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Sample records for abanico east formation

  1. Abanico East Formation: petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks behind the Cenozoic arc front in the Andean Cordillera, central Chile (33°50'S

    Marcia Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphy, chemistry and age of rocks assigned to the eastern portion of the Abanico Formation exposed along the El Volcán river valley, Principal Cordillera east of Santiago (30º50'S/70º12'-70º5'W, are reported and discussed. This ca. 3,300 m thick succession is mainly composed of basalts, basaltic andesites and volcaniclastic rocks. 40Ar/39Ar radiometric dates on plagioclase from the lava flows yield Oligocene-lower Miocene ages with a maximum age of 34.3 ±0.4 Ma for the lower part and a plateau age of 21.4±1.0 Ma for the upper part of the succession. The lava flows show calc-alkaline affinities and have chemical characteristics that are typical of arc volcanic rocks erupted in an active continental margin. A temporal chemical evolution in the sequence is indicated by upward increases in concentrations of LILE and LREE elements and LaN/YbN ratios. This pattern can be attributed to increasing contributions of fluids derived from the subducted lithosphere with time. A chemical comparison of these rocks with Oligocene-lower Miocene volcanic rocks from the Cerro Abanico and Chacabuco areas on the western border of the Principal Cordillera, east of Santiago, and at the northern end of the Central Depression reveals west to east compositional variations. From west to east these variations include: (1 increasing LILE and LREE concentrations, LaN/YbN ratios and Sr and Nd initial isotopic ratios, and (2 decreasing LILE/HFSE and LREE/HFSE ratios. These pattern can be attributed to a west to east decrease in the contribution of slab derived fluids and increase in the influence of crustal contamination processesLa formación Abanico Este: petrología y geoquímica de las rocas volcánicas detrás del arco Cenozoico en la Cordillera Andina, Chile central (33º50'S. Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la estratigrafía, química y edades de rocas asignadas a la franja oriental de la Formación Abanico expuestas en la ladera sur del R

  2. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro; MIT EGS Lab Team

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  3. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

    Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico). Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para i...

  4. El efecto abanico y la paradoja del experto

    Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la memoria ha demostrado que conocer más hechos sobre algo conlleva un incremento en el tiempo de reconocimiento de información al respecto (el efecto abanico. Aunque explicable por teorías de amplio espectro sobre la cognición humana, este efecto de interferencia plantea una paradoja: ¿cómo es posible entonces que un experto en un tema no sucumba ante los efectos de la interferencia durante la recuperación? La respuesta parece estar relacionada con la capacidad para integrar la información en estructuras complejas de información.

  5. Sobre el variable marco geotectónico de las formarciones Abanico y Farellones y sus equivalentes al ser de los 35°LS

    Estanislao Godoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Cenozoico de la Cordillera Principal andina, en su vertiente pacífica entre los 32° y 35°S predominan rocas volcánicas y volcanoclásticas, las que han sido agrupadas en dos formaciones: Farellones y Abanico. Se presentan aquí nuevas edades Ar- Ar de 15 Ma en rocas del techo de la Formación Abanico, las cuales confirman que el volcanismo mioceno de la sobrepuesta Formación Farellones, concordante sobre edificios volcánicos erosionados de la formación infrayacente, es diacrónico. El volcanismo calcoalcalino de Farellones comenzó al inicio del Mioceno a los 32° y recién a mediados del Mioceno a los 34°. Esta diacronía es compatible con una mayor y más temprana inversión de la "cuenca Abanico" en el sector norte, la cual estaría ligada a un mayor control de basamento, expresado como un fuerte acortamiento de edad miocena. La corteza presenta otro comportamiento al sur de los 36° S. Ocurre allí un evento orogénico cretácico tardío y el volcanismo mioceno primero desaparece para luego pasar a ocupar áreas restringidas, desplazadas hacia el antepaís. Parte importante del magmatismo de esa edad está representado ahora, en Chile, por masas batolíticas que habrían actuado amortiguando el acortamiento. Un proceso semejante habría ocurrido al sur de los 39°S, en Argentina, donde sucesiones de edades equivalentes a Abanico y Farellones se depositaron sobre un rígido basamento paleozoico. Éste habría actuado reduciendo la deformación, incluso del posterior relleno volcánico plio-pleistoceno reconocido en fosas tectónicas de dicha área.Volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks grouped into the Farellones and Abanico formations make up most of the western Andean Main Range between 32° and 35°SL New 15 Ma Ar-Ar ages from the top of the latter formations show that the overlying succession, which locally onlaps eroded volcanic edifices, is diachronic. The calcalkaline Farellones volcanic activity started during the earliest

  6. Caracterización y modelo de abanicos aluviales en la cuenca Estefaniense de Rengos (Asturias

    Santos García, J. A.

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available The Stephanian deposits of the Rengos Basin are studied in this paper from a sedimenlological point of view. Five lithostratigraphic units are stablished. They are organised in four megasequences which have been attributed lo minar tectonic movements on the northern border. Most of the infilling of the basin was relaled lo longitudinal input of alluvial sediments along former fluvial val1eys. Lateral supply of sediment was developed. After analysing lateral and vertical variations of these material in the first megasequence a transition from proximal lo and distal facies was deduced. The existence of a threshold in the Riolorno zone has been deduced. From the previous data we conclude that these materials deposited in alluvial fans. A model of fan and its dynamic evolution is proposed.En este trabajo se estudia la sedimentología de los depósitos estefanienses, de la cuenca de Rengas. Se establecen 5 unidades litoestratigráficas, dispuestas en 4 megasecuencias, atribuidas a pulsos tectónicos menores sobre el borde norte de la cuenca. El relleno de la cuenca, se realizó condicionado fundamentalmente por los aportes longitudinales de ríos de abanicos aluviales, a lo largo de antiguos valles, mientras que los aportes laterales presentan menor importancia. La variación lateral y vertical de los materiales, en la primera megasecuencia, queda representada por una transición de facies proximales a distales de abanicos aluviales. Se determina la presencia de un umbral en la zona de Riotorno. Finalmente, se establece un modelo de abanico aluvial y su evolución dinámica.

  7. Catahoula Formation as uranium source rock in East Texas

    The Oligocene-Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas Gulf coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, it consists of stream-transported detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent Mexico. This volcaniclastic component has altered to release uranium to mineralization processes in the lower Gulf Coast, but there has not been uranium production in the middle and upper Gulf Coast. To evaluate the potential of the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain for uranium ore deposits, a geochemical study was undertaken. The Catahoula Formation was analyzed for U, Th, K, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Ti to estimate the nature of volcanic glass and its abundance and alteration. Concentrations from three key outcrops were compared. They were also compared to samples from a volcanic area in Trans-Pecos Texas, which is chemically appropriate as a source for the volcanic material in the Catahoula Formation. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, where uranium is produced, the glassy volcanic material has been pervasively altered, but in the upper coastal plain much glass remains. Because glass alteration is necessary for uranium release and concentration, the potential is low for large, shallow uranium ore bodies in the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain

  8. Los sistemas defensivos del castellum de Tamuda. ¿Torres de planta en abanico?

    Bermejo Meléndez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tamuda’s castle, situated next to Tetuan (Morocco, is one the best example of roman military architecture in the Mauritanians Provincies as much for his conservation as dates that we have thanks to the different campaigns developed to Spanish protectorate and today for the University of Huelva. One of more original aspects in this sense are the architectonics dates that we have of different areas of this castellum, specially about SE and NW towers traditionally adscript as fan, hypothesis that today must to be modified since exists news dates.El castellum de Tamuda, ubicado en las proximidades de la actual Tetuán (Marruecos, supone uno de los mejores ejemplos de arquitectura militar romana en las provincias mauritanas tanto por el grado de conservación como por los datos que hasta la fecha se tienen gracias a las campañas de excavación desarrolladas durante el periodo del protectorado español y las que actualmente se están llevando a cabo por parte de la Universidad de Huelva. Uno de los aspectos más novedosos a este respecto son los datos arqueoarquitectónicos que se desprenden del análisis paramental realizado en diversas partes de este campamento, de los cuales tendrán especial relevancia las torres SE y NO tradicionalmente adscritas como de abanico, planteamiento que a día de hoy debe ser modificado dado los nuevos datos con los que se cuentan.

  9. Formation Mechanism and Controlling Factors of Natural Gas Reservoirs of the Jialingjiang Formation in the East Sichuan Basin

    2007-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Jialingjiang Formation reservoirs are distributed widely in the East Sichuan Basin, which are composed mainly of fractured reservoirs. However, natural gas with high concentration of H2S, ranging from 4% to 7%, was discovered in the Wolonghe Gas pool consisting primarily of porous reservoirs, while the other over 20 fractured gas reservoirs have comparatively low, tiny and even no H2S within natural gases. Researches have proved the H2S of the above reservoirs are all from the TSR origin. Most of the Jialingjiang Formation natural gases are mainly generated from Lower Permian carbonate rocks, the Wolonghe gas pool's natural gases are from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation, and the natural gases of the Huangcaoxia and Fuchengzhai gas pools are all from Lower Silurian mudstone. The formation of H2S is controlled by the characteristics and temperature of reservoirs, and is not necessarily related with gas sources. The Jialingjiang Formation in East Sichuan is buried deeply and its reservoir temperature has ever attained the condition of the TSR reaction. Due to poor reservoir potential, most of the gas pools do not have enough room for hydrocarbon reaction except for the Wolonghe gas pool, and thus natural gases with high H2S concentration are difficult to be generated abundantly. The south part of East Sichuan did not generate natural gases with high H2S concentration because the reservoir was buried relatively shallow, and did not suffer high temperature. Hence, while predicting the distribution of H2S, the characteristics and temperature of reservoirs are the necessary factors to be considerd besides the existence of anhydrite.

  10. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment.

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  11. Catahoula formation as a source of sedimentary uranium deposits in east Texas

    Volcanic glass-rich mudstone and siltstone samples from the Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula formation of Jasper County, Texas, and coeval volcaniclastic rock samples from Trans-Pecos, Texas, have been compared as to U, Th, Zr, Ti, K, Rb, and Sr contents. Uranium is slightly greater in the distal ash (5.85 ppM U) compared to the Trans-Pecos samples (average 5.41 ppM U). Diagenetic and pedogenetic alteration of Catahoula volcanic glass releases uranium to solution and, under favorable conditions, this uranium may accumulate to form ore bodies. Uranium has been produced from such ore bodies in south Texas, but economic deposits are not known in east Texas. Significant differences between south and east Texas include: (1) a greater amount of volcanic debris delivered to south Texas, both as air-fall ash and stream-transported material, (2) delivery of only air-fill ash to east Texas, (3) the possibility of more petroleum-related reductants such as H2S in south Texas, and (4) pervasive glass alteration with subsequent uranium release in south Texas due to late calichification. These differences argue against economic deposits of the south Texas type being found in east Texas. If economic deposits occur they are likely to be far downdip making exploration difficult and expensive

  12. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

    Diosdado Baena García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  13. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales UNAPAL - Abanico 75: new butternut squash cultivar, with high dry matter content in fruit for agribusiness purposes.

    Diosdado Baena García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.Using three diallel crosses among populations of butternut squash, with different levels of inbreeding (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, two hybrids and two inbred lines of butternut squash were selected, for its high dry matter content in fruit and plant production. Seven hybrid populations were formed from the selected genotypes. They are genetically stabilized by fraternal crossing and were evaluated in different environments of Valle del Cauca. Population one was selected, which presented a plant production between 29 to 32 kg; average fruit weight between 5 -6 kg; 4-5 fruit per plant; dry matter in fruit among 24-26%; globular form ribbed bright green external color and deep yellow to orange flesh color (12 to 14 Roche Fan. This population was registered in Institute Colombian Agropecuario ICA, under the name UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  14. The formation of a cold-core eddy in the East Australian Current

    Macdonald, H. S.; Roughan, M.; Baird, M. E.; Wilkin, J.

    2016-02-01

    Cold-core eddies (CCEs) frequently form in western boundary currents and can affect continental shelf processes. It is not always clear, however, if baroclinic or barotropic instabilities contribute more to their formation. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) is used to investigate the ocean state during the formation of a CCE in the East Australian Current (EAC) during October 2009. The observed eddy initially appeared as a small billow (approx. 50 km in length) that perturbed the landward edge of the EAC. The billow grew into a mesoscale CCE (approx. 100 km in diameter), diverting the EAC around it. A ROMS simulation with a realistic wind field reproduced a similar eddy. This eddy formed from negative vorticity waters found on the continental shelf south of the EAC separation point. A sensitivity analysis is performed whereby the impact of 3 different wind forcing scenarios, upwelling, downwelling, and no winds, are investigated. A CCE formed in all wind scenarios despite the wind induced changes in hydrographic conditions in the continental shelf and slope waters. As such, the source of energy for eddy formation did not come from the interactions of wind with the continental shelf waters. Analysis of strain and energy transformation confirms this by showing that the prevailing source of CCE energy was kinetic energy of the offshore EAC. These results clearly link the formation of the CCE to the swift flowing EAC and barotropic instabilities.

  15. Stratigraphy, provenance, and diagenesis of the Cretaceous Horse Range Formation, east Otago, New Zealand

    The Horse Range Formation is a structurally controlled late Early Cretaceous to early Late Cretaceous nonmarine unit in east Otago, South Island, New Zealand, containing immature lithic debris. Clasts are generally rounded, with only minor subangular material. The formation contains clasts derived from two principal basement sources: schist and greywacke. Schist debris is most abundant at the base of the described section, and this material is dominated (>60%) by quartz from the greenschist facies core of the Otago Schist belt. Conglomerates with >70% greywacke clasts constitute most of the upper part of the Horse Range Formation. These greywacke conglomerates have a matrix of sand derived mainly from schist. A 60 m thick wedge of quartz-rich, locally carbonaceous sand occurs interlayered with greywacke conglomerates. The Horse Range Formation rests on sub-greenschist facies semischist, which forms only a small proportion (18OSMOW near +24 permil and δ13CPDB near -2 permil, and was partly dissolved and redeposited from the immature basement debris (metamorphic calcite) and partly introduced from overlying Late Cretaceous and Teriary marine sediments by groundwater. (author). 43 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of upper Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, east-central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Roberts, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Surface mapping of the basal Mesozoic La Casita Formation (upper Upper Jurassic) in east-central Chihuahua, Mexico, indicates initial Mesozoic sedimentation occurred in a segmented, interconnected subbasin of the Chihuahua trough. La Casite Formation (1200 m thick) is a tectonostratigraphic unit resting with angular unconformity on the Lower Permian Plomosas Formation. It consists primarily of siliciclastic material with sporadic interbedded limestones. The dominant lithofacies, approximately 1000 m thick, consists of turbiditic sandstone units (10-20 m) alternating with thicker, monotonous shale sequences. In the mapped area (approximately 30 km/sup 2/), flute cast measurements indicate flows from both the northeast (N20/degree/E) and southwest (S58/degree/W). Turbiditic sandstone units appear to pinch out and/or interfinger as they extend from the north and south into the central portion of the area. The initial opening of the Chihuahua trough is often associated with Late Jurassic block faulting, related to development of the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Synrift depositional sequences of a similar age have been described in southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, and western Chiapas, Mexico. The subbasin (graben ) examined here may be ascribed a paleoposition near the western edge of the early Chihuahua trough. The western boundary of the early trough may have comprised a series of these subbasins, forming a cuspate or serrated coastline. Late Jurassic ammonites recovered from this and other localities along the length of the Chihuahua trough suggest that the subbasins were interconnected by means of an eastern continuous seaway.

  17. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation. PMID:12859005

  18. Massive Star Formation of the Sgr A East HII Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Whitney, B; Bushouse, H; Roberts, D A; Arendt, R G

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact HII regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of ~6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [NeII] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, HST Pa alpha and Spitzer IRAC observations of the most compact member of the HII group, Sgr A East HII D. The radio continuum image at 6cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The SED of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25\\pm3 solar mass, star with a luminosity of 8\\pm3x10^4 solar luminosity. The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x10^...

  19. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  20. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION OF THE SGR A EAST H II REGIONS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km s-1 molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of ∼6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 μm) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Paα, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 ± 3 Msun star with a luminosity of 8 ± 3 x 104 Lsun. The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3 x 104 years giving a mass flux ∼3 x 10-5 Msun yr-1 and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  1. A motion instability formation mechanism of the multi-core structure of the East China Sea Kuroshio

    YUAN; Yeli; (袁业立); WAN; Zhenwen; (万振文); ZHANG; Qinghua; (张庆华)

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the inductive analysis of observation and calculation results, this paper presents a motion instability formation mechanism of the multi-core structure of the East China Sea Kuroshio. This theoretical work includes presentation of the simplified model, derivation of the existence condition of the instable solution and some scaling estimation of the multi-core structure. Theoretical results are in good consistence with the observations.

  2. Using isotopes to understand methane formation, removal and transport in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Sapart, Célia Julia; Shakhova, Natalia; Semiletov, Igor; Jansen, Joachim; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Methane is a strong greenhouse gas emitted by human activity, but also by natural processes. Large uncertainties exist on the future contribution of natural methane sources (e.g. wetlands and geological sources) to the radiative forcing of the Earth. The Arctic regions are of special concern, because they undergo above average warming causing the thawing of permafrost thus the remobilization of large amount of organic carbon as potential methane precursor. The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is the shallowest and broadest continental shelf on Earth and is overlaid by thawing sub-sea permafrost. In this carbon-enriched environment, in presence of microbes and under anoxic conditions, microbial methane production is enhanced in the seafloor sediment. The methane produced can be stored in the sediment as gas hydrate, oxidized by methanotrophs or diffuse through the water column to the atmosphere. Moreover, old methane (microbial or thermogenic) from the deep ocean crust can be transported to the surface and undergo similar processes. Since a few years, large methane fluxes have been identified to the atmosphere of the ESAS, but the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the methane formation/removal/transport mechanisms remains poor. Between 2008 and 2012, several winter (ice drilling) and summer (cruise) campaigns have been performed to retrieve methane samples from different depths in the sediment and in the water column of the ESAS. We performed chemical analyses as well as measurements of methane mixing ratio and isotopic composition (stable and radioactive) on those samples. Our results allow identifying and potentially quantifying different types of methane formation/removal pathways. Moreover, they show that transport throughout the sediment and the water column can significantly alter the stable isotopic signature of the methane produced in the sediment. Hence analyzing methane stable isotopes on atmospheric samples only cannot allow discriminating

  3. Palynology and paleoecology of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Baghak section (east of Kopeh-Dagh

    Mahjooneh Keshmiri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Introduction The Kopeh-Dagh as an inverted basin (Allen et al. 2003 is extended from the east of the Caspian Sea to NE Iran, north Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Following the closure of palaeo-Tethys in the Middle Triassic and the opening of Neo-Tethys during the early to middle Jurassic, the Kopeh-Dagh basin formed during the early to middle Jurasic. Sedimentation took place continuously from the Jurassic through the Neogene time in the Kopeh-Dagh basin (Afshar-Harb 1979. The first geological study on these strata was done by Amiranian oil company from 1937 to 1938. Many biological and stratigraphical studies had been carried on later on this basin. Kalantari (1969, Seyed-Emami (1980, Seyed-Emami and Aryai (1981, Seyed-Emami et al. (1984, 1994, 1996, Immel et al (1997, Raisossadat and Mousavi-Harami (2000, Raisossadat (2004, 2006 and Mahanipour et al. (2011 are among those who studied the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cretaceous strata of this basin. In this paper we report on palynological and paleoecological data from two mid-Cretaceous formations (Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh in Baghak section situated in eastern part of Kopeh-Dagh basin. 2-Materials and Methods Fifteen samples from the Sarcheshmeh and thirty five samples from Sanganeh formation were processed palynologically. The preparation method of Traverse, 2007 was used. Cold hydrochloric (20% and hydrofluoric (50% acids were used to dissolve carbonates and silicates. The residue was neutralized and centrifuged in ZnCl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved at 15 um using a nylon mesh, and mounted on microscope slides using liquid Canada balsam. Three slides were made from each sample. The microscope slides were examined under a light microscope and the index dinocysts were photographed and presented in two plates. In order to study palynofacies, in each slide numbers of organic materials including phytoclasts, marine palynomorphs and non-structural organic materials were

  4. Sobre el variable marco geotectónico de las formarciones Abanico y Farellones y sus equivalentes al ser de los 35°LS

    Estanislao Godoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Cenozoico de la Cordillera Principal andina, en su vertiente pacífica entre los 32° y 35°S predominan rocas volcánicas y volcanoclásticas, las que han sido agrupadas en dos formaciones: Farellones y Abanico. Se presentan aquí nuevas edades Ar- Ar de 15 Ma en rocas del techo de la Formación Abanico, las cuales confirman que el volcanismo mioceno de la sobrepuesta Formación Farellones, concordante sobre edificios volcánicos erosionados de la formación infrayacente, es diacrónico. El volcanismo calcoalcalino de Farellones comenzó al inicio del Mioceno a los 32° y recién a mediados del Mioceno a los 34°. Esta diacronía es compatible con una mayor y más temprana inversión de la "cuenca Abanico" en el sector norte, la cual estaría ligada a un mayor control de basamento, expresado como un fuerte acortamiento de edad miocena. La corteza presenta otro comportamiento al sur de los 36° S. Ocurre allí un evento orogénico cretácico tardío y el volcanismo mioceno primero desaparece para luego pasar a ocupar áreas restringidas, desplazadas hacia el antepaís. Parte importante del magmatismo de esa edad está representado ahora, en Chile, por masas batolíticas que habrían actuado amortiguando el acortamiento. Un proceso semejante habría ocurrido al sur de los 39°S, en Argentina, donde sucesiones de edades equivalentes a Abanico y Farellones se depositaron sobre un rígido basamento paleozoico. Éste habría actuado reduciendo la deformación, incluso del posterior relleno volcánico plio-pleistoceno reconocido en fosas tectónicas de dicha área.

  5. The formation of the integration priorities of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of the global world order transformation

    Tetyana Oriekhova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of activation process of the international integration cooperation of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of ongoing transformations, which are obviously taking place in the global world order. The article gives the author’s definition of “integration maturity”, its characteristic features; concluded the integration maturity level of the Middle East Arab countries; identified the place of the Arab countries as players of the global economic system formation process. By virtue of the cluster analysis there was generalized the idea concerning the restructuring of approaches in the formation of the Middle East countries integration strategies.

  6. UNAPAL –Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales

    Estrada Salazar Edgar Iván

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  7. Detrital zircon geochronology of the Adams Argillite and Nation River Formation, east-central Alaska, U.S.A

    Gehrels, G.E.; Johnsson, M.J.; Howell, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian Adams Argillite and the Devonian Nation River Formation are two sandstone-bearing units within a remarkably complete Paleozoic stratigraphic section in east-central Alaska. These strata, now foreshortened and fault-bounded, were originally contiguous with miogeoclinal strata to the east that formed as a passive-margin sequence along the northwestern margin of the North American continent. Seventy-five detrital zircon grains from the Adams Argillite and the Nation River Formation were analyzed in an effort to provide constraints on the original sources of the grains, and to generate a detrital zircon reference for miogeoclinal strata in the northern Cordillera. Thirty-five single zircon grains from a quartzite in the Adams Argillite yield dominant age clusters of 1047-1094 (n = 6), 1801-1868 (n = 10), and 2564-2687 (n = 5) Ma. Forty zircons extracted from a sandstone in the Nation River Formation yield clusters primarily of 424-434 (n = 6), 1815-1838 (n = 6), 1874-1921 (n = 7), and 2653-2771 (n = 4) Ma. The Early Proterozoic and Archean grains in both units probably originated in basement rocks in a broad region of the Canadian Shield. In contrast, the original igneous sources for mid-Protcrozoic grains in the Adams Argillite and ??? 430 Ma grains in the Nation River Formation are more difficult to identify. Possible original sources for the mid-Proterozoic grains include: (1) the Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia, (2) the Pearya terrane along the Arctic margin, and (3) mid-Proterozoic igneous rocks that may have been widespread along or outboard of the Cordilleran margin. The ??? 430 Ma grains may have originated in: (1) arc-type sources along the Cordilleran margin, (2) the Caledonian orogen, or (3) a landmass, such as Pearya, Siberia, or crustal fragments now in northern Asia, that resided outboard of the Innuitian orogen during mid-Paleozoic time. Copyright ?? 1999, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  8. Stratigraphy on Oxygen and Carbon Isotope of Paciran Formation East Java

    Paleotemperature fluctuation in tropical zone (centennial and decad al scale) has been known. It's based on stable isotopic analysis from each of unconformity zones. Those boundaries have derived on reef units of shallows marine reef complex of Paciran Formation, Tuban area in Northeast Java Basin. From 25 samples have been choosen on undeformed calcite and analyzed by oxygen and carbon stable isotope. It used to validizing a sea level changes during the formation to Reef 1 to Reef 17 from Paciran formation with sea surface temperature (SST) since 4 Ma until now. On early forming of Reef 1 to Reef 3 (since 4 Ma - 2,88 Ma), sea level occurred marine flooding surface. Since the formation of reef 4 (2,59 Ma) to Reef 8 (1,4 Ma) occurred stagnant temperature and almost to warmer condition. Then, δ18O have arise up drastically to 5 0/00 and shows warmer condition to Reef 8 formation, in contrary, the sea level have been arised to Reef 10 formation (0,7 Ma). The temperature have been fluctuated between 0,5o and 1oC until the formation of Reef 17 (Early Holocene) and continued to Reef 17 formation at 2oC based on the rapidity sampling of Po rites sp. Wholly, in centennial scale, since the formation of Reef 4 (2,59 Ma) to Reef 17 (1 Ma), the curve of oxygen stable isotope shows decrease or cooler condition. Those condition have conducted to sea level drop since the formation to Reef 7 and Reef 8. There are 4 periods of interglacial since the formation of Reef 4. The warmer condition indicated since the formation of Reef 9, Reef 11 and Reef 17. Recently, a curve of oxygen isotopes reveals warmer drastically or sea level have been arisen. (author)

  9. Evolution of the East Philippine Arc : experimental constraints on magmatic phase relations and adakitic melt formation.

    Coldwell, B.; Adam, J.; Rushmer, T.; Macpherson, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Piston-cylinder experiments on a Pleistocene adakite from Mindanao in the Philippines have been used to establish near-liquidus and sub-liquidus phase relationships relevant to conditions in the East Philippines subduction zone. The experimental starting material belongs to a consanguineous suite of adakitic andesites. Experiments were conducted at pressures from 0.5 to 2 GPa and temperatures from 950 to 1,150°C. With 5 wt. % of dissolved H2O in the starting mix, garnet, clinopyroxene and ort...

  10. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  11. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)

    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as the relationships between the underlying mechanisms and the syn-rift basin evolution. In these experiments, we explore the impact of the lithostratigraphic and thermo-rheological structure of the crust. We also examine the lithosphere thickness, strain softening, extension rate, and surface erosion/ sedimentation processes. The experiments demonstrate that high thermal gradients and crustal heterogeneities result only in a symmetric spreading dome, which is geometrically incompatible with the observations of the MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula. According to our further findings, the strain softening should play a key role in the development of asymmetric strain localization and domal topography uplift, while synchronous surface erosion controls the polarity of the syn-rift basin. The synthetic model data are compatible with the geological observations and cooling history based on the thermo-chronology for the eastern part of the East Asia during the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. The model-predicted P-T-t paths are essentially different from those inferred for the other known MCCs, confirming the exceptional character of the MCC formation in the wide rift system of the East Asia.

  12. Stratigraphy of the Lower and Middle Triassic Union Wash Formation, east-central California

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Orchard, Michael J.

    The authors describe the lithology, stratigraphy, and contact relations of the Union Wash Formation at its type locality and at two additional localities: the Cerro Gordo area near the crest of the Inyo Mountians, 25 km southeast of Union Wash, and the Darwin area, another 35 km to the southeast. The descriptions given are largely based on recent work and are intended to supercede previous descriptions of the formation by the authors and their coworkers. In addition, they list new conodont identifications that, together with ammonoids identified by previous workers, constrain the age of the Union Wash Formation in those three areas to Early and Middle Triassic.

  13. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  14. Sedimentología y petrología de los abanicos aluviales y facies adyacentes en el Neogeno de Paracuellos de Jarama (Madrid

    Alonso, M.

    1986-06-01

    arcosas gruesas en el Conjunto Superior. Para el Conjunto Inferior se concluye unas relaciones de facies correspondientes a la progradación paulatina de depósitos propios de abanicos aluviales sobre depósitos palustres. Así mismo, el Conjunto Superior representa una progradación brusca de los sistemas de abanicos aluviales, con superposición de facies intermedias de estos abanicos sobre las facies más distales, que caracterizan el Conjunto Inferior. Dentro del contexto estratigráfico general de la Cuenca de Madrid, estas Unidades se incluyen básicamente en la Unidad Intermedia del Mioceno.
    La presencia de nivelesde calcreta, sepiolita y sílex en la parte más meridional de la sección es un hecho destacable en las partes más distales de los sistemas de abanicos aluviales y sU transición a las facies palustres. La gran abundancia de estos niveles en la zona, nos ha llevado a estudiar más específicamente los rasgos petrológicos de estos tipos de materiales, no siempre bien definidos en depósitos de ambiente continental.

  15. Estimating the age of formation of lakes: An example from Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    Cohen, A.; Soreghan, M.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Scholz, C.A. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Age estimates for ancient lakes are important for determining their histories and their rates of biotic and tectonic evolution. In the absence of dated core material from the lake`s sedimentary basement, several techniques have been used to generate such age estimates. The most common of these, herein called the reflection seismic-radiocarbon method (RSRM), combines estimates of short-term sediment-accumulation rates derived from radiocarbon-dated cores and depth-to-basement estimates derived from reflection-seismic data at or near the same locality to estimate an age to basement. Age estimates form the RSRM suggest that the structural basins of central Lake Tanganyika began to form between 9 and 12 Ma. Estimates for the northern and southern basins are younger (7 to 8 Ma and 2 to 4 Ma, respectively). The diachroneity of estimates for different segments of the lake is equivocal, and may be due to erosional loss of record in the northern and southern structural basins or to progressive opening of the rift. The RSRM age estimates for Lake Tanganyika are considerably younger than most prior estimates and clarify the extensional history of the western branch of the East African Rift system. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Formation mechanism and model for sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin, East China

    LI; Pilong; PANG; Xiongqi; CHEN; Dongxia; ZHANG; Shanwen

    2004-01-01

    The Bohai Bay basin comprises some very important and well documented subtle traps known in China, which have been the major exploration focus and have become a major petroleum play since the 1990s. However, recent exploration showed that the oil-bearing properties of some sand lens reservoirs may vary significantly and the accumulation mechanisms for these lithological subtle traps are not well understood. Based on statistical analysis of oil-bearing properties for 123 sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin and combined with detailed anatomy of typical sand lens reservoirs and NMR experiments, it has been shown that the structural and sedimentary factors, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions of the surrounding source rocks, as well as the petrophysical properties of sand lens reservoirs are the main controlling factors for the formation of sand lens reservoirs. The formation of a sand lens reservoir depends on the interaction between the hydrocarbon accumulation driving force and the resistance force. The driving force is made up of the differential capillary pressure between sandstones and sources rocks and the hydrocarbon diffusion force, and as well as the hydrocarbon expansion force. The resistance force is the friction resistance force for hydrocarbons and water to move through the pore throats of the sand lens. The sedimentary environment, source rock condition and sand reservoir properties can change from unfavorable to favorable depending on the combination of these factors. When these three factors all reach certain thresholds, the sand lens reservoirs may begin to be filled by hydrocarbons. When all of these conditions become favorable for the formation of sand lens reservoirs, the reservoir would have high oil saturation. This approach has been applied to evaluating the potential of petroleum accumulation in the sand lens reservoirs in the third member of the Neogene Shahejie Formation in the Jiyang Sub-basin.

  17. Holocene Formation of Heald Sand Bank on the East Texas Inner Continental Shelf

    Swartz, J. M.; Cleveland, V.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Heald Bank is a Gulf of Mexico sand bank located ~50 km off the coast of east Texas on the inner continental shelf. The bank is proposed to be a remnant of barrier islands drowned and thus preserved during an episode of rapid sea level rise. For this hypothesis to be true, the transgressive ravinement that marks the erosion by the shoreline moving from shelf edge towards the modern location would by definition postdate and thus be stratigraphically above the bank. To test this hypothesis we present ~90 km of Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) and Multi-channel seismic (MCS) data collected from the University of Texas Geophysics marine field course during 2008, 2013, and 2014. In these data, there are several visible underlying channels beneath Heald Bank. These channels have channel fill which are truncated by an overlying erosional surface, which we interpret to be the transgressive ravinement from sea level rise. However, this interpretation places the ravinement below the sand bank, meaning it could not have been drowned and buried by a rapid sea level rise event. Thus, Heald Bank and potentially the related inner shelf banks (Thomas, Shepard, and Sabine) from eastern Texas to western Louisiana cannot be used as an example of coastal response to climate change and sea level rise. We examine alternate origins for the banks and their sand using published cores as well as age models and integrating them with our seismic data. One possibility is that the sand was sourced from the nearby Sabine River system immediately following local transgression or the sand was remobilized from sediment fill within underlying paleo-river channels imaged below the Heald Bank. In either case Heald Bank appears not to serve as an indicator for rapid sea-level rise, yet could be an important analog for sand transport mechanisms offshore.

  18. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Engkilde, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine

  19. Pb-Sr-O-C isotope compositions of metacarbonate rocks of the Derbina Formation (East Sayan): Chemostratigraphic and geochronological significance

    Gorokhov, I. M.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Ovchinnikova, G. V.; Nozhkin, A. D.; Azimov, P. Ya.; Kaurova, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Pb-Sr-O-C isotope compositions of calcite marbles of the Derbina Formation, exposed in the northwestern part of the Derbina block of the East Sayan, were studied. Rocks of the Derbina Formation were metamorphosed under high-temperature amphibolite facies conditions. The carbonate constituent of marbles contains (ppm) 15-130 Mn, 130-160 Fe, 0.008-0.039 Rb, 645-2190 Sr, 0.565-0.894 U, and 0.288-1.42 Pb. These concentrations are similar to those in modern carbonate sediments. The values of δ13C in marbles of the Derbina Formation range from-0.6 to +1.4‰ PDB; the values of δ18O range from 21.5 to 28.6‰ SMOW. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio values in the two least altered rocks, which meet geochemical criteria of the Rb-Sr system preservation in high-grade carbonate rocks, are 0.70804 and 0.70829. The protolith ages of marbles determined using Sr and C chemostratigraphy lie within the interval of 560-530 Ma, which is regarded as the period of carbonate sedimentation. The slope of the straight line on the 206Pb/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb diagram ( n = 9, MSWD = 19) constructed on the basis of the data points of bulk carbonate constituents of all samples studied and those representing leachate steps of one of them in 0.5N HBr yields Late Vendian age (556 ± 31 (2σ) Ma. Taking into account the data on Sr and C isotope systematics of Derbina marbles, this age is regarded as the age of early diagenesis of carbonate sediments close to the age of sedimentation. Thus, metacarbonate rocks of the Derbina Formation preserved the pre-metamorphic chemostratigraphic and isotope-geochronological information. The age obtained testifies that formation of the carbonate cover of the Derbina block occurred in the Late Vendian. At the end of the Cambrian, carbonate deposits were metamorphosed during the Early Caledonian tectonic event in the southeastern part of the Central Asian Fold Belt.

