measured data yet, such as the plasma minor radius, central and edge safety factors, elongation and triangilarity, which are important in the analysis of EAST data.

  5. Huntington Disease (Chorea) in the Middle East

    Scrimgeour, Euan M.

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) has been reported in Arab families in several Middle East countries including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt and in non-Arab populations in other countries in the region. It is probably under-reported, and until now, has not been recorded in Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan or in Iraq. The Middle East has always been on the crossroads of trade and travel, and HD was probably introduced to some of these countries in previous times. The prevalence r...

  6. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    express as their expectations that they will through Islamic studies get an opportunity to move upwards socially and materially. Therefore, they dream of going abroad to study in the Middle East. For the time being, religious study grants to the Middle East seem to be one of the few ways for them to gain...... part in the adventures and experiences of globalization in a socially and religiously acceptable way. With its high reputation the al-Azhar in Cairo, Egypt, has played a central role for the establishment of this tradition of religious study trips in an African context. On the basis of 10 months of...

  7. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis o...

  8. The Middle East, OPEC and oil

    The importance of the Middle East to the oil industry, was discussed. The unresolved Arab-Israeli dispute and the ongoing conflicts in the Gulf are the two main reasons for political instability in the Middle East. This in turn, shapes the security of the region and its oil supplies. The factors which will shape the future of OPEC, including the Arab-Israeli conflict, the issue of the return of Iraqi crude to the market, and production decisions by Saudi Arabia were discussed in the context of their impact on OPEC's role as a coordinator of oil policies and of market stabilisation through price control

  9. Education Quality in the Middle East

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-07-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest challenges facing education and government leaders across the region. This paper summarises recent evidence regarding student learning in the MENA region and draws on Galal's model of policy formulation in considering ways that governments across the Middle East might address this problem.

  10. Middle East Chronic Water Problems: Solution Prospects

    Hussein Al-Rimmawi

    2012-01-01

    Water shortages have been for a long time a serious problem in the Middle East as well as other parts of the world. The large and arid land of the Middle East has also been dependant on water which is provided by few rivers. This issue has been tackled by researchers, orientalists and exploration associations (Palestine Exploration Fund 1882, and Oliphant, 1880). The aim of this paper is to tackle ways of managing and solving chromic water shortages and hydropolitical tensions in the Middle E...

  11. Near east growth potential of poultry

    Soliman, Ibrahim; EL Issawi, Hussein

    1981-01-01

    T h e r e is considerable evidences f or increasing the number of eggs and poultry projects in the near east countries during the next 20 years. A development program f o r 1 8 Near East countries has been drawn up by H. F. El-Issawi and I. Soliman which aims at raising average annual per caput consumption from current 4.4kg of poultry-meat and 56 table-eggs to 12.8kg and 128 eggs by the year 2000. Three regional projects are proposed to support the overall development program, which, bein...

  12. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occur...

  13. Negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Evaluation and Implications for East Asian Regionalism

    Cheong, Inkyo

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement seems to have reached a crossroads : it could either be a building block toward achieving economic integration in Asia and the Pacific, or trigger the formation of two large trade blocs which will work independently of one another. When the Government of Japan announced its participation in the TPP negotiations in March 2013, the partnership began to attract greater interest from other East Asian countries. This paper analyzes the progress and ...

  14. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  15. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  16. Characterising Antarctic and Southern Ocean Lithosphere with Magnetic and Gravity Imaging of East Antarctic Rift Systems

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that the lithospheric structure of East Antarctica is relatively homogeneous, forming a geological block of largely cratonic nature, consisting of a mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago. Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior indicates that this is incorrect, and has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications for tectonic reconstructions and controls on ice sheet formation and stability. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data pioneered by Golynsky & Golynsky indicates that further rift zones may extend the East Antarctic Rift System into widely distributed extension zones within the continent. We have carried out a pilot study, using a newly developed gravity inversion technique with existing public domain satellite data, which shows that East Antarctica consists of distinct crustal thickness provinces with anomalously thick areas separated by thin, possibly rifted crust and overall high average thickness. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) Better understanding of crustal thickness in Antarctica, especially along the ocean-continent transition (OCT), will make it possible to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana and also refine constraints on how and when these continents separated; 2) crustal thickness provinces can be used to aid supercontinent reconstructions and provide new assessments of the influence of basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting processes; 3) tracking rift zones through