  20. Comparing palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of Sarcheshmeh Formation in Joragh and Sheikh section (east and west of Kopeh-Dagh Basin

    Mohsen Allameh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Introduction: Kopeh-Dagh sedimentary basin is located in NE of Iran and is mainly composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks (35 30ˊ-38 15ˊ N, 54 00-61 31ˊE(Afshar-Harb 1994. The Sarcheshmeh Formation is one of the lower Cretaceous strata in Kopeh-Dagh. In this investigation, the mentioned Formation is investigated in two stratigraphic sections which are as follow: 1 Jooragh village which is located between 59 10ˊ7 E and 36 58ˊ16 N geographical coordinates with 950 m elevatuion, in 65 km far from Mashhad city in the Mashhad-Quchan road in the east of Chenaran township. 2 Sheikh village which is located between 37 32ˊ48 N and 5731ˊ22 E geographical coordinates with 1125 m elevatuion, in 20 km far from Bojnourd city. 2- Matherial & Method The main porpose of this research in determination and analysis of the existed palynofacies according to the changed percentage of 3 main groups of palynological elements (AOM, Phytoclasts, Marine Palynomorph. Relative analysis of the sedimentary environment are according to the palynofacies and the existed index dinoflagellates for environment and also evaluation of Oxygen and its changes in different parts and as well the determination of sedimentation rate in the Sracheshmeh Formation in the east and west of Koept-Dagh sedimentary basin. The material used, inclues 35 outcrop sample collected from shale and marly shale layer throughout the Sarcheshme Formation in Jorgh section and collected 41 sample from Sheikh section. Laboratory maceration procedures of Travers (2007 were used to prepare sample. These procedures include chemical treatment of 15-20 gr of each sample with cold HCL (20% and HF (37% acids were used to dissolve carbonate and silicates. No oxidants or Alkalis were used, because such treatments can be affect the natural colors of palynomorphs and phytoclast. The residue was neutralized centrifuged in Zncl2 (specific gravity 1.9, then sieved

  1. Holocene ice dynamics and bottom-water formation associated with Cape Darnley polynya activity recorded in Burton Basin, East Antarctica

    Borchers, Andreas; Dietze, Elisabeth; Kuhn, Gerhard; Esper, Oliver; Voigt, Ines; Hartmann, Kai; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, mineralogical, biogeochemical and micropaleontological methods was conducted on sediment core PS69/849-2 retrieved from Burton Basin, MacRobertson Shelf, East Antarctica. The goal of this study was to depict the deglacial and Holocene environmental history of the MacRobertson Land-Prydz Bay region. A special focus was put on the timing of ice-sheet retreat and the variability of bottom-water formation due to sea ice formation through the Holocene. Results from site PS69/849-2 provide the first paleo-environmental record of Holocene variations in bottom-water production probably associated to the Cape Darnley polynya, which is the second largest polynya in the Antarctic. Methods included end-member modeling of laser-derived high-resolution grain size data to reconstruct the depositional regimes and bottom-water activity. The provenance of current-derived and ice-transported material was reconstructed using clay-mineral and heavy-mineral analysis. Conclusions on biogenic production were drawn by determination of biogenic opal and total organic carbon. It was found that the ice shelf front started to retreat from the site around 12.8 ka BP. This coincides with results from other records in Prydz Bay and suggests warming during the early Holocene optimum next to global sea level rise as the main trigger. Ice-rafted debris was then supplied to the site until 5.5 cal. ka BP, when Holocene global sea level rise stabilized and glacial isostatic rebound on MacRobertson Land commenced. Throughout the Holocene, three episodes of enhanced bottom-water activity probably due to elevated brine rejection in Cape Darnley polynya occured between 11.5 and 9 cal. ka BP, 5.6 and 4.5 cal. ka BP and since 1.5 cal. ka BP. These periods are related to shifts from warmer to cooler conditions at the end of Holocene warm periods, in particular the early Holocene optimum, the mid-Holocene warm period and at the beginning of the neoglacial. In

  2. Análisis markoviano de las sucesiones de abanicos aluviales de la cuenca de Madrid y de la depresión intermedia (Madrid y Guadalajara, España central)

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    1996-01-01

    En este trabajo se aplica el análisis por cadenas de Markov a sucesiones estratigráficas del Neógeno de la Cuenca de Madrid y de la Depresión Intermedia. Los datos proceden de sondeos mecánicos de reconocimiento que atraviesan depósitos de abanico aluvial y de playa fangosa. El análisis por cadenas de Markov permite determinar la aparición de procesos repetitivos en el espacio y en el tiempo y, en el caso que nos ocupa, detectar aquellos estados (facies>, cuya aparición depe...

  3. Tracing the origin of water and solute transfers in deep groundwater from Oxfordian, Dogger and Trias formations in the east of the Paris Basin - France

    In order to assess the feasibility for long lived radioactive wastes storage facilities in deep geological formation, solute transport processes must be investigated in the vicinity of the host formation. In France, the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone layers surrounding the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite in the east of the Paris Basin are investigated for this purpose. More than 60 samples of Oxfordian and Dogger formation groundwater and one sample of Triassic formation groundwater, located at the bottom section of the investigated sedimentary cover, were collected over a 250 km2 area, and were analysed for major ions, δ18O and δ2H of water, 87Sr/86Sr/, and δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate. Oxfordian and Dogger formation water is from meteoric origin, and no direct water flow between Oxfordian, Dogger, nor Triassic formations was evidenced. Mineralization processes of the Dogger limestone groundwater were fully investigated. These processes correspond to a series of geochemical reactions including: calcite dissolution, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, ion addition from upward vertical diffusion through the sedimentary pile inducing cation exchange and further dissolution due to the increased ionic strength of the solutions. A PHREEQC model was developed to simulate inferred chemical processes. The model output is consistent with observed data. (authors)

  4. Carbonate leaching processes in the Red Clay Formation, Chinese Loess Plateau: Fingerprinting East Asian summer monsoon variability during the late Miocene and Pliocene

    He, Tong; Chen, Yang; Balsam, William; Qiang, Xiaoke; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution variations in carbonate minerals from the Jiaxian Red Clay section, located at the northern limit of the present East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) on Chinese Loess Plateau were quantified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We analyzed a large quantity of sediments dated from the late Miocene to Pliocene (8.2-2.6 Ma). The carbonates in this interval show high-frequency variations alternating between leached and calcareous horizons. The low carbonate contents and high values of magnetic susceptibility and high Rb/Sr ratios were found in the leached zones, a pattern that is consistent with that observed in the overlying Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences. This pattern suggests that East Asian Monsoon (EAM) rainwater enhanced leaching and accumulation processes of carbonate minerals in the Red Clay Formation in a way similar to the loess-paleosol sequence. Seven alternating leached and calcareous zones are identified, suggesting oscillations of the EASM and East Asian winter monsoon intervals. The calcareous zones were also found to have high Zr/Rb ratio. These indications of shifts from a strong EASM to East Asian winter monsoon dominance correlate well with the cooling transition indicated by deep sea δ18O isotopes. This evidence suggests that the EAM was active during the late Miocene and Pliocene and was similar to the Quaternary monsoon. The presence of a strong EAM during the Pliocene Warm Period also raises questions about the hypothesis that past and future warm climate conditions could produce a permanent El Niño-like state.

  5. Morphological alterations in cryopreserved spermatozoa of scallop Argopecten purpuratus Alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides criopreservados de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus

    Carlos Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR, spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS. Spermatozoa of ICS treatment remained motile longer than those of CTR, whereas those of FTS treatment were lowest. Morphology of the spermatozoa was affected in several ways by the freeze-thawing treatment; some had their head deformed or swollen, others had their cell membrane folded or broken; acrosome reaction; anomalous positions or absence of mitochondria as well as broken, stiff or loss of lineal structure of tail. CTR and ICS treatments had higher percentages of undamaged sperm (87.7% and 79.0% respectively, while FTS samples had 14.2% of undamaged sperm. The tail was the spermatic structure most commonly injured in FTS (77.0%, the percentage of sperm with head injury was 55.1% and with acrosome reaction was 28.7%, whereas middle piece was affected in 23.9% of sperm. Percentages of fertilization were 68.3%, 67.9% and 58.2% for CTR, ICS and FTS respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a higher correlation between injuries and motility than between injuries and fertilization success. Correlation between motility and fertilization was low (0.605 and 0.668 with motility at 5 and 30 min, respectively.El presente trabajo identifica y cuantifica las alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides de concha de abanico A. purpuratus causadas por la criopreservación en nitrógeno líquido. Porcentajes de motilidad, fecundación de ovocitos frescos y espermatozoides lesionados (en cabeza, acrosoma, pieza media y flagelo fueron determinados bajo microscopía óptica y electr

  6. Incorporation of new particle formation and early growth treatments into WRF/Chem: Model improvement, evaluation, and impacts of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia

    Cai, Changjie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin; Yu, Shao-Cai

    2016-01-01

    New particle formation (NPF) provides an important source of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei, which may result in enhanced cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and cloud shortwave albedo. In this work, several nucleation parameterizations and one particle early growth parameterization are implemented into the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem) to improve the model's capability in simulating NPF and early growth of ultrafine particles over East Asia. The default 8-bin over the size range of 39 nm-10 μm used in the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry aerosol module is expanded to the 12-bin over 1 nm-10 μm to explicitly track the formation and evolution of new particles. Although model biases remain in simulating H2SO4, condensation sink, growth rate, and formation rate, the evaluation of July 2008 simulation identifies a combination of three nucleation parameterizations (i.e., COMB) that can best represent the atmospheric nucleation processes in terms of both surface nucleation events and the resulting vertical distribution of ultrafine particle concentrations. COMB consists of a power law of Wang et al. (2011) based on activation theory for urban areas in planetary boundary layer (PBL), a power law of Boy et al. (2008) based on activation theory for non-urban areas in PBL, and the ion-mediated nucleation parameterization of YU10 for above PBL. The application and evaluation of the improved model with 12-bin and the COMB nucleation parameterization in East Asia during January, April, July, and October in 2001 show that the model has an overall reasonably good skill in reproducing most observed meteorological variables and surface and column chemical concentrations. Relatively large biases in simulated precipitation and wind speeds are due to inaccurate surface roughness and limitations in model treatments of cloud formation and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of new particle formation in East Asia using an NPF-explicit WRF-chem model: North-south contrast in new particle formation frequency

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Takamura, T.; Yoon, Soh-joung; Kim, S. W.; Lim, Hyuntae; Fast, Jerome D.

    2013-10-27

    The new particle formation (NPF)-explicit version of the WRF-chem model, which we developed recently, can calculate the growth and sink of nucleated clusters explicitly with 20 aerosol size bins from 1 nm to 10 μm. In this study, the model is used to understand spatial and temporal variations of the frequency of NPF events and the concentrations of aerosols (condensation nuclei, CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within the boundary layer in East Asia in spring 2009. Model simulations show distinct north-south contrast in the frequency and mechanism of NPF in East Asia. NPF mostly occurred over limited periods and regions between 30° and 45°N, such as northeast China, Korea, and Japan, including regions around active volcanoes (Miyakejima and Sakurajima). At these latitudes, NPF was considerably suppressed by high concentrations of preexisting particles under stagnant air conditions associated with high-pressure systems, while nucleation occurred more extensively on most days during the simulation period. Conversely, neither nucleation nor NPF occurred frequently south of 30°N because of lower SO2 emissions and H2SO4 concentrations. The period-averaged NPF frequency was 3 times higher at latitudes of 30° - 45°N than at latitudes of 20° - 30°N. The north-south contrast of NPF frequency is validated by surface measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. The period- and domain-averaged contribution of secondary particles is estimated to be 44% for CN (> 10 nm) and 26% for CCN at a supersaturation of 1.0% in our simulation, though the contribution is highly sensitive to the magnitudes and size distributions of primary aerosol emissions and the coefficients in the nucleation parameterizations.

  8. Provenance records of the North Jiangsu Basin,East China:Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry from the Paleogene Dainan Formation in the Gaoyou Sag

    Chun-Ming; Lin; Xia; Zhang; Ni; Zhang; Shun-Yong; Chen; Jian; Zhou; Yu-Rui; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Detailed zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses were carried out on the sedimentary rocks of the Paleogene Dainan Formation from Gaoyou Sag in the North Jiangsu Basin,East China.Whole-rock rare earth element characteristics suggest that the provenance was mainly from the Late Proterozoic low-grade metamorphic felsic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,with the parent rocks probably being the I-type high-potassium granite gneiss.Cathodoluminescence images indicate that most of the detrital zircons are originally magmatic.A few zircons show overgrowths,indicating multiple-episode tectonic events.The U-Pb age distribution patterns of the detrital zircons suggest four main magmatic episodes in the provenance:Late Archean-Early Proterozoic(2450-2600 Ma),Early Proterozoic(1700-1900 Ma),Late Proterozoic(700-850 Ma),and Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic(100-300 Ma).These zircon U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical results suggest that the sediments of the Dainan Formation were mainly sourced from the recycled orogenic belts within and/or around the North Jiangsu Basin,including the basement of the Yangtze Block,the Neoproterozoic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,and the Mesozoic igneous rocks in the south part of Zhangbaling Uplift.

  9. 3D Seismic Reflection Imaging of Crustal Formation Processes on the East Pacific Rise, 9°57-42'N

    Purdy, G. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J. P.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Carton, H.; Newman, K. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Xu, M.; Aghaei, O.; Stowe, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Between June 29th and August 19th 2008 the research vessel Marcus G Langseth carried out its first multi- streamer 3D seismic reflection imaging cruise, MGL08-12, by conducting a program research on the East Pacific Rise centered around 9°50'N. The primary goals were to create an accurate 3D seismic reflection image of the magmatic-hydrothermal system at this Integrated Study Site of the Ridge2000 program by imaging the structure of the axial magma chamber (AMC) lid and oceanic crust at a resolution, accuracy, and scale comparable to seafloor observations. The vessel acquired data with four, 6-kilometer solid streamers each comprising 468 active channels deployed with a total separation of 450 meters. Four gun strings with total volume of 3300 cubic inches in two groups fired alternately provide the source for a shot spacing of 37.5 meters. This configuration yields eight CMP lines for each of the sail lines that were spaced 300 m apart, and a static bin size of 6.25 m × 37.5 m in the along-track and across-track directions, respectively, providing a nominal fold of 40. The cruise accomplished the acquisition of ~3,782 km of sail line data. There are 111 across axis lines that required 10 repeated lines and 14 infills. Average feathering during the cruise was 0° ± 5° (one standard deviation), with maximum values of up to 11°. This means that 18% of the total cross axis acquisition was needed for reshoots and infilling. A 25% multiplier on planned lines for a 3D grid is probably a useful figure to use in cruise planning and is fairly standard in the seismic industry. Data quality meets or exceeds industry standards. 3D coverage was achieved in two areas. The larger comprises a set of 93 equally spaced lines forming the 3D grid between 9°57'N and 9°42'N. This grid is made up of lines from all of racetracks #1 and #2 and the northern lines of racetrack#3 and covers two principal hydrothermal vent areas in a continuous fashion. The second 3D area is comprised

  10. Evaluation of the Catahoula Formation as a source rock for uranium mineralization, with emphasis on East Texas

    The Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash and, in the lower coastal plain, also stream-transported erosion detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent northern Mexico, the nearest source of appropriate age and chemical affinity. Pedogenic and shallow-burial alteration of the labile volcanic glass component of the sediment resulted in ubiquitous secondary montmorillonite and solubilization of elements which are mobile in a HCO3-rich, near-surface environment. Primary uranium present in the glass at 5 to 6 ppMU was similarly mobilized and, under favorable conditions, accumulated by precipitation of tetravalent uranium phases at sites of lower Eh. Known economic deposits are restricted to the lower coastal plain where there has been uranium production for more than twenty years. Although there are differences between the productive lower coastal plain and the middle and upper as to stratigraphy, mineralogical composition, and weathering history, labile volcaniclastic material and its alteration products are abundant throughout the Catahoula outcrop and shallow subsurface in Texas. To provide a geochemical basis of comparison, samples from the upper, middle, and lower Texas coastal plain and the Trans-Pecos source area were analyzed for uranium, thorium, potassium, rubidium, strontium, zirconium, and titanium. These include both labile and immobile elements. Typical levels of these elements in the source material and relatively unaltered Catahoula volcanic glass allows estimation of uranium loss from highly altered sections based on their immobile element content

  11. EARA2014 (East Asia Radially Anisotropic Model Based on Adjoint Tomography) and its Interpretations: Insights to the Formation of the Hangai Dome and the Tibetan Plateau

    Chen, M.; Niu, F.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    EARA2014 -a 3-D radially anisotropic model of the crust and mantle beneath East Asia down to 900 km depth- is developed by adjoint tomography based on a spectral element method. The data set used for the inversion comprises 1.7 million frequency-dependent traveltime measurements from waveforms of 227 earthquakes recorded by 1869 stations. After 20 iterations, the new model (named EARA2014) exhibits sharp and detailed wave speed anomalies with improved correlations with surface tectonic units compared to previous models. As part of tectonic interpretations of EARA2014, we investigated the seismic wavespeed anomalies beneath two prominent uplifted regions in East Asia: (1) Hangai Dome, an intra-continental low-relief surface with more than 2 km elevation in central Mongolia, and (2) Tibetan Plateau, a vast continental-margin surface with an average elevation of 4.5 km in west China. We discover beneath Hangai Dome a deep low shear wavespeed (low-V) conduit indicating a slightly warmer (54 K-127 K) upwelling from the transition zone. We propose that the mantle upwelling induced decompression melting in the uppermost mantle and that excess heat associated with melt transport modified the lithosphere that isostatically compensates the surface uplift of Hangai Dome at upper mantle depths (> 80 km). On the other hand, we observe no discernable focused deep mantle upwelling directly beneath Tibetan Plateau, which is instead dominated by a strong high-V structure, appearing below 100 km depth and extending to the bottom of the mantle transition zone. However, we find a very strong and localized low-V anomaly beneath the Tibetan Plateau in the crust and uppermost mantle (at depths of ~50 km and 100 km) mainly confined within the Songpan Ganzi Fold Belt and the northern Qiangtang Block. This low-V anomaly is spatially linked to a low-V anomaly beneath the Chuandian Block in the same depth range, which is fed by a deep mantle upwelling directly beneath Hainan Volcano in south

  12. Air oxidation of samples from different clay formations of East Paris basin: quantitative and qualitative consequences on the dissolved organic matter

    Document available in extended abstract form only. During the excavation and the building of an underground research laboratory in clay geological formations, exposure to air is one of the most important parameters affecting the composition of fossil organic matter. Indeed the net effect of air oxidation of the organic matter is enrichment in oxygen and carbon combined with a loss of hydrogen. Effluents formed are CO2 and water as well as the liberation of hydrocarbons. This process may have an impact on water chemistry of the clay, especially on the quantity and composition of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM). The clays studied were the following and may be distinguished on the basis of their organic matter content: - The Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, collected in the Bure Underground Research Laboratory (Meuse, France), which contains a mixture of type II and III kerogen; - The Toarcian shales of East Paris Basin collected from drilling EST 204 (Meuse, France) contains type II kerogen; - The Kimmeridgian shales of East Paris Basin collected from drilling HTM 102 (Meuse, France) also contains type II kerogen. The powdered clay samples were oxidized in a ventilated oven at 100 C under air flow during 2, 256, 512 and 1088 hours for Callovo-Oxfordian samples and during 512 and 2048 hours for Toarcian and Kimmeridgian samples. The DOM of each sample was extracted by soxhlet using pure water. Different analyses were carried out: - Quantitative evolution of DOM with the oxidation process; - Evolution of several chemical parameters of DOM with oxidation using molecular analyses (PyGC-MS) molecular weight distribution (GPC-HPLC) as well as spectroscopic measurements (3D-Fluorescence). Increasing oxidation induces an increase of DOC values for all samples. Also, Changes in the chemical composition of the DOM are observed: decrease in the molecular weight range; enrichment in acidic functional groups (alkane-dioic acids, alkanoic acids, aromatics poly acids). Moreover the

  13. Análisis sedimentológico de la Cuenca estefaniense de Tineoo (Asturias. Ejemplo de depósitos de carbón en abanicos aluviales

    Santos García, J. A.

    1991-04-01

    septentrional, dando lugar a los depósitos de la U. Conglomerática. El relleno de la cuenca, se asimila con un modelo de abanicos aluviales en una cuenca tectónicamente activa, en la que los depósitos de carbón se relacionan con las facies más distales y las etapas de mayor tranquilidad, caracterizándose la existencia de un abanico principal y otros coalescentes de menor entidad.

  14. Procesos naturales y antropogénicos asociados al evento de mortalidad de conchas de abanico ocurrido en la bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú en junio del 2000

    Rita Cabello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar los procesos que desencadenaron el evento de mortalidad de concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus el 6 de junio del 2000, se analizaron las condiciones ambientales naturales y antropogénicas en la Bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú durante el período de actividad pesquera industrial pesquera, entre el 17 de mayo y el 13 de junio del 2000. Se evaluaron diariamente las variables oceanográficas de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, volumen de fitoplancton y variables de calidad acuática, aceites y grasas, sólidos suspendidos totales, DBO5 , pH, sulfuros y coliformes termotolerantes, en 5 estaciones de la Bahía de Paracas. Desde mediados de mayo, se registraron altos contenidos de aceites y grasas provenientes de efluentes pesqueros. A fines de mayo se observó la presencia de una marea roja asociada a un incremento en los sólidos suspendidos totales, pH y oxígeno disuelto, especialmente frente a Atenas y El Chaco. A inicios de junio en superficie se produjo una disminución de los sólidos suspendidos totales (< 25 mg.L-1 y oxígeno (< 3 mL.L-1, llegando a un máximo las concentraciones de grasa (m·x.: 10,1 mg.L-1, mientras que en los fondos el proceso acumulativo de carga orgánica produjo un estado anóxico con alto contenido de sulfuros (m·x.: 19,73 µg-at.L-1. Estas condiciones redujeron la calidad del ambiente marino, y produjeron la mortalidad de los organismos bentónicos. El aporte de materia org·nica proveniente de efluentes pesqueros, junto con el aporte proveniente de la floración algal nociva, ejerció un efecto sinérgico negativo sobre la calidad de la columna de agua y los sedimentos, lo que provocó la mortalidad de especies bentónicas, entre ellas la concha de abanico.

  15. Formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea since the last deglaciation

    LI Tiegang; NAN Qingyun; JIANG Bo; SUN Rongtao; ZHANG Deyu; LI Qing

    2009-01-01

    To reconstruct the formation and evolution process of the warm current system within the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) since the last deglaciation, the paleoceangraphic records in core DGKS9603, core CSH1 and core YSDPI02, which were retrieved from the mainstream of the Kuroshio Current (KC), the edge of the modem Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) and muddy region under cold waters accreted with the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) respectively, were synthetically analyzed. The results indicate that the formation and evolution of the modem warm current system in the ECS and the YS has been accompanied by the development of the KC and impulse rising of the sea level since the last deglaciation. The influence of the KC on the Okinawa Trough had enhanced since 16 cal kyr BE and synchronously the modem TWC began to develop with the rising of sea level and finally formed at about 8.5 cal kyr BP. The KC had experienced two weakening process during the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Drays event from 16 to 8.5 cal kyr BP. The period of 7-6 cal kyr BP was the strongest stage of the KC and the TWC since the last deglaciation. The YSWC has appeared at about 6.4 cal kyr BP. Thus,the warm current system of the ECS and the YS has ultimately formed. The weakness of the KC,indicated by the occurrence of Pulleniatina minimum event (PME) during the period from 5.3 to 2.8 cal kyr BE caused the main stream of the TWC to shift eastward to the Pacific Ocean around about 3 cal kyr BP. The process resulted in the intruding of continent shelf cold water mass with rich nutrients. Synchronously, the strength of the YSWC was relatively weak and the related cold water body was active at the early-mid stage of its appearance against the PME background, which resulted in the quick formation of muddy deposit system in the southeastern YS. The strength of the warm current system in the ECS and the YS has enhanced evidently, and approached to the modern condition gradually since 3 cal kyr

  16. Analysis of naticid gastropod predation across the trans-Arctic invasion in the Tjörnes beds, Iceland, and the Red Crag Formation, East Anglia, England

    Neely, Samuel H.; Kelley, Patricia H.

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species are wreaking havoc on modern ecosystems; however, species invasions are not new threats to ecosystems. The fossil record allows conservationists to acquire deep-time perspectives on long-term effects of natural invasions before anthropogenic impacts. Drill holes from invasive naticid gastropod predators on bivalve prey can be quantified to provide evidence of the impact of these invasive predators on ecosystems. An asymmetrical faunal interchange, known as the trans-Arctic invasion (TAI), occurred between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans during the Pliocene (˜3.5 Ma) because of the opening of the Bering Strait. This interchange could have changed naticid gastropod drilling predation on bivalves due to the migration of Pacific fauna into the Atlantic Ocean. The Tjörnes locality of northeast Iceland well characterizes the TAI because this site has preserved genera in three distinct levels that divide the invasion into the pre-invasion (Tapes and Mactra zones) and the post-invasion (Serripes zone). Temporal comparisons can be made between these pre- and post-invasion zones to analyze drilling predation across the TAI. Spatial comparisons of drilling predation in the post-invasion deposits can be made by correlating the Serripes zone (3.6-2.6 Ma) to the Red Crag Formation (2.54 Ma) of East Anglia, England, because these localities are of similar age and contain similar taxa. Specimens from the Tjörnes Beds, Iceland, were analyzed in collections housed at the Icelandic Institute of Natural History. Red Crag Formation specimens were analyzed at the Academy of Natural Sciences at Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Height and length of bivalve specimens were measured. The occurrence of complete and incomplete (unsuccessful) drill holes and drill hole diameter were recorded for all whole bivalves. Drilling frequency (DF = % mortality) and prey effectiveness (PE = % of attempted drill holes that were incomplete) were calculated. Icelandic samples

  17. Formation of the soft-sediment deformation structures and its constraints on dinosaur fossil burial of the Cretaceous in Zhucheng, Shandong province, East China

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Cai, Zhihui; Tian, Hongshui; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-04-01

    The triangular-shaped Zhucheng depression is located in the southwestern part of the Jiaolai basin, Jiaodong peninsula, East China. Various soft-sediment deformation structures are recognized in the southern Zhucheng depression, which have behaviour are plastic and/or brittle. Soft-sediment deformation structures mainly include undulate fold, mound and sag, diapir, convolute deformation and seismic-unconformity in the Lower Cretaceous, which are composed of fine-grained sediments in lacustrine environment, while load structure, ball and pillow structure, plunged sediment mixtures structure, fault-graded occurred in the Upper Cretaceous, which formed in a conglomeratic or coarse arenaceous alluvial fan and flood-plain setting. These soft-sediment deformation structures are proposed triggered by paleoearthquake. The deformed layers and undeformed layers developed in intervals, suggesting frequent seismic activities. In studied area, numerous giant hadrosaurid skeleton fossils have been found in the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group science 1958, and unusual and abundant dinosaur track fossils have been discovered in the Lower Cretaceous Yangzhuang Formation of Laiyang Group. The widespread identified soft-sediment deformation structures are proximately underlying or overlying these dinosaur fossil bearing strata. The depositional setting changed while multiple paleo-seismic events and tectonic activity happened. In the Early Cretaceous, after the occurrence of paleo-earthquakes and environmental changes, dinosaurs migrated and a lot of tracks with similar orientation on lacustrine offshore were preserved. In the Late Cretaceous, a large-scale dinosaur fossil layers and paleo-earthquake records occurred in intervals, indicating that the dinosaur fossils may be associated with large-scale debris flow and frequent earthquake events. Based on regional tectonic setting, distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures and predicted magnitude of paleo-earthquakes, the

  18. The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East: Terranes and the formation of continental lithosphere based on geological and isotopic data

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Kemkin, I. V.; Kruk, N. N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East, consists of folded terranes made up of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, turbidite basins, and island arc terranes that are overlapped unconformably by undeformed upper Cenomanian to Cenozoic volcanic deposits. The Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, together with the Early Cretaceous island arc, are related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The turbidite basin, which began to form at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous, is related to left-lateral movement of the Paleo-Pacific plate along the Paleo-Asian continental margin. The collage of terranes that make up the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt was amalgamated in two stages. The first began after Jurassic subduction beneath the Asian continent was terminated, and the second took place in the late Albian, when the Early Cretaceous island arc collided with the continental margin. Intense deformation of the terranes took place along the continental margin in the form of large-scale translations from south to north, together with oroclinal folding. The deformation resulted in rapid thickening of sediments in the upper crust, resulting in turn in the formation of granitic-metamorphic material in the continental lithosphere. In the southwestern part of the Sikhote-Alin orogen, granites were intruded during the Hauterivian-Aptian, while the entire orogenic belt was affected by intrusions in the late Albian-early Cenomanian. Synorogenic intraplate volcanic rocks and alkaline ultramafic-mafic intrusions also testify to the fact that the orogenic processes in the Sikhote-Alin were related to a transform continental margin, and not to subduction. Geochemical and Nd isotopic data indicate, the primary continental crust of the Sikhote-Alin was of a "hybrid" nature, consisting of juvenile basic components accreted from an oceanic plate and recycled sedimentary material derived from the erosion of ancient blocks.

  19. 3D seismic structure of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain in the East sub-basin of the South China Sea and its mechanism of formation

    Zhao, M.; Wang, J.; Qiu, X.; Sibuet, J. C.; He, E.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The post-spreading volcanic ridge (PSVR) is oriented approximately E-W in its western part called the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. Where is the extinct spreading ridge (ESR) of the East Sub-basin located? beneath the PSVR (Li et al., 2014)? Or intersecting with the PSVR by N055° orientation (Sibuet et al., submitted)? A three-dimensional Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) survey covered both the central extinct spreading ridge and the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, the IODP Site U1431 (Li et al., 2014) being located just north of the chain. The results of this experiment will provide the essential information to understand the emplacement of the PSVR within the previously formed oceanic crust. The comprehensive seismic record sections of 39 OBSs are of high quality and show clear and reliable P-wave seismic phases, such as Pg, Pn and PmP. These seismic arrivals provide strong constrains for modeling the detailed three-dimensional velocity structure. We will show that the crust is oceanic on each side of the Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain, where is the location of the ESR and what is the genetic relationship between the magma chambers and the overlying Zhenbei-Huangyan seamount chain. We suggest that the large thickness of the upper crust is possibly due to volcanic extrusions and the thickened lower crust to magmatic underplating. Combining previous geochemical study of PSVR outcropping samples, the formation mechanism of the seamount chain might be explained by a buoyancy decompression melting mechanism (Castillo et al., 2010). This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 91428204, 41176053). ReferencesSibuet J.-C., Yeh Y.-C. and Lee C.-S., 2015 submitted. Geodynamics of the South China Sea: A review with emphasis on solved and unsolved questions. Tectonophysics. Li, C. F., et al. 2014. Ages and magnetic structures of the South China Sea constrained by deep tow magnetic surveys and IODP Expedition 349. Geochemistry

  20. Formation and evolution stages of gold rich Barika massive sulfide deposit, east of Sardasht, northern Sanandaj-Sirjan zone: based on structural, textural and fluid inclusion studies

    Hossein Ali Tajeddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Barika gold (and silver rich massive sulfide deposit is located 18 km east of Sardasht, north western part of Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone. Rock units outcropped in this area are Cretaceous metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks in green schist facies, and include association of meta-andesite, meta-tuffite, phyllite and slate rocks, where the meta-andesitic unit (Kmv1 is host rock to the deposit. Barika deposit is composed of stratiform ore and stringer zone. Stratiform part contains massive and banded sulfide and barite associated with subordinary silica bands underlain by stringer silicic zone. The massive and banded ore is surrounded by an extensive zone of silicic stringer veins and disseminated mineralization within strongly altered and deformed andesitic volcanic rocks. Ore mineral assemblages in stratiform part of the deposit are quite variable and consist of pyrite, sphalerite, galena, stibnite, a variety of sulfosalt minerals and gold (electrum. Ore mineral assemblages in silicic veins in the stringer zone are simpler and consist of pyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrrite and trace chalcopyrite. Average gold and silver grades in stratiform ore are 8.3 and 420 g/t respectively and in silicic stringer veins are 0.7 and 30 g/t. Base metal content in both parts of the deposit are less than 1%. Based on our research, Barika is an immature Kuroko type massive sulfide deposit, which contains only black ore. The Barika deposit underwent low-grade metamorphism and high grade deformation after the ore deposition event. Geologic processes appear to control the mode of occurrence of gold in the deposit. In synvolcanism stage, deposition of a gold–bearing low temperature (140-200°C and low salinity (1-9.6 wt% NaCl hydrothermal fluid formed a Kuroko black ore type deposit. In the stage of mineralization, invisible gold was concentrated in framboidal pyrite and other sulfide minerals. The main effect of progressive metamorphism (D1 on gold

  1. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  2. Formation of the modern current system in the East China Sea since the early Holocene and its relationship with sea level and the monsoon system

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Yin, Xueming; Lu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a natural laboratory for the study of air-sea interaction and paleoenvironmental change. It has been demonstrated that present offshore export of particles in the bottom nepheloid layer occur primarily with downwelling from the northeast winter monsoon, which is inhibited by a transverse circulation pattern in summer. This current system was very different during the Last Glacial Maximum owing to low sea level (-120 m) and exposure of a large shelf area. We collected sediment core Oki01 from the middle Okinawa Trough during 2012 using R/V Kexue No. 1 to elucidate the timing and cause of the current system transition in the East China Sea. Clay mineral, dry density, and elemental (Ti, Ca) composition of core Oki01 was analyzed. The results indicate that clay minerals derived mainly from the Huanghe (Yellow) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) Rivers during 16.0-11.6 ka, and the modern current system in the East China Sea formed beginning in the early Holocene. Therefore, mixing of East China Sea continental shelf, Changjiang River and partially Taiwan Island sediment are the major contributors. The decrease of log(Ti/Ca) and alternating provenance since the early Holocene indicate less sediment from the East China in summer because of resistance of the modern current system, i.e., a "water barrier" and upwelling. Conversely, sediment delivery persists in winter and log(Ti/Ca) indicates the winter monsoon signal since the early Holocene. Our evidence also suggests that sediment from Taiwan Island could be transported by the Kuroshio Current to the middle Okinawa Trough, where it mingles with winter monsoon-induced export of sediment from the Changjiang River and East China Sea continental shelf. Although the present research advances understanding of the evolutionary history of paleoenvironmental change in the Okinawa Trough, more sediment cores should be retrieved over wide areas to construct a larger scenario.

  3. Middle East

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphs the energy profile of Middle East: production, imports, exports, stock change and consumption of crude oil and LNG, oil products, natural gas, coal and lignite, electricity, global primary consumption and energy balance. (J.S.)

  4. The Formation of Barrier Winds East of the Loess Plateau and Their Effects on Dispersion Conditions in the North China Plains

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Xingliang; Xue, Ming; Wu, Dui; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2016-04-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) to the east of the Loess Plateau is one of the most heavily polluted areas in the world. Weak surface flow in the western part of the NCP exacerbates the air pollution in this region. Deceleration of low-level flow when approaching the Loess Plateau, together with enhanced roughness associated with large cities, were previously ascribed as the causes for low wind speeds in the NCP. Using numerical simulations with a one-layer dispersion model, we identify that dynamic modification of airflow by the Loess Plateau (not just simple deceleration due to mountain blocking) plays an important role in reducing the wind speed over the NCP. Dynamically-induced northerly barrier winds, superimposed on the prevailing southerly/south-easterly flow, reduce the wind speed in a 50-100 km wide region to the east of the Plateau, partially explaining the weak winds in the western part of the NCP. Poor dispersion conditions due to weak horizontal winds likely contribute to the accumulation of pollutants in this region.

  5. The impact of vegetation on humus formation and morphology of brown forest soils in coastal areas of the southeastern part of Russian far east

    Pshenichnikov, B. F.; Pshenichnikova, N. F.

    2015-04-01

    Specific features of brown forest soils (burozems, Cambisols) in coastal areas of the southeastern part of Russian Far East are discussed. It is shown that the color of the illuvial horizons in these soils depends on the character of vegetation; it is reddish brown under oak forests and dark gray under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities. These soils combine the features shaped by the humus-accumulative and humus-illuvial processes. In the soils under oak forests, the humate-fulvate type of humus predominates; in the soils under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities, the fulvate-humate humus is formed. The dynamics of humus and its separate fractions in the soil profiles control the morphochromatic differentiation of brown forest soils under different vegetation communities. In the soils under oak forests, the maximum precipitation of the aggressive fraction of fulvic acids (fraction FA-1a) in the illuvial-humus horizons coincides with the maximum concentration of oxalate-extractable iron oxides; these substances ensure the reddish brown color of the illuvial horizons in these soils. In the brown forest soils under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities, the illuvial horizon is the zone of accumulation of not only the aggressive fraction of fulvic acids but also the second (Ca-bound) fractions of fulvic and humic acids ensuring the dark gray color of this horizon.

  6. Role of wind and thermal forcing in the formation of the water circulation variability in the Japan/East Sea Central Basin in 1958-2006

    Diansky, N. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Novotryasov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the numerical experiment on simulation of the Japan/East Sea (JES) water circulation response to the atmospheric forcing for 1958-2006, the analysis is made of its long-term variability in the JES Central Basin (CB). It was found that during the climatic year, the circulation remains cyclonic, strengthening in spring and weakening in autumn. The analysis of mean relative vorticity (MRV) at intermediate depths in the JES CB showed one that the spectrum of its interannual variability is formed mainly by oscillations of periods ˜2, ˜4 and ˜5 years, and in the decadal range with ˜10 and ˜14 years. Along the depth, the spectral composition of MRV variability does not change, but there is a noticeable weakening of decadal variability amplitude, which does not occur with the 4- and 5-year oscillations. Using SVD-analysis, the connection is established between MRV variability, wind stress curl (WSC), as well as sensible heat flux. The strong connection between MRV and WSC is revealed in the range of 4-5 years, and in the decadal range (period is 10 years) the significant connection is with both WSC and air-sea temperature as a result of winter cooling and following deep convection.

  7. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  8. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  9. Simulated experiment evidences of the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate reservoirs: an example of Feixianguan Formation, east Sichuan

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir of Feixianguan Formation of the Lower Triassic in the Sichuan Basin is the deepest buried carbonate reservoir in China, with developed secondary corrosion holes, high quantities carbonate reservoir, maximum effective carbonate reservoir thickness. Also Feixianguan gas reservoir has the highest quantities of H2S. Research discovers that there are close relationships between the formation of reservoir and H2S. The mutual actions between acidity fluid and carbonate promoted the forming of secondary carbonate holes. Through the experiment of corrosion of the samples of Feixianguan carbonate reservoir in saturated aqueous solution of hydrogen sulfide, the porosity and permeability increased greatly, porosity increased 2% and permeability increased nearly two quantity degrees, also the density became light, which confirm the corrosion and reform actions of H2S to carbonate.

  10. Foraminiferal biofacies in the San José Calcareous Silt Member (Manzanilla Formation, Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene) in the Manzanilla Bay area, north-east Trinidad, and their environmental significance

    Wilson, Brent

    2013-10-01

    The Miocene-Pliocene Manzanilla Formation of northern Trinidad marks the arrival of the east-west flowing Orinoco River. Foraminifera were examined quantitatively in samples obtained at ˜5 m intervals from the lowest member of the formation, the San José Calcareous Silt Member, where exposed at eastern Manzanilla Bay and Point Noir. Recovery of Globorotalia merotumida indicates an age within the Globorotalia acostaensis Zone through Globorotalia margaritae evoluta Subzone, (N16-N19). Values of the information function (H) and the percentage of the total assemblage as planktonic foraminifera (%P), both traditionally used as palaeodepth indicators, were uncorrelated. The low values of H are indicative of freshwater influence. Cluster analysis revealed two major biofacies dominated by Pseudononion atlanticum and Hanzawaia carstensi respectively, for which similar values of mean H and mean %P suggest similar, inner to middle neritic palaeodepths, the P. atlanticum Biofacies indicating times of hypoxia. Entrained within these were rarer samples from a biofacies indicative of shallowing and increased freshwater input (Ammonia parkinsonia gr. Biofacies). An Amphistegina gibbosa Biofacies marked an interval in which water because sufficiently clear to support foraminifera symbiotic with algae, while a sample containing only Haplophragmoides wilberti was indicative of intertidal conditions. Some samples containing reddened foraminifera showed that deposition occasionally became very slow, but these were not limited to any one biofacies. The range of palaeodepths in which the San José Calcareous Silt Member was deposited is far less than in the underlying Brasso Formation, indicating that tectonic induction of transgressive-regressive cycles was slighter during San José times.

  11. 东昆仑地区赛什腾组碎屑锆石U-Pb年代学:对其物质来源及地层时代的约束%U-Pb Age of the Detrital Zircon from the Serteng Formation in East Kunlun:Constraints on its Provenance and Formation Time

    靳立杰; 周汉文; 朱云海; 林启祥

    2015-01-01

    The Serteng Formation outcrops in the south part of the East Kunlun consisting mainly of metaclastic rocks, which experienced the regional metamorphism and contact metamorphism. From the bottom up, the sedimentary facies of the Serteng Formation are deepwater turbidite, shallow water sediment, and coastal-shallow water sedimentary, which constitute a regressive sequence. The sedimentary characteristics of the Serteng Formation indicate that it was formed during the closure of the Proto-Tethys. The ever existing controversy about the formation time of the Serteng Formation is primarily due to the absence of fossil. We expect to provide some valuable information about the provenance and stratigraphic formation time of the Serteng Formation through detrital zircon U-Pb dating. We have obtained five age ranges, such as>2500 Ma, 2300~2600 Ma, 1600~1800 Ma, 800~1200 Ma, and 421~600 Ma. The existence of zircon grains with ages older than 2500 Ma may indicate the existence of ancient crystalline basement in the East Kunlun. The rest age ranges indicate the source regions of the Serteng Formation have experienced complex multi-phase geological events, which corresponding to the Early Paleoproterozoic, Late Paleoproterozoic, Late Mesoproterozoic, Early Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic tectono-magmatic events, respectively. The paleocurrent direction abstracted from cross bedding indicates the clastics in the Serteng Formation are mainly from the north adjacent regions. Comparing the detrital zircon ages from the Serteng Formation with the adjacent stratigraphic units, we conclude that the Baishahe Group, Xiaomiao Group, Wanbaogou Group, granite formed during early Neoproterozoic tectono-magmatic event, and the evolution of the Proto-Tethys are the mainly provenance of the Serteng Formation. Combining the youngest zircon age 421±7 Ma and the age of rocks which intrude the Serteng Formation, we narrow the formation time of the Serteng Formation to 421~413 Ma. Furthermore

  12. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  13. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  14. Recovery in the East

    2010-01-01

    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  15. IEA studies Middle East

    Oil production policy in most of the major producing countries of the Middle East looks likely to change as a result of financial constraints and pressures on demand. This -implicitly rather than explicitly - is perhaps the main conclusion to be drawn from the International Energy Agency's (IEA) magisterial study on Middle East oil and gas, in which the production capacities, energy development policies and the structural economic problems of six major oil and gas producers in the region are examined. ''Middle East Oil and Gas'' is available from the IEA/OECD Publications Service. (author)

  16. East African odontopygid millipedes

    Frederiksen, Sara B.

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera and three new species in the millipede family Odontopygidae are described; Lamelloramus rhombiformis, L. triangularis and Aquattuor denticulatus. All three species are found in the East Usambara Mountains. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press....

  17. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  18. East Asia's Security System

    Hojzáková, Věra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the master thesis is to characterize and evaluate the current security system in East Asia, to show the security strategies of the system actors and the existing friction points, and to assess the future development of the security system in place. For this purpose the author first defines the East Asia's security system using the conceptual tools of three international relations theories, namely neo-realism, neo-liberalism, and constructivism. In the following section, the securit...

  19. Leukaemia in East Suffolk

    An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)

  20. Geochronology of Triassic-Jurassic granitoids in the southern frames of Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt and the principles of early mesozoic granitic formation in the Central and East Asia

    Results of U-Pb and U-Pb-Th-isotope dating of zircon from biotite and leucocratic granites in the southern frames of the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt are presented. The similar estimates of the above mentioned granite ages (208±9 and 190±3 mln. years), the granites being referred traditionally to different intrusive complexes, permit defining essentially the scale of the early mesozoic magmatism manifestations in the Central and East Asia

  1. Causes of East-West Bi-cultural Formation in Russia and the Cultural Manifestation%俄罗斯东西方双重文化的成因及其表征

    林立娟

    2012-01-01

    Russia covers Europe and Asia with people of multi-ethnic groups from the East and the West. Russian culture has been influence deeply by both the eastern cultures and the western cultures. Features of such bi-cultural environment in Russia manifest as follows, emblem with a double-headed eagle; diplo-matic policy of Eurasianism; Sagittarius personality; East-West divisions among social strata and the intel-lectuals; East-West mixture of life styles; an incorporated vocabulary.%俄罗斯地处欧亚两大洲,东西方各种民族汇集交融于此。其文化不仅受到东方文化的熏陶,而且受到西方文化的影响;其文化具有既非东方又非西方,既是东方又是西方的独特的双重性。俄罗斯东西方双重文化的表征主要体现在:双头鹰国徽、欧亚主义的外交政策、人马座的民族个性、社会阶层和知识分子的东西分化与东西兼具的生活方式及俄语词汇方面。

  2. World review: Middle East

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  3. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  4. East African institutions

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  5. Middle East Reform Halts

    2006-01-01

    The chaos in Iraq poses a great threat to the U.S. plan in the Middle East While the fighting between Israel and Lebanon-based Hezbollah becomes fiercer, security in Iraq also keeps deteriorating, making the region a petrol can that may blow up anytime.

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  7. Estimated Thickness of the Cotton Valley Group to the Top of the Smackover Formation, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Cotton Valley Group to the top of the Smackover Formation. It was necessary to contour this...

  8. Estimated Thickness of the Travis Peak-Hosston Formations to the Top of the Cotton Valley Group, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This isopach map shows the thickness of the interval from the top of the Travis Peak or Hosston Formations to the top of the Cotton Valley Group. The map was...

  9. Structure Contour of the Top of the Travis Peak-Hosston Formations, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the structural configuration of the top of the Travis Peak or Hosston Formations in feet below sea level. The map was produced by calculating the...

  10. The Crustal Structure Character of East China Sea

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents actuality of investigation and study of the crustal structure characters of East China Sea at home and abroad. Based on lots of investigation and study achievements and the difference of the crustal velocity structure from west to east, the East China Sea is divided into three parts - East China Sea shelf zone, Okinawa Trough zone and Ryukyu arc-trench zone. The East China Sea sheff zone mostly has three velocity layers, i.e.,the sediment blanket layer (the velocity is 5.8-5.9 km/s), the basement layer (the velocity is 6.0-6.3 km/s), and the lower crustal layer (the velocity is 6.8-7.6 km/s). So the East China Sea shelf zone belongs to the typical continental crust. The Okinawa Trough zone is located at the transitional belt between the continental crust and the oceanic crust. It still has the structural characters of the continental crust, and no formation of the oceanic crust, but the crust of the central trough has become to thinning down. The Ryukyu arc-trench zone belongs to the transitional type crust as a whole, but the ocean side of the trench already belongs to the oceanic crust. And the northwest Philippine Basin to the east of the Ryukyu Trench absolutely belongs to the typical oceanic crust.

  11. Shift to the East

    Gabor Hunya; Monika Schwarzhappel

    2007-01-01

    The FDI inflow to Central, East and Southeast Europe reached a new high in 2006, EUR 77 billion, 30% more than in the previous year. But the FDI inflow and its growth were unevenly distributed. The inflow was stagnating in the NMS-5 but increasing in Southeast Europe and the European CIS. This publication provides an analysis of recent developments and prospects of FDI. It tackles all major issues brought forward by the latest statistics FDI inflows and outflows, inward and outward stocks, fo...

  12. Serbia in the East

    Marković, Svetozar

    2013-01-01

    Title: Srbija na istoku (Serbia in the East) Originally published: Novi Sad, Srpska narodna zadružna Štamparija, 1872 Language: SerbianThe excerpts used are from Svetozar Marković, Srbija na istoku (NiŠ: Gradina, 1972), pp. 172–173. About the author Svetozar Marković [1846, Jagodina (present-day central Serbia) – 1875, Trieste]: the founder of the socialist movement in Serbia. As an exceptional student of the Velika Škola, the first high school and later university in Serbia, he won a state s...

  13. Natural processes involved in the formation of Pleistocene bone assemblages in continental South-East Asian caves : the case of the cave of the monk (Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand).

    Lenoble, Arnaud; Zeitoun, Valéry; Laudet, Frédéric; Seveau, Arnoult; Doyasa, Tasana

    2006-01-01

    A large paleontological assemblage typical of Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna was discovered in the Cave of the Monk, in northern Thailand. Geological and taphonomic approaches were conducted in order to determine site formation processes. A sedimentological study indicated that the fossiliferous layer resulted from mediumsize burrowing animals occupying the cave. Bone surface analysis confirmed that Porcupine was the main, if not exclusive, bone accumulator. A bone accumulation rate was calculated...

  14. Deposición transversal de líquido de las boquillas de doble abanico TTJ60-11004 y TTJ60-11002 en distintas condiciones operacionales The transversal spray deposition of double plain spurt nozzles TTJ60-11004 and TTJ60-11002 in different operational conditions

    R.G. Viana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar la deposición transversal de caldo de las boquillas pulverizadoras de doble abanico TTJ60-11004 y TTJ60-11002 en distintas condiciones operacionales. Se utilizaron 5 muestras de cada boquilla pulverizadora siendo considerada cada unidad, una repetición. La distribución de caldo fue evaluada por medio de una mesa de evaluación de distribución construida de acuerdo con la norma ISO 56821. Se evaluó el perfil de distribución individual, la distribución volumétrica simulada de la superposición de los chorros por medio del coeficiente de variación (CV% de los volúmenes colectados, el caudal y el ángulo de abertura de los chorros. Las condiciones operacionales fueron: presión de trabajo de 200, 300 y 400 Kpa, altura de 30, 40 y 50 cm en relación al blanco y espaciamiento entre boquillas simulados en Software (Microsoft Excel entre 45 y 100 cm. Las boquillas presentaron perfil individual descontinuo con la mayor deposición de líquido en la región central y reducción del volumen gradual en dirección a las extremidades. El aumento de la presión promovió alargamiento del perfil y de la franja de aplicación. Las boquillas proporcionaron perfil uniforme que dependió del espaciamiento entre las boquillas, con valores menores con reducción en el espaciamiento y en presiones mayores. El caudal y el ángulo del chorro aumentaron con el incremento en la presión.The objective of this work was evaluate the transversal spray deposition of double plain spurt nozzles TTJ60-11004 and TTJ60-11002 in different operational conditions. Was used five samples of each nozzle and considerate a unite one repetition. The spray deposition was evaluate on a table of evaluation distribution constructed in accordance with norm ISO 5682-1. Was evaluate a single spray distribution, volumetric distribution of the overlapping spurts by means of the coefficient of variation (CV%, outflow and angle of opening of the

  15. East African Rift

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. The Lebanon place on the Middle-East oil scene

    Lebanon is the only country of the Middle-East without oil or natural gas production. Elements of the libanese policy are given in the fields of exploration, refining, transportation, petrochemistry, staff formation, environmental problems, safety, and oil importations weight on economy. The place of Lebanon in the the regional oil industry is shortly presented. (A.B.). 4 tabs

  17. Middle East gas

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  18. The Danish East India Company

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  19. Mass Media in East Germany.

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  20. Formation Mechanism of Disaster Chain and Countermeasures of Disaster Deduction in the Chaohu Lake Basin, East China%巢湖流域灾害链成因机制与减灾对策

    吴立; 王传辉; 王心源; 李枫; 朱诚

    2012-01-01

    Based on the study of natural disasters in the Chaohu Lake Basin, this paper analyzes the function mechanism and formation mechanism of disaster chain which are affected by natural and human factors with "basin" as the border condition. Regional disaster reduction measures are emphatically established on the basis of regulation on man-earth relation regional system, and scientific theoretical basis and practical guidance are provided for sustainable development of the basin. According to the 4 reasons (geology-physiognomy, weather-hydrology, environment of transition district, civilization and economy) which related with the disaster formation, three disaster chains are got in the Chaohu Basin. In view of these, disaster preventing and mitigating must take the node as the center and carry on the biological measure and the project measure unified in the Chaohu Basin. Six countermeasures of coordination control are also proposed finally.%在对巢湖流域灾害进行深入研究的基础上,提出以“流域”为边界条件,自然和人文因素叠加下的灾害链作用机制和成因机理,着重从人-地关系地域系统的调控上来制定区域减灾对策,为流域可持续发展提供科学的理论依据与实践指导.从流域内灾害产生的地质-地貌、气象-水文、过渡区环境以及灾害产生的文化与经济四方面原因,分析灾害链产生的三条途径.针对性地提出了该流域减灾防灾必须以关键点为中心,采取生物措施与工程措施相结合、上下协同控制的六条减灾对策措施.

  1. The East African rift system

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  2. Luxury consumption moves East

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage.......Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... success factors to consider when developing a business strategy to enter the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Practical implications – The findings could guide managers that are developing a business case for entering the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Originality/value – This case study provides...

  3. Project Radiation Protection - East

    The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 37.1 million for cooperation projects in radiation protection with countries in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (SSI) is in charge of this program, which is often referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The general background of this cooperation program, its objectives, practical organization of the work etc. have been presented in the following reports: SSI Report No.93-08: Projekt Straalskydd Oest - Laegesrapport (March 1993); SSI Report No.93-29: Swedish Cooperation Program for Radiation Protection in Eastern and Central Europe (November 1993). The present report summarizes the work carried out up to and including September 1994. The more than 70 cooperation projects have been divided into the following categories: Upgrading of national authorities; Emergency preparedness, early warning; Nuclear power and research reactors; Instrumentation; Decommissioning, waste, environmental control; General radiation protection; Other projects; Project management and administrative support. Project criteria and a simple program for quality assurance and follow-up are presented briefly. A status report, including an economic overview, is given for all ongoing or already finished projects, together with future plans and a suggested budget for the next fiscal year

  4. Sedimentitas marinas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Marine sediments of the Barranca Final Formation (Middle-Upper Miocence of the Colorado Basin in south-east La Pampa province, Argentina

    G. Visconti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen sedimentitas carbonáticas, silicoclásticas y evaporíticas del Mioceno de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Sobre la base de la litología, las estructuras sedimentarias y los fósiles se identificaron siete facies y dos asociaciones de facies, correspondientes a ambientes marino somero (intermareal a supramareal y fluvial, para las secciones analizadas. Las sedimentitas marinas infrayacen a las areniscas fluviales de la Formación Río Negro y se consideran correlacionables con las sedimentitas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior, depositadas en la cuenca del Colorado durante la transgresión "Entrerriense". El hallazgo de estos niveles confirma la presencia de este mar en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa.This paper describes Miocene carbonatic, siliciclastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Basin, from southeast of La Pampa Province, Argentina. Seven facies and two facies assemblages of shallow marine (intertidal and supratidal settings and fluvial environments are inferred on the basis of lithology, sedimentary structures, and fossil content. The thin marine level underlies the fluvial sandstones of the Río Negro Formation, and is considered contemporary with the Barranca Final Formation (middle-upper Miocene, of the Colorado Basin, which is the depositional record of the "Entrerriense" transgression. The occurrence of these sedimentary rocks confirms the presence of the "Entrerriense" sea in the south-east of La Pampa Province during the Miocene.

  5. Petroleum products in East countries

    This paper presents a study about petroleum and natural gas reserves in East countries (former USSR, Middle Europe). Statistical data about petroleum production and petroleum products consumption are also given. 10 figs

  6. East of Eden / M. A.

    M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Palmses toimub sel nädalal rahvusvahelise stsenaariumikoolituse East of Eden seminar. Koolituse koordinatsioonikeskus tegutseb alates 2005.aastast Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse juures, Eesti--poolseks koordinaatoriks Anu Ernits

  7. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  8. Social Protection in East Asia

    Cook, Sarah; Kwon, Huck-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Social Protection in East Asia (Cook, Sarah) (Kwon, Huck-Ju) University of Sussex - UNITED KINGDOM (Cook, Sarah) Sung Kyun Kwan University - KOREA, REPUBLIC OF (Kwon, Huck-Ju) KOREA, REPUBLIC OF UNITED KINGDOM

  9. Regionalism in East Asia: The Role of North East Asian Nations

    Fithra F. Hastiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For the past few years, regionalism has been progressing in East Asia with the likes of China, Japan and Korea (CJK as the most prominent actors. Unfortunately, with the absence of trade arrangement amongst the CJK, the present regional trade scheme is not sufficient to reach sustainability. Thus, the study aims to give the solution to the problem. This study found the inefficient trade scheme through Engle-Granger Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism. Two Stage Least Squares in a static panel fixed effect model were also employed to proof the spill-over effect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study underlines the importance of triangular trade agreement for accelerating the phase of growth in CJK which eventually created a spillover effect to East Asia as a whole. Moreover, the study argued that the spillover effect would function as an impetus for creating region-wide FTA. Furthermore, the study also identified a number of economic and political factors that can support the formation of East Asian Regionalism.

  10. East articulated maintenance arm for East and West

    A project to upgrade the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) into a fully operational robot EAMA (EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm) has been set between IRFM and ASIPP in an associated laboratory. EAMA consists of an articulated serial arm with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) and a 3-DOF gripper. The total length is 8.867 meters. As planned, it will work in Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak (EAST) and W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak (WEST) vacuum vessel (VV) to perform a remote inspection and maintenance tasks after plasma shutting down. The EAMA system will be demonstrated under EAST conditioning, namely ultra-high vacuum and temperature conditions. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the EAMA system and present the obtained results of the test campaign

  11. UKRAINE AND THE EAST: CULTUROLOGICAL ASPECT

    Oleh Pylypiuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Oriental studies regard the East as the cradle of the world’s civilization, a web of unique cultural formations. Within the modern East–West paradigm, the research into the values of tradition should be underpinned by dominant axiological concepts in order to systematize contemporary ideas of the world, nature, the individual and mentality. In accordance with the central methodological principle of the research, archetypes are regarded as cultural universals. In the article, the typology of the cosmological and the spiritual elements (the Moon and the Word respectively in the Oriental and Ukrainian traditions are highlighted, the emphasis being laid on the analysis of the semantic and thematic fields of the two archetypes.

  12. Lessons Learned from EAST's Failures

    Full text: Significant progresses have been obtained on EAST tokamak partially based on lessons from its failures marked by more than 20 times leakages from PFC and 1.6 ton water inside of vacuum chamber. Lessons learned from major failures in EAST have been summarized in this paper. Major failures came from design, construction, commissioning and operation phases have been described which have been classified as imperfect design, QA control, failure of components and lack of understanding. Predictions for further risks and possible ways to mitigating these risks have been given in this paper. (author)

  13. The Cretaceous of Lebanon in the Middle East (Levant) context

    2007-01-01

    The Cretaceous succession of Lebanon was first described and dated mainly by Dubertret & Vautrin (1937), Dubertret (1955), and Saint-Marc (1974), supplemented by the later contributions of Smirnova & Mroueh (1980) for the Chouf Sandstones, Noujaim-Clark & Boudagher-Fadel (2001, 2002) for the Salima Formation. After two years of field work using facies sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy, and as part of the Middle East Basins Evolution (MEBE) Programme, we propose to divide the Cretaceous ...

  14. The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon: Recent progress

    He, Jinhai; Liu, Boqi

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we firstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land-sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the effect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast and the influences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate difference between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its influential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  15. Criswell Leads FEMA IMAT East

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School & The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Center for Homeland Defense and Security. Since the end of December 2013, the Center for Homeland Defense and Security master’s degree and Executive Leaders Program alumnae has held the job of Team Leader with the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Incident Management Assistance Team (IMAT) East.

  16. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is...

  17. State Building, Modernization and Political Islam: The Search for Political Community(s) in the Middle East

    Gamal A. G. Soltan

    1997-01-01

    To appreciate the dynamics involved in identity formation and re-formation is the key to understanding the processes by which nation and state building in the Middle East have adapted to modernization and political Islam. Soltan affirms that four identities–primordial, national, regional and universal– cast the basic scope of Middle East politics. And these, far from facilitating a national consensus or healthy coexistence in each country, have instead found that they interact in an arena of ...

  18. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  19. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  20. East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival - 2012

    Marina Tkacheva

    2012-01-01

    Catalogue East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival 2012Chronicle of the East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival 2012Our Guest, Totan KuzembaevThe List of Participants of the East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival XIIBuilt ProjectsUn-built ProjectsPropaganda of Architecture Creation of Young Architects and StudentsChildren’s Architectural and Artistic Creation

  1. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    the emplacement of small volumes of basalts of the Vindtoppen Formation to the south of Scoresby Sund.Although the basalts were extruded close to sea level, this part of East Greenland is a plateau raised to c. 2 km, but the timing of uplift is controversial. Superimposed on the plateau is a major dome at Kangerlussuaq.East Greenland presents a rich interplay between magmatic and tectonic events reflecting the birth of the North Atlantic Ocean. It was active over a much longer period (36 Ma than other parts of the province (5 Ma in the Hebrides, Northern Ireland and the Faroe Islands and contains a wider range of products, including carbonatites, and felsic rocks tend to be granitic rather than syenitic. As expected, there are many similarities with Iceland, the present-day expression of activity in the province. Differences are readily explained by higher production rates and the thicker lithospheric lid during the early stages of development in East Greenland. The igneous and related activity clearly results from plate-tectonic factors, but the relationship is not understood in detail. In particular, the nature of the underlying mantle processes, primarily the presence or absence of a plume, is still not resolved.

  2. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    O'Keefe, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging infectious disease that can present with flu-like symptoms. In individuals with comorbidities or who are immunosuppressed, it can be deadly. The disease is transmitted through contact with someone who has MERS-CoV. The occupational health nurse must be cognizant of and educate the workforce about MERS-CoV transmission, prevention, and treatment. PMID:26407596

  3. Estratigrafía de la Formación del Crestón, sierra de Famatina, Argentina: Sedimentación paleógena en el antepaís andino? Geology of the Del Creston Formation, Famatina Ranges, Argentina: Paleogene sedimentation in the Andean Foreland?

    F. M. Dávila

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescriben y analizan los espesos depósitos de la Formación del Crestón (>1700m en el antepaís andino en la región del Famatina (Provincia de La Rioja, que en el pasado han sido relegados. Se definen sus paleoambientes y se discute su posición estratigráfica, edad y significado en el contexto de los depósitos sinorogénicos de la región del antepaís fragmentado. La unidad, dominantemente areno-conglomerádica y de color rojo-morada registra una evolución en dos megaciclos granoestratocrecientes que representan una progresión desde etapas con escaso relieve a depósitos gruesos que caracterizan sectores proximales de abanicos aluviales. En el megaciclo inferior se suceden barreales (fangosos y salinos, abanicos terminales y abanicos aluviales de baja eficiencia mientras que en el ciclo superior se suceden depósitos de barreales, depósitos de sistemas entrelazados mixtos y abanicos aluviales de alta eficiencia. La diferencia composicional entre los conglomerados cuspidales de cada ciclo permite asociar el primero a devastación de cúpulas y coladas volcánicas andesíticas mientras que el segundo se vincula con exhumación de cuerpos granitos que conforman parte del marco de antepaís fragmentado. En este trabajo, y a partir de relaciones de campo, los depósitos de la Formación del Crestón se consideran como antecesores de los clásicos depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos (Grupo Angulos y se relacionan con evidencias aportadas por trazas de fisión y actividad orogénica en otras regiones de los Andes centrales para sostener que la unidad puede representar el registro más antiguo de la sedimentación de antepaís preservado en esta región. Asimismo, se infiere que el inicio de la fragmentación del antepaís andino y la evolución geológica de la región de Famatina es bastante más compleja de lo establecido con anterioridad.Largely ignored thick (>1700m dominantly conglomeratic and sandy red-purple strata of the Del

  4. Electromagnetic and structural analysis of EAST passive stabilizers loop

    The passive stabilizers loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilizing system built in the EAST. Its purpose is to provide passive feedback control of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. To accommodate with the new stage for high performance plasma and enhance the control of vertical stabilization in EAST, the project of PSL has been carried out. The eddy currents are induced by the vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruption. The distribution of the eddy currents depend on the structure of the PSL and the formation of the induction. The FE model is created and meshed by the ANSYS software. Base on the simulation of plasma VDEs and disruption, the distribution and decay curve of the eddy currents on the PSL are obtained. The stress and the strain caused by the eddy currents and the magnetic fields are calculated. (author)

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  6. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  7. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist

  8. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    唐海燕; 张会清

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  9. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    Regina T. Riphahn; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  10. How international economic links affect East Asia

    Nehru, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The author applies the theme of the last two papers in the Global Economic Prospects series, written by the International Economics Department, to the case of one developing region: East Asia. He documents the rapid integration of the East Asian economies into the world economy through trade and foreign direct investment, and suggests that this has helped create a relatively well-diversified structure of production and of external markets. As a result, East Asia was relatively unaffected by t...

  11. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  12. Swell prediction for the East Korean coast

    J. H. Yuk; Kim, K. O.; Choi, B. H.; K. T. Jung

    2013-01-01

    Long-period abnormally high swell waves have been generated in the East Sea near Hokkaido, Japan, in winter during the atmospheric depression. These waves, named Yorimawari in Japanese, occasionally attack the coasts of both Korea and Japan. Waves significantly higher than normal years were recorded along the east Korean coast in 2006. In 2008, the swell caused considerable damages in Toyama and the Niigata coastal area of Japan and in Anmok east coast of Korea. This paper attempts to hindcas...

  13. Stellar formation

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  14. Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

    Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik H.; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Steve

    2016-04-01

    On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing. The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately 4 billions to Indonesia. Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids. To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi's structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies. Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

  15. Middle East oil and gas

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  16. Galaxy formation

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  17. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  18. The New District of East Belitung: the Review Poliferation Process

    Hendri Yani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The regional autonomy conducted in many functions of government. One of its forms is proliferation of region. The aim of this study was to overview the proceed of proliferation in East Belitung District. This research was a qualitative research consisted of two main techniques to collect the data; they were interview and secondary data from documentations. The findings show that there were ten steps to create the new East Belitung District. The steps started from the preparations of local’s planning and administration to the final steps in the hand of national parliaments. This study found that the number of local government in Indonesia has increases, and the process at the central government level seem relatively easy. But, the eligibility criteria being compromised. Then, the political will from communities were not clear mention. Also there was a conflict interest between local government and central government in the feasibility study for proliferation in Belitung District. It concluded that we could not deny that political intervention in the bureaucracy has facilitated the formation of East Belitung districts.

  19. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  20. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  1. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  2. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  3. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts and…

  4. East Capital suunab investorid Venemaale / Gert Tiivas ; interv. Raivo Sormunen

    Tiivas, Gert, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Rootsi investeerimispanga East Capitali Balti regiooni juht Gert Tiivas soovitab investeerida Baltimaadest suurema potentsiaaliga riikide börsidele. Vt. samas: CV: Gert Tiivas; East Capitali fondid. Diagramm: East Capitali Venemaa fondis on enim raha

  5. Gravity Investigation in Area East of River Nile (Khartoum State)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the subsurface geology of the area. For quantitative interpretation of the resulting Bouguer anomalies, borehole data are explored. This is done along several profiles obtained from software program G. model C version 2. 2 No. 175. This program is based on two -dimensional mass distribution. The interpretation reveals two basinal features filling depressions in the basement complex named as Abu Harira basin and Kabbashi basin. They are structurally related to Khartoum basin. As a result, a geological/structural map of the area in east of the Nile is produced. The basinal features in the study area are considered as parts of the central Sudan (Khartoum basin) that had been subjected to several tectonic events that resulted in the formation of several fracture systems associated with block subsidence and formation of these basins.

  6. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  7. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  8. Networks model of the East Turkistan terrorism

    Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo

    2015-02-01

    The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.

  9. Simulation Analysis of Divertor Performance in EAST

    Zhu Sizheng; Zha Xuejun

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study of the divertor performance in the EAST has been conducted for both its double null and single null configurations. The results of the application of the SOLPS (B2/Eirene) code package to the analysis of the EAST divertor are summarized. Here we concentrate on the effects of the increased geometrical closure and variation in the magnetic topology on the behavior of divertor plasmas. The results of numerical predictions for the EAST divertor's operational window are also described in this paper.

  10. East African English. Linguistic Features and Background

    Hermann Ingi Ragnarsson 1983

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the most notable features and background of English in East Africa. That is: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. For this to be possible, English as a second language has to be discussed, since English is the second, third, or even fourth language of East Africa’s inhabitants. The development and characteristics of English in Africa generally will thus be discussed before the discussion turns to East African English with a special emphasis on Kenya. One of the ...

  11. Tectonics and Petroleum Potential of the East China Sea Shelf Rift Basin

    2000-01-01

    There are two Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the East China Sea. They are the East China Sea shelf basin and the Okinawa Trough basin. The former can be divided into a western and an eastern rift region. The development of the shelf basin underwent continental-margin fault depression, post-rift and then tectonic inversion stages. Available exploration results show that the distribution of source rocks is controlled by the basin architecture and its tectonic evolution. In the Xihu depression, mudstones and coals are the main source rocks. The eastern rift region has good geological conditions for the formation of large oil and gas fields.

  12. The Cathaysia Flora and the Mixed Late Permian Cathaysian-Angaran Floras in East Asia

    2006-01-01

    The Cathaysia flora, one of the most prominent floras of the Carboniferous and Permian, was mainly distributed in East Asia and was characterized by numerous endemic elements. China is one of the most important localities of the Cathaysia flora and it is also the center of origin of this flora. This paper reviews and discusses the characteristics of the Cathaysia flora and the biogeographically mixed Permian Cathaysian-Angaran floras of East Asia. In addition, the formative mechanism of the mixed Permian floras is also discussed.

  13. Lots, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset depicts the polygon boundaries of the parcels of land within the Parish of East Baton Rouge, with the exception of those parcels that fall within the...

  14. Parish Boundary, 2004, East Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset depicts polygon boundary of East Baton Rouge Parish. This dataset was derived from many data sources such as aerial photographs and mylars and conveys...

  15. Hydrography, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Hydrography layer is an area geometry depicting the various water features that include the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, etc of East Baton Rouge Parish.

  16. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  17. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  18. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  19. EAST OJAI HYDROLOGY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The basis of the hydrologic data for East Ojai FIS is the HSPF study for Ventura River watershed documented in a report entitled...

  20. Queerness and Chinese modernity : the politics of reading between East and East

    Wong, Alvin Ka Hin

    2012-01-01

    Queerness and Chinese Modernity examines the explosion of alternative sexuality in the People's Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Drawing on methodologies in Chinese cultural studies, East Asian and area studies, and queer theory, I propose an inter-regional, East-East transnational approach that juxtaposes queer literature, films, new media, and cultural politics in the PRC alongside cultural productions in post-Martial Law (post- 1987) Taiwan, and Hong Kong before and after th...

  1. Equality of opportunity: East vs. West Germany

    Peichl, Andreas; Ungerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The case of German reunification has been subject to extensive research on earnings inequality and labor market integration. however, little is known about the development of equality of opportunity (EOp) in East and West Germany after 1990.Using German micro data, we empirically analyze how circumstances beyond the sphere of individual control explain inequality in East and West Germany. Our results suggest that equal opportunities in Germany have grown since reunification. Interestingly, EO...

  2. New Turbulence in the Middle East

    Li Shaoxian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Americans often say that September 11 has transformed the world, but in fact, it has primarily changed the U. S. itself. The Middle East, as well, due to a shift in U.S. policies and strategies,has gone through significant changes. This in turn has exerted substantial influence on future development of the international situation.What kind of change has taken place in the Middle East? We might find some answers from historical and realistic perspectives.

  3. Cultures of the east (1984-1992)

    Pajin Dušan

    2013-01-01

    The quarterly journal, Cultures of the East (1984-92), was founded with the intention of presenting Near and Far East cultures to academics, as well as a wider audience, and illuminate some of its rich cultural heritage. The subtitle defined the journal as a “journal for Eastern philosophy, literature and art”. However it also contained other issues, such as religion. Some issues had a comparative approach, compiling studies (on philosophy, religion, etc.) of Eastern as well as Western ...

  4. Coinfections in East African Shorthorn Zebu

    Callaby, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project followed 548 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) calves in Western Kenya for the first year of life and monitored the sequelae of infections by multiple parasites. More than 50 different parasites were identified during this time. The IDEAL project also gathered environmental information about the farm and collected phenotypic data on the calf and its dam. Calves were also genotyped for 55,777 single nucleotide po...

  5. Is East Africa an Optimum Currency Area?

    Mkenda, Beatrice Kalinda

    2001-01-01

    The paper investigates whether the East African Community, comprising of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, constitutes an optimum currency area or not. The East African Community has been revived, and one of the long-term objectives of the Community is to have a common currency. The paper employs the Generalised Purchasing Power Parity method, and various criteria suggested by the theory of Optimum Currency Areas to investigate the optimality of the Community as a currency area. While the various ...