  17. East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project

    Kumar, Meghan; Lehmann, Joel; Rucogoza, Aniceth; Kayobotsi, Claver; Das, Ashis; Schneidman, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the main findings from the application of performance based incentives linked to progress on a standardized, globally recognized metric - the stepwise laboratory improvement process towards accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist - under the East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP) in Rwanda. The lab performance-based financing (PBF) pilot was intro...

  18. Progress of the EAST project in China

    The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) project is one of the National Mega-Projects of Science Research of China, which was approved by Chinese government in 1998. EAST is a full superconducting tokamak with an elongated plasma cross-section. The mission of the project is to widely investigate both of the physics and the technologies of advanced tokamak operations, especially the mechanism of power and particle handling for steady-state operations. The basic requirements for the EAST tokamak are full superconducting coils, suitable inductive current system, continuous working non-inductive current driven and heating systems, flexible operation scenarios, flexible J(r) and P(r) control, reliable and fast plasma positioning and shaping control, changeable plasma facing components, advanced divertor and diagnostics. Significant progress of the EAST project has been achieved during last two years. The R and D programs, mainly focused on the superconducting magnets, have processed successfully. The prototypes of main parts have been fabricated and qualified. Most of the key parts of the machine have been delivered to the assembly site. The assembly of the device has begun. It is planned to obtain the first plasma in 2005. The detail information of the testing results of superconducting magnets will be given in this paper. The assembly plan and the experimental plan will be introduced, too. (author)

  19. Observatories in East and Central Europe

    Hejda, Pavel

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 - (Gubbins, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.), s. 728-729. (Encyclopedia of Earth sciences series). ISBN 978-1-4020-3992-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetic observatory * East and Central Europe * INTERMAGNET network Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  20. Academic Freedom and Middle East Studies

    Colla, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    When the author and his colleague Marsha Pripstein Posusney of Bryant College organized a workshop, entitled "The Study of the Middle East and Islam: Challenges after 9-11," at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, he naively assumed it would come off without friction. After all, he thought, they were not even talking…

  1. Education Quality in the Middle East

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest…

  2. East-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings

    Measurements made in 1974-1975 at the Aarne Karjalainen Observatory do not show any east-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings. Combining the photometric data available for 1913-1975, one finds that the asymmetry varies in an irregular manner without correlating with Saturn's orbital period. (Auth.)

  3. Educational Transition of East Malaysian Distance Learners.

    Saw, K. G.; Awang, M. N.; Idrus, R. M.; Atan, H.; Azli, N. A.; Jaafar, I.; Rahman, Z. A.; Latiff, Z. A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes results of a study of the changing perceptions of East Malaysian distance learners studying at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Highlights include students' perceptions of their study skills; and the impact of their studies on other areas of their life, including social obligations, recreation, families, health, finances, work, and…

  4. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  5. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  6. The pollution of East Lake,Wuhan

    Yi xiGu; Mialy Rakotondravah

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1.The history East Lake was an open lake:she connected Yangtze River through Qlngshan Channel.The water level was controlled by Yangtze River:rising in summer,and decreasing in winter.After building Wufeng Gate in 1957,changing the Qingshan harbor as water supply channel,the East Lake is completely isolated from Yangtze River and then East Lake changes from a natural lake to a closed lake by human control.The watar level is related with rainfall,evaporation,surface runoff,pumping off by the factories along the lake,agricultural and domestic sewage water.East Lake is a typical shallow lake in the northeast of Wuhan city.When the water level is 20.5m,the area is 28km2, volume is 62 million m3,and catchment area is 186 km2.The deepest position:4.75m,average depth is 2.21m2,And also it is a multi-function:water-sport entertainments.drinking water source,fishing,industrial water and famous scene.

  7. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  8. Paleoproterozoic Extensional Structure and Its Controlling on Mineralization in the East of Liaoning Province

    Yang Zhongzhu; Chen Shuliang; Li Xiandong; Wang Zhongjiang; Qu Hongxiang; Gang Jiang

    2001-01-01

    The palaeoproterozoic extensional structure in the east of Liaoning Province underwent sub - bedding ductile shear flowing deformation with metamorphism and magmatic emplacement. The reversal structure following the processes constructed the present framework of palaeoproterozoic orogenic belt. As a result of the ductile shearing along the layers, the gold in the Liaohe group was activated, migrated upward to the interface between the Dashiqiao rock formation, which was lower green schist facies and the Gaixian rock formation, so the gold deposit was formed in the space of brittle - ductile shear zone as ductile - shear - zone - typed stratabound gold deposit.

  9. A Late Roman Well at Heslington East, York: ritual or routine practices?

    Steve Roskams

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply of fresh water is a central requirement for human settlement. This article discusses evidence associated with the construction, use and demise of a late-Roman well recently excavated at Heslington East near York, UK. It seeks to suggest that, by a holistic analysis of all archaeological evidence, we can distinguish the ideological from the functional dynamics that made up the site formation processes within this feature. The assemblages that evidence these activities might be considered mundane in some respects but their integrated assessment, along with a detailed examination of depositional and formation processes in the feature, produces compelling evidence for what has been termed 'structured deposition'.

  10. Uranium mineralization in the Lower Mahadek Sandstones of Laitduh Area, East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya

    Significant uranium mineralization hosted in feldspathic sandstone of Upper Cretaceous Lower Mahadek Formation has been located at Laitduh, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya. Two mineralized horizons have been identified within Lower Mahadek Formation with vertical separation of 30 m. Samples from upper horizon have assayed upto 0.17% U3O8, whereas samples from lower mineralized horizon have assayed upto 0.50% U3O8. The radioactive minerals identified are coffinite and pitchblende occurring in association with carbonaceous matter. (author)

  11. An age for Kajong, a Miocene fossil site east of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Leakey, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Kajong Formation in Marsabit District, northern Kenya has yielded a Miocene mammalian fauna consisting of nine taxa. It is capped by a basalt 40Ar/39Ar dated at 19.1 ± 0.1 Ma, and a volcanic clast from a conglomerate within the formation yielded an age of 20.3 Ma, only slightly older. The entire fauna from this site thus lies close to the base of the Miocene Epoch and is older than 19.2 Ma. The site has yielded some of the oldest examples of Archaeobelodon filholi, Prodeinotherium hobleyi, and Gomphotherium sp. in east Africa.

  12. Cement Formation

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including an...... overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  13. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    Ito, Hiroto; SETOYA, YUTARO; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, i...

  14. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  15. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  16. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  17. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  18. Pleistocene lacustrine basin of the east domain of Guadix-Baza basin (Granada, Spain): sedimentology, chronostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio de los depósitos lacustres de la parte este de la Cuenca de Guadíx Baza (GBE), una cuenca intramontañosa que permaneció preservada de la erosión hasta la parte superior del Pleistoceno medio. La distribución de facies muestra una clara distribución centrípeta con sistemas de abanicos aluviales que alcanzaron la GBE a través de cañones todavía hoy visibles, aunque también se produjeron aportes de exutorios kársticos con sulfatos disueltos de las evaporitas...

  19. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Brown, Philip J., II; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Shah, Anjana; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Greenland?East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal effort. The West Greenland?East Canada Province is essentially the offshore area between west Greenland and east Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including Kane Basin. The tectonic evolution of the West Greenland?East Canada Province led to the formation of several major structural domains that are the geologic basis for the five assessment units (AU) defined in this study. The five AUs encompass the entire province. Each AU was assessed in its entirety for undiscovered, technically recoverable (assuming absence of sea ice) oil and gas resources, but the assessment results reported here are only for those portions of each AU that are north of the Arctic Circle, as that latitude defines the area of the Circum-Arctic oil and gas assessment.