  6. Geochemistry of Crystalline Rocks from the East of the Upper East Region of Ghana

    K.B. Pelig-Ba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Selected rock samples were collected from outcrops from the eastern part of the Upper East Region with the aim of determining their chemical composition and classification. Samples were obtained from granitoids and the Birrimian formation located in Bongo, Talensi-Nabdam, Bawku West and Garu-Tempane Districts. Rocks were identified mineralogically using hand lenses. The composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF after which several quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data. Some of these techniques included physical examination, Chemical Alteration Index (CIA, scatter plots, discrimination diagrams and Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI. The mineralogical analysis showed that the rocks generally contained K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, hornblende, quartz and biotite as major minerals. Physical examination revealed that samples had undergone some alteration that was not evident at the time of sampling and this was confirmed by calculations using the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA. The CIA values of the fresh rocks ranged from 70 to 125 suggesting that the samples had undergone intensive alteration. Scatter plots and discrimination diagrams suggested that the samples were not of basaltic origin but were thoeleiitic in character. The Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI revealed that most samples were metaluminus and that the majority of samples were sub-alkaline and therefore basic in character.

  7. Metallogenic Model and Prospecting Indicators of the Boron Deposits in East Liaoning Area

    Qu Hongxiang; Zhang Guoren; Li Xiandong; Chen Shuliang; Yang Zhongzhu; Wang Zhongjiang

    2001-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic boron deposits in east Liaoning occur in Mg- rich marble of Li' eryu Formation of Liaohe group. The mineralization was controlled by stratigraphic lithology. The volcano ~ sedimentation is the material base of ore-formation. Boron mainly derived from volcanic source. Boron in Li' eryu formation was activated and transferred by migmatization and then deposited into ore when metasomatism occurrs in Mg - rich marble. Structural deformation reconstructed the boron ore bodies. Meanwhile, ore - bearing hyd~othermal solution produced by structural deformation and remetasomated the host - ore rocks or filled in fissure of ore. Boron deposit is a stratabound deposit, which formed by migmatization and structural deformation mineralization.

  8. Bulge Formation

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The currently discussed theories of bulge formation are reviewed, including the primordial scenario, where bulges form rapidly and then accrete disks, the secular scenario, where bulges are formed by dynamical evolution of disks through bars and galaxy interactions, and some combinations of both, where formation of bulges and disks are more continuous and interleaved. The various scenarios make specific predictions about the relative masses, angular momenta, colours, metallicities of bulges relative to disks, and the bulge-to-disk ratio as a function of time. Dynamical processes relevant to the formation of bulges (bar instabilities, mergers) are described and tested against observed statistics. Current data suggest a dynamical feedback from gravitational instabilities in bulge and disk formation. It is very difficult to discriminate between the various scenarios from surveys at z=0 only, and observations at high redshift are presently the best hope for large progress.

  9. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change. PMID:26691316

  10. Case history report on East Mesa and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields

    Davis, DG.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-06-01

    Well log analysis as applied to the geothermal industry is one of the areas of technology in great need of further development. One means of improving log analysis technology is to study case histories of the past uses of log analysis as applied to specific fields. The project described in this report involved case history studies on two well-known geothermal areas in North America: the East Mesa field in California and the Cerro Prieto field in Mexico. Since there was considerably more pertinent material available on East Mesa, a major part of the effort on this project was devoted to studying the East Mesa field. One particular problem that first came to attention when studying the Cerro Prieto data was the difficulty in determining actual formation temperature at the time of logging. Since the temperature can have a significant effect on well log readings, an accurate temperature determination was considered to be important.

  11. The first case of anoxia in waters of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve

    Stunzhas, P. A.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Ivin, V. V.; Barabanshchikov, Yu. A.; Volkova, T. I.; Vyshkvartsev, D. I.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Mikhailik, T. A.; Semkin, P. Ju.; Tishchenko, P. P.; Khodorenko, N. D.; Shvetsova, M. G.; Golovchenko, F. M.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2013, anoxia of the bottom waters was established in the southern region of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Science, in the depression between Furugelm Island and coastal waters. Death of the benthic community was registered using a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The hydrochemical studies revealed that the area of the absence and/or presence of low oxygen contents corresponds to an area of anomalously high contents of ammonium, phosphates, and silicates, a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide and normalized alkalinity, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. The microbiological decomposition of diatoms precipitated on the seafloor in the absence of oxygen regeneration was the reason for anoxia. Its formation in summer of 2013 was caused by anomalously abundant precipitates in the Far East.

  12. Effects of drifts and ballooning instability on the divertor in–out asymmetry in EAST tokamak

    The divertor in–out asymmetry (DIOA) of the disconnected double null (DDN) configuration with the active X-point at the bottom in EAST has been investigated using the SOLPS code package to explore its forming mechanism. Effects of classical drifts and ballooning-like transport (BLT) instability are evaluated individually and compared to the DIOA during H-mode. The results show that the BLT plays a much larger role in forming the DIOA. It is further found that the combined effects of the classical drifts and BLT can account for the formation of the DIOA observed experimentally in EAST. In addition, the results also imply that reversing the toroidal magnetic field may be used to mitigate the EAST DIOA under certain circumstances

  13. R and D on passive stabilization loop at EAST

    Ji, X., E-mail: jixiang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Song, Y.T.; Wu, S.T.; Shen, G.; Wang, Z.; Cao, L.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, X.; Peng, X.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Zhu, N.; Zhang, P.; Wu, J.; Gong, X.; Shen, B.; Gao, D.; Fu, P.; Wan, B.; Li, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. The project of PSL has been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EM and structural analysis of PSL has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The R and D of the silvered craft for the PSL is done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The R and D of the insulation structure for the PSL is done. - Abstract: The passive stabilization loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilization system built in the EAST. Its purpose is to provide passive feedback control of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. To accommodate with the new stage for high performance plasma and enhance the control of vertical stabilization in EAST, the project of PSL has been carried out. The eddy currents are induced by the vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruption. The distribution of the eddy currents depend on the structure of the PSL and the formation of the induction. The global model is created and meshed by the ANSYS software. Based on the simulation of plasma VDEs and disruption, the distribution and decay curve of the eddy currents on the PSL are obtained. The stress and the strain caused by the eddy currents and the magnetic field are calculated. To decrease the resistance of the joint and enhance anti-corrosion of the joint surface, the silvered craft is used. In the experiment of test model, the resistance is decreased to half after silvered with the same matrix material and under the same preload. The PSL is insulated from the vacuum vessel at the supports of passive stabilizers. The insulation structure is designed and tested with ceramic material. The PSL is designed, fabricated and assembled with the total resistance 150 {mu}{Omega}. It can supply passive feedback control to the plasma by the eddy currents induced by the VDEs, which could enhance the vertical placement control of plasma.

  14. The great East Japan earthquake

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  15. Progress of the EAST project in China

    Full text: The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) project is one of the National Mega-Projects of Science Research (MPSR) in China, which was approved by Chinese government in 1997. The name of the project was changed from HT-7U ( Hefei Tokamak 7 Upgrade) to EAST last October. EAST is a full superconducting tokamak with the elongated cross-section.The main parameters of EAST tokamak (for the first phase) are Bt = 3.5T, R0 = 1.75m,Ip = 1MA, a = 0.4m, κ(b/a) = 1 ∼ 2 with double and single null divertor, PLHCD = 3.5 - 4MW, PICRH = 3 - 4MW, PECRH = 0.5MW and the maximum pulse long will be 1000 seconds. If the working temperature can achieve at 3.8 K the second phase will be with Bt 4.0T and Ip = 1.5MA. The mission of EAST project is to investigate both the physics and technology for the steady-state and advanced tokamak as well as the power and particle handling under the steady-state operation condition. Since the EAST project was approved in 1998 the significant progress has been achieved including: the physical and engineering design; the most of R and D activities; cabling and jacking of CICC; vacuum vessel, thermal shield and cryostat; most of TF, CS and PF magnet and their testing; most of other subsystem. The final assembly of EAST is under way. It is plane to get the first plasma around end of 2005. The detail information of design and the testing results of TF, CS and large PF magnets as well as the experimental plane will be given in this paper. (author)

  16. Star formation

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  17. Galaxy Formation

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function of...

  18. Oil resource wealth of the Middle East

    The economics of the Middle East oil industry are examined. The inexhaustible nature of oil resources, ultimate recovery, inventory turnover in 1960-1990, growth in oil fields, the balance between oil price rises due to continued extraction and lowering costs due to technology improvement, recent investment requirements in five areas, myths about cost, price and investment, the unbalance in the world industry, objectives of the Middle East nations, economic aspects of the Gulf War, and the impact of Middle East factors on the price of oil are discussed. Resource extraction has little, if any impact on oil costs and prices. Oil production costs have exhibited a falling long run trend, and the cost to produce oil in the Middle East is much lower than elsewhere. Having defended very high prices in the early 1980s, Middle East producers experienced a sharp reduction in their sales. To improve their ability to manage the oil market and control prices, the producers must expand their market share. This presupposes a period of prices that are even lower than in the late 1980s, which producers seem unwilling to accept. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Abanicos aluviales cuaternarios del Baix Camp (provincia de Tarragona): resultados de dataciones radiométricas

    Villamarín, J. A.; Masana, E; Calderón, T.; Julià, Ramón; Santanach, P.

    1998-01-01

    The Quaternary fans which cover the southernmost part of the El Camp Basin belong to three generations. Noticeable calcrete levels developed on the top of fans from the first and second generation. Radiometric dating by means of U/Th and termolumiscence techniques of the mentioned caliche levels allow us to attribute a minimal age of ca. 300000 years to the top of the first generation fans, and ca. 100000 years to the top of the second generation alluvial fans

  20. A coastal hazards data base for the US East Coast

    Gornitz, V.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; White, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniels, R.C. [Energy, Environment and Resources Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) and non-GIS data bases to assess the risk of coastlines to erosion or sea level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US East Coast into 0.250 latitude {times} 0.250 longitude grid cells. Each coastal grid cell contains data on geology, geomorpholog,elevation, wave heights, tidal ranges, shoreline displacement (erosion), and sea-level trends. These data are available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, consisting of this document and a set of computerized data files. The documentation contains information on the methods used in calculating each variable, detailed descriptions of file contents and formats, and a discussion of the sources, restrictions, and limitations of the data. The data files are available on magnetic tape, on floppy diskettes, or through INTERNET.

  1. A coastal hazards data base for the US East Coast

    Gornitz, V.M. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies); White, T.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Daniels, R.C. (Energy, Environment and Resources Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) and non-GIS data bases to assess the risk of coastlines to erosion or sea level rise. The data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US East Coast into 0.250 latitude [times] 0.250 longitude grid cells. Each coastal grid cell contains data on geology, geomorpholog,elevation, wave heights, tidal ranges, shoreline displacement (erosion), and sea-level trends. These data are available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP), from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, consisting of this document and a set of computerized data files. The documentation contains information on the methods used in calculating each variable, detailed descriptions of file contents and formats, and a discussion of the sources, restrictions, and limitations of the data. The data files are available on magnetic tape, on floppy diskettes, or through INTERNET.

  2. Middle East gas: a brighter outlook?

    Over the past year, the prospects for both oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East have greatly improved. Apart from the increase in the price of oil, a long term strategy for better exploitation of gas reserves is enhancing the prospects for growth throughout the Middle East. The effect of the fall in oil prices hit Qatar particularly hard: the knock-on effect was felt throughout the whole of Qatar. The current objectives in Qatar are to develop the export market and make better use of the gas reserves at home: developments toward this aim are discussed. Developments in Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Iran and Egypt are discussed. Some speculative intra-regional and export pipeline projects are discussed. The main markets for middle east gas are mentioned

  3. Modelling of First Discharge in EAST Tokamak

    LIU Chengyue; WU Bin; XIAO Bingjia; SHU Shuangbao

    2008-01-01

    An 1.5D equilibrium evolution code was used to model the time evolution of the first ohmic discharges in the EAST experiment. Good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was obtained in the plasma current, major radius, electron temperature, loop voltage and poloidal field (PF) current for the entire duration of the discharge, which indicates that the code is highly reliable and will allow to further study the EAST discharge. At the same time, the code also simulates some important plasma parameters without experimental measured data yet, such as the plasma minor radius, central and edge safety factors, elongation and triangilarity, which are important in the analysis of EAST data.

  4. Evaluation of Petroleum System in Xihu Depression, East China Sea Shelf Basin

    2001-01-01

    According to the theory of petroleum system and the characteristics of petroleum geology, the Xihu depression in the East China Sea shelf basin is divided into four petroleum systems: the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock, the Huagang Formation as source rock and reservoir rock, the Paleocene as source rock and the burial-hill as reservoir rock, and the Miocene as source rock and reservoir rock. The system with the Pinghu Formation as source rock and the Huagang Formation as reservoir rock is the most important one in the depression, which has high hydrocarbon generation and accumulation efficiency and is the most important object to hydrocarbon exploration at present.

  5. The Middle East, OPEC and oil

    The importance of the Middle East to the oil industry, was discussed. The unresolved Arab-Israeli dispute and the ongoing conflicts in the Gulf are the two main reasons for political instability in the Middle East. This in turn, shapes the security of the region and its oil supplies. The factors which will shape the future of OPEC, including the Arab-Israeli conflict, the issue of the return of Iraqi crude to the market, and production decisions by Saudi Arabia were discussed in the context of their impact on OPEC's role as a coordinator of oil policies and of market stabilisation through price control

  6. Education Quality in the Middle East

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-07-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest challenges facing education and government leaders across the region. This paper summarises recent evidence regarding student learning in the MENA region and draws on Galal's model of policy formulation in considering ways that governments across the Middle East might address this problem.

  7. Huntington Disease (Chorea) in the Middle East

    Scrimgeour, Euan M.

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) has been reported in Arab families in several Middle East countries including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt and in non-Arab populations in other countries in the region. It is probably under-reported, and until now, has not been recorded in Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan or in Iraq. The Middle East has always been on the crossroads of trade and travel, and HD was probably introduced to some of these countries in previous times. The prevalence r...

  8. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    express as their expectations that they will through Islamic studies get an opportunity to move upwards socially and materially. Therefore, they dream of going abroad to study in the Middle East. For the time being, religious study grants to the Middle East seem to be one of the few ways for them to gain...... part in the adventures and experiences of globalization in a socially and religiously acceptable way. With its high reputation the al-Azhar in Cairo, Egypt, has played a central role for the establishment of this tradition of religious study trips in an African context. On the basis of 10 months of...

  9. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis o...

  10. Middle East Chronic Water Problems: Solution Prospects

    Hussein Al-Rimmawi

    2012-01-01

    Water shortages have been for a long time a serious problem in the Middle East as well as other parts of the world. The large and arid land of the Middle East has also been dependant on water which is provided by few rivers. This issue has been tackled by researchers, orientalists and exploration associations (Palestine Exploration Fund 1882, and Oliphant, 1880). The aim of this paper is to tackle ways of managing and solving chromic water shortages and hydropolitical tensions in the Middle E...

  11. Near east growth potential of poultry

    Soliman, Ibrahim; EL Issawi, Hussein

    1981-01-01

    T h e r e is considerable evidences f or increasing the number of eggs and poultry projects in the near east countries during the next 20 years. A development program f o r 1 8 Near East countries has been drawn up by H. F. El-Issawi and I. Soliman which aims at raising average annual per caput consumption from current 4.4kg of poultry-meat and 56 table-eggs to 12.8kg and 128 eggs by the year 2000. Three regional projects are proposed to support the overall development program, which, bein...

  12. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occur...

  13. Negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Evaluation and Implications for East Asian Regionalism

    Cheong, Inkyo

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement seems to have reached a crossroads : it could either be a building block toward achieving economic integration in Asia and the Pacific, or trigger the formation of two large trade blocs which will work independently of one another. When the Government of Japan announced its participation in the TPP negotiations in March 2013, the partnership began to attract greater interest from other East Asian countries. This paper analyzes the progress and ...

  14. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  15. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  16. Characterising Antarctic and Southern Ocean Lithosphere with Magnetic and Gravity Imaging of East Antarctic Rift Systems

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that the lithospheric structure of East Antarctica is relatively homogeneous, forming a geological block of largely cratonic nature, consisting of a mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago. Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior indicates that this is incorrect, and has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications for tectonic reconstructions and controls on ice sheet formation and stability. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data pioneered by Golynsky & Golynsky indicates that further rift zones may extend the East Antarctic Rift System into widely distributed extension zones within the continent. We have carried out a pilot study, using a newly developed gravity inversion technique with existing public domain satellite data, which shows that East Antarctica consists of distinct crustal thickness provinces with anomalously thick areas separated by thin, possibly rifted crust and overall high average thickness. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) Better understanding of crustal thickness in Antarctica, especially along the ocean-continent transition (OCT), will make it possible to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana and also refine constraints on how and when these continents separated; 2) crustal thickness provinces can be used to aid supercontinent reconstructions and provide new assessments of the influence of basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting processes; 3) tracking rift zones through

  17. Educational Transition of East Malaysian Distance Learners.

    Saw, K. G.; Awang, M. N.; Idrus, R. M.; Atan, H.; Azli, N. A.; Jaafar, I.; Rahman, Z. A.; Latiff, Z. A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes results of a study of the changing perceptions of East Malaysian distance learners studying at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Highlights include students' perceptions of their study skills; and the impact of their studies on other areas of their life, including social obligations, recreation, families, health, finances, work, and…

  18. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  19. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  20. Progress of the EAST project in China

    The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) project is one of the National Mega-Projects of Science Research of China, which was approved by Chinese government in 1998. EAST is a full superconducting tokamak with an elongated plasma cross-section. The mission of the project is to widely investigate both of the physics and the technologies of advanced tokamak operations, especially the mechanism of power and particle handling for steady-state operations. The basic requirements for the EAST tokamak are full superconducting coils, suitable inductive current system, continuous working non-inductive current driven and heating systems, flexible operation scenarios, flexible J(r) and P(r) control, reliable and fast plasma positioning and shaping control, changeable plasma facing components, advanced divertor and diagnostics. Significant progress of the EAST project has been achieved during last two years. The R and D programs, mainly focused on the superconducting magnets, have processed successfully. The prototypes of main parts have been fabricated and qualified. Most of the key parts of the machine have been delivered to the assembly site. The assembly of the device has begun. It is planned to obtain the first plasma in 2005. The detail information of the testing results of superconducting magnets will be given in this paper. The assembly plan and the experimental plan will be introduced, too. (author)

  1. Observatories in East and Central Europe

    Hejda, Pavel

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 - (Gubbins, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.), s. 728-729. (Encyclopedia of Earth sciences series). ISBN 978-1-4020-3992-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetic observatory * East and Central Europe * INTERMAGNET network Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. Academic Freedom and Middle East Studies

    Colla, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    When the author and his colleague Marsha Pripstein Posusney of Bryant College organized a workshop, entitled "The Study of the Middle East and Islam: Challenges after 9-11," at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, he naively assumed it would come off without friction. After all, he thought, they were not even talking…

  3. Education Quality in the Middle East

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest…

  4. East-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings

    Measurements made in 1974-1975 at the Aarne Karjalainen Observatory do not show any east-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings. Combining the photometric data available for 1913-1975, one finds that the asymmetry varies in an irregular manner without correlating with Saturn's orbital period. (Auth.)

  5. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  6. The pollution of East Lake,Wuhan

    Yi xiGu; Mialy Rakotondravah

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1.The history East Lake was an open lake:she connected Yangtze River through Qlngshan Channel.The water level was controlled by Yangtze River:rising in summer,and decreasing in winter.After building Wufeng Gate in 1957,changing the Qingshan harbor as water supply channel,the East Lake is completely isolated from Yangtze River and then East Lake changes from a natural lake to a closed lake by human control.The watar level is related with rainfall,evaporation,surface runoff,pumping off by the factories along the lake,agricultural and domestic sewage water.East Lake is a typical shallow lake in the northeast of Wuhan city.When the water level is 20.5m,the area is 28km2, volume is 62 million m3,and catchment area is 186 km2.The deepest position:4.75m,average depth is 2.21m2,And also it is a multi-function:water-sport entertainments.drinking water source,fishing,industrial water and famous scene.

  7. East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project

    Kumar, Meghan; Lehmann, Joel; Rucogoza, Aniceth; Kayobotsi, Claver; Das, Ashis; Schneidman, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the main findings from the application of performance based incentives linked to progress on a standardized, globally recognized metric - the stepwise laboratory improvement process towards accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist - under the East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP) in Rwanda. The lab performance-based financing (PBF) pilot was intro...

  8. A Late Roman Well at Heslington East, York: ritual or routine practices?

    Steve Roskams

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply of fresh water is a central requirement for human settlement. This article discusses evidence associated with the construction, use and demise of a late-Roman well recently excavated at Heslington East near York, UK. It seeks to suggest that, by a holistic analysis of all archaeological evidence, we can distinguish the ideological from the functional dynamics that made up the site formation processes within this feature. The assemblages that evidence these activities might be considered mundane in some respects but their integrated assessment, along with a detailed examination of depositional and formation processes in the feature, produces compelling evidence for what has been termed 'structured deposition'.

  9. Uranium mineralization in the Lower Mahadek Sandstones of Laitduh Area, East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya

    Significant uranium mineralization hosted in feldspathic sandstone of Upper Cretaceous Lower Mahadek Formation has been located at Laitduh, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya. Two mineralized horizons have been identified within Lower Mahadek Formation with vertical separation of 30 m. Samples from upper horizon have assayed upto 0.17% U3O8, whereas samples from lower mineralized horizon have assayed upto 0.50% U3O8. The radioactive minerals identified are coffinite and pitchblende occurring in association with carbonaceous matter. (author)

  10. Paleoproterozoic Extensional Structure and Its Controlling on Mineralization in the East of Liaoning Province

    Yang Zhongzhu; Chen Shuliang; Li Xiandong; Wang Zhongjiang; Qu Hongxiang; Gang Jiang

    2001-01-01

    The palaeoproterozoic extensional structure in the east of Liaoning Province underwent sub - bedding ductile shear flowing deformation with metamorphism and magmatic emplacement. The reversal structure following the processes constructed the present framework of palaeoproterozoic orogenic belt. As a result of the ductile shearing along the layers, the gold in the Liaohe group was activated, migrated upward to the interface between the Dashiqiao rock formation, which was lower green schist facies and the Gaixian rock formation, so the gold deposit was formed in the space of brittle - ductile shear zone as ductile - shear - zone - typed stratabound gold deposit.

  11. An age for Kajong, a Miocene fossil site east of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Leakey, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Kajong Formation in Marsabit District, northern Kenya has yielded a Miocene mammalian fauna consisting of nine taxa. It is capped by a basalt 40Ar/39Ar dated at 19.1 ± 0.1 Ma, and a volcanic clast from a conglomerate within the formation yielded an age of 20.3 Ma, only slightly older. The entire fauna from this site thus lies close to the base of the Miocene Epoch and is older than 19.2 Ma. The site has yielded some of the oldest examples of Archaeobelodon filholi, Prodeinotherium hobleyi, and Gomphotherium sp. in east Africa.

  12. Cement Formation

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including an...... overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  13. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    Ito, Hiroto; SETOYA, YUTARO; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, i...

  14. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  15. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  16. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  17. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  18. Pleistocene lacustrine basin of the east domain of Guadix-Baza basin (Granada, Spain): sedimentology, chronostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio de los depósitos lacustres de la parte este de la Cuenca de Guadíx Baza (GBE), una cuenca intramontañosa que permaneció preservada de la erosión hasta la parte superior del Pleistoceno medio. La distribución de facies muestra una clara distribución centrípeta con sistemas de abanicos aluviales que alcanzaron la GBE a través de cañones todavía hoy visibles, aunque también se produjeron aportes de exutorios kársticos con sulfatos disueltos de las evaporitas...

  19. A Large Transpression Zone at the South Margin of the East Kunlun Mountains and Oblique Subduction

    XU Zhiqin; LI Haibing; YANG Jingsui; CHEN Wen

    2001-01-01

    The convergent boundary between the East Kunlun terrane and the Baryan Hara-Songpan Garze terrane of northern Tibet plateau is a large transpressional zone on the south margin of the East Kunlun Mountains. The deformation structures are different between the eastern segment (A'nyemaqen segment) and western segment (western Datan and eastern Datan segment). The structures of the A'nyemaqen segment are characterized by superimposed thrust slices with southwest orogenic polarity formed during the stage of Indosinian collision-orogeny and brittle sinistrai strikeslip faults formed during Cenozoic. The western Datan and eastern Datan segment consists dominantly of an E-W-trending ductile sinistrai strike slip transpression zone companied by a NW-SE trending fold and fault zone on its both sides, which formed 220 Ma ago. The ductile deformation continued till 220 Ma BP and then the deformation was manifested by the reactivation of the brittle sinistral strike-slip deformation structures. Therefore, the large convergence zone on the south margin of the East Kunlun Mountains is a very special tectonic zone which changed gradually from the "Constrictive compression" in the eastern segment to the "transpression" in the western segment. Its formation was related to northeastward oblique subduction of the Baryan Hara-Songpan Garze terrane beneath the East Kulun terrane since Indosinian.

  20. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Brown, Philip J., II; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Shah, Anjana; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Greenland?East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal effort. The West Greenland?East Canada Province is essentially the offshore area between west Greenland and east Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including Kane Basin. The tectonic evolution of the West Greenland?East Canada Province led to the formation of several major structural domains that are the geologic basis for the five assessment units (AU) defined in this study. The five AUs encompass the entire province. Each AU was assessed in its entirety for undiscovered, technically recoverable (assuming absence of sea ice) oil and gas resources, but the assessment results reported here are only for those portions of each AU that are north of the Arctic Circle, as that latitude defines the area of the Circum-Arctic oil and gas assessment.

  1. Edad y rasgos petrográficos y geoquímicos de cuerpos subvolcánicos asignables a la Formación Cerro León, este del Macizo del Deseado, Santa Cruz Age and petrography and geochemistry features of subvolcanic outcrops from Cerro León Formation, east of the Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz

    D. Guido

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos afloramientos de cuerpos subvolcánicos correlacionables con la Formación Cerro León en el sector oriental del Macizo del Deseado. Esta unidad aflora en dos sectores, en el bajo Leonardo y en el afloramiento Bahía Laura del Complejo Río Deseado. El primer sector presenta trece diques y un filón capa intruyendo a las sedimentitas pérmicas de la Formación La Golondrina y el segundo sector comprende tres diques que intruyen a rocas del basamento. Se trata de rocas de color gris a negro, frecuentemente alteradas, con textura microgranuda a porfírica, con fenocristales de plagioclasa, diópsido (En42 Fs11 Wo47 y en menor medida de hornblendas ricas en Mg (magnesio hastingsita, en una matriz holocristalina de textura intergranular. Son rocas subalcalinas de composiciones basalto-andesita y con afinidades calcoalcalinas. La edad Ar/Ar obtenida en una de estas muestras (180,1±1,5 Ma representa la primer determinación realizada en esta unidad y es coherente con las relaciones estratigráficas observadas para esta formación. La comparación con rocas ígneas jurásicas de la provincia geológica Macizo del Deseado, favorece la vinculación temporal y genética con el evento volcánico-piroclástico del Jurásico medio a superior (Formación Bajo Pobre y Grupo Bahía Laura. Sin embargo, la diferencia en las edades Ar/Ar, sugieren una interrupción entre el evento subvolcánico (180 Ma y el volcanismo Jurásico medio a superior (177 a 150 Ma. Se considera, preliminarmente, que los cuerpos subvolcánicos de la Formación Cerro León representarían las primeras evidencias magmáticas del rift jurásico en el Macizo del Deseado.New subvolcanic outcrops, correlated with the Cerro León Formation and located in the eastern Deseado Massif, are presented. This unit outcrops in two sectors, the Leonardo depression and the Bahía Laura outcrop of the Río Deseado Complex. In the first sector there are thirteen dikes and a sill

  2. State Building, Modernization and Political Islam: The Search for Political Community(s in the Middle East

    Gamal A. G. Soltan

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate the dynamics involved in identity formation and re-formation is the key to understanding the processes by which nation and state building in the Middle East have adapted to modernization and political Islam. Soltan affirms that four identities–primordial, national, regional and universal– cast the basic scope of Middle East politics. And these, far from facilitating a national consensus or healthy coexistence in each country, have instead found that they interact in an arena of the remnant of the colonial period –the territorial state, whose legitimacy must not only be measured by the commitment to serving much broader Arab or Islamic interests, but whose moral and ideological grounds for existence are often ironically disguised in the supra-national rhetoric of nationalists.The specificity of the Middle East, that is to say the pace and form of its development, the rise of diverse fundamentalist movements, and the historical significance of the globalization process on identity formation, has not benefited greatly by Euro-centric analyses fromthe modernization school. Thus, the author contends that, just as scientific and technological progress continues to set the pace of modernization in the Middle East, needed also is a more comprehensive socio-political approach to fully understand the region’s people’s search for political community in greater terms than security if threechallenges are to be met -democratization, economic development, and bringing peace and stability to the region.

  3. The Middle East in the year 2000

    The Middle East in the year 2000 provides all insight into the political and economic changes taking place in the region and explains what they mean for the oil and gas industry. This comprehensive report combines published forecasts with expert comment and analysis, making it a highly practical business guide. With oil and gas at the heart of its discussion it looks in detail at: the likely shape of the Middle East into the next century, with a country-by-country review; the declared aspirations of Middle Eastern countries, with likely economic trends including oil production; the complete political and economic picture and what the future may hold; the long- and short-term future for oil; how oil prices will change over the coming years; the impact of non-Opec production on the region; the opportunities and competitive advantages for companies wanting to do business in the region; fundamentalism versus democracy; and various political scenarios. (author)

  4. The post-war Middle East

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East? Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand?

  5. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    段艳敏; 王亮; 胡立群; 毛松涛; 许平; 陈开云; 林士耀; 钟国强; 张继宗; 张凌

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (〈0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  6. The nuclear age in the Middle East

    The book analyses, clarifies and summarises, from various aspects, some of the many questions concerning the motivation, the meaning, the economics, the dangers and the risks of introducing nuclear technology into the Middle East area following the recent agreements between some Mid Eastern countries and the United States, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R. about the supply of nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel to the Middle East. The recent strong nuclear prgrams of countries such as India and Iran, who have wide-ranging ties with the Mid-Eastern countries, coupled with the huge revenues of petrodollars by the Arab countries of the area, together with the dangers of another 1973-type oil embargo are discussed and the triple crises of energy, ecology and nuclear weapons proliferation are considered. (B.G.)

  7. The Procedure for Assembling the EAST Tokamak

    Wu Songtao

    2005-01-01

    Due to the complicated constitution and high precision requirements of the EAST superconducting tokamak, a meticulous assembling procedure and measurement scheme must be established. The big size and mass of the EAST machine's components and complicated configuration with tight installation tolerances call for a highly careful assembling procedure. The assembling procedure consists of three main sub-procedures for the assembling of the base, of the tori of the VV, the vacuum vessel TS and the TF, and of the peripheral parts respectively. Before the assembly, a reference framework has been set up by means of an industrial measurement system with reference fiducial targets fixed on the wall of the test hall. In this paper, the assembling procedure is described in detail, the survey control system of the assembly is discussed, and progress in the assembly work is also reported.

  8. DIVIMP Modeling of Impurity Transport in EAST

    Simulations of carbon impurity transport in SOL/divertor plasmas with Ohmic heating on EAST tokamak were performed using the two-dimensional (2D) Monte Carlo impurity transport code DIVIMP. The background plasmas for DIVIMP simulations were externally taken from B2.5/Eirene calculation. Besides the basic output of DIVIMP, the 2D density distributions of the carbon impurity with different ionization states and neutral carbon atoms were obtained, the 2D distributions of CII and CIII emissivities from C+1 and C+2 radiation respectively were also calculated. Comparison between the measured and calculated CIII emissivities showed favorable agreement, indicating that the impurity physics transport models, as implemented in the DIVIMP code, are suitable for the EAST tokamak plasma condition. (magnetically confined plasma)

  9. DIVIMP Modeling of Impurity Transport in EAST

    Wang, Fuqiong; Chen, Yiping; Hu, Liqun

    2014-07-01

    Simulations of carbon impurity transport in SOL/divertor plasmas with Ohmic heating on EAST tokamak were performed using the two-dimensional (2D) Monte Carlo impurity transport code DIVIMP. The background plasmas for DIVIMP simulations were externally taken from B2.5/Eirene calculation. Besides the basic output of DIVIMP, the 2D density distributions of the carbon impurity with different ionization states and neutral carbon atoms were obtained, the 2D distributions of CII and CIII emissivities from C+1 and C+2 radiation respectively were also calculated. Comparison between the measured and calculated CIII emissivities showed favorable agreement, indicating that the impurity physics transport models, as implemented in the DIVIMP code, are suitable for the EAST tokamak plasma condition.

  10. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  11. Cultures of the east (1984-1992

    Pajin Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quarterly journal, Cultures of the East (1984-92, was founded with the intention of presenting Near and Far East cultures to academics, as well as a wider audience, and illuminate some of its rich cultural heritage. The subtitle defined the journal as a “journal for Eastern philosophy, literature and art”. However it also contained other issues, such as religion. Some issues had a comparative approach, compiling studies (on philosophy, religion, etc. of Eastern as well as Western origin on a given topic. Recently two digital internet presentations of the journal issues have been posted to the following site: http://yu-budizam.com/knjige/#kulture. In this text we will present relevant texts dedicated to philosophy and topics related to philosophy, like meditation, mysticism, ethics, or psychology.

  12. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted

  13. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  14. East Asian oil markets and refining

    An overview of the changes taking place and about to take place in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in the oil business is presented. The focus is mainly on product demand, quality of product, refining and trade balances. Charts show (i) demand for oil products to 2005, (ii) oil demand to 2005, (iii) the demand barrel by country, (iv) CDU capacity to 2005, (v) cracking to distillation ratios to 2005, (vi) fuel oil's share in demand barrel and (vii) net product trade. It was concluded that despite recent economic difficulties in East Asia, the oil market is large and dynamic and China in particular is a major oil producer with a fast growing oil demand. Overall, East Asia is a growth market for petroleum with an expected addition of some 2.4 million bpd of extra demand between 1998 and 2005. (UK)

  15. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.;

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The...... expected angular momentum density change is about 3.8 N/m2, nearly 10 times larger than the calculation. Previous work on EAST has suggested that there is a mechanism at the edge that breaks the rotation, while the core rotation change is mostly likely related with momentum transport to the edge. In other...

  16. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on EAST

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system which can provide no less than 10 MW radio frequency (RF) heating power (frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz) is being set up for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) in the institute of plasma physics. System includes High-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, liquid phase shifter and resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. Now one ICRH system unit whose ultimate output is 2.5 MW has been set up and employed for RF heating experiment and maximum of the injected RF power reached to 200 kW in 2008 EAST tokamak experiment. The results of ICRH heating are satisfying. (author)

  17. Unocal schedules field development off East Kalimantan

    1992-12-07

    Unocal Indonesia Ltd. has let a turnkey contract to PT Gema SemBrown (GSB) to build a platform to set in the deepest water yet off Indonesia. This paper reports on the contract, which is worth more than $40 million, and calls for GSB to engineer, procure, fabricate, install, and hook up Unocal's SA drilling and production platform in 335 ft of water in Serang field. Site is in Makassar Strait, about 25 miles off East Kalimantan. GSB in October began fabricating the Serang SA platform at its Sunda Strait fabrication yard in West Java, Indonesia. GSB is to complete the platform on a fast track schedule in time for installation in July 1993. The project includes two export trunk lines connecting Serang field with Unocal's Melahin field. Production will come ashore at Santan on East Kalimantan.

  18. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  19. Characterisation of Quaternary sediments from East Anglia

    Mitchell, C J; Bloodworth, A.J.; Evans, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the mineralogical investigations of Quaternary sediments,mainly Cromer Till, collected from East Anglia. The main aim of the work was to characterise the mineralogical and physical properties of the till samples to facilitate correlation between tills from different localities. The clast composition of the samples was determined using a binocular microscope and the mineralogy of the matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Calibration charts we...

  20. Heart Failure in the Middle East

    Al-Shamiri, Mostafa Q

    2013-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of heart failure is the final pathway for a myriad of diseases that affect the heart, and is a leading and growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidence-based guidelines have provided clinicians with valuable data for better applying diagnostic and therapeutic tools, particularly the overwhelming new imaging technology and other, often expensive, therapies and devices, in heart failure patients. In the Middle East, progress has recently been made with the ...

  1. Will East Germany Become a New Mezzogiorno?

    Andrea Boltho; Wendy Carlin; Pasquale Scaramozzino

    1996-01-01

    Despite massive regional policy efforts, GDP per capita in Southern Italy has only briefly converged on Northern Italian levels (during the 1960s). Failure since then is associated with a policy switch from investment towards income maintenance, with reduced wage sensitivity to regional labour market conditions and with increases in rent-seeking opportunities and corruption. East Germany’s early experience of rapid wage and income, but not productivity, convergence raised fears that a Mezzogi...

  2. Lessons from East Asia's Crisis and Recovery

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the currency crisis and recovery in three East Asian countries, Malaysia, Thailand and South Korea. Using macro economic data for the three countries over a 13 year period, 1990 – 2002, the paper examines the factors leading to the crisis, the policy response to the crisis, an evaluation of their recovery and the lessons that can be learnt. During the seven year period prior to the crisis, all three countries experienced very rapid GDP growth. C...

  3. Isotopic heterogeneity of East Antarctic mantle

    Isotopic heterogeneity of deep garnet-bearing mantle xenolytes of East Antarctics is studied to analyze the mechanisms of geochemical heterogeneity occurrence in the Earth mantle. Analysis of isotope data for the system 143Nd/144Nd - Sm/Nd permitted ascertaining the time of the last thermal impact on the mantle material (108-35 bill. years) for certain nodules, which is close to the age of ultra base alkali magmatism intrusion

  4. A putative East Asian business model

    Linda Low

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to distill from both the Asian “miracle” and the “meltdown” since the Asian crisis, a generic East Asian business model which is changing in the context of globalisation, information communication technology, knowledge-based economy, deregulation and emerging new competition. Design/methodology/approach – The generic business model considers the creative and innovative nature of intellectual capital in a qualitative macroeconomic development model rather than a quant...

  5. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  6. Clontuskert Augustinian Priory, east window, mullion

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Mullion of curvilinear east window. Mullion is moulded at both inner and outer faces. Inner face comprises: frontal fillet flanked at either side by hollow chamfer, quadrant, hollow chamfer. The moulding of the outer face comprises: frontal fillet flanked at either side by hollow chamfer, right-angled rebate and hollow chamfer. The sides of the mullion have glass grooves, closer to the outer face.

  7. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  8. Population and Inequality in East Asia

    Harry Oshima; Andrew Mason

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the inequality experience of East Asia beginning around 1960 and explores whether that experience is consistent with alternative theories about the determinants of income inequality. Particular emphasis is placed on the implications of rapid economic growth and rapid demographic change that characterized the region. Simple models do not capture the enormous complexity that is characteristic of the region. The differences and the trends in inequality reflect a variety of h...

  9. Embedded data acquisition system for EAST

    The embedded data acquisition system for the Experimental Advanced Super- conducting Tokamak (EAST) was designed. This system is based on the FPGA and ARM technology, integrates signal conditioning, data acquisition and processing into the single board, and provides a high integration and portability level architecture. At the same time, the 'time sliced' technology is introduced into the software system for providing a continuous acquisition and quasi real-time data transferring capability. (authors)

  10. Growth with Equity in East Asia?

    Jomo K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid growth and structural change have reduced poverty in East Asian economies. Income inequality has been low in Korea and Taiwan, but has risen in recent years with economic liberalization. In the Southeast Asian economies of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, poverty has declined, while income inequality trends have varied, rising most clearly in Thailand. With its strengthened (private) property rights, market liberalization and sustained rapid growth, China has also experienced increased...

  11. MPGShipyard docks into the Middle East

    Silva, Rita Isabel Paiva da

    2011-01-01

    MPG is a metalworking production company that recently refocused to the shipbuilding activity, particularly hulls for offshore support vessel (OSV) for staff and equipment transport to oil platforms. As offshore oil platforms increase, so does the demand for OSV, particularly in the Middle East - one of world’s leaders in the offshore investment. Since the Portuguese market doesn’t present itself as solution and the European market is highly competitive, it is necessary to deve...

  12. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  13. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates. PMID:12178551

  14. Credit policies : lessons from East Asia

    Vittas, Dimitri; Yoon Je Cho

    1995-01-01

    Directed credit programs were a major tool of development in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s, their usefulness was reconsidered. Experience in most countries showed that they stimulated capital-intensive projects, that preferential funds were often (mis)used for nonpriority purposes, that a decline in financial discipline led to low repayment rates, and that budget deficits swelled. Moreover, the programs were hard to remove. But Japan and other East Asian countries have long touted the mer...

  15. Middle East and North Africa Regional Brief

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The process of political change and transition across much of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continued into 2013, with a great degree of heterogeneity across countries. The crisis in Syria has escalated and caused massive impact on the inflow of refugees to Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq. Creating the right environment for growth will be critical as only growth can drive job cre...

  16. Economic Development in the Middle East

    Yochanan Shachmurove

    2004-01-01

    The economic and financial development are examined in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, representing the Middle East and North Africa region. Lengthy bureaucratic procedures, unclear regulations, corruption, and heavy reliance on oil exports pose major obstacles to economic development and integration into global markets. These controlled economies directly affect foreign and domestic i...

  17. Expropriation of Minority Shareholders in East Asia

    Claessens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Fan, Joseph P.H.; Lang, Larry H. P.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the evidence on expropriation of minority shareholders by the controlling shareholder in publicly traded companies in nine East Asian countries. Higher cash-flow rights are associated with higher market valuation. In contrast, higher control rights have an insignificant or negative effect on corporate valuation. Deviations of voting from cash-flow rights through the use of pyramiding, cross-holdings, and dual-class shares, are associated with lower market values. Results are robust...

  18. Health Perceptions - where the East meets West

    Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

  19. Political Change in the Middle East

    Beck, Martin; Hueser, Simone

    This article deals with the Arab Spring as a process of deep political change in the Arab world, previously the only major world area where authoritarianism persisted unchallenged for decades. While in various countries of the Arab world mass protests in 2011 forced rulers to resign, other author...... of stability is presented and discussed. Although the analysis draws heavily on rent theory, it also applies findings from transition theory and revolution theory to illuminate the current political dynamics in the Middle East....

  20. The Mousterian Populations of the Near East

    Silvana Condemi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Localization of Middle Palaeolithic sites in Israel with human remains This article deals with the contribution of archeological excavations in Israel, as well as of studies of human fossils in the Near East. Over the last thirty years, discoveries of human fossil remains in Israel have given rise to a major debate concerning the status of Neanderthals in this region and their relationship to modern Man. After describing these discoveries of human fossil remains in Israel, I will present the...

  1. 丽水-椒江凹陷西斜坡明月峰组上段碎屑锆石物源%Detrital Zircon Provenance of Upper Mingyuefeng Formation in West Slope of Lishui-Jiaojiang Sag,the East China Sea

    付晓伟; 朱伟林; 陈春峰; 钟锴; 许长海

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentary source has a significant impact on the development of oil and gas reservoir.To differentiate the prove-nance and analyze the lithological composition of the source area of the upper Mingyuefeng Formation in the west slope of Lishui-Jiaojiang sag,4 detrital zircon samples from 4 drillings were selected for U-Pb isotopic dating,and then provenance analysis was conducted according to the dating results and the age and lithology of potential source.The results suggest that de-trital zircons are mainly dominated by magmatic zircons falling into the age ranges of 125 -90 Ma,145 - 125 Ma and 1 70 -145 Ma,and there are a small amount of metamorphic zircons aged 235-210 Ma and 2 087-1 653 Ma.In the potential source area,volcanic rocks in the age range of 1 68-94 Ma are in overwhelming majority,and metamorphic rocks older than 210 Ma and intrusive rocks formed in 107.0 - 87.8 Ma outcrop sporadically,while maybe there are sedimentary rocks of Yongkang Group concentrated locally.The comprehensive analysis shows that the provenance of the northeastern part of the study area was mainly volcanic-sedimentary rocks of Yongkang Group and volcanic of Jiuliping Formation and Late Cretaceous intrusions exposed locally.While in the southwestern part,the source rock was mainly Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and volcanic rocks from Xishantou Formation in addition to Jiuliping Formation,and a small amount of Jurassic volcanic rocks as well.,which is more favorable to the development of high-quality reservoir in the southwestern part.%沉积物源对油气储层发育具有重要影响.为研究丽水-椒江凹陷西斜坡明月峰组上段物源的岩性组成及其分布特征,选取4口钻井4个砂岩样品进行碎屑锆石 U-Pb 定年,并对陆上潜在物源区岩层(体)的岩性和年龄进行统计分析.结果显示:(1)样品中碎屑锆石以岩浆锆石为主,主要的年龄区间为125~90 Ma、145~125 Ma 及170~145 Ma,还有少量变质锆石,其年龄区间为235

  2. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  3. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  4. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    Wajima, Kiyoaki; An, Tao; Baan, Willem A; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hao, Longfei; Jiang, Wu; Jung, Taehyun; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Jongsoo; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Wang, Min; Wu, Yuanwei; Xia, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  5. Middle East gas utilization and export potential

    There is huge gas supply potential in the Middle East, which possesses over one third of the world's natural gas reserves. However, marketed production represents only 6% of the world total, demonstrating that gas resources in the Middle East are under utilized. The value of these resources will be realized only if the gas finds a commercial outlet that guarantees proper return on investments for gas producers and the best possible use of this nonrenewable resource for governments. Apart from the chemical sector, which has provided a good outlet for natural gas, the development of natural gas resources in the region has been very limited historically, inhibited by many factors linked to the resource itself and to the characteristics of the region. However, natural gas in the Middle East is now at a crossroads, facing both major challenges and significant opportunities. The region, which currently plays only a marginal role on the world gas market, has the potential to become a leading world supplier, provided a number of political and economic conditions are fulfilled. This paper discusses some of the challenges that Middle Eastern countries face in trying to develop their natural gas resources. It reviews development potential for Middle Eastern gas reserves, whether for local use and/or exports, and it highlights future opportunities. (Author)

  6. Social anxiety among East Asians in North America: East Asian socialization or the challenge of acculturation?

    Hsu, Lorena; Woody, Sheila R; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Peng, Yunshi; Zhou, Xiaolu; Ryder, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    North American research has consistently reported higher social anxiety among people of Asian heritage compared to people of Western heritage. The present study used a cross-national sample of 692 university students to explore explanatory hypotheses using planned contrasts of group differences in social anxiety and related variables. The East Asian socialization hypothesis proposed social anxiety would show a linear relation corresponding to the degree of exposure to East Asian cultural norms. This hypothesis was not supported. The cultural discrepancy hypothesis examined whether bicultural East Asian participants (residing in Canada) would endorse higher social anxiety in comparison to unicultural participants (Western-heritage Canadians and native Koreans and Chinese). Compared to unicultural participants, bicultural East Asian participants reported higher social anxiety and depression, a relation that was partially mediated by bicultural participants' reports of lower self-efficacy about initiating social relationships and lower perceived social status. Overall, the results suggest higher reports of social anxiety among bicultural East Asians may be conceptualized within the context of cultural discrepancy with the mainstream culture. PMID:22506821

  7. Middle East Transformation from the Perspective of U.S. Middle East Policy

    Li Rong; Tang Zhichao; Tian Wenlin

    2008-01-01

    The Middle East, one of the most turbulent regions in the world, has embarked on another round of chaos since America waged the Iraq war in 2003, new players vying to fill the power vacuum, entrenched hatred multiplying with new wounds. Ecstasy turned into agony as Americans watched the war unfold. U.S. think tank researchers and politicians, reflecting on the war and U.S. Middle East policy, urged the Bush administration to adjust the policy and break the strategic impasse. Under grave pressure from home and abroad, the White House finally began to respond. Against this backdrop, the year 2007 witnessed the most intensive and extensive shift of U.S. Middle East policy in recent years and a drastic return of realism in America's foreign policy. These policy changes rippled in the Middle East, precipitating policy changes of other powers and transformation of the geopolitical landscape. The Middle East, as we can see, is heading toward a new age of pain and growth.

  8. Sources and fate of freshwater exported in the East Greenland Current

    Dodd, Paul A.; Heywood, Karen J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.; Marca, Alina D.; Falkner, Kelly K.

    2009-10-01

    Monitoring the sources and fate of freshwater in the East Greenland Current (EGC) is important, as this water has the potential to suppress deep convection in the Nordic and Labrador Seas if the outflow of freshwater from the Arctic Ocean increases in response to climate change. Here, hydrographic, oxygen isotope ratio and dissolved barium concentration sections across Denmark Strait collected in 1998 and 1999 are used to determine the freshwater composition of the EGC at these times. Comparison of meltwater fluxes at Denmark Strait and Fram Strait indicates a net melting of sea ice into the EGC between these two locations, with a significant proportion of sea ice drifting into the Nordic Seas or on to the East Greenland Shelf. We conclude that the phase of freshwater exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait is important in determining its possible impact on deep water formation in the Nordic and Labrador Seas.

  9. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour and damage of clay-stones: application to the East argillite

    The storage in deep geological formation is one of the solutions retained by France for the management of highly long life radioactive waste. The retained host rock is a clay-stone named East argillite located in the departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne. A thermodynamic formulation is used to propose a rheological model, which reproduces the mechanical behavior of clay-stones. Initially, an anisotropic damage plastic model was formulated in order to describe material degradations. Then, the damage plastic model is reformulated in order to taken into account the damage influence on the hydraulic behavior of porous material. The numerical simulations correctly reproduce the mechanical behavior of East Argillites but also the anisotropy of the hydraulic behavior introduced by the damage effect. (author)

  10. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (Invited)

    Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Damaske, D.; Finn, C.; Braaten, D. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Jordan, T. A.; Corr, H.; Elieff, S.; Frearson, N.; Block, A. E.; Rose, K.

    2009-12-01

    Models of the onset of glaciation in Antarctica routinely document the early growth of the ice sheet on the summit of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in the center of the East Antarctic Craton. While ice sheet models replicate the formation of the East Antarctic ice sheet 35 million years ago, the age, evolution and structure of the Gamburtsev Mountains remain completely unresolved. During the International Polar Year scientists from seven nations have launched a major collaborative program (AGAP) to explore the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains buried by the East Antarctic ice sheet and bounded by numerous subglacial lakes. The AGAP umbrella is a multi-national, multi-disciplinary effort and includes aerogeophysics, passive seismology, traverse programs and will be complimented by future ice core and bedrock drilling. A major new airborne data set including gravity; magnetics; ice thickness; SAR images of the ice-bed interface; near-surface and deep internal layers; and ice surface elevation is providing insights into a more dynamic East Antarctica. More than 120,000 km of aerogeophysical data have been acquired from two remote field camps during the 2008/09 field season. AGAP effort was designed to address several fundamental questions including: 1) What role does topography play in the nucleation of continental ice sheets? 2) How do tectonic processes control the formation, distribution, and stability of subglacial lakes? The preliminary analysis of this major new data set indicated these 3000m high mountains are deeply dissected by a dendritic system. The northern margin of the mountain range terminates against the inland extent of the Lambert Graben. Evidence of the onset of glaciation is preserved as cirques and U shaped valleys along the axis of the uplifted massifs. The geomorphology reflects the interaction between the ice sheet and the Gamburtsev Mountains. Bright reflectors in the radar data in the deep valleys indicate the presence of water that has

  11. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Mustafa Kemal Çelen

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  12. Spiral patterns on the Neolithic pottery of East Asia and the Far East

    Irina Zhushchikhovskaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the investigation of East Asian and Far East Neolithic spiral patterns, with the application of some mathematical principles. The basis of the research is published data on pottery assemblages from Japan, Eastern China, and the Amur River basin from the 6th to the beginning of the 1st mil. BC. We suggest a descriptive order of spiral patterns based on the typology of spiral figures used in geometry. This approach permits us to see the regional and cultural diversity of Neolithic spiral patterns within the research area.

  13. Middle east gas: supply source of Europe

    The evolution of gas demand, the decreasing of reserves leads to the question of European future needs satisfaction. The european market can call on the russian production or middle east production. Iran has the most important reserves but the needs of the population can limit the gas supply. Yemen and Oman which have less important reserves but also less important needs to satisfy can be a serious alternative; Abu dhabi reserves are destined to asia market. The qatar has the most important gas offshore field in the world. The LNG (liquefied natural gas) seems to have a better position than gas pipeline to dispatch gas towards Europe

  14. Middle East: major opportunities for gas producers

    This article addresses the increase in demand for natural gas in the face of the threat of global warming, and the opportunities that this presents for Middle East gas producers. The use of natural gas to reduce the consumption of petroleum, market opportunities in the European Community as demand outstrips supply, worldwide demand for LNG, and the need for foreign investment are discussed. A brief overview is given of the situations in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudia Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi and Yemen. (UK)

  15. Gender Inequality in North East India

    Mahanta, Bidisha; Nayak, Purusottam

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of gender inequality in North East India using various indicators based on secondary data. The study reveals that the northeast is better off than that of the nation as a whole in terms of gender equality. However inequality between women and men exists in the region in spite of the predominance of various ethnic groups who by and large do not believe in sex discrimination. The study reveals that women are relatively disempowered and enjoy...

  16. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  17. The terrorists of the Middle East.

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few days in the Middle East the world has, once again, seen the implementation of pure Nazi methods, which everybody had thought to have been forever condemned to the rubbish bin of History. The capture of a single Israeli soldier by Palestinian guerillas in a battle with the Israeli army (following the killing of scores of Palestinian women and children over the previous days by the same army, for which Israel refused to accept an independent inquiry is now being paid for through the collective punishment of the entire Gaza population.

  18. Application of MDSplus on EAST Tokamak

    EAST is a fully superconducting Tokamak in China used for controlled fusion research. MDSplus, a special software package for fusion research, has been used successfully as a central repository for analysed data and PCS (Plasma Control System) data since the debugging experiment in the spring of 2006. In this paper, the reasons for choosing MDSplus as the analysis database and the way to use it are presented in detail, along with the solution to the problem that part of the MDSplus library does not work in the multithread mode. The experiment showed that the data system based on MDSplus operated stably and it could provide a better performance especially for remote users

  19. Credit Crunch in East Asia: A Retrospective

    Masahiro Enya; Akira Kohsaka; Mervin Pobre

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the issue on credit crunch from a comparative perspective. Utilizing longer time series data, we investigate the existence of credit crunch in selected crisis-hit economies in East Asia over the period 1980-2002. We detected some episodes of credit crunch both before and after the Asian economic crisis. These episodes after the Crisis are somewhat different from those detected by previous studies on the issue. We, then, review the credit-crunch episodes in the broad ...

  20. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    Wang, Lei

    2009-08-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008.

  1. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008. (magnetically confined plasma)

  2. Real Estate Investment in Sabah, East Malaysia

    Chok, Vui Shung

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Investing in real estate is one of the best means of maximizing ones wealth. An individual can use a property as leverage and hedge it against inflation. Most people invest in this asset class as it is a norm for a property to appreciate at the rate of 5-6% annually, and some even more in places where housing in short supply. This dissertation will evaluate specifically on real estate investment in the state of Sabah, East Malaysia. The chapters begin by providi...

  3. Ice age plant refugia in East Greenland

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    From the distribution of plants it has been inferred by some botanists that ice-free areas existed in East Greenland accommodating a flora which survived one or several ice ages in the area. Comparing this evidence with recent information on the chronology of glaciations and post-glacial vegetation...... of Greenland. 14 C dating and amino-acid age estimates of marine sediments show that lowland areas near the outer coast have been ice-free for at least 40,000 years. The vegetation history, as reflected in pollen diagrams extending back to ca. 10,000 yr. B.P., has shown that many of the extant species...

  4. Miscellaneous South East Asian cucurbit news

    W.J.J.O. - De Wilde; Duyfjes, Brigitta E.E.

    2008-01-01

    DE WILDE, W.J.J.O. & DUYFES, B.E.E. 2008. Miscellaneous South East Asian cucurbit news. Reinwardtia 12(4):267 – 274. –– This paper contains corrections, additions, and name changes in several genera, which became apparentsince previous publications by the authors in these genera.(1) Baijiania A.M. Lu & J.Q. Li: a range-extension(2) Benincasa Savi: a name change(3) Diplocyclos (Endl.) T. Post & Kuntze: lectotypification of the synonym Ilocania pedata Merr.(4) Gymnopetalum Arn.: a n...

  5. Application of MDSplus on EAST Tokamak

    QU Lianzheng; LUO Jiarong; LI lingling; ZHANG Mingxing; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    EAST is a fully superconducting Tokamak in China used for controlled fusion research. MDSplus, a special software package for fusion research, has been used successfully as a central repository for analysed data and PCS (Plasma Control System) data since the debugging experiment in the spring of 2006 . In this paper, the reasons for choosing MDSplus as the analysis database and the way to use it are presented in detail, along with the solution to the problem that part of the MDSplus library does not work in the multithread mode. The experiment showed that the data system based on MDSplus operated stably and it could provide a better performance especially for remote users.

  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in children

    Thabet, Farah; Chehab, May; Bafaqih, Hind; AlMohaimeed, Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a new human disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV). The disease is reported mainly in adults. Data in children are scarce. The disease caused by MERS-CoV in children presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations, and it is associated with a lower mortality rate compared with adults. Poor outcome is observed mainly in admitted patients with medical comorbidities. We report a new case of MERS-CoV infection in a 9-month-old child compli...

  7. 长英质高级片麻岩中夕线石的形成与变形-变质-深熔作用的关系——以南极拉斯曼丘陵区为例%Formation of sillimanite in the high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses and its relations with deformation-metamorphism-anatexis: A case study in the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica

    任留东; 杨崇辉; 王彦斌; 刘晓春; 赵越

    2009-01-01

    In the high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses in the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, two domains of distinct mineral assemblages and textures have been discerned. One is the sillimanite-bearing assemblage aligned along the foliation, while the other is the sillimanite scarce or absent assemblage domain. Deformation, especially the occurrence of the fracture is essential to the formation of sillimanite, tn the weakly foliated gneiss domains, the biotite-plagiogneiss tend to be prograded to form the assemblage of Grt+Qtz± Opx under medium-low pressure granulite facies conditions. The two domains may correspond to the high and low strain zones, respectively, of strain decomposition. In addition, sillimanite is actually stage outcome of the reaction chain in prograding metamorphism, not simply resulted from the early solid reactions. The occurrence of sillimanite is derived from the differential migration of components in the open system. The migration is substantially the leaching of the alkaline and alkaline-earth metals. The fluids accompanying deformation made the severe leaching of SiO_2 and dramatically decrease the mobility of SiO_2 in the residues. Meanwhile the leaching is responsible for the segregation of the fetsic and mafic components and the separate aggregation of some minerals of major components, forming the complex patterns in distribution and evolution of the metamorphic minerals. The evolution also can be illuminated by the differential migration of the oxides of alkaline-earth metals, like MgO. That is to say, as the degree of leaching of the component decreases, sillimanite, garnet, orthopyroxene and cordierite may occur sequentially. In other words, the major mineral or mineral assemblages may vary with the developing metamorphism or differentiation stages. In the beginning of deformation-metamorphism, the initial residues of alkaline metals leaching were responsible for the formation of sillimanite, then migration of the mafic components

  8. East African Running: Toward a Cross-Disciplinary Perspective

    Yannis Pitsiladis; John Bale; Craig Sharp; Timothy Noakes

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION "East African Running: Toward a Cross-disciplinary Perspective" examines the secret of those runners in being the top athletes of middle and long distance running. PURPOSE This book aims to discuss the anatomical, physiological, biomechanical, genomic, psychological and sociological conditions which lead East African runners to success. AUDIENCE This all-inclusive book about favoured East African runners is a remarkable source for all sports and social sciences professionals as we...

  9. Skills, Wages, and Employment in East and West Germany

    Michael Funke; Felix FitzRoy

    1995-01-01

    Disaggregated data from 30 two-digit manufacturing industries in the east and west parts of unified Germany are used to estimate employment for three skill categories of blue collar workers. Employment elasticities are uniformly higher in the east, and for unskilled labor. The former result contradicts union claims that wages had little relevance for east German job losses, while the latter confirms the capital-skill complementarity hypothesis.

  10. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EAST JAVA: A SPECIAL CASE?

    Bambang-Heru Santosa; Heath McMichael

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of manufacturing in East Java in comparison with other major industrial provinces in Indonesia, with a focus on employment, output and investment in the pre-and-post crisis periods. East Java's 'winner' and 'loser' industries and the geographical distribution of manufacturing in the province are described. The paper attempts to account for manufacturing patterns in East Java in terms of infrastructure constraints, the investment climate, access to finance a...

  11. Gender, Literature, and Film in Contemporary East Central European Culture

    Imre, Anikó

    2001-01-01

    In her article, "Gender, Literature, and Film in Contemporary East Central European Culture," Anikó Imre discusses gender, literature, and film in Hungary in the context of East Central European national cultures of the 1980s and 1990s. Anikó Imre analyzes the analogous gender structures that underlie both nation and literature in these transitional cultures. She challenges both social science studies of post-communist transitions and studies of East Central European literatures and cultures ...

  12. Financial Integration in East Asia: An Empirical Investigation

    Lee, Hyun-Hoo; Huh, Hyeon-seung; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    The central objective of this paper is to empirically evaluate the degree of linkages among East Asian equity and bond markets. The primary contribution of our paper to the empirical literature is that we use a financial gravity model grounded in economic theory. Using data from the International Monetary Fund's Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, we find that intra-East Asian financial asset holdings of four East Asian economies - Hong Kong, China; Japan; the Republic of Korea; and Sing...

  13. Two Essays on Regional Economic Integration in East Asia

    Yap, Josef T.

    2004-01-01

    Regional economic integration in East Asia has gained momentum in the aftermath of the 1997 financial crisis and the escalation of international terrorism. In the first essay, the integration process in Europe and East Asia is compared briefly. This is followed by a discussion on the expansion process by the European Union and how East Asia can learn from this. In particular, the concern is how to integrate the CMLV countries in a meaningful way. Proposals deal with the impact of freer moveme...

  14. Developing regional financial markets – the case of East Asia

    Pomerleano, Michael

    2008-01-01

    "The paper explores the extent and benefits of financial integration in East Asia. It presents evidence that the extent of financial integration in East Asia is less extensive than the aggregate data suggests. The paper then addresses why some countries are integrated more than others and discusses the obstacles to regional financial integration. The paper points out that East Asia’s growth strategy has shaped bank centric financial systems. An important thesis presented in the...

  15. Television and Politics in the Former East Germany

    Dittmar, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    In her paper, "Television and Politics in the Former East Germany," Claudia Dittmar analyzes how in the former East Germany (GDR) while television audience was restricted severly by government, at the same time West German broadcasts acquired a substantial audience and what the impact of these broadcasts had on the audience. West German television programs enjoyed a high level of popularity with the East German population, thereby posing the greatest competition to the GDR's own television st...

  16. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.

  17. A new long-pulse data system for EAST experiments

    Highlights: • Slice storage mechanism on MDSplus has been adopted for the effective solutions to the continuous and quasi real-time data storage. • Using circular linked list method solves the speed mismatch between the network transmission and the MDSplus writing. • Using LVS (Linux Virtual server) load balance technology, the new system provides a safe, highly scalable and highly available network service for user to access data. - Abstract: A long pulse discharge requires high throughput data acquisition. As more physics diagnostics with high sampling rate are applied and the pulse length becomes longer, the original EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) data system no longer satisfies the requirements of real-time data storage and quick data access. A new system was established to integrate various data acquisition hardware and software for easy expansion and management of the system. Slice storage mechanism in MDSplus is now being used for the continuous and quasi real-time data storage. For every data acquisition thread and process, sufficient network bandwidth is ensured. Moreover, temporal digitized data is cached in computer memory in doubly linked circular lists to avoid the possible data loss by the occasional temporal storage or transfer jam. These data are in turn archived in MDSplus format by using slice storage mechanism called “segments”. For the quick access of the archived data to the users, multiple data servers are used. These data servers are linked using LVS (Linux Virtual server) load balance technology to provide a safe, highly scalable and available data service

  18. India's Engagement With East Asia and The China Factor

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction India's engagement with East Asia has enjoyed a long history.In ancient times,the Indian Civilization exerted substantial influence on Southeast and East Asia.Buddhism,originating on the Subcontinent more than two centuries ago,remains most popular in Southeast and East Asia.India also has centuries of economic bonds with the region.Under the colonial rule of the British,India was used to safeguard and promote British"interests"in the Pacific Ocean,as well as in the Middle East and Africa.

  19. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  20. Energy privatization in the Middle East

    The issue of energy privatization in the Middle East was discussed with particular examples from Kuwait. The development of Kuwait's domestic political institutions is unique in the Arab Gulf which makes privatization more complicated than in other Middle Eastern countries. The major issue in Kuwait is whether foreign investors and domestic private investors will be allowed equity participation in oil and gas production projects. It was suggested that the answer depends on general assessments of national financial and state security interests and on individual case judgements respecting each potential partnership. Historically, one of the main reasons for nationalization of private investment in oil and gas in the Middle East was the desire of governments to increase state revenues. Nationalization permitted states to set prices and production levels themselves and to keep the difference between costs and prices instead of sharing it with corporate owners. However, nationalization is not without its problems as indicated by the difficulties encountered by governments in trying to make the the OPEC-managed hydrocarbon regime work. The three main reasons for the current willingness of Middle Eastern governments to consider re-admitting private companies as equity participants in their energy industries, namely market share and terms of access, interstate disputes, and desire to minimize corruption, were also discussed. It was suggested that these are strong arguments that support taking another look at privatization as a strategy that is in the long-term interest of Middle Eastern oil producing states. 19 refs

  1. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Elena Novozhilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1, 20-hydroxyecdysone (2, ecdysone (3, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4 has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandrium sachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1 st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae. Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis.

  2. Simulations of Reversed Shear Configuration in EAST

    NIU Xingping; WU Bin

    2007-01-01

    The reversed shear (RS) mode is one of the advanced configurations being considered in EAST.Predictive simulations of EAST reversed shear configuration are carried out using an 1.5D equilibrium evolution code.In order to have the desired monotonic q-profile during a tokamak discharge,a successful preparation phase is required.In our simulation,the plasma current is ramped up from 100 kA to a flat-top maximum of 1.0 MA for four seconds.An ICRH power of 1 MW is applied until the plasma shape is formed at the moment of 4 s,and then the power is raised to 3 MW.A LHCD power of 3.5 MW is applied from is to optimize the plasma current density profile.A series of simulations are performed to study the influence of the time of applying the auxiliary heating on the plasma parameters.Based on these simulations,a scheme is proposed and tested for the control of the safety factor profile,which is very useful in real time profile control in tokamak experiments.

  3. Yardie east-1: a directionally drilled wildcat

    Tomlin, G.F.; Dumbrell, R.; White, H.W.

    1983-03-01

    Under the terms of a farmout agreement a well to 4200 metres true vertical depth was required to test an offshore structure in the Indian Ocean 3.4 kilometres from the Cape Range landfall, Western Australia. Due to the structure being located in an offshore environmentally sensitive area and the proximity of the structure to the Ningaloo Reef, the decision was taken by the consortium to drill a directionally controlled wildcat well, Yardie East-1, from the nearest landfall point, in a designated National Park. With the co-operation of the regulatory authorities a drilling plan was approved which entailed a critical analysis and modifications to the drilling rig, Rig No. 15 contracted from Oil Drilling and Exploration Limited, to satisfy the loads associated with a directionally drilled well to a worst condition programmed measured depth of 5650 m. Utilising modern technology the wildcat well was drilled to the target at the top of the structure at 5110 m at a penetration angle of 50/sup 0/ and an azimuth of 308/sup 0/ in 142 days from spud. Earning conditions were satisfied with an eventual total drilled depth of 5593 m. Logging and an open hole drill stem test were conducted prior to abandoning the well 186 days after spud. It is believed that Yardie East-1 is the longest well, in terms of measured depth, drilled onshore or offshore Australia.

  4. Yardie East-1: a directionally drilled wildcat

    Tomlin, G.F.; White, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Under the terms of a farmout agreement a well to 4200 metres true vertical depth was required to test an offshore structure in the Indian Ocean 3.4 kilometres from the Cape Range landfall, Western Australia. Due to the structure being located in an offshore environmentally sensitive area and the proximity of the structure to the Ningaloo Reef, the decision was taken by the consortium to drill a directionally controlled wildcat well, Yardie East-1, from the nearest landfall point, in a designated National Park. With the co-operation of the regulatory authorities a drilling plan was approved which entailed a critical analysis and modifications to the drilling rig, Rig No. 15 contracted from Oil Drilling and Exploration Limited, to satisfy the loads associated with a directionally drilled well to a worst condition programmed measured depth of 5650 m. Utilising modern technology the wildcat well was drilled to the target at the top of the structure at 5110 m at a penetration angle of 50/sup 0/ and an azimuth of 308/sup 0/ in 142 days from spud. Earning conditions were satisfied with an eventual total drilled depth of 5593 m. Logging and an open hole drill stem test were conducted prior to abandoning the well 186 days after spud. It is believed that Yardie East-1 is the longest well, in terms of measured depth, drilled onshore or offshore Australia.

  5. East Europe's energy trade takes new shape

    Often in the past, Western analysts of global energy demand have treated Eastern Europe as just part of a black box labeled Communist. Only the net flow of energy to the non-Communist world was of any consequence. The region, although primarily a major net importer of energy from the Soviet Union, was a very small net exporter of energy to non-Communist countries based Polish coal exports. Romanian refined petroleum product exports, and some minor exports of refined products by other East European countries. The political and economic configurations of Eastern Europe has changed dramatically over the past 2 years, however, and the way in which East European energy relationships are considered will have to change accordingly. With the sweeping transformation of these economies (for the most part, radically in the direction of a market orientation) and the breakup of their unique system of mutual trade, the patterns of energy production, consumption, and trade which have prevailed in the region during the post-war period will also change significantly. Forecasting the net-impact on energy demand in this region of offsetting trends due to economic reform (i.e., renewed economic dynamism vs. decreased energy intensity of aggregate economic output) is a very difficult task. Moreover, there are additional complications introduced by changes in the political system, such as the increased importance of environmental quality in the choice of fuel and production technology due to clearly enunciated concern of the popular political movements with these issues

  6. 3D seismic analysis of the Collyhurst Sandstone: implications for CO2 sequestration in the East Irish Sea Basin

    Gamboa, Davide; Williams, John; Kirk, Karen; Gent, Christopher; Bentham, Michelle; Fellgett, Mark; Schofield, David

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a vital technology towards low-carbon energy resources and the mitigation of global warming trends induced by rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The East Irish Sea Basin (EISB) is a key area for CCS in the western UK, having high CO2 storage potentials in explored hydrocarbon fields and in saline aquifers within the Permo-Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Formation. However, the theoretical storage potential of the EISB could be poorly estimated as the reservoir-prone Lower Permian formations are not considered in detail by current estimations. This work aims to fill this gap, focusing on the characterisation of the Lower Permian Collyhurst Sandstone Formation as a viable storage unit. The potential for CO2 storage is estimated as the total volume/area of suitable closures that are isolated by structural traps, occurring at depths suitable for CO2 injection and containment (>800m). Detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made using 3D seismic data to assess the storage potential of the Collyhurst Sandstone Formation in the southern EISB. The basin strata is compartmentalised by numerous N-S trending faults. A higher degree of compartmentalisation occurs within regional anticlines where elongated tilted blocks are observed, bound by predominantly west-dipping faults that induce a variable offset of the Collyhurst Sandstone strata. Contrastingly, higher lateral continuity of this formation is observed within graben basins were faults are less frequent and with minor offset, thus potentially creating larger storage closures. Fault dip orientation in the grabens is variable, with west and east dipping faults occurring as a function of large east-dipping listric faults. This study was complemented by the stress modelling of the interpreted faults in order to assess the risk of CO2 leakage. Analysis of borehole breakouts observed in four approximately vertical wells in the EISB suggest a maximum horizontal stress

  7. Characteristic and mineralization of sandstone-type uranium deposits in mesozoic continental energy sources basin in east China tectonic domain

    The sandstone type uranium deposits in the Mesozoic continental basin of the tectonic zone in east China have distinct features. The u-mineralization shows obvious overlap of multi-mineralization including the infiltration-type and effusion-type. Upper of the target stratum is the new type of bi-layer fluvial facies. It locates in the unique structure-construction sequence; this formation sequence appears as a full two-grade sequence, and it comprises of several three-grade sequences and forms evolution pattern of the basin including 'triplex structure, two interfaces, three set of formation'. These constructions are controlled by dynamic evolution of the Pacific tectonic zone migrating from west to east step by step, and form coexistence of uranium with coal, oil and gas in the basin. (authors)

  8. Earthquake-related soft-sediment deformation structures in Palaeogene on the continental shelf of the East China Sea

    2008-01-01

    Earthquake,as disastrous events in geological history,can be recorded as soft-sediment deformation.In the Palaeogene of the East China Sea shelf,the soft-sediment deformation related to earthquake event is recognized as seismic micro-fractures,micro-corrugated laminations,liquefied veins,'vibrated liquefied layers',deformed cross laminations and convolute laminations,load structures,flame structures,brecciation,slump structures and seismodisconformity.There exists a lateral continuum,the wide spatial distribution and the local vertical continuous sequences of seismites including slump,liquefaction and brecciation.In the Palaeogene of East China Sea shelf,where typical soft-sediment deformation structures were developed,clastic deposits of tidal-flat,delta and river facies are the main background deposits of Middle-Upper Eocene Pinghu Formation and Oligocene Huagang Formation.This succession also records diagnostic marks of event deposits and basinal tectonic activities in the form of seismites.