  20. A Large Transpression Zone at the South Margin of the East Kunlun Mountains and Oblique Subduction

    XU Zhiqin; LI Haibing; YANG Jingsui; CHEN Wen

    2001-01-01

    The convergent boundary between the East Kunlun terrane and the Baryan Hara-Songpan Garze terrane of northern Tibet plateau is a large transpressional zone on the south margin of the East Kunlun Mountains. The deformation structures are different between the eastern segment (A'nyemaqen segment) and western segment (western Datan and eastern Datan segment). The structures of the A'nyemaqen segment are characterized by superimposed thrust slices with southwest orogenic polarity formed during the stage of Indosinian collision-orogeny and brittle sinistrai strikeslip faults formed during Cenozoic. The western Datan and eastern Datan segment consists dominantly of an E-W-trending ductile sinistrai strike slip transpression zone companied by a NW-SE trending fold and fault zone on its both sides, which formed 220 Ma ago. The ductile deformation continued till 220 Ma BP and then the deformation was manifested by the reactivation of the brittle sinistral strike-slip deformation structures. Therefore, the large convergence zone on the south margin of the East Kunlun Mountains is a very special tectonic zone which changed gradually from the "Constrictive compression" in the eastern segment to the "transpression" in the western segment. Its formation was related to northeastward oblique subduction of the Baryan Hara-Songpan Garze terrane beneath the East Kulun terrane since Indosinian.

  1. Edad y rasgos petrográficos y geoquímicos de cuerpos subvolcánicos asignables a la Formación Cerro León, este del Macizo del Deseado, Santa Cruz Age and petrography and geochemistry features of subvolcanic outcrops from Cerro León Formation, east of the Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz

    D. Guido

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos afloramientos de cuerpos subvolcánicos correlacionables con la Formación Cerro León en el sector oriental del Macizo del Deseado. Esta unidad aflora en dos sectores, en el bajo Leonardo y en el afloramiento Bahía Laura del Complejo Río Deseado. El primer sector presenta trece diques y un filón capa intruyendo a las sedimentitas pérmicas de la Formación La Golondrina y el segundo sector comprende tres diques que intruyen a rocas del basamento. Se trata de rocas de color gris a negro, frecuentemente alteradas, con textura microgranuda a porfírica, con fenocristales de plagioclasa, diópsido (En42 Fs11 Wo47 y en menor medida de hornblendas ricas en Mg (magnesio hastingsita, en una matriz holocristalina de textura intergranular. Son rocas subalcalinas de composiciones basalto-andesita y con afinidades calcoalcalinas. La edad Ar/Ar obtenida en una de estas muestras (180,1±1,5 Ma representa la primer determinación realizada en esta unidad y es coherente con las relaciones estratigráficas observadas para esta formación. La comparación con rocas ígneas jurásicas de la provincia geológica Macizo del Deseado, favorece la vinculación temporal y genética con el evento volcánico-piroclástico del Jurásico medio a superior (Formación Bajo Pobre y Grupo Bahía Laura. Sin embargo, la diferencia en las edades Ar/Ar, sugieren una interrupción entre el evento subvolcánico (180 Ma y el volcanismo Jurásico medio a superior (177 a 150 Ma. Se considera, preliminarmente, que los cuerpos subvolcánicos de la Formación Cerro León representarían las primeras evidencias magmáticas del rift jurásico en el Macizo del Deseado.New subvolcanic outcrops, correlated with the Cerro León Formation and located in the eastern Deseado Massif, are presented. This unit outcrops in two sectors, the Leonardo depression and the Bahía Laura outcrop of the Río Deseado Complex. In the first sector there are thirteen dikes and a sill