  9. Geophysical investigations of the East Greenland Caledonides using receiver functions, gravity and topography data

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    crustal structures related to extensional basin formation, a lower crustal high velocity layer and a crustal root have to be considered. A profile of 11 temporary broadband stations was deployed and maintained by Aarhus University for a period of 2 years (2009 – 2011). The approximately 270 km long Ella Ø...... from published wide-angle seismic studies in the area. The evolution of the East Greenland and Norwegian Caledonides at the conjugated margins may be closely connected. A comparison with a similar study in Norway will give insight to what extend topography, crustal and upper mantle structures on both...

  10. Structural Characteristics and Evolution of Jurassic Basins in the East of Middle Qilian Block

    郑孟林; 李明杰; 曹春潮; 张勇军; 徐世陆

    2003-01-01

    Structural characteristics of the Jurassic basins of Xining, Minhe, and Xiji in the east of middle Qilian were researched based on the data obtained by gravitational, magnetic, and seismic methods. The result shows that each of these three basins is an independent structural unit with a NW strike and being separated by upheavals. Two groups of faults with NW and NE directions are developed in the basin, which controls the formation and evolution of the (Jurassic basins). The NW faults are the main ones while the NE faults are the secondary for controlling the sedimentation. Of the three basins, the Minhe basin is the favorable prospecting area.

  11. How Useful Is an Asian Currency Unit (ACU) Index for Surveillance in East Asia?

    Pontines, Victor

    2013-01-01

    An Asian Currency Unit (ACU) index is constructed using an alternative procedure which minimizes a basket or portfolio of assets expressed in terms of national currencies. Using this estimated ACU index and an ACU Deviation Indicator, the main finding of this study based on the current trajectory of East Asian currencies relative to this regional ACU average or benchmark is that there is a formation of two contrasting groups of countries in the region—one a group of strong currencies and th...

  12. Carborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey of an area east of Homs, central Syria

    A carborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey normally provides preliminary reconnaissance coverage of the radioelements in the topmost part of the earth's crust. However, a radiometric survey under certain conditions can be used for geologic mapping. In the present paper this approach was used to differentiate various lithological units within the Neogene formations east of Homs. The total radioactivity and the ground concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium were obtained over an area of 294 km2. Despite, generally, the small variations in the contents of these variables, it was possible to categorize some rock units in the study area based on their radiometric response. (Author)

  13. Two notable fossils finds in East Falkland : a 'starfish' and a large trilobite

    Rushton, Adrian; Stone, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The fossilised marine fauna contained in the sandstone and mudstone of the Fox Bay Formation is a well-known feature of the Falkland Islands’ geology. The fossils are of Devonian age, about 400 million years old, and were first discovered by Charles Darwin during HMS Beagles’s stay at Port Louis in 1833. Many fossils have been collected since then from localities spread across both East and West Falkland but the abundant and well-preserved material recovered from the Fox Bay ar...

  14. Shallow core drilling and petroleum geology related field work in East and North-East Greenland 2008

    Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A.; Bjerager, M.; Piasecki, S.

    2009-07-15

    In 2007/2008, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) launched a major petroleum industry-sponsored project with the objective of updating and expanding our current understanding of the petroleum geology of East and North-East Greenland. The project is planned to continue for the next four to five years, and includes compilation of relevant existing data in the form of a geographic information system (GIS) product, supplemented by new data obtained from shallow core drilling and new field work. Below we give a brief overview of a range of field activities that took place in East and North-East Greenland in the summer of 2008.

  15. Reduced inorganic sulfur in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    KANG Xuming; LIU Sumei; ZHANG Guoling

    2014-01-01

    Cold diffusion methods are used to separate and quantify the three reduced inorganic sulfur species into acid volatile sulfide (AVS), pyrite-S and element sulfur (ES) in the sediments of the Yellow and East China Seas. The results show that up to 25.02μmol/g of AVS, 113.1μmol/g of pyrite-S and 44.4μmol/g of ES are observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Pyrite-S is the predominant sulfide mineral in the sediments, while the concentration of AVS is quite low at most stations in the study area. The amounts and reactivity of organic matter are the primary limited factor for the sulfide formation, while an iron limi-tation and a sulfate limitation are not observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The irregular profiles of the three reduced inorganic sulfur species also reflected the comprehensive influence of sediment composition and sedimentation rates.

  16. Micro-Finance and its Inter-State Disparities in North-East India

    Dr. Amith Roy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance refers to the provision of various financial services like savings, credit, money transfers, insurance etc. in small doses for the poor to enable them to raise their income levels and improve living standards. The North-East Region is one of the back-ward regions of India characterized by low per-capita income, low capital formation, in-adequate infrastructure facilities, geographical isolation and communication bottleneck, inadequate exploitation of natural resources like mineral resources, hydro power potential, forests etc. Present paper highlights the microfinance programme in North-East India and its inter-state variation regarding various aspects like volume of savings, loan disbursement and loans outstanding. The Microfinance programme in India started near about two decades back. But its progresses are not uniform throughout various region and states. Assam is the leader state of North-Eastern region shows relatively better performance compare to the other states of North-East. On the other hand, Sikkim shows relatively poor performance. The differences in the progress of scheme in the North-eastern states are mainly due to differences in communication facility, literacy, geographical positions and moreover the differences between the activities and availability of the banking agencies. The study also reveals that performance of Commercial Banks to promote such scheme is much better, whereas the performances of Regional Rural Banks and Co-operative are relatively poor.JEL Classification: G21

  17. Was the East Mediterranean deep thermohaline cell weakening during 2006-2009?

    The East Mediterranean deep thermohaline cell is a series of processes that refer to the water sinking during winter at specific locations and the subsequent spreading that fills the deep near-bottom layers of the East Mediterranean with oxygen-rich water masses. These waters tend to preserve the hydrologic characteristics (temperature, salinity, and transparency) of their formation region. Hydrographic sections offshore from Cape Passero (west Ionian Sea) and near the southwest tip of Peloponnisos (east Ionian Sea), in the framework of the deep-neutrino-telescope-related KM3net program, cut through a bottom plume of Adriatic water at ∼3500 m in the southwest Ionian and a deep vein at ∼3200 m of Cretan water in the southeast Ionian. In the period 2006-2009, the Adriatic plume, originally characterized by a strong signal of locally higher salinity and oxygen and lower transparency in the near-bottom 500 m, tends to weaken and shrink within the near-bottom ∼200 m in 2009. This weakening trend may be associated with the relatively warm/mild winters following 2006. It may be typical inter-annual variability or a signature of global warming in which case an expected prolonged continuation can potentially affect the deep oxygen supply.

  18. Was the East Mediterranean deep thermohaline cell weakening during 2006-2009?

    Kontoyiannis, H., E-mail: hk@ath.hcmr.gr; Lykoysis, V.

    2011-01-21

    The East Mediterranean deep thermohaline cell is a series of processes that refer to the water sinking during winter at specific locations and the subsequent spreading that fills the deep near-bottom layers of the East Mediterranean with oxygen-rich water masses. These waters tend to preserve the hydrologic characteristics (temperature, salinity, and transparency) of their formation region. Hydrographic sections offshore from Cape Passero (west Ionian Sea) and near the southwest tip of Peloponnisos (east Ionian Sea), in the framework of the deep-neutrino-telescope-related KM3net program, cut through a bottom plume of Adriatic water at {approx}3500 m in the southwest Ionian and a deep vein at {approx}3200 m of Cretan water in the southeast Ionian. In the period 2006-2009, the Adriatic plume, originally characterized by a strong signal of locally higher salinity and oxygen and lower transparency in the near-bottom 500 m, tends to weaken and shrink within the near-bottom {approx}200 m in 2009. This weakening trend may be associated with the relatively warm/mild winters following 2006. It may be typical inter-annual variability or a signature of global warming in which case an expected prolonged continuation can potentially affect the deep oxygen supply.

  19. Characteristics of high waves observed at multiple stations along the east coast of Korea

    S.-H. Oh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent several years, extremely high waves occasionally visited the Korean coast of the East Sea and caused severe coastal disasters almost every winter season. In this paper, characteristics of such high waves are reported by analyzing wave records collected at multiple stations along the Korean east coast. Meteorological data obtained at relevant weather stations were also used in the analysis. The reason for appearance of the high waves was identified as the strong northeasters due to extra-tropical low pressure systems that had been rapidly developing in the East Sea. The general mechanism concerning the formation and spatial evolution of such strong low pressure systems was more clearly understood through the synthetic analysis of the wave and meteorological data. In particular, the influence of spatio-temporal features of the low pressure system on the resulting characteristics of the high waves was described in more detail in this study. Since the overall wave direction was northeast also, the first wave arrival time on the coastline became later for a wave station whose latitude is lower. At present, however, the arrival time of such high waves on the coast as well as their intrinsic characteristics such as wave height and period are not satisfactorily predicted by the daily weather forecast. Hence, it is necessary to enhance predictability of the high waves by investigating developmental mechanisms of the strong low pressure system in winter season more thoroughly.

  20. Evaluation of performance for the EAST upgraded divertor targets during type I ELMy H-mode

    Qian, X. Y.; Peng, X. B.; Wang, L.; Song, Y. T.; Ye, M. Y.; Zhang, J. W.; Li, W. X.; Zhu, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    The long-pulse high-confinement (H-mode) plasma regime is considered to be a preferable scenario in future fusion devices, and in the period of normal operation during H-mode, edge-localised modes (ELMs) are one of the most serious threats to the performance and capability of divertor targets. The EAST recently achieved a variety of H-mode regimes with ELMs. For the purpose of studying the performance of the EAST upgraded divertor during type I ELMs, a series of simulations were performed by using three-dimensional (3D) finite element code. To make a visible outcome of the direct ELM impact on the divertor targets, a preliminary evaluation system with three indices to exhibit the influence has been developed. The indices that comprise temperature evolution, thermal penetration depth and crack initiation life, which could reveal the process of micro-crack formation, are calculated in both low and high-power scenarios for type I ELMs. The initial results indicate that the transient heat load has a significant influence in a very short thickness layer along the direction perpendicular to the plasma-facing surface throughout its duration. The conclusion could offer a pertinent guide to the next-step high-power long-pulse operation in EAST and would also be helpful for scientifically studying the damage and fatigue mechanism of the divertor in ITER and future fusion power reactors.

  1. Extended correlation of the Paleogene Faroe Islands and East Greenland plateau basalts

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    /204Pb = 17.59-18.30 while the High-Ti3 group has 206Pb/204Pb = 18.88-19.12. The three Faroese lava groups can be correlated with the East Greenland syn-breakup basalt formations using their geochemistry, lava morphology and phenocryst contents. The High-Ti1 group correlates with the Milne Land......-Ti1 and Milne Land Formation lavas have a higher content of most incompatible elements compared to High-Ti2 and Geikie Plateau Formation. This is unexpected because the Zr/Nb ratio indicates that the High-Ti2 and Geikie Plateau Formation lavas are formed by lower degrees of melting. An explanation may...... be that High-Ti1 and Milne Land Formation magmas fractionated significant amounts of clinopyroxene at the bottom of the crust before rising to higher crustal levels, whereas High-Ti2 and Geikie Plateau Formation magmas initially fractionated olivine at lower pressures....

  2. The formation of Pangea

    Stampfli, G. M.; Hochard, C.; Vérard, C.; Wilhem, C.; vonRaumer, J.

    2013-05-01

    The making of Pangea is the result of large-scale amalgamation of continents and micro-continents, which started at the end of the Neoproterozoic with the formation of Gondwana. As pieces were added to Gondwana on its South-American, Antarctica and Australia side, ribbon-like micro-continents were detached from its African and South-Chinese side: Cadomia in the late Neoproterozoic, Avalonia and Hunia in the Ordovician, Galatia in the Devonian and Cimmeria in the Permian. Cadomia was re-accreted to Gondwana, but the other ribbon-continents were accreted to Baltica, North-China, Laurussia or Laurasia. Finding the origin of these numerous terranes is a major geological challenge. Recently, a global plate tectonic model was developed together with a large geological/geodynamic database, at the Lausanne University, covering the last 600 Ma of the Earth's history. Special attention was given to the placing of Gondwana derived terranes in their original position, using all possible constraints. We propose here a solution for the Variscan terranes, another paper deals with the Altaids. The Galatian super-terrane was detached from Gondwana in the Devonian, during the opening of Paleotethys, and was quickly separated into four sub-terranes that started to by-pass each other. The leading terranes collided at the end of the Devonian with the Hanseatic terrane detached from Laurussia. In the Carboniferous, Gondwana started to impinge onto the amalgamated terranes, creating the Variscan chain and the Pangean super-continent. East of Spain Paleotethys remained opened until the Triassic, subducting northward under Laurasia. Roll-back of the Paleotethyan slab triggered the collapse of most of the European Variscan orogen, which was replaced by series of Permian rifts, some of them becoming oceanized back-arc basins during the Triassic. Major force changes at the Pangean plate limits at the end of the Triassic provoked its break-up, through the opening of the proto

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus Pathogenesis.

    Singh, Sunit K

    2016-08-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that infect birds, mammals, and humans. Infections caused by human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are mostly associated with the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. The hCoVs only occasionally induce lower respiratory tract disease, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. In 2002 to 2003, a global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the seminal detection of a novel CoV (SARS-CoV). A decade later (June 2012), another novel CoV was implicated as the cause of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia. Although bats might serve as a reservoir of MERS-CoV, it is unlikely that they are the direct source for most human cases. Severe lines of evidence suggest that dromedary camels have been the major cause of transmission to humans. The emergence of MERS-CoV has triggered serious concerns about the potential for a widespread outbreak. All MERS cases were linked directly or indirectly to the Middle East region including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and UAE. MERS cases have also been reported in the later phases in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Tunisia. Most of these MERS cases were linked with the Middle East. The high mortality rates in family-based and hospital-based outbreaks were reported among patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and renal failure. MERS-CoV causes an acute, highly lethal pneumonia and renal dysfunction. The major complications reported in fatal cases are hyperkalemia with associated ventricular tachycardia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pericarditis, and multiorgan failure. The case-fatality rate seems to be higher for MERS-CoV (around 30%) than for SARS-CoV (9.6%). The combination regimen of type 1 interferon + lopinavir/ritonavir is considered as the first-line therapy for MERS. Antiviral treatment is generally recommended for 10 to 14 days in patients with MERS-CoV infection. Convalescent plasma

  4. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic

  5. Investigating the response of East Asian ozone to Chinese emission changes using a linear approach

    Yamaji, Kazuyo; Uno, Itsushi; Irie, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    To illuminate the issue of trans-boundary O3 pollution and regional O3 reduction policies in East Asia, we have investigated the East Asian ozone (O3) response to perturbations caused by Chinese anthropogenic emissions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, a regional chemical transport model. The O3 responses have been examined for the range between -100 and +100% changes from the Chinese emissions level in 2004 in 10% intervals. We have found that springtime and summertime O3 responses both at the source and at the downwind areas can be regarded as linear over the range between -30 and +100% changes from the current emissions level. We therefore suggest that the perturbation between -30 and +100% is sufficiently small to avoid nonlinear chemical influence on O3 formation in a model experiment to investigate East Asian scale O3 source-receptor relationships. On the other hand, the O3 response is strongly nonlinear in April at Hong Kong, where the current NMVOCs/NOx ratio is low and the O3 production regime is easily moved to the NMVOCs sensitive region. The O3 responses to the NOx emission changes have been investigated using surface O3 concentrations at remote Japanese sites and tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (NO2 VCD) over central east China both with observations and with model simulations in springtime during 2003-2009. Analysis of satellite data shows that the observed range of NO2 VCD over central east China in 2003-2009 is the range between -25 and +34% from the 2004 level, which corresponds approximately to an emission variation between -21 and +29%. The O3 concentration in the downwind region during 2003-2009 responds linearly to a change of the NO2 VCD over central east China both in the model and in the observation. The corresponding O3 responses derived from surface observations at remote Japanese sites show linear features consistent with this expectation. The doubling of emissions, i.e., approximately 1.9-fold increase in

  6. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  7. Perspective of decommissioning in East European countries

    A regional co-operation was organized in 1986 between East European countries on problems connected with the last stage of the NPP unit life cycle. Closure of a nuclear power plant (NPP) unit is considered as a problem with influence upon the safety of the nuclear energetics. Bulgaria, the USSR and Czechoslovakia have united their efforts establishing the Joint Venture for Decommissioning NPP 'Decom' thus giving a possibility for a safe and effective NPP unit decommissioning. At present a preparatory work is being conducted at the Joint Venture on all aspects of the problem - ecological, social, technical and economic. A certain practical experience has been accumulated. Research performed previously has delivered certain scientific and technical results. (author) 1 tab

  8. Child Care in East Germany: A Visit after the Fall.

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes contrasts in the author's visits to East and West Berlin in 1972 and 1990. Discusses visits to child care centers in East and West Germany in 1990 and concludes with speculation about the future of child care services in a reunited Germany. (DR)

  9. Cultural Translation and East Asia: Film, Literature and Religion

    Taylor-Jones, K.; Yan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction offers a discussion of the aims and objectives of this JOMEC Journal special issue, which is devoted to Cultural Translation and East Asia: Creativity, Film, Literature and Religion. We debate why this topic is timely given the ever increasing visibility of East Asian Cultures in the West and focus on how the act of translation is important in any cultural interaction.

  10. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  11. Corporate Finance Lessons from the East Asian Crisis

    Pomerleano, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This Note examines the corporate roots of the financial crisis in East Asia. It summarizes the findings of a study of corporate financial performance in East Asian economies - Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan (China), and Thailand. To allow a consistent cross-border analysis of financial risk and performance, the study used as benchmarks key fi...

  12. The Political Economy of Distress in East Asian Financial Institutions

    Bongini, Paola; Claessens, Constantijn A.; Ferri, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Politics and regulatory capture can play an important role in financial institutions distress. East Asia's financial crisis featured many distressed and closed financial intermediaries in an environment with many links between government, politicians, supervisors, and financial institutions. This makes the East Asian financial crisis a good event for studying how such connections affect the ...

  13. Crisis and Contagion in East Asia : Nine Lessons

    Kawai, Masahiro; Newfarmer, Richard; Schmukler, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigate the origins of the East Asian crisis and its contagion, examine the channels of contagion, and discuss policy recommendationsThey make detailed recommendations in the context of nine general lessons learned from the East Asian crisis. 1) Preventing crises and contagion: avoid large current account deficits financed through short-term private capital inflows. Aggress...

  14. Middle East Geopolitical Transformation: The Disappearance of a Shatterbelt.

    Cohen, Saul B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the future of the Middle East in the wake of the end of the Cold War. Examines the ongoing political reorientation of the region. Suggests that the United States and Europe can foster a political balance in the Middle East by acting as competitive but allied stabilizers. (SG)

  15. The East European Press and Three-Mile Island.

    Johnson, Owen V.

    This report of the investigation into East European newspaper treatment of the accident at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the spring of 1979 focuses on the Czech and Slovak media, particularly on the Slovak Communist Party's daily newspaper, "Pravda." The response of the media of other East European countries to energy…

  16. The Challenge to the Peace and Security in East Asia

    YangYi; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    Today, there are three major economic communities in the contemporary world: North America, Europe and East Asia, among which the East Asian economic community distinguishes itself as the most dynamic and energetic one. The peace and stability in this region are not only of vital importance to the national security and economic development of both China and Japan,

  17. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  18. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    Stott, J.; Arne, D. [University of Ballarat, VIC (Australia). Minerals Industry Research Institute]|[Posgold Ltd, Tennant Creek, NT (Australia); Waldron, H. [Becquerel Laboratories, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  19. Power Compensation for ICRF Heating in EAST

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Chengming; Mao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Yanping; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Xinjun

    2016-08-01

    The source system covering a working frequency range of 24 MHz to 70 MHz with a total maximum output power of 12 MW has already been fabricated for Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating in EAST from 2012. There are two continuous wave (CW) antennas consisting of four launching elements each fed by a separate 1.5 MW transmitter. Due to the strong mutual coupling among the launching elements, the injection power for launching elements should be imbalance to keep the k‖ (parallel wave number) spectrum of the launcher symmetric for ICRF heating. Cross power induced by the mutual coupling will also induce many significant issues, such as an uncontrollable phase of currents in launching elements, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and impedance mismatching. It is necessary to develop a power compensation system for antennas to keep the power balance between the feed points. The power balance system consists of two significant parts: a decoupler and phase control. The decoupler helps to achieve ports isolation to make the differential phase controllable and compensate partly cross power. After that, the differential phase of 0 or π will keep the power balance of two feed points completely. The first power compensation system consisting of four decouplers was assembled and tested for the port B antenna at the working frequency of 35 MHz. With the application of the power compensation system, the power balance, phase feedback control, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) had obviously been improved in the 2015 EAST campaign. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2015GB101001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11575237, 11375235, 11375236)

  20. DISTRIBUTIONS OF SULFUR POLLUTANTS IN EAST ASIA

    2000-01-01

    A Eulerian sulfur deposition model is used to study the distributions of sulfur pollutants in East Asia, in which important physical and chemical processes such as transport, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, vertical transportation in cumulus cloud, gas phase chemistry, aqueous phase chemistry and heterogeneous aerosol chemistry are included.Two cases, the periods of 1987.07.02 GMT00-1987-07-03 GMT00(case 1) and 1989-04-20 GMT00-1989-04-21GMT00(case 2), are studied and the distributions of SO2 and SO24- in East Asia are shown. It is revealed that the patterns of distributions of SO2 and SO24- are different under different meteorological conditons. In the upper layer, the concentrations of SO2 and SO24- are 0.4 - 1.0 μg/m3 and 0.2 - 0.5 μg/m3, 4.0 - 10.0 μg/m3 and 2.0 - 6.0 μg/m3 in themiddle layer. In the surface layer, the levels of SO2 range from 4.0 to 30.0 μg/m3 and from 2.0 to 8.0 μg/m3 for SO24-Distributions of SOx are controlled by emissions in the surface layer, while in the upper layer it is mainly affected by precipitation. The distributions of SOx show the interaction of emissions, winds and precipitation in the middle layer.

  1. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  2. Characterising East Antarctic Lithosphere and its Rift Systems using Gravity Inversion

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V. Sasha; Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Cenozoic ice sheet formation and stability. References Chappell, A.R. & Kusznir, N.J. 2008. Three-dimensional gravity inversion for Moho depth at rifted continental margins incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. Geophysical Journal International, 174 (1), 1-13. Ferraccioli, F., Finn, C.A., Jordan, T.A., Bell, R.E., Anderson, L.M. & Damaske, D. 2011. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains Nature, 479, 388-392. Golynsky, A.V. & Golynsky, D.A. 2009. Rifts in the tectonic structure of East Antarctica (in Russian). Russian Earth Science Research in Antarctica, 2, 132-162. Vaughan, A.P.M., Kusznir, N.J., Ferraccioli, F. & Jordan, T.A.R.M. 2012. Regional heat-flow prediction for Antarctica using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-8095.

  3. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  4. Progress of beam diagnosis system for EAST neutral beam injector

    Xu, Y. J., E-mail: yjxu@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, C. D.; Yu, L.; Liang, L. Z.; Zhang, W. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, two sets of neutral beam injector (NBI) were built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the development of beam diagnosis system for EAST NBI and the latest experiment results obtained on the test-stand and EAST-NBI-1 and 2. The results show that the optimal divergence angle is (0.62°, 1.57°) and the full energy particle is up to 77%. They indicate that EAST NBI work properly and all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these lay a solid foundation for the achievement of high quality plasma heating for EAST.

  5. Diagenesis and Provenance of Lati Sandstones in the Berau Area, East Kalimantan Province, based on Petrography Data

    Sigit Maryanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i3.143This study is focused on the provenance and diagenetic processes affecting the sandstones of Lati Formation cropping out at Berau Area, East Kalimantan Province. Petrographic analysis of twenty-two samples from this formation shows that these sandstones are classified as litharenite, feldspathic litharenite, sublitharenite, feldspathic wacke, and lithic wacke, which are partially calcareous. Preserved diagenetic processes were visible on the petrographic analysis including cementation, replacement, dolomitization, compaction, and dissolution. The provenance of these sandstones is dominated by granitic rocks initiated from tectonic setting of rifted continental margin, transported toward southeast.

  6. 美國研究圖書館資訊網東亞語文圖書資訊系統之發展 The Development of RLIN's Automated System in East Asian Languages Material

    Hon-chu Huang

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available 無The major problem of data processing for library material in East Asian languages are the design of character set, hardware for inputting, storing, processing, transmitting etc. and MARC Format. RLIN is the first institution to implement online network cataloging system in East Asian Languages. In this paper RLIN's achievement and effort on this area are described and what can we learn from it to develop the Chinese library automation system in the R. O. C. are suggested.

  7. Effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon based on the CAM5.1 model

    Ma, Hongyun; Jiang, Zhihong; Song, Jie; Dai, Aiguo; Yang, Xiuqun; Huo, Fei

    2016-05-01

    The effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are investigated using a Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1. The results show that the urban land-use change in East China causes spatially-varying changes in surface net radiation and heat fluxes, atmospheric circulation, and water budgets. It results in significant surface warming (cooling) and precipitation decrease (increase) in a large region north (south) of 30°N. Urban expansion agglomerated in (29°-41°N, 110°-122°E) alters the surface energy budget and warms the surface, resulting in strengthened southwesterly airflow south of 25°N and increased convergence below the mid-troposphere between 20° and 30°N. A concomitant northward downdraft associated with the increased convection generates an anomalous high pressure north of 30°N. Meanwhile, the downdraft not only produces adiabatic warming but also inhibits the dynamic condition for precipitation formation. The anomalous high pressure formed in North China prevents the southwesterly airflow from advancing northward, leading to increase the convergence and precipitation in South China. These changes reduce the meridional temperature gradient in the mid-lower troposphere and weaken the westerly airflow near 30°N. In addition, horizontal transport of vorticity north of 35°N weakens significantly, which leads to an anomalous barotropic structure of anticyclonic there. As a result, the anomalous anticyclonic circulation and descent north of 30°N are strengthened. At the same time, the anomalous cyclonic circulation and ascent south of 30°N are enhanced. These process induced by the thermal state changes due to urbanization weakens the EASM.

  8. Proceedings of the French Senate conference 'Going Nuclear in the Middle East - In search of an European Middle East policy'

    The Middle East today is quite clearly one of the global hotspots of the world. It is also a big challenge for the international community. The interests are due to geography, history, economics and also to the fact that what takes place in the Middle East is important for the security of rest of the world. These two days of conference organised by the French Senate took stock of the Middle East question through 6 round tables dealing with: 1 - General overview Nuclear Islam in the Middle East; 2 - How likely is a successful dialogue with Iran? 3 - What Future for the Palestinian People? 4 - 2010, A Renaissance for Iraq? 5 - The Latest on Al Qaeda? 6 - In search of a European Union Policy for the Middle East. This document gathers the talks of the different experts and the questions and answers from the participants. (J.S.)

  9. U—Pb Dating of Marble Assoicated With Eclogite from the Dabie Mountains,East China

    郑永飞; 傅斌; 等

    1997-01-01

    Marble is associated with ultrahigh pressure eclogite in the Dabie Mountains.East China.U-Pb isotope data for the marble define a 238U-206Pb isochron age of 435±45a with an initial 206Pb/204Pb value of 18.075±0.006,The age of -435 Ma is interpreted to represent the time of limestone diagensis rather than the time of metarmorphic resetting accompanied by the formation of the ultrahigh pressure eclogites at Triassic.The paleontologic and stratigraphic studies also favor a local excursion in the carbon isotopic composition of the latest ordovician water within a sedimentary basin between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratos.Becasuse the latest ordovician limestone was involved in the eclogite formation,the continental collision between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean Plates would postdate ordovican.

  10. Potassium alum and aluminum sulfate micro-inclusions in polar ice from Dome Fuji, East Antarctica

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Hondoh, Takeo; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Water-soluble trace constituents affect the physicochemical properties of polar ice. Their structural distribution provides important insights into the formation history of ice and inclusions. We report the first finding of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O (potassium alum) and Al2(SO4)3·nH2O (aluminum sulfate) micro-inclusions in the Dome Fuji ice core, East Antartica, using a micro-Raman technique. Eutectic temperatures of these water-soluble species determined using thermal analysis were -0.4 °C for potassium alum and -8.0 °C for aluminum sulfate. Although the formation process of the aluminum-bearing sulfates remains unclear, the occurrence of these salts largely depends on ice depth.

  11. Last interglacial East Mediterranean sapropels: Testing the freshwater hypothesis using coastal proxy records

    Mauz, Barbara; Elmejdoub, Noureddine; Rogerson, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Current understanding of sapropel formation in the Eastern Mediterranean suggests a combination of anoxia and enhanced primary productivity. Enhanced anoxia is thought to have resulted from freshwater input into the Eastern Mediterranean most likely originating from the Nile and from wadis draining Saharan lakes. We investigated Mediterranean sediment sequences on the coasts of North Africa and Levant using conventional sedimentological and optical dating techniques in order to understand the coastal response to external forcing when sapropels S5, S4 and S3 formed at ~125 ka, ~105 ka and ~83 ka in various East Mediterranean sub-basins. The sediment sequences show sharp switches between siliciclastic and carbonate dominated nearshore environment where carbonate-rich sediments are composed of oolitic grainstones. The oolitic sediments represent a period of elevated annual sea-surface temperature and lack of fluvial discharge at ~113 ka on the Levant coast, at ~110 ka on the coast west of the Nile delta (El Asmar and Wood 2000) and at ~80 ka on the north Saharan coast. Both the timing and duration of the arid period are different on each coast owing to the interplay between local processes and external forcing. For the Levantine Sea these differences confirm the dominant role of the Nile discharge in generating conditions for sapropels to form. For the central east Mediterranean the differences indicate dominant external forcing after ~110 ka, exerted by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, because arid shorelines existed contemporaneously with the formation of S4 andS3. While it is hard to find the unequivocal evidence, we feel our data rule out a Saharan lakes source of freshwater for the central East Mediterranean Sea after ~110 ka and thereby implicitly, a spatial and temporal varying freshwater input.

  12. Diagnosing recent CO emissions and springtime O3 evolution in East Asia using coordinated ground-based observations of O3 and CO during the East Asian Regional Experiment (EAREX 2005 campaign

    H. Mukai

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous ground-based measurements of ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO were conducted in March 2005 as part of the East Asian Regional Experiment (EAREX 2005 under the umbrella of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC project. Multiple air quality monitoring networks were integrated by performing intercomparison of individual calibration standards and measurement techniques to ensure comparability of ambient measurements, along with providing consistently high time-resolution measurements of O3 and CO at the surface sites in East Asia. Ambient data collected from eight surface stations were compared with simulation results obtained by a regional chemical transport model to infer recent changes in CO emissions from East Asia. Our inverse estimates of the CO emissions from China up to 2005 suggested an increase of 16% since 2001, in good agreement with the recent MOPITT satellite observations and the bottom-up estimates up to 2006. The O3 enhancement relative to CO in continental pollution plumes traversed in the boundary layer were examined as a function of transport time from the Asian continent to the western Pacific Ocean. Comparison of the observed δO3/Δ CO ratios and their modeled spatial distributions suggests an increase in the Δ O3/Δ CO ratio due likely to en-route photochemical O3 formation during eastward transport, confirming that East Asia is an important O3 source region during spring.

  13. Experiments on the formation of volcanic cones (In connection with East Indian volcanic islands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1933-01-01

    Several investigators have tackled the problem of the main causes that produce the slopes of volcanic cones, especially with a view to explaining the characteristic concave profiles of strato-volcanoes *). A satisfactory result has not been arrived at, however. This became evident to the present aut

  14. Petrographic characteristics of coal from the Lati Formation, Tarakan basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Singh, Prakash K.; Singh, M.P. [Coal and Organic Petrology Lab, Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, UP (India); Singh, Alok K. [R and D, Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur-831001 (India); Arora, Mukesh [Terra World Group, Habsiguda, Hyderabad-500007 (India)

    2010-02-01

    The present paper entails the petrographic characterization on limited coal samples drawn from the Tarakan basin, Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia. These coals contain a high concentration of huminite which, in turn, is dominated by telohuminite. As a result of telohuminite content they have high GI and TPI values. They contain, low concentrations of liptinite and inertinite macerals. The dominant microlithotype is vitrite. Based on the macerals and microlithotypes of these coals, their paleodepositional environment has been reconstructed. Accordingly it is deciphered that these coals have originated under telmatic condition. There was predominance of wood derived tissues and increased subsidence rate prevailed in the basin. Moreover, during the time of their evolution, there were alternate phases of oxic and anoxic moor conditions with intermittent moderate to high flooding in the basin. (author)

  15. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  16. The Possible Influence of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on East Asian Weather

    DENG Shumei; CHEN Yuejuan; LUO Tao; BI Yun; ZHOU Houfu

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the linkage of the Northern Annular Mode(NAM)anomaly to the East Asian jet and the East Asian trough during Stratospheric Sudden Warming(ssw),the influence of SSW on East Asian weather is studied.The results show that the East Asian jet is strengthened and the East Asian trough is deepened during SSW.With the downward propagation of SSW,the strengthened East Asian jet and the East Asian trough would move southward,expand westward and gradually influence the area of north and northeastern China.This implies that the winter monsoon tends to be enhanced over East Asia during SSW.

  17. Historical evidence of the 1936 Mojokerto skull discovery, East Java.

    Huffman, O Frank; Shipman, Pat; Hertler, Christine; de Vos, John; Aziz, Fachroel

    2005-04-01

    To resolve ambiguities in the literature, we detail the discovery history of the Mojokerto child's skull (Perning 1), employing letters, maps, photographs, reports, and newspaper accounts not previously used for this purpose. Andoyo, an experienced vertebrate-fossil collector with the Geological Survey of the Netherlands Indies, found the skull on February 13, 1936, while collecting for Johan Duyfjes, who had mapped the field area geologically. On February 18-19 Andoyo sent the fossil and a 1:25,000-topographic map showing the discovery point to Survey headquarters. The locality lies between Perning and Sumbertengu villages, approximately 10km northeast of Mojokerto city, East Java. G.H. Ralph von Koenigswald, Survey paleontologist, identified the specimen as Pithecanthropus and then named it Homo modjokertensis (it is now accepted as Homo erectus). Unfortunately he confused the discovery record in a March 28 newspaper article by characterizing the skull as a "surface find" [Dutch: oppervlaktevondst] while also attributing it to ancient beds. von Koenigswald probably had insufficient basis for either assertion, having not yet talked to Andoyo or Duyfjes. Eugene Dubois challenged von Koenigswald on the "surface-find" issue, Andoyo was consulted, and Duyfjes went to the site. Duyfjes and von Koenigswald then published scientific papers stating that the skull was unearthed 1m deep from a hill-slope outcrop of conglomeratic sandstone in Duyfjes' Pucangan formation. A cross section by Andoyo, which may show the Mojokerto site, also indicates a skull at 1m depth in conglomeratic sandstone. Photographs taken in 1936-1938 show a shallow pit at a single field location that fits Duyfjes' site description and is identified as the Mojokerto-skull site in 1940-1943 publications. By WWII the scientific community accepted the skull as an early hominid. Although von Koenigswald's "surface-find" comment remains a source of doubt in the record, we consider in situ discovery for the

  18. Globalization, Ideology, and Narratives of the East Asian Financial Crisis

    Lee, Ezra Yoo-Hyeok

    2005-01-01

    In his paper, "Globalization, Ideology, and Narratives of the East Asian Financial Crisis," Ezra Yoo-Hyeok Lee analyzes the narratives of the East Asian financial "crisis" in 1997-98, arguing that it took place in the course of restructuring the world economy so that the first world would keep its hegemonic power. The East Asian financial crisis spread rapidly to the rest of the globe and in this urgent situation, the IMF: International Monetary Fund played its now typical role as a "savior o...