  2. State Building, Modernization and Political Islam: The Search for Political Community(s in the Middle East

    Gamal A. G. Soltan

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate the dynamics involved in identity formation and re-formation is the key to understanding the processes by which nation and state building in the Middle East have adapted to modernization and political Islam. Soltan affirms that four identities–primordial, national, regional and universal– cast the basic scope of Middle East politics. And these, far from facilitating a national consensus or healthy coexistence in each country, have instead found that they interact in an arena of the remnant of the colonial period –the territorial state, whose legitimacy must not only be measured by the commitment to serving much broader Arab or Islamic interests, but whose moral and ideological grounds for existence are often ironically disguised in the supra-national rhetoric of nationalists.The specificity of the Middle East, that is to say the pace and form of its development, the rise of diverse fundamentalist movements, and the historical significance of the globalization process on identity formation, has not benefited greatly by Euro-centric analyses fromthe modernization school. Thus, the author contends that, just as scientific and technological progress continues to set the pace of modernization in the Middle East, needed also is a more comprehensive socio-political approach to fully understand the region’s people’s search for political community in greater terms than security if threechallenges are to be met -democratization, economic development, and bringing peace and stability to the region.

  3. DIVIMP Modeling of Impurity Transport in EAST

    Simulations of carbon impurity transport in SOL/divertor plasmas with Ohmic heating on EAST tokamak were performed using the two-dimensional (2D) Monte Carlo impurity transport code DIVIMP. The background plasmas for DIVIMP simulations were externally taken from B2.5/Eirene calculation. Besides the basic output of DIVIMP, the 2D density distributions of the carbon impurity with different ionization states and neutral carbon atoms were obtained, the 2D distributions of CII and CIII emissivities from C+1 and C+2 radiation respectively were also calculated. Comparison between the measured and calculated CIII emissivities showed favorable agreement, indicating that the impurity physics transport models, as implemented in the DIVIMP code, are suitable for the EAST tokamak plasma condition. (magnetically confined plasma)

  4. DIVIMP Modeling of Impurity Transport in EAST

    Wang, Fuqiong; Chen, Yiping; Hu, Liqun

    2014-07-01

    Simulations of carbon impurity transport in SOL/divertor plasmas with Ohmic heating on EAST tokamak were performed using the two-dimensional (2D) Monte Carlo impurity transport code DIVIMP. The background plasmas for DIVIMP simulations were externally taken from B2.5/Eirene calculation. Besides the basic output of DIVIMP, the 2D density distributions of the carbon impurity with different ionization states and neutral carbon atoms were obtained, the 2D distributions of CII and CIII emissivities from C+1 and C+2 radiation respectively were also calculated. Comparison between the measured and calculated CIII emissivities showed favorable agreement, indicating that the impurity physics transport models, as implemented in the DIVIMP code, are suitable for the EAST tokamak plasma condition.

  5. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  6. Cultures of the east (1984-1992

    Pajin Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quarterly journal, Cultures of the East (1984-92, was founded with the intention of presenting Near and Far East cultures to academics, as well as a wider audience, and illuminate some of its rich cultural heritage. The subtitle defined the journal as a “journal for Eastern philosophy, literature and art”. However it also contained other issues, such as religion. Some issues had a comparative approach, compiling studies (on philosophy, religion, etc. of Eastern as well as Western origin on a given topic. Recently two digital internet presentations of the journal issues have been posted to the following site: http://yu-budizam.com/knjige/#kulture. In this text we will present relevant texts dedicated to philosophy and topics related to philosophy, like meditation, mysticism, ethics, or psychology.

  7. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted

  8. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  9. East Asian oil markets and refining

    An overview of the changes taking place and about to take place in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in the oil business is presented. The focus is mainly on product demand, quality of product, refining and trade balances. Charts show (i) demand for oil products to 2005, (ii) oil demand to 2005, (iii) the demand barrel by country, (iv) CDU capacity to 2005, (v) cracking to distillation ratios to 2005, (vi) fuel oil's share in demand barrel and (vii) net product trade. It was concluded that despite recent economic difficulties in East Asia, the oil market is large and dynamic and China in particular is a major oil producer with a fast growing oil demand. Overall, East Asia is a growth market for petroleum with an expected addition of some 2.4 million bpd of extra demand between 1998 and 2005. (UK)

  10. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.;

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The...... expected angular momentum density change is about 3.8 N/m2, nearly 10 times larger than the calculation. Previous work on EAST has suggested that there is a mechanism at the edge that breaks the rotation, while the core rotation change is mostly likely related with momentum transport to the edge. In other...