  19. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  20. Anthropogenic carbon in the East Greenland Current

    Jutterström, Sara; Jeansson, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Sections of dissolved inorganic anthropogenic carbon ( CTanthro) based on 2002 data in the East Greenland Current (EGC) are presented. The CTanthro has been estimated using a model based on optimum multiparameter analysis with predefined source water types. Values of CTanthro have been assigned to the source water types through age estimations based on the transit time distribution (TTD) technique. The validity of this approach is discussed and compared to other methods. The results indicated that the EGC had rather high levels of CTanthro in the whole water column, and the anthropogenic signal of the different source areas were detected along the southward transit. We estimated an annual transport of CTanthro with the Denmark Strait overflow ( σθ > 27.8 kg m -3) of ∼0.036 ± 0.005 Gt C y -1. The mean CTanthro concentration in this density range was ∼30 μmol kg -1. The main contribution was from Atlantic derived waters, the Polar Intermediate Water and the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water.

  1. The rabies situation in the Middle East.

    Seimenis, A

    2008-01-01

    Rabies is a public health problem of significant importance in the majority of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. In some of these countries, there is a considerable death rate due to rabies. Dogs are the main source of human infection, while cats constitute the second most important group of domestic animals followed by cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and then wild animals. There are around 300 reported human cases in these regions annually, with several hundred thousand post-exposure treatments. Laboratory confirmation of rabies cases is not always performed. In most countries, there is one central rabies diagnosis laboratory with trained staff and the diagnosis capability of district laboratories is weak. Animal rabies control consists of the vaccination of dogs and cats, the elimination of stray animals, health education for the public, etc. Mass vaccination of dogs is not implemented, and the effective coverage rate is not exactly known. The elimination of stray dogs and other animals by shooting and poisoning is still implemented in certain countries, however, this has a minimal effect on rabies transmission. Certain countries of the Middle East region are facing increasing problems due to wildlife rabies, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Israel, Iran and Turkey. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) are usually involved. Coordinated actions to confront the serious rabies public health and economic problems should be undertaken by affected countries, with the assistance of international organisations, under conditions that are suitable for each country. PMID:18634465

  2. Orthopedic Injuries Following the East Azerbaijan Earthquake

    Mohammad Ali Mohseni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluating demographic characteristics, distribution and types of orthopedic injuries following major earthquakes may be helpful in future planning for disasters.Objectives: This study aimed to analyze data from trauma patients with extremity injury resulting from the earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, Iran.Patients and Methods: Medical records of 686 patients admitted to Shohada hospital, Trauma Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. There were 200 patients with extremity injury assessed. Demographic characteristics and patterns of injuries in these patients were evaluated.Results: In this study, there were 105 females (52.5% and 95 males (47.5%, out of which, 6 (3% patients with associated severe head injuries died. The most common sites of injury were lower extremities (81 patients, 41.5% of total victims while 32 patients (16% suffered from both upper and lower extremity injuries. Open Fractures were seen in lower extremities of 26 (13% patients. Compartment syndrome was observed in 3 (1.5% patients with lower limb fractures. Also, 42 (21% patients living in Tabriz were injured while they were running away (falling down the stairs and jumping out of windows.Conclusions: Extremity injuries especially open fractures of lower limbs account for the majority of hospitalized victims. Compartment syndrome is one of the main problems that should be addressed. Our study demonstrates that people still need more education regarding earthquakes and the government should direct more attention to this issue.

  3. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; K Yumuto

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the morphology of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) along 45°W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, Sao Luiz (inclination −0.25°S). was largest positive at Eusebio (inclination 9.34°S) and largest negative at Belem (inclination 7.06°N); both near the fringe of EEJ belt. at Sao Luiz during the daytime was unexpectedly large negative in-spite of a small dip and also located south of the dip equator where should be positive. Center of EEJ was found to be shifted southward of the dip equator by about 1° in latitude. During southern summer, started decreasing from 00 h and reached a minimum value in the afternoon, an abnormal feature not discussed for any station so far. The mid-day value of the direction of vector was 22°-24°W compared to the declination of 19°–21°W in the region.

  4. Developing the east coast gas industry

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. COMPARATIVE POETICS: FROM WEST TO EAST

    Стеван Б. Брадић

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative poetics was formed as a concept in the mid-twentieth century, in the context of the French comparative literature theory, and has since gone through the process of numerous transformations and appropriations. While the French theorists understood it mainly as a way to overcome the semiotic borders in an attempt to relate literature to other forms of artistic expression, this essay focuses mainly on the anglicist-orientalist approach that has developed mainly within the framework of postcolonial studies. The essay offers an overview of central topics of this approach, such as constitution of literature as an autonomous discourse, the presence or absence of particular genres in different national literatures, the problems of imitation and expression, and the problem of fictionality of literature in East and West. It also deals with the methodological frame for comparing poetics, highlighting the usual misreadings of Western theorists, based on the projections of their own cultural categories on the rest of the world. Comparative poetics is therefore understood as a critique of cultural imperialism and an attempt at opening space for an authentic intercultural dialogue, with the full understanding of difficulties of such an endeavor.

  6. East Brentwood Gas Field: a paleotopographic trap

    Boyd, R.W.

    1982-05-01

    The E. Brentwood Gas Field is located ca. 45 miles east of San Francisco, California. The discovery well was drilled in 1978 by Depco, Inc. and completed in the Upper Cretaceous third massive sand at a depth of 8050 ft. The third massive sand is a progradational sequence of sands with thin shale interbeds, interpreted to have been deposited in a near-shore, open-sea environment. The reservoir sand is truncated dramatically by the Meganos Gorge, a shale-filled fossil channel of Paleocene age. Faunal assemblages indicate that the cutting and filling of the gorge were submarine rather than subaerial. The E. Brentwood Gas Field is controlled primarily by the truncation of the basal part of the third massive sand by the Meganos Gorge shale fill with lateral closure afforded by several normal faults which divide the field into at least 4 separate producing blocks. Nine wells presently are completed in the gas field in which the better wells have over 250 ft of net gas sand. The field has produced 19 billion cu ft of 1080 Btu gas and 50,000 bbl of 46 API gravity condensate since discovery.

  7. Recent plasma control progress on EAST

    Xiao, B.J., E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yuan, Q.P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Leuer, J.A.; Jackson, G.L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Penaflor, B.G.; Pigrowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Welander, A.S. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Zhang, R.R.; Luo, Z.P.; Guo, Y.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2012-12-15

    In recent 2 years, various algorithms to control plasma shape, current and density have been implemented or improved for EAST tokamak. These plasma control performances have been verified by either simulated or actual experimental operation, and thus plasma control basis has been established for the long pulse operation and high performance H-mode plasma operation with low hybrid wave (LHW) and ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating. Startup simulation has been done by using TOKSYS code for the plasma breakdown in either 3.1 Wb or 4.5 Wb initial poloidal flux state and the scenarios proved to be robust and used for routine operation. Various shape configurations have been well feedback controlled by using ISOFLUX limited, double-null or single null algorithms based on RTEFIT equilibrium reconstruction. For the long pulse operation, strike point control and magnetics drift compensation have been implemented in the plasma control system (PCS). To improve the operation safety and efficiency, the verification of magnetic diagnostics before plasma breakdown has been demonstrated adequate to prevent a discharge in case of key sensor failure.

  8. Carpology of some East Asian Cardueae (Asteraceae

    Zarembo, E. V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the morphological, anatomical structure of achenes in the East Asian species of Rhaponticum, Klasea Serratula and Synurus. The structure of pericarp epidermal cells, mesocarp, has been described, as well as the structure of testa epidermal cells. The specific characters of the genera, as well as the identification characters of the species, are described.El presente artículo se refiere a las características morfológicas, la estructura anatómica de los aquenios en las especies de Rhaponticum, Klasea Serratula y Synurus en Asia oriental. Se han descrito la estructura de células epidérmicas del pericarpio, y el mesocarpio, así como la de la testa de las células epidérmicas. También quedan descritos los caracteres específicos de los géneros, así como los caracteres de identificación de las especies.

  9. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    O' Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  10. Al Este del Cerro Pampa: ampliación del área de disponibilidad de obsidiana de la Pampa del Asador (Provincia de Santa Cruz East of the Cerro Pampa: enlargement of the obsidian availability area from Pampa del Asador (Santa Cruz Province

    Juan Bautista Belardi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La Pampa del Asador ha sido identificada como el lugar de proveniencia de distintos tipos de obsidiana, mayoritariamente negra, y el Cerro Pampa, ubicado en el extremo suroeste de la pampa, ha sido un punto central a partir del cual se ha medido la dispersión de los artefactos confeccionados en esta materia prima. Sobre la base de la interpretación de imágenes satelitales, análisis químicos y trabajos de campo se presenta y discute la evidencia provista por nódulos y artefactos de obsidiana recuperados en paleocauces y un abanico aluvial que se origina en la Pampa del Asador. Los resultados muestran la ampliación del área de disponibilidad de obsidiana 65 km hacia el este y 75 km al noreste del Cerro Pampa y, aunque presentando menor frecuencia relativa de nódulos y el decrecimiento de sus tamaños, el área se amplía a lo largo de la Pampa La Chispa. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones tanto en términos de la distribución de frecuencias de artefactos de obsidiana en el registro arqueológico regional como en los costos de aprovisionamiento de la roca.Pampa del Asador has been identified as the source of distinct types of obsidian (generally black, and Cerro Pampa, located in the extreme southwest of the Pampas, has been the central point from which the dispersal of artifacts fashioned from this obsidian has been measured. Based on the interpretation of satellite images, geochemical analysis, and field work, we present and discuss evidence provided by nodules and artifacts of obsidian recovered from paleo-drainage channels and an alluvial fan which originates in Pampa del Asador. The results expand the area of availability of obsidian 65 km east and 75 km northeast of Cerro Pampa, and also across Pampa La Chispa, although the relative frequency of nodules decreases and smaller size increases. These results have implications both in terms of the distribution and frequency of obsidian artifacts in the regional archaeological record

  11. Convergence of Real Per Capita GDP within East Asian and Middle East Countries: Panel Unit Root Evidence

    Abbas Aminifard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines convergence of real GDP per capita in the selected East Asian countries and this relationship with selected Middle East countries during the period 1950-2009. The reason behind this refers to the fact that East Asia countries (including China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and South Korea have been involved in achieving success arising from regional cooperation. On the other hand, the Middle East region has been well-known in producing and exporting oil (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. However, these countries have had strong relationship whit East Asian countries through trade and investment relations. Overall, the question is whether such strong relationship has led to a reduction in the real per capita gap between the selected countries of the both regions. To find the answer, income departures across countries are evaluated from several panel data unit root tests. We and no evidence supporting the existence of convergence process for the income in the East Asian and Middle East countries. But in each region, convergence within countries can not reject.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Mustafa Kemal elen; Mehmet Sinan Dal; Sevgi Kalkanl; Murat Sayan; Tuba Dal; Celal Ayaz; Alicem Tekin; Tuncer zekinci; Suda Tekin Koruk; Tunga Barcin; Recep Tekin

    2015-01-01

    To detect the subtype characterization and drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains after the refugee movement from Syria to Turkey between 2011 and 2014 in south east border lines. Methods: A total of 65 patients were included in this study, of which 57 (88%) patients were antiretroviral therapy-naive patients. HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantified by real-time PCR assay. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed. Results: Three major HIV groups were indicated. Two of these groups were located in subtype B. The other group showed heterogeneity. Subtype B (48/65, 73.8%), followed by CRFs (12/65, 18.5%) was the most common strain. Subtype of CRFs consisted of CRF01_AE (9/65, 13.8%) and CRF02_AG (3/65, 4.6%). Subtype C (1/65, 1.5%), sub-subtypes A1 (2/65, 3.1%) and F1 (2/65, 3.1%) were also detected with low prevalence. The rate of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 4.9% (3/61). Drug-resistant rate for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4.9%. The thymidine analogue mutation rate was 13.1% (8/61). Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Mustafa; Kemal; ?elen; Murat; Sayan; Tuba; Dal; Celal; Ayaz; Alicem; Tekin; Tuncer; ?zekinci; Suda; Tekin; Koruk; Tunga; Barcin; Recep; Tekin; Mehmet; Sinan; Dal; Sevgi; Kalkanl?

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect the subtype characterization and drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains after the refugee movement from Syria to Turkey between 2011 and 2014 in south east border lines. Methods: A total of 65 patients were included in this study, of which 57(88%) patients were antiretroviral therapy-naive patients. HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantii ed by realtime PCR assay. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms(CRFs) were identii ed by phylogenetic analysis(neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed.Results: Three major HIV groups were indicated. Two of these groups were located in subtype B. The other group showed heterogeneity. Subtype B(48/65, 73.8%), followed by CRFs(12/65, 18.5%) was the most common strain. Subtype of CRFs consisted of CRF01_AE(9/65, 13.8%) and CRF02_AG(3/65, 4.6%). Subtype C(1/65, 1.5%), sub-subtypes A1(2/65, 3.1%) and F1(2/65, 3.1%) were also detected with low prevalence. The rate of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 4.9%(3/61). Drug-resistant rate for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4.9%. The thymidine analogue mutation rate was 13.1%(8/61).Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  14. Modeling of EAST ICRF antenna performance using the full-wave code TORIC

    Edlund, E. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Access to advanced operating regimes in the EAST tokamak will require a combination of electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron range frequency heating (ICRF), with the addition of lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) for current profile control. Prior experiments at the EAST tokamak facility have shown relatively weak response of the plasma temperature to application of ICRF heating, with typical coupled power about 2 MW out of 12 MW source. The launched spectrum, at nφ = 34 for 0-π -0-π phasing and 27 MHz, is largely inaccessible at line-averaged densities of approximately 2 × 1019 m-3. However, with variable antenna phasing and frequency, this system has considerable latitude to explore different heating schemes. To develop an ICRF actuator control model, we have used the full-wave code TORIC to explore the physics of ICRF wave propagation in EAST. The results presented from this study use a spectrum analysis using a superposition of nφ spanning -50 to +50. The low density regime typical of EAST plasmas results in a perpendicular wavelength comparable to the minor radius which results in global cavity resonance effects and eigenmode formation when the single-pass absorption is low. This behavior indicates that improved performance can be attained by lowering the peak of the k|| spectrum by using π/3 phasing of the 4-strap antenna. Based on prior studies conducted at Alcator C-Mod, this phasing is also expected to have the advantage of nearly divergence-free box currents, which should result in reduced levels of impurity production. Significant enhancements of the loading resistance may be achieved by using low k|| phasing and a combination of magnetic field and frequency to vary the location of the resonance and mode conversion regions. TORIC calculations indicate that the significant power may be channeled to the electrons and deuterium majority. We expect that implementation of these recommendations in EAST

  15. Modeling of EAST ICRF antenna performance using the full-wave code TORIC

    Edlund, E. M., E-mail: eedlund@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Wukitch, S. J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Access to advanced operating regimes in the EAST tokamak will require a combination of electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron range frequency heating (ICRF), with the addition of lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) for current profile control. Prior experiments at the EAST tokamak facility have shown relatively weak response of the plasma temperature to application of ICRF heating, with typical coupled power about 2 MW out of 12 MW source. The launched spectrum, at n{sub φ} = 34 for 0-π -0-π phasing and 27 MHz, is largely inaccessible at line-averaged densities of approximately 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. However, with variable antenna phasing and frequency, this system has considerable latitude to explore different heating schemes. To develop an ICRF actuator control model, we have used the full-wave code TORIC to explore the physics of ICRF wave propagation in EAST. The results presented from this study use a spectrum analysis using a superposition of n{sub φ} spanning −50 to +50. The low density regime typical of EAST plasmas results in a perpendicular wavelength comparable to the minor radius which results in global cavity resonance effects and eigenmode formation when the single-pass absorption is low. This behavior indicates that improved performance can be attained by lowering the peak of the k{sub ||} spectrum by using π/3 phasing of the 4-strap antenna. Based on prior studies conducted at Alcator C-Mod, this phasing is also expected to have the advantage of nearly divergence-free box currents, which should result in reduced levels of impurity production. Significant enhancements of the loading resistance may be achieved by using low k{sub ||} phasing and a combination of magnetic field and frequency to vary the location of the resonance and mode conversion regions. TORIC calculations indicate that the significant power may be channeled to the electrons and deuterium majority. We expect that

  16. Heterotrophic bacteria in soils of Larsemann Oasis of East Antarctica

    Churilin, Nikita; Soina, Vera

    2015-04-01

    The study of diversity and functional state of microorganisms in subsurface rocks layers, their participation in the biochemical weathering and formation of organic horizons of soils is important for understanding ecology and microorganisms in Antarctic soils. The study of cultured forms of microorganisms and their potential viability is still relevant to characterize the physiological state, biological activity and resilience of microorganisms involved in the initial soil formation. Improvement of isolation techniques of viable bacteria from the extreme habitats has a particular importance for rising the efficiency of environmental monitoring. The aim of the study was to investigate the viable heterotrophic bacteria involved in the formation of soils from wet valleys Larsemann Oasis, which is one of the warmest ice-free space of East Antarctica. Soil samples were taken from the intermountain humid valleys, where silt-gravelly substrates formed moss, algae, lichen cover. We used nutrient solutions (trypticase soy, R2A and glucose-peptone) to isolate cultured bacteria and study their morphological types in the light microscope. The total number of microorganisms was determined by fluorescent microscopy with acridine orange. SEM was used for morphological studies of bacterial communities in situ. To activate the growth processes we added into nutrient solutions various regulatory metabolites that have dose-dependence and operate at the community level. Physiological and functional conditions were determined by the duration of the lag phase and specific growth rate of bacterial communities in nutrient solutions containing various organic substrates. Soils form under protection of «stone pavement» and organisms leave the surface, so the forming organo-mineral horizon occurs inside of rock, thus the microprofile can form on both sides of the organic horizons. UV radiation, lack of moisture and strong wind are main limiting factors for microorganisms' growth in

  17. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 2. Numerical solutions

    McCreary, J.P.; Han, W.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    A linear, continuously stratified model is used to investigate the dynamics of the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Solutions are found numerically in a basin that resembles the Indian Ocean basin north of 29 degrees S, and they are forced...

  18. Construction of West-East Pipeline's Gansu Segment Kicked Off

    2003-01-01

    @@ Commencement of full construction of the segment of the West-East gas transmission pipeline in Gansu Province was announced at an inception ceremony held in Jiayuguan City,Gansu Province on 28 March 2003.

  19. Census Tracts & Block Groups, 2004, East Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of 107 semi-permanent census tracts and the census blocks within the Parish of East Baton...

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  1. Stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters

    The investigation of stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters was conducted by scientists from the Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, as part of the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) project and in close collaboration with the scientists from Large Lakes Observatory of the University of Minnesota and the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the IAEA in Vienna. The Research Contract was part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations, and was sponsored by the Agency. Water and grab sediment samples were obtained from East African Lakes during the month of January and February 1994 and July/August 1995. Water samples were analysed for oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition at the IAEA Laboratories in Vienna, Austria. In this final paper we report the results of the study of oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition from the East African lake waters. (author)

  2. Hydraulic Analysis for East Ojai, Ventura County, CA

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — East Ojai area experiences riverine flooding as well as alluvial fan flooding. A set of FEMA approved models including HES-RAS, FLO-2D, and FAN, are used to...

  3. Planning Districts, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the 16 Planning Districts of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. The...

  4. Unraveling the Mysteries of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    2014-03-11

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC coronavirus epidemiologist, discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.  Created: 3/11/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/11/2014.

  5. Religious Diversity in the Middle East before Christianity

    王浩宇

    2012-01-01

      The Middle East is so religiously diverse that the three major religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, are intercon⁃nected and each originated within the Middle East. Islam in its many forms is by far the most heavily represented religion in the region though many branches and sects diversify and segment it. In addition to the widely acknowledged religions, smaller, mi⁃nority religions such as Bahá’í, Druze, Yazidi, Mandean, Gnosticism, Yarsanism, Shabakism, Zoroastrianism are also prevalent throughout the Middle East. This article begins with Mideast civilization and attempts at outlining a religious map of the region. Finally, the study concludes that Hellenistic culture, Jewish religion system and Roman polity all had found their way into spread⁃ing the influence of Christianity before Christianity, the missionary religion established itself in the Middle East.

  6. Geologic Provinces of the Far East, 2000 (prv3al)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Far East (China, Mongolia, North and...

  7. Generalized Geology of the Far East (geo3al)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Far East (China,...

  8. International Cooperation on Radioactive Source Security in South East Asia

    The paper describes international technical cooperation and assistance in South East Asia on the establishment, implementation, maintenance and sustainability of radioactive source security measures for the prevention of unauthorized acquisition of, or access to, high activity radioactive sources. (author)

  9. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported

  10. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  11. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  12. Metro Council Districts, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the twelve (12) Metropolitan Council Districts within the Parish of East Baton Rouge. The...

  13. City Limits, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the incorporated city limits of Baton Rouge, Baker, and Zachary within East Baton Rouge...

  14. The high education of optical engineering in East China

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Xiangdong; Wang, Xiaoping; Bai, Jian; Liu, Yuling

    2014-07-01

    The history and the development of the high education in the field of optical engineering in the area of East China will be presented in the paper. The overall situation of research and human resource training in optics and photonics will also be reviewed, it shows that China needs lots of talents and experts in this field to support the world optical industry in East China.

  15. Assessing financial integration: a comparison between Europe and East Asia

    Rossella Calvi

    2010-01-01

    Summary for non-specialistsTwo parallel analyses are carried out in order to assess the degree of integration of financial markets within Europe, within East Asia, between these two regions, and with the external financial community. The investigation is based on cointegration and Granger causality techniques, to detect the presence of short-run and long-run cross-country relationships in equity and bond markets.The empirical analysis performed for seven European and eleven East Asian financi...

  16. Timing of First Births in East Germany after Reunification

    Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2001-01-01

    When German reunification was accompanied by a rapid decline in aggregate fertility rates, researchers particularly assigned high unemployment rates a dominant role for changes in fertility behavior. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we investigate changes in the timing of first birth in East Germany after reunification. Using data from the GSOEP, we show that even after reunification East Germans are younger at first birth than their West German counterparts. Second, we investigate th...

  17. East Germany: Transition With Unification - Experiments and Experiences

    Strauch, Rolf; von Hagen, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    East Germany remains unique among the transition economies. Soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, it became part of the Federal Republic of Germany. German Union meant the transplantation of West Germany's legal, administrative and economic infrastructure to the five new Länder. The paper traces the economic changes since 1989 and assesses the convergence between West and East Germany during the last decade. We reach three main conclusions: First, there has been significant converge...

  18. Wage convergence and inequality after unification : (East) Germany in transition

    Gernandt, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the wage convergence between East German workers and their West German counterparts after reunification. Our research is based on a comparison of three groups of workers defined as stayers, migrants and commuters to West Germany, who lived in East Germany in 1989, with groups of West German statistical twin workers, all taken from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). According to our findings, wage convergence for stayers is roughly 75 percent and for commuters 85 percent....

  19. Environmental monitoring in the Middle East. Special evaluation review

    After the Chernobyl accident some Middles East countries approached the IAEA with their concerns about contamination. Therefore, a regional project (RER/9/003, Environmental Monitoring in the Middle East) was established in 1987. The present document is a progress report of this project. It discusses project design, project management, its implementation and achievements. Certain conclusions and recommendations are given based on the evaluation of the findings

  20. Turkey and the Middle East: threats and opportunities

    Yilmaz, Hasan

    2001-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the Second Gulf War affected the Middle East prodoundly. The role of regional countries changed when the end of the superpower competition transformed frozen animosities into new conflict areas. In this context, Turkey extremely involved in regional politics. During the 1989-2000 period Turkey's policy toward the Middle East in general centered on security issues while Turkey encouraged regional cooperation simultaneously. PKK terrorism and the prospect of a Kurdis...

  1. Participation Behaviour of East German Women After German Unification

    Bonin, Holger; Euwals, Rob

    2002-01-01

    The Paper studies the determinants of labour force participation by East German women after unification. To isolate the role of preferences on labour force participation from individual characteristics, we develop a panel data model that simultaneously explains participation, employment and wages. The model, estimated for East and West Germany on the basis of the German Socio-Economic Panel, indicates that distinct preferences could explain the regional difference in participation rates at un...

  2. Design of geometric phase measurement in EAST Tokamak

    Lan, T; Liu, J; Jie, Y X; Wang, Y L; Gao, X; Qin, H

    2016-01-01

    The optimum scheme for geometric phase measurement in EAST Tokamak is proposed in this paper. The theoretical values of geometric phase for the probe beams of EAST Polarimeter-Interferometer (POINT) system are calculated by path integration in parameter space. Meanwhile, the influences of some controllable parameters on geometric phase are evaluated. The feasibility and challenge of distinguishing geometric effect in the POINT signal are also assessed in detail.

  3. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature...

  4. Does Water Hyacinth on East African Lakes Promote Cholera Outbreaks?

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Tabu, Collins W.; Gichuki, John

    2010-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations from East Timor (Timor Leste)

    Souto, L.; Rocha, A. M.; Pires, A; E. Ferreira; Kayser, M; A. Amorim; Côrte-Real, F.; Vieira, D N

    2006-01-01

    In this study we continue the genetic characterization of human populations from East Timor, as previously started for autosomal STRs and Y STRs, with a preliminary report on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. Individual samples (n = 133) collected from all the districts of East Timor and representing different linguistic groups were studied for the hypervariable region 1 (HVS1) sequence and the 9-bp deletion (intergenic region COII-tRNA lys).

  6. Economic Indicator Maps for Rural Development in the East

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1996-01-01

    Legislation and social policy require the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service to help diversify the economies and improve the well-being of rural America. This document provides county-level information on 12 economic indicators, including economic diversity and recreation dependency, from both national and regional perspectives for States in the East, including all States east of Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota.

  7. Industrial Policy and the East German Productivity Puzzle

    Klodt, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Catching-up of East German productivity to West German levels has completely faded out since the mid l990s. The remaining productivity gap cannot be attributed to an inferior capital endowment. Instead, it appears to be the result of an inappropriate design of industrial policy which fostered the specialization of East German industry on capital intensive smoke-stack industries. These industries are absorbing a large share of factor inputs, whereas their contribution to aggregate output is ra...

  8. Regionalism in South East Asia : a factor analysis approach

    Egan, Michelle

    1988-01-01

    The concept of regionalism has been the subject of vast research. However, there have been few empirical studies of South East Asia. Although several authors have examined regionalism on a global scale (Russett 1967), the theoretical constructs have been primarily based on regionalism in Western Europe (Haas 1964). Few of these theories have been applied in the context of South East Asia. The current members of ASEAN were chosen for my research paper. (1) ASEAN includes Indonesia, Malaysia...

  9. The Evolving Integration in East Asia - Too many reservations?

    Pape, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    East Asian economic integration is less well known in Europe than is desirable in the EU’s own enlightened self-interest. It is also badly understood, not least because a range of ‘soft’ cultural, historical and political aspects are insufficiently appreciated in Europe. This CEPS Essay offers a deeper personal reflection on the emergence and development of East Asian economic cooperation and market-driven integration. It attempts to address some of the lingering reservations on both sides an...

  10. The black Dutchmen: African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    Kessel, van, CGM

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpower. The Africans counted as part of the European contingent of the army. After expiry of their contracts, some Africans returned to the Gold Coast, while others opted to settle in the East Indies. ...

  11. Do institutions matter for growth? Evidence from East Asian countries

    Ahmad, Mahyudin; Stephen G. Hall

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing neoclassical growth framework augmented with institutional controls and latest estimation technique in panel data analysis, this study identifies the crucial institutional qualities in East Asian and other developing countries and uncovers the channel of their effects toward economic growth. Furthermore, it extends the empirical evidence on the institutional importance toward economic growth in the developing countries particularly the East Asian countries which, apart from Rodrik (...

  12. Natural Product Studies of Selected East Pacific Gorgonians

    Bandurraga, Maury M.

    1982-01-01

    Gorgonian corals commonly occur in great numbers and diversity inthe Caribbean, east Pacific and Indo-Pacific. Previous natural pro­duct investigations of Caribbean gorgonians have yielded a plethora of structurally and biologically unique compounds. These include diter­penes, sesquiterpenes, sterols and prostaglandins. Prior to this inves­tigation, very little was known about the natural products composition of the east Pacific Gorgonacea. This dissertation reports the isolation and structur...

  13. Fataluku medicinal ethnobotany and the East Timorese military resistance

    Mitchell Andrew; Martins Xisto; Collins Sean WM; Teshome Awegechew; Arnason John T

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and poisonous plants used by the East Timor resistance was undertaken in the Lautem District of East Timor to study medicinal plant use in the region. Interviews were conducted with a single key consultant from the resistance army who belonged to the Fataluku culture. This study is of importance as a historical document and because no previous medicinal ethnobotanical studies on this region exist. Methods A rapid ethnobotanical survey o...

  14. Glasgow's new urban frontier: 'Civilising' the population of 'Glasgow East'

    Gray, Neil; Mooney, Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on Glasgow's East End, home to the 2014 Commonwealth Games, this paper explores the ways in which narratives of decline, 'blight' and decay play a central role in stigmatising the local population. 'Glasgow East' represents the new urban frontier in a city that has been heralded in recent decades as a model of successful post-industrial transformation. Utilising Löic Wacquant's arguments about advanced marginality and territorial stigmatisation in the urban context, we argue that nar...

  15. Is Economic Development Promoting Monetary Integration in East Asia?

    Kentaro Kawasaki; Zhi-Qian Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate whether there exist international integrated markets among East Asian economies, by employing the Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP) model, then, it would help to suggest whether the East Asian region is the Optimum Currency Area (OCA) or not. The empirical results in this paper suggest that holding the G-PPP among nine Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) becomes more applicable i...

  16. Patterns of Uveitis in the Middle East and Europe

    Nashtaei, Ebrahim M.; Masoud Soheilian; Herbort, Carl P.; Mehdi Yaseri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the patterns of uveitis, emphasizing similarities and discrepancies, in the Middle East and Europe. Methods: Six articles reporting uveitis patterns from the Middle East including a total of 2,693 cases, and seven articles with a sum of 4,379 cases from Europe were analyzed and patterns in each region were defined and compared. Results: In both regions, uveitis was most commonly seen in the fourth decade of life with anterior uveitis being the most common anatomical form. ...

  17. East China Market in Dire Need of Three Major Breakthroughs

    Wei Xuehao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since started as a pilot project of regional power marketin June, 2003, East China power market has been actively ndsteadily progressing, and has promulgated in succession amarket establishing program, market operating rules andspecifications for the functions of technical support systems.The technical support systems have been built up by stagesincluding the master station system in East China region andcompleting systems in provinces and cities. Also, monthlymarket simulation, integrated simulation and one-day-aheaddispatching test have been implemented successfully.

  18. Protected Areas: Mixed Success in Conserving East Africa's Evergreen Forests

    Pfeifer, Marion; Neil D. Burgess; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa ...

  19. Security cooperation in East Asia: structures, trends and limitations

    Wacker, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    "The East Asia region is facing a plethora of traditional and nontraditional security problems: conventional and nuclear armament, territorial disputes, resource conflicts, major power rivalries, natural catastrophes, piracy and more. China plays a special role: The country's economic rise, its military modernization and its foreign policy stance have led various countries in the Asia-Pacific region to perceive it as a threat. East Asia is home to a complex web of multilateral organizations, ...

  20. Turkey “between East and West”

    Heper, Metin

    2004-01-01

    Metin Heper discusses the formation of Turkey’s identity, which came to encompass both an "Eastern" and a "Western" (or European) dimension. Against this background, Heper discusses three main issues within the politics of Turkey that have remained problematic from the perspective of the EU: Islam in politics, nationalism and the consideration of Turkey’s ethnic minorities, and the political role of the military. Based on the "identity history" of Turkey, Heper puts forward some suggestions a...

  1. Giovanni Arrighis Tapestry of East & West

    John Gulick

    2015-01-01

    What a difference a year makes. While Giovanni Arrighis Adam Smith in Beijing is a complicated tapestry, threaded with multiple strands and sub-themes, if it offers any single master thesis, it is this: over the last four or so decades, the fading of US primacy and Chinas precipitous ascent are dialectically interconnected, structured processes abetting one another. And, for good measure: Chinas ascent just might culminate in the formation of a qualitatively novel, world community of market-l...

  2. Population policies vary in Middle East.

    Roudi, N

    1993-04-01

    The Middle East's fast-growing population not only puts constraints on the environment and natural resources but also on governments by increasing the demand for education, housing, health care, and jobs. Cairo has 9 million inhabitants, Tehran, 7 million, and Istanbul, 7 million. These countries have 253 million people, and the number is expected to grow to 400 million by 2010. Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, yemen, Oman, Jordan, and the West Bank and Gaza have an annual rate of growth of 3%. Iran has 60 million people, Iraq, 18 million, Saudi Arabia, 16 million, and Yemen, 10 million, totalling 126 million people. Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates comprise 123 million people growing at a rate of 2-3% per year. Only Israel with 5 million and Cyprus with less than 1 million people have a rate of natural increase of 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The total fertility rate (TFR) for the region is close to 5 children. In 1991/1992, women in rural Yemen averaged more than 8 children; in contrast, Cyprus has a TFR of 2.4, and Jewish women in Israel have a TFR of 2.7. About half of the people of the region are under 20. Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Turkey have policies to lower fertility and subsidize family planning services. Yemen recently adopted a national population policy to reduce the TFR to 4.0 by 2018. Iraq, Kuwait, Israel, and Cyprus want to raise fertility by providing incentives to families, such as child allowances, greater access to housing, and tax breaks. Kuwait provides cash child allowances, maternity benefits, and subsidies to families of government workers. Israel has social welfare policies to increase the size of the Jewish population, although it provides contraceptive information. Saudi Arabia restrict access to contraceptives by banning their advertising. PMID:12318175

  3. Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E. M.; Walter, W. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. The study region spans from Turkey through the Arabian Peninsula and Iran to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwest India. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. We will discuss the updated method and implications of this parameterization. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5 -- 10 Hz. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f). This research was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number DE-AC52-07NA27344. This is LLNL contribution LLNL-ABS-406761.