  11. The Middle East in the year 2000

    The Middle East in the year 2000 provides all insight into the political and economic changes taking place in the region and explains what they mean for the oil and gas industry. This comprehensive report combines published forecasts with expert comment and analysis, making it a highly practical business guide. With oil and gas at the heart of its discussion it looks in detail at: the likely shape of the Middle East into the next century, with a country-by-country review; the declared aspirations of Middle Eastern countries, with likely economic trends including oil production; the complete political and economic picture and what the future may hold; the long- and short-term future for oil; how oil prices will change over the coming years; the impact of non-Opec production on the region; the opportunities and competitive advantages for companies wanting to do business in the region; fundamentalism versus democracy; and various political scenarios. (author)

  12. The post-war Middle East

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East? Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand?

  13. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    段艳敏; 王亮; 胡立群; 毛松涛; 许平; 陈开云; 林士耀; 钟国强; 张继宗; 张凌

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (〈0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  14. The nuclear age in the Middle East

    The book analyses, clarifies and summarises, from various aspects, some of the many questions concerning the motivation, the meaning, the economics, the dangers and the risks of introducing nuclear technology into the Middle East area following the recent agreements between some Mid Eastern countries and the United States, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R. about the supply of nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel to the Middle East. The recent strong nuclear prgrams of countries such as India and Iran, who have wide-ranging ties with the Mid-Eastern countries, coupled with the huge revenues of petrodollars by the Arab countries of the area, together with the dangers of another 1973-type oil embargo are discussed and the triple crises of energy, ecology and nuclear weapons proliferation are considered. (B.G.)

  15. The Procedure for Assembling the EAST Tokamak

    Wu Songtao

    2005-01-01

    Due to the complicated constitution and high precision requirements of the EAST superconducting tokamak, a meticulous assembling procedure and measurement scheme must be established. The big size and mass of the EAST machine's components and complicated configuration with tight installation tolerances call for a highly careful assembling procedure. The assembling procedure consists of three main sub-procedures for the assembling of the base, of the tori of the VV, the vacuum vessel TS and the TF, and of the peripheral parts respectively. Before the assembly, a reference framework has been set up by means of an industrial measurement system with reference fiducial targets fixed on the wall of the test hall. In this paper, the assembling procedure is described in detail, the survey control system of the assembly is discussed, and progress in the assembly work is also reported.

  16. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  17. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on EAST

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system which can provide no less than 10 MW radio frequency (RF) heating power (frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz) is being set up for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) in the institute of plasma physics. System includes High-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, liquid phase shifter and resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. Now one ICRH system unit whose ultimate output is 2.5 MW has been set up and employed for RF heating experiment and maximum of the injected RF power reached to 200 kW in 2008 EAST tokamak experiment. The results of ICRH heating are satisfying. (author)

  18. Unocal schedules field development off East Kalimantan

    1992-12-07

    Unocal Indonesia Ltd. has let a turnkey contract to PT Gema SemBrown (GSB) to build a platform to set in the deepest water yet off Indonesia. This paper reports on the contract, which is worth more than $40 million, and calls for GSB to engineer, procure, fabricate, install, and hook up Unocal's SA drilling and production platform in 335 ft of water in Serang field. Site is in Makassar Strait, about 25 miles off East Kalimantan. GSB in October began fabricating the Serang SA platform at its Sunda Strait fabrication yard in West Java, Indonesia. GSB is to complete the platform on a fast track schedule in time for installation in July 1993. The project includes two export trunk lines connecting Serang field with Unocal's Melahin field. Production will come ashore at Santan on East Kalimantan.

  19. Economic Development in the Middle East

    Yochanan Shachmurove

    2004-01-01

    The economic and financial development are examined in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, representing the Middle East and North Africa region. Lengthy bureaucratic procedures, unclear regulations, corruption, and heavy reliance on oil exports pose major obstacles to economic development and integration into global markets. These controlled economies directly affect foreign and domestic i...

  20. A putative East Asian business model

    Linda Low

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to distill from both the Asian “miracle” and the “meltdown” since the Asian crisis, a generic East Asian business model which is changing in the context of globalisation, information communication technology, knowledge-based economy, deregulation and emerging new competition. Design/methodology/approach – The generic business model considers the creative and innovative nature of intellectual capital in a qualitative macroeconomic development model rather than a quant...

  1. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  2. Clontuskert Augustinian Priory, east window, mullion

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Mullion of curvilinear east window. Mullion is moulded at both inner and outer faces. Inner face comprises: frontal fillet flanked at either side by hollow chamfer, quadrant, hollow chamfer. The moulding of the outer face comprises: frontal fillet flanked at either side by hollow chamfer, right-angled rebate and hollow chamfer. The sides of the mullion have glass grooves, closer to the outer face.

  3. Characterisation of Quaternary sediments from East Anglia

    Mitchell, C J; Bloodworth, A.J.; Evans, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the mineralogical investigations of Quaternary sediments,mainly Cromer Till, collected from East Anglia. The main aim of the work was to characterise the mineralogical and physical properties of the till samples to facilitate correlation between tills from different localities. The clast composition of the samples was determined using a binocular microscope and the mineralogy of the matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Calibration charts we...

  4. Heart Failure in the Middle East

    Al-Shamiri, Mostafa Q

    2013-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of heart failure is the final pathway for a myriad of diseases that affect the heart, and is a leading and growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidence-based guidelines have provided clinicians with valuable data for better applying diagnostic and therapeutic tools, particularly the overwhelming new imaging technology and other, often expensive, therapies and devices, in heart failure patients. In the Middle East, progress has recently been made with the ...

  5. Will East Germany Become a New Mezzogiorno?

    Andrea Boltho; Wendy Carlin; Pasquale Scaramozzino

    1996-01-01

    Despite massive regional policy efforts, GDP per capita in Southern Italy has only briefly converged on Northern Italian levels (during the 1960s). Failure since then is associated with a policy switch from investment towards income maintenance, with reduced wage sensitivity to regional labour market conditions and with increases in rent-seeking opportunities and corruption. East Germany’s early experience of rapid wage and income, but not productivity, convergence raised fears that a Mezzogi...

  6. Lessons from East Asia's Crisis and Recovery

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the currency crisis and recovery in three East Asian countries, Malaysia, Thailand and South Korea. Using macro economic data for the three countries over a 13 year period, 1990 – 2002, the paper examines the factors leading to the crisis, the policy response to the crisis, an evaluation of their recovery and the lessons that can be learnt. During the seven year period prior to the crisis, all three countries experienced very rapid GDP growth. C...

  7. Isotopic heterogeneity of East Antarctic mantle

    Isotopic heterogeneity of deep garnet-bearing mantle xenolytes of East Antarctics is studied to analyze the mechanisms of geochemical heterogeneity occurrence in the Earth mantle. Analysis of isotope data for the system 143Nd/144Nd - Sm/Nd permitted ascertaining the time of the last thermal impact on the mantle material (108-35 bill. years) for certain nodules, which is close to the age of ultra base alkali magmatism intrusion

  8. Expropriation of Minority Shareholders in East Asia

    Claessens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Fan, Joseph P.H.; Lang, Larry H. P.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the evidence on expropriation of minority shareholders by the controlling shareholder in publicly traded companies in nine East Asian countries. Higher cash-flow rights are associated with higher market valuation. In contrast, higher control rights have an insignificant or negative effect on corporate valuation. Deviations of voting from cash-flow rights through the use of pyramiding, cross-holdings, and dual-class shares, are associated with lower market values. Results are robust...

  9. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  10. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates. PMID:12178551