  4. Desertification risk in Kakheti Region, East Georgia.

    Basialashvili, Tsisana; Matchavariani, Lia; Lagidze, Lamzira

    2015-01-01

    Desertification or land degradation in drylands is caused by various factors. The most important of these is climate change, a significant global ecological problem. Desertification, like erosion, as an environmental process of ecosystem degradation, is often caused by human activity. It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification. Well-managed lands can recover from drought if the rains return. These practices help to control erosion and maintain productivity during periods when moisture is available. Traditionally, the most vulnerable territories considered under the threat of desertification in Georgia is Kakheti region (East Georgia), which has been selected as one of the priority investigation area. In Eastern Georgia, intervals of atmospheric precipitation do not coincide with the phases of water demand of plants. In recent decades as a result of more frequent droughts in Kakheti, the region has already lost hundreds, thousands of hectares of fertile land. Based on the contemporary climate warming projections, the temperature is expected to increase and precipitation to decrease. This will lead to an increase in evaporation and reduction of river flow. Under such conditions the danger of desertification is evident. To mitigate the negative effects of desertification, it is recommended to put forward set of adaptation activities through rehabilitation of water use systems, prevention of loss of water, reconstruction and expansion of irrigation canals, accumulation of unused autumn-winter river water and spring floods in reservoirs, developing an optimal scheme of distributing water resources among water users, device windbreaks and work on breeding of drought resistant varieties, preparation of water volume forecasts of rivers and their role in planning of water use; application of apply drip and sprinkler irrigation, using artificial precipitation following increase as a result of active influence on clouds. All these activities will provide

  5. Variations in Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Northern East Asia

    WANG Xinmin; ZHAI Panmao; WANG Cuicui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an improved objective cyclone detection and tracking algorithm, decadal variations in extratropical cyclones in northern East Asia are studied by using the ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure data during 1958-2001. The results reveal that extratropical cyclone activity has displayed clear seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability in northern East Asia. Spring is the season when cyclones occur most frequently. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclones shows that cyclones occur mainly within the 40°-50°N latitudinal band in northern East Asia, and the most frequent region of occurrence is in Mongolia. Furthermore, this study also reveals the fact that the frequency of extratropical cyclones has significantly decreased in the lower latitude region of northern East Asia during 1958-2001, but dccadal variability has dominated in higher latitude bands, with frequent cyclone genesis. The intensity of extratropical cyclones has decreased on an annual and seasonal basis. Variation of the annual number of cyclones in northern East Asia is associated with the mean intensity of the baroclinic frontal zone, which is influenced by climate warming in the higher latitudes. Moreover, the dipole structure of extratopical cyclone change, with increases in the north and decreases in the southern part of northern East Asia, is related to the northward movement of the baroclinic frontal zone on either side of 110°E.

  6. Second phase of the extension of ASEAN: East Timor case

    Maricela Reyes López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available East Timor, the newly independent and small country of the Southeast Asia applies to join ASEAN. ASEAN members debate pro and con arguments on that admission. Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia are pro because they are beneficiary countries in economic terms trough ASEAN. Also, they ....the integration of all countries of the region, including East Timor, will be improve in a meaningful way the political and economic stability in the region. Today government officials, analysts and academics are debating on the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN enlargement to admit East Timor as the eleventh member. East Timor recently declared independence and could benefit regionally just now as favorable factors are improving its economy and political position. Pro and con arguments of such membership represent more than an individual vote from the region’s friendly governments. A positive consensus will mean certain effects in the region and beyond it. This paper discusses arguments of several actors concerning the acceptance of East Timor into the ASEAN and its regional implications.

  7. Radio observations of Cepheus A. I. The evolving pre-main-sequence stars in Cepheus A East?

    A series of maps is presented which show the structure and variability of the components of the CO condensation Cep A East. New observations made at 20 cm, 6 cm, and 2 cm show that there have been changes of at least 30 percent in the total flux from at least four of about 14 compact H II regions in Cep A East during 1982-1986. The results for one highly variable component indicate that large variations in ionization can possibly occur in a one-year period. The spectral indices of four of the more compact components indicate optically thick regions in their cores; together with the presence of OH and H2O maser emission, this indicates that some compact components are internally excited by starlike objects. The compact components probably represent the initial stages of formation of early main-sequence stars with mass greater than five solar. 26 references

  8. East Asian Attitudes toward Death- A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America.

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions.This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  9. East Capitali fondid on pakkunud ülihäid tootlusi / Raigo Neudorf

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Varahaldusfirma East Capital Baltimaade tegevust juhtiv Gert Tiivas ettevõtte asutamisest kümme aastat tagasi. Erinevalt konkurentidest on East Capital võtnud sihikule just arenevad turud, sh Venemaa ja Baltimaad. Vt. samas: 100 töötaja seas esindatud 24 rahvust; East Capitali fondid on popid Rootsi pensionäride seas. Tabel: East Capitali fondide tootlused

  10. East Asia's Dynamic Development Model and the Republic of Korea's Experiences

    Ho-Chul LEE; McNulty, Mary P.

    2003-01-01

    No region has been more dynamic in recent years than East Asia. Despite its successful economic development, evaluations of the East Asian development model have often been capricious, shifting from "miracle" to "cronyism." How can we explain East Asia's ups and downs consistently? To respond to this challenge, it is necessary to study the progress of East Asian development and to trace th...

  11. Star Formation in Galaxies

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  12. Diseases and pests of sweet potato: south-east Asia, the Pacific and East Africa (NRI Bulletin No. 46)

    Lenné, Jillian M.

    1991-01-01

    The bulletin reviews available information on biotic factors affecting sweet potato in eight countries in three important tropical production regions - south-east Asia, the Pacific, and east Africa. Information was obtained both from published reports, and directly from visits to key root and tuber-crop research institutions and discussions with many researchers in the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Rwanda and Kenya. The most important diseases and pests are ident...

  13. The Role of University Branches in the Formation of Common Cultural Competences of Students

    Korotkova, Marina Albertovna; Rimskaya, Tatyana Grigoryevna

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes the capabilities and potential of educational institutions in the formation of common cultural competences of students studying at regional municipalities of the Russian Far East. The study offers the directions and methods of interaction between government and local self-government authorities and training institutions…

  14. Estratigrafía de la Formación La Yesera (Cretácico: Base del relleno sinrift del Grupo Salta, noroeste argentino Stratigraphy of the La Yesera Formation (Cretaceous: basal synrift fill of the Salta Group, Northwest Argentina

    Ignacio F. Sabino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Formación La Yesera, unidad basal del rift del Grupo Salta, se compone de capas rojas acumuladas entre el Neocomiano Tardío y el Cenomaniano. El espesor de la Formación supera los 700 m en el depocentro de Alemanía. En la unidad se distinguen tres secciones: la inferior y la superior que son psefíticas y la intermedia, psamo-pelítica. La sección inferior, Miembro Yacutuy, se compone de conglomerados de abanico aluvial y escasas intercalaciones de arenisca y pelita de planicies fangosas. La sección media, previamente reconocida como Miembro Las Chacras, consta de areniscas y limolitas acumuladas en planicies fangosas. La sección superior, Miembro Don Bartolo, se compone de conglomerados de abanico aluvial intercalados con coladas del Basalto Isonza. En el depocentro de Brealito la Formación La Yesera supera los 2.000 m de espesor. Además de los Miembros antes mencionados, se distingue en la parte superior de la sección media un depósito limolítico de 290 m donde intercalan calizas micríticas y pelitas verdes denominado Miembro Brealito. El basamento de la cuenca está formado por rocas competentes del Macizo Pampeano y por sedimentitas ordovícicas a devónicas. Estos dos tipos de basamento con distinta reología habrían determinado escenarios diferentes como respuesta a esfuerzos tensionales durante la formación de la cuenca. Se reconocen cuatro eventos volcánicos en la cuenca, los cuales se distribuyeron según lineamientos de orientación nordeste.The red beds of La Yesera Formation, which are the basal strata of the Salta Rift, accumulated from the Late Neocomian to the Cenomanian. The La Yesera Formation is thicker than 700 meters in the Alemanía sub-basin. The unit is made up of three sections: the lower and upper ones are dominated by conglomerates, and the middle section consists of sandstone and siltstone. It is proposed here to consider these sections as formal members. The lower section, or Yacutuy Member, is

  15. Mantle dynamics and Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China: Insight from teleseismic tomograms

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Zhao, Dapeng; Lü, Qingtian; Li, Hongyi; Li, Xinfu

    2015-11-01

    Both the rich mineralization in the Lower Yangtze Block (LYB) and the post-collisional mafic rocks in the Dabie Orogen (DBO) are closely related to the Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China. Various geodynamic models have been proposed for explaining the mechanism of the Cretaceous magmatism, but these models are controversial and even contradictory with each other, especially on the mechanism of adakites. A unified geodynamic model is required for explaining the magmatism in east-central China, in particular, the spatial and temporal correlations of magmatic activity in the DBO and that in the LYB. For this purpose, we apply teleseismic tomography to study P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth beneath east-central China. A modified multiple-channel cross-correlation method is used to collect 28,805 high-quality P-wave arrival-time data from seismograms of distant earthquakes recorded by permanent seismic stations and our temporary stations in the study region. To remove the influence of crustal heterogeneity on the mantle tomography, we used the CRUST1.0 model to correct the teleseismic relative residuals. Our tomography revealed distinct high-velocity (high-V) anomalies beneath the DBO and two flanks of the LYB, and low-velocity (low-V) anomalies above the high-V zones. Combining our tomographic images with previous geological, geochemical and geophysical results, we infer that these high-V and low-V anomalies reflect the detached lithosphere and upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively, which are associated with the Late Mesozoic dynamic process and the Cretaceous magmatism. We propose a double-slab subduction model that a ridge subduction yielded the adakitic rocks in the LYB during 150-135 Ma and the subsequent Pacific Plate subduction played a crucial role in not only the formation of igneous rocks in the LYB but also remelting of the subducted South China Block beneath the DBO during 135-101 Ma.

  16. Origin of the Adventure Subglacial Trench linked to Cenozoic extension in the East Antarctic Craton

    Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Antarctic plate occupies a unique geodynamic setting being mostly surrounded by divergent or transform margins. Major intracontinental basins and highlands characterize its bedrock, buried under the 34 Ma East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Their formation atop of the cratonic lithosphere in the interior of East Antarctica remains a major open question. Post-Mesozoic intraplate extensional tectonic activity has been proposed for their development and is supported by this work. Here we focus on the Adventure Subglacial Trench (AST) whose origin is poorly constrained and controversial, as currently available geophysical models suggest either extensional or compressional tectonic origin. The AST is an over 250-km-long, 60-km-wide subglacial trough, elongated in the NNW-SSE direction adjacent to the westernmost flank of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin, and is parallel to regional scale alignments of magnetic and gravimetric anomalies. Geophysical campaigns allowed better definition of the AST physiography showing its typical half-graben geometry. The rounded morphology of the western flank of the AST was simulated through tectonic numerical modelling. We consider the subglacial landscape to primarily reflect a preserved relict of the tectonic processes affecting the interior of East Antarctica in the Cenozoic, due to the negligible erosion/deposition capability of the EAIS. The bedrock morphology was replicated through the activity of the listric Adventure Fault, characterized by a basal detachment at the base of the crust (34 km) and a vertical displacement of 2.5 km. This length suggests its regional/crustal importance. The predicted displacement is interpreted either as a newly formed fault or as the partial reactivation of a weaker zone along a major Precambrian crustal-scale tectonic boundary. The extensional regime in the AST is part of a more extensive 800-km long intraplate corridor characterized by nearly along-strike extension in Cenozoic times with a left

  17. On the East-West Longitudinally Asymmetric Distribution of Solar Proton Events

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W.

    2016-09-01

    A large data set of 78 solar proton events observed near the Earth's orbit during 1996-2011 is investigated. An East-West longitudinal (azimuthal) asymmetry is found to exist in the distribution of flare sources of solar proton events. With the same longitudinal separation between the flare sources and the magnetic field line footpoint of observer, the number of the solar proton events originating from solar sources located on the eastern side of the nominal magnetic footpoint of observer is larger than the number of the solar proton events from solar sources located on the western side. We emphasize the importance of this statistical investigation in two aspects. On the one hand, this statistical finding confirms our previous simulation results obtained by numerically solving five-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation of solar energetic particle (SEP) transport. On the other hand, the East-West longitudinally (azimuthally) asymmetric distribution of solar proton events accumulated over a long time period provides an observational evidence for the effects of perpendicular diffusion on the SEP propagation in the heliosphere. We further point out that, in the sense of perpendicular diffusion, our numerical simulations and statistical results of SEP events confirm each other. We discuss in detail the important effects of perpendicular diffusion on the formation of the East-West azimuthal (longitudinal) asymmetry of SEP distribution in two physical scenarios, i.e., "multiple SEP events with one spacecraft" and "one SEP event with multiple spacecraft". A functional relation Imax(r) = kr-1.7 quantifying the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities is obtained and utilized in the analysis of physical mechanism. The relationship between our results and those of Dresing et al. (2014, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 567, A27) is also discussed.

  18. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  19. “A very orderly retreat”: Democratic transition in East Germany, 1989-90

    Dale, G

    2006-01-01

    East Germany's 1989-90 democratisation is among the best known of East European transitions, but does not lend itself to comparative analysis, due to the singular way in which political reform and democratic consolidation were subsumed by Germany's unification process. Yet aspects of East Germany's democratisation have proved amenable to comparative approaches. This article reviews the comparative literature that refers to East Germany, and finds a schism between those who designate East Germ...

  20. Purdah and overpopulation in the Middle East.

    Misch, A

    1990-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa constitute the Islamic world. From Morocco to Afghanistan the population is 340 million and growing at a rate of 3% annually and will double in 23 years. Currently food, water, and land resources are being taxed to their limit and continued growth will only cause larger scale problems for the region. To complicate the issue public policies and private practices and attitudes are leading to continued population growth. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism does not recognize the problem of over population. In fact the revision of family law by fundamentalist politicians has done a great deal of damage to the improvements in the status of women throughout the region. The revival of Purdah, the practice of keeping women out of the public eye and confined to home, is just one example or how the rise of Islamic fundamentalism is turning back the clock in terms of women's rights. The primary disadvantage is that since women are being returned to the home, their only source of values is as child bearers. Women cloistered at home are expected to be prolific child bearers, in fact their value as human beings is judged primarily on this basis. It is their ability to bear sons that is coveted. This of course will only compound the population problems being experienced in the region. Few countries have tried to institute state wide family planning programs, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen, but none of these programs has been very successful. In Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia, population growth is viewed as a positive event because it will help eliminate the need for foreign workers. Even in this region, educated people have a lower fertility rate. For example in Jordan 60% of illiterate males "did not believe in" contraception while only 15% of men educated past the secondary level felt the same way. If women are forced out of the labor force and into the home to have children, the population problem will only grow. PMID

  1. 'Bread Loaf' Mesa East of Phlegra Montes

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] An isolated mesa east of the Phlegra Montes in northeastern Elysium Planitia has a cracked surface that, combined with its overall shape, gives the appearance of a giant loaf of bread. Other mesas with similar surfaces are found in the area, suggesting that at one time these mesas were part of a continuous layer of material. It is likely that at that time, some process caused the graben-like cracks to form. Later erosion of the cracked layer left only the isolated mesas seen in the THEMIS image. One clue that supports this scenario is the presence of many filled and eroded craters throughout the scene but no fresh ones. One way to produce this landscape begins with an ancient and heavily cratered surface that subsequently is buried by some other material. If this overburden was stripped off relatively recently, not enough time would have passed to allow for a new population of fresh craters to be produced. The result would be a landscape with isolated mesas of younger material on top of an ancient, cratered surface.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey

  2. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  3. Recent Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa and the Middle East

    Yousif El Safi Himeidan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs with stand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVFV outbreaks in Somalia (2006–2007, Kenya (2006–2007, Tanzania (2007, and Sudan (2007–2008 showed extension to districts which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment i.e. type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997–98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset.

  4. Full-wave simulations of lower hybrid wave propagation in the EAST tokamak

    Bonoli, P. T.; Lee, J. P.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wright, J. C.; Ding, B.; Yang, C.

    2015-11-01

    Studies of lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation have been conducted in the EAST tokamak where electron Landau damping (ELD) of the wave is typically weak, resulting in multiple passes of the wave front prior to its being absorbed in the plasma core. Under these conditions it is interesting to investigate full-wave effects that can become important at the plasma cut-off where the wave is reflected at the edge, as well as full-wave effects such as caustic formation in the core. High fidelity LH full-wave simulations were performed for EAST using the TORLH field solver. These simulations used sufficient poloidal mode resolution to resolve the perpendicular wavelengths associated with electron Landau damping of the LH wave at the plasma periphery, thus achieving fully converged electric field solutions at all radii of the plasma. Comparison of these results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented. Work supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-SC0010492 and DE-FC02-01ER54648.

  5. Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  6. Giovanni Arrighi’s Tapestry of East & West

    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What a difference a year makes. While Giovanni Arrighi’s Adam Smith in Beijing is a complicated tapestry, threaded with multiple strands and sub-themes, if it offers any single master thesis, it is this: over the last four or so decades, the fading of US primacy and China’s precipitous ascent are dialectically interconnected, structured processes abetting one another. And, for good measure: China’s ascent just might culminate in the formation of a qualitatively novel, world community of market-linked states orbiting around East Asia, but without a dominant center (pp. 7-9. Were I putting together this review in mid-2008, I would express profound skepticism about both theses. Certainly, such skepticism would issue not from the conviction that US global power is invincible, but rather from an evidence-based belief that Arrighi habitually underestimates the extent to which China’s ongoing rise in the world order will be traumatically disrupted by the inevitable wipeout of highly leveraged paper assets on Wall Street (and the City of London, for that matter. Well, in the wake of the planetary financial crisis and economic slump, the early returns on China’s coping capacity are in. The ways in which China is responding to and weathering the storm vindicate more than a few of the claims and insights Arrighi advances in Adam Smith in Beijing, including some that I would have regarded with raised eyebrows a year ago. The thrust of this review is a critical assessment of Adam Smith in Beijing from the standpoint of how well or poorly its theoretical maneuvers and key arguments allow us to make sense of the current shake-up in the global system, with a focus on the interdigitated destinies of China and the US. In this evaluation I will take a page out of Arrighi’s own playbook and try to bear in mind the crucial distinction between geo-economic and geopolitical ebbs and flows of the moment and longer-term hegemonic ruptures and transformations.

  7. The Alignment and Assembly for EAST Tokamak Device

    2005-01-01

    EAST (HT-7U) is a large fusion experimental device. It is a full superconducting tokamak with 1 MA of plasma current, 1000 s of plasma duration, high elongation and triangularity. It mainly consists of superconducting magnets of poloidal and toroidal field (PF& TF),vacuum vessel (VV), thermal radiation shield (TRS) and cryostat vessel (CV). The significant difficulty for assembly of EAST is tight installation tolerances, which are in the order of several tenth of a millimeter. In particular, the alignment of plasma facing components to the magnetic axis of the device is less than ± 0.5 mm.At present, a reasonable assembly process of EAST has been defined, and based on it, the alignment method for EAST, including the survey control network, the location of the main components in different directions, the magnetic axis determination and the accurate positioning of the plasma facing components inside of the vacuum vessel and so on, has been defined by using the sophisticated optical metrology system (SOMS).This paper describes the assembly procedure of EAST and the installation tolerances associated with the main components. Meanwhile, how to establish the assembly survey control network,magnetic axis determination methods, are introduced in detail.

  8. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  9. The implementation of virtualization technology in EAST data system

    Highlights: • The server virtualization based on XenServer has been used in EAST data center for common servers and software development platform. • The application virtualization based on XenApp has been demonstrated in EAST to provide an easy and unified data browser method. • The desktop virtualization based on XenDesktop has been adopted for desktop virtualization in the new EAST central control room. - Abstract: The virtualization technology is very popular in many fields at present which has many advantages such as reducing costs, unified management, mobile applications, cross platform, etc. We have also implemented the virtualization technology in EAST control and data system. There are primarily four kinds of technology providers in virtualization technology including VMware, Citrix, Microsoft Hyper-V as well as open source solutions. We have chosen the Citrix solution to implement our virtualization system which mainly includes three aspects. Firstly, we adopt the XenServer technology to realize virtual server for EAST data management and service system. Secondly, we use XenApp technology to realize cross platform system for unify data access. Thirdly, in order to simplify the management of the client computers, we adopt the XenDesktop technology to realize virtual desktops for new central control room. The details of the implementation are described in this paper

  10. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Milosavljevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  11. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  12. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  13. Classification and origin of natural gases from Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin

    2008-01-01

    Natural gases discovered up to now in Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin,differ greatly in gaseous compositions,of which hydrocarbon gases amount to 2%―94%while non-hydrocarbon gases are dominated by CO2.Their hydrocarbon gases,without exception,contain less than 90%of methane and over 10%of C2 + heavier hydrocarbons,indicating a wet gas.Carbon isotopic analyses on these hydrocarbon gases showed thatδ13C 1 ,δ13C 2 andδ13C 3 are basically lighter than-44‰,-29‰and-26‰, respectively.The difference in carbon isotopic values between methane and ethane is great,suggesting a biogenic oil-type gas produced by the mixed organic matter at peak generation.δ13C CO2 values of nonhydrocarbon gases are all heavier than-10‰,indicating a typical abiogenic gas.The simulation experiment on hydrocarbon generation of organic matter in a closed gold-tube system showed that the proportion of methane in natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit is obviously higher than that in natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit,consequently the proportion of heavier hydrocarbons of the former is remarkably lower than that of the latter.Moreover, δ13C 1 values of natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit are about 5‰heavier than those of natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit whileδ13C 2 andδ13C 3 values of the former are over 9‰heavier than those of the latter.Currently the LS36-1 oil-gas pool is the only commercial oil-gas reservoir in Lishui Sag,where carbon isotopic compositions of various hydrocarbon components differ greatly from those of natural gases produced by the Lingfeng Formation organic matter but are very similar to those of natural gases derived from the Yueguifeng Formation organic matter

  14. Kīlauea's Upper East Rift Zone: A Rift Zone in Name Only

    Swanson, D. A.; Fiske, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Kīlauea's upper east rift zone (UERZ) extends ~3 km southeastward from the summit caldera to the Koáe fault system, where it starts to bend into the main part of the ENE-trending rift zone. The UERZ lacks a distinct positive gravity anomaly (though coverage is poor) and any evidence of deformation associated with magma intrusion. All ground ruptures—and the Puhimau thermal area—trend ENE, crossing the UERZ at a high angle. Lua Manu, Puhimau, and Kóokóolau craters are the only surface evidence of the UERZ. Yet the UERZ is seismically active, and all magma entering the rest of the rift zone must pass through it. Rather than a rift zone in the traditional sense, with abundant dikes and ground ruptures along its trend, the UERZ cuts across the ENE structural grain and serves only as a connector to the rest of the rift zone, not a locus of dike formation along its length. The UERZ probably developed as a consequence of gradual SSE migration of the active part of the main east rift zone at the trailing edge of the south flank. During migration, a connection to the summit reservoir complex must be maintained; otherwise, the middle and lower east rift zone would starve and magma from Kīlauea's summit reservoir complex would have to go elsewhere. Over time, the UERZ lengthened and rotated clockwise to maintain the connection. Near the caldera, the UERZ may be widening westward as the summit reservoir complex migrates southward from the center of the caldera to its present position. A layered stress regime results in the upper 2-3 km mimicking the pervasive ENE structural grain of most of Kīlauea, whereas the underlying magmatic part of the UERZ responds to stresses related to SE magma transport. Magma intruding upward from the connector forms a dike that follows the ENE structural grain, as during the 1974 eruption. The active east rift zone has been migrating since ~100 ka, estimated by applying a 700-y extension rate across the Koa'e fault system to the ~6.5 km

  15. An Observational and Numerical Study on the Topographic Influence on Dust Transport in East Asia

    JIANG Xuegong; CHEN Shoujun

    2009-01-01

    Based on observations and numerical simulations, the topographic impacts on dust transport in East Asia were studied. Two regions frequently attacked by dust storms have been confirmed: one is the western part of Inner Mongolia and the southern Mongolia (namely the Mongolia Plateau), and the other is the Tarim Basin.The most frequent dust storm occurrence area within the first region appears in its hinterland while that of the second one lies in its southern boundary. Moreover, the region from the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) to the Loess Plateau is attacked by dust storms second frequently. The dust storms frequently occurring over the Mongolia Plateau are related not only to the abundant sand and dust sources, but also to the special topographic conditions of East Asia. The most significant factor that influences the dust storms forming in the hinterland of the Mongolia Plateau is the canyon low level jet (CLLJ), which dominates around the southern areas of the Altay-Sayan Mountains with an east-west direction in the beginning of its formation, and is accompanied by significantly enhanced surface wind afterwards. Due to the obstructive effects of the CLLJ, a lot of dust particles carried by the southward down-slope cold air mass would pile up over the southern slope of the Sayan Mountains. Meanwhile, uneven surface conditions are favorable for the dust particles to go up into the upper atmosphere. With the dust particles piling up continuously, a dust layer is formed in the troposphere and can be recognized as a "dust accumulating container", which provides abundant dust particles to be transported later to the downstream areas. Additionally, the topographic features of East Asia also exert a great influence on dust transport. Generally, the easterly CLLJ enhances the easterly dust transport. The down-slope air current over the southern Sayan Mountains and the air flow surrounding the TP near its northeastern edge enhance the southward dust

  16. Hydrogeology of East site: a conceptual model derived from ANDRA investigations

    The site envisaged for a deep laboratory in the east of France, at the boundary between the Haute-Marne and Meuse Departments, is characterized by a simple geology in an extensive tabular structure with a shallow westward dip of 1 deg C - 2 deg C. The lithostratigraphic succession in this area, from top to bottom, is: Tithonian: karstic and lithographic limestones with marly intervals; Kimmeridgian: dominant marl (low permeability); Upper and Middle Oxfordian: succession of limestone and marl beds; Callovian-Oxfordian (host formation for the laboratory): clays (very low permeability); Dogger Limestone: thick, dominantly limestone unit comprising the basal Callovian (thin limestones with silty clay intervals), the Bathonian (oolitic limestones with some marly intervals) and the Bajocian-Aalenian (alternating clayey bioclastic limestone and marl). ANDRA first of all synthesised current knowledge regarding each of these formations, and then extended it through further geological investigations (mapping, core drilling, well logging, 2-D seismic lines, etc) and hydrogeological studies (hydraulic pulse and slug tests between obturators, continuous piezometric monitoring, well logging of conductivity, temperature and flow rate, etc). The results of the studies carried out by ANDRA confirm the very favourable character of the Callovian-Oxfordian argilites and their enclosing formations for a deep storage site. (authors)

  17. EAST ion cyclotron resonance heating system for long pulse operation

    Zhao, Y.P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, X.J., E-mail: xjzhang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Mao, Y.Z.; Yuan, S.; Xue, D.Y.; Deng, X.; Wang, L.; Ju, S.Q.; Cheng, Y.; Qin, C.M.; Chen, G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Lin, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Li, J.G.; Wan, B.N.; Song, Y.T. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Braun, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kumazawa, R. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Wukitch, S. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Radio frequency (RF) power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the primary auxiliary heating techniques for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ICRF system for EAST has been developed to support long-pulse high-β advanced tokamak fusion physics experiments. The ICRF system is capable of delivering 12 MW 1000-s RF power to the plasma through two antennas. The phasing between current straps of the antennas can be adjusted to optimize the RF power spectrum. The main technical features of the ICRF system are described. Each of the 8 ICRF transmitters has been successfully tested to 1.5 MW for a wide range of frequency (25–70 MHz) on a dummy load. Part of the ICRF system was in operation during the EAST 2012 spring experimental campaign and a maximum power of 800 kW (at 27 MHz) lasting for 30 s has been coupled for long pulse H mode operation.

  18. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.

  19. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    2005-01-01

      As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.……

  20. Does water hyacinth on East African lakes promote cholera outbreaks?

    Feikin, Daniel R; Tabu, Collins W; Gichuki, John

    2010-08-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa. PMID:20682884

  1. Solid scintillator based neutron fluctuation measurement on EAST tokamak

    Microsecond level fast temporal resolved neutron flux and its fluctuation measurement system based on three types of solid scintillator detectors has been successfully established on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) for energetic particle (EP) and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities relevant studies. The detector #1, where 50mm thick polyethylene is used for neutron thermalization, is mostly sensitive to thermal neutron. The detector #2 and #3 measure fast D-D neutrons directly with different gamma immunity. Design details together with detector test results with three types of radioisotope sources are presented. The system has been successfully implemented in EAST experiments for neutron and gamma identification. Typical fast MHD fluctuation related EAST experimental results from this system is also presented

  2. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  3. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  4. The Conic Benchmark Format

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  5. Early paleozoic granitoid magmatism and metamorphism in Derbina microcontinent of East Sayan: new isotopic-geochronological data

    The results of of complex U-Pb, Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd geochronological and isotopic-geochemical studies of granitoids from the Derbina microcontinent located in the central part of the East Sayan are presented. The results of U-Pb dating of magmatic zircon (498 ± 5 mln. years) agree well with data of Ar-Ar dating for amphibole (507 ± 7 mln. years). The totality of the isotopic-geochronological data suggests repeated manifestations of the Early Paleozoic metamorphism and collision granite formation within the Derbina microcontinent

  6. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  7. Manufacture of EAST VS In-Vessel Coil

    Highlights: • ITER like Stainless Steel Mineral Insulation Conductor (SSMIC) used for EAST Tokamak VS In-Vessel Coil manufacture first time. • Research on SSMIC fabrication was introduced in detail. • Two sets totally four single-turn VS coils were manufactured and installed in place symmetrically above and below the mid-plane in the vacuum vessel of EAST. • The manufacture and inspection of the EAST VS coil especially the joint for the SSMIC connection was described in detail. • The insulation resistances of all the VS coils have no significant reduction after endurance test. -- Abstract: In the ongoing latest update round of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), two sets of two single-turn Vertical Stabilization (VS) coils were manufactured and installed symmetrically above and below the mid-plane in the vacuum vessel of EAST. The Stainless Steel Mineral Insulated Conductor (SSMIC) developed for ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVCs) in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP) was used for the EAST VS coils manufacture. Each turn poloidal field VS coil includes three internal joints in the vacuum vessel. The middle joint connects two pieces of conductor which together form an R2.3 m arc segment inside the vacuum vessel. The other two joints connect the arc segment with the two feeders near the port along the toroidal direction to bear lower electromagnetic loads during operation. Main processes and tests include material performances checking, conductor fabrication, joint connection and testing, coil forming, insulation performances measurement were described herein

  8. Establishment of an east asian nuclear safety and liability regime

    After Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, almost all of the countries which owned nuclear reactors soon reviewed the security of all their nuclear power plants(NPP) in operation and those under construction, and committed to pursue higher standards of nuclear power plant safety and performance of nuclear power plant. However, many countries still remain their nuclear development policies unchanged. In East Asian countries, China has 11 nuclear reactors in operation and another 24 units under construction. Korea has 21 nuclear reactors in operation, which represents approximately 31.1% of the whole country’s power output and the number of units will be 34 before 2024. In Japan, it also possesses 50 operating nuclear units. And Taiwan now has three nuclear power plants (NPP) including 6 operating units and 2 units still under construction. There will be more than 100 units of NPP in these 4 East Asia countries. Therefore nuclear safety is a matter of the utmost importance to the East Asia countries. This article is going to discuss nuclear safety and third party liability in the 4 East Asia countries, including China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. In order to enhance the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in East Asia, we will focus on the following issues: A- An effective independence of the national regulatory authorities. B- How to enhance transparency on nuclear safety matters. C- From the viewpoint of the Precautionary Principle and Transparency to reinforce the monitoring and exchange of experiences. D- In nuclear liability regime, all 4 countries, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan are not members of any nuclear liability regime (neither Paris Convention nor Vienna Convention and nor CSC regime). How to solve the nuclear damage problems? E- Is it necessary to establish an East Asian nuclear safety and liability regime? (author)

  9. Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition on Farmland in East China

    WANG Ti-Jian; YANG Hao-Ming; GAO Li-Jie; ZHANG Yan; HU Zheng-Yi; XU Cheng-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition onto typical farmland in East China was investigated using both field measurements and numerical modeling. The field measurements were conducted at the Experiment Station of Red Soil Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 km from Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, East China, between November 1998 and October 1999, and at the Changshu Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in a rapidly developing region of Jiangsu Province, East China, between April 2001 and March 2002. The regional acid deposition model system (RegADMS), in which the dry deposition velocities of SO2 and sulfate aerosols (SO42-) were estimated using a big-leaf resistance analogy model, was applied to simulate air sulfur deposition over East China and sulfur deposition onto lands of different use types in East China. The wet scavenging coefficients were parameterized in terms of precipitation rate, and the effect of sub-grid processes due to inhomogeneous land use on dry deposition velocity was also included. Results of the field measurements showed that over 83% of the total sulfur deposition at the Yingtan site was dry deposition, while at the Changshu site42% was dry deposition. The total sulfur deposition was much larger at the Yingtan site than at the Changshu site, which suggested contrasting air pollution and meteorological situations. The modeling results revealed that the total annual sulfur deposition over East China was 1.88 Mt, of which 72.8% was deposited onto farmland, and dry deposition accounted for 43% of the total sulfur deposited. The modeling results were generally in agreement with those from the observations.Overall, this study suggested that atmospheric sulfur deposition played an important role in the soil sulfur balance, which could have a significant effect on agricultural ecosystems in the study region.

  10. Data format translation routines

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  11. Data format translation routines

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base.

  12. ENDF/B format

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B. This format, originally designed for the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File, is recommended for international use. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-NCS-50496 (ENDF 102) should be consulted. An Appendix to the present document gives a summary of the format differences between ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-5. (author)

  13. Activity of Wind-Blown Sand and the Formation of Feathered Sand Ridges in the Kumtagh Desert, China

    Liao, Kongtai; Qu, Jianjun; Tang, Jinnian; Ding, Feng; Liu, Hujun; Zhu, Shujuan

    2010-05-01

    We study the activity of wind-blown sand and its effects on the evolution of feathered sand ridges in the Kumtagh Desert, China, and attempt to reveal the formation process of feathered sand ridges using wind-tunnel experiments, remote sensing data, and detailed field observations from 2005 to 2008. The prevailing wind direction in the Kumtagh Desert is easterly in winter and north-easterly in other seasons. The average annual wind speed is 5.9 ms-1, and winds sufficiently strong to entrain sand occur on 143 days per annum. The sand transport rate within 0.4 m of the ground is strongly influenced by local landforms, and is related to wind speed by a power function. Wind erosion occurs on the crest, the windward slope of crescent sand ridges and inter-ridge sand strips, where the blowing sand cloud is in an unsaturated state; in contrast, sand accumulation occurs on the leeward slope of the crescent sand ridges, where the blowing sand cloud is in an over-saturated state. These results indicate that the development of feathered sand ridges in the Kumtagh Desert is mainly controlled by the local wind regime. The dominant winds (from the north, north-north-east and north-east) and additional winds (from the east-north-east, east and east-south-east) determine the development of crescent sand ridges, but winds that are approximately parallel to sand ridges form the secondary inter-ridge sand strips.

  14. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review.

    Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus was first identified in 2012 and has since then remained uncontrolled. Cases have been mostly reported in the Middle East, however travel-associated cases and outbreaks have also occurred. Nosocomial and zoonotic transmission of the virus appear to be the most important routes. The infection is severe and highly fatal thus necessitating rapid and efficacious interventions. Here, we performed a comprehensive review of published literature and summarized the epidemiology of the virus. In addition, we summarized the virological aspects of the infection and reviewed the animal models used as well as vaccination and antiviral tested against it. PMID:26791756

  15. II. GULF WAR, USA, GREAT MIDDLE EAST PROJECT AND TURKEY

    LEVENT GOKDEMIR

    2009-01-01

    Middle East has always been the region having the first priority in the cynosure of USA because of two reasons. The first and the most important reason is petroleum. 61.9 % of petroleum reserves on the Earth are located in Middle East region. Therefore, meeting the petroleum need of the USA and its allies with a reasonable price and providing the constant petroleum flow from this region have been two important factors in the policy that the USA developed for the region. The global petroleum n...

  16. Critical Review of East Asia – South America Trade

    Hamanaka, Shintaro; Tafgar, Aiken

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that trade between East Asia and South America is becoming increasingly important. However, we know little about the actual dynamic development of this inter-regional trade. This paper examines whether the trend of East Asia–South America trade is a general phenomena or a country- and commodity-specific issue, and whether the increase in trade values has a solid basis in terms of commodity diversification and/or price and quantity effects. While South America has ...

  17. Why Do People Still Live In East Germany?

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 GDP per capita in East Germany was 57% of that of West Germany, wage rates were 75% of western levels, and the unemployment rate was at least double the western rate of 7.8%. One would expect that if capital flows and trade in goods failed to bring convergence, labour flows would respond, enhancing overall efficiency. Yet net emigration from East Germany has fallen from high levels in 1989-1990 to close to zero. Using state-level data for all of Germany, available from 1991-1996, I am...

  18. Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java.

    Hoof, van, Joris

    1987-01-01

    Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant arrangement, light use efficiency, and economic aspects were also investigated.The normal farming practice in East Java for mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize was to sow the crops simultaneously at t...

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  20. Petroleum and gas stakes in the Middle-East

    In this article is explained the policy situation in the Middle-East and how it has an influence upon the petroleum market. The different situations of Israel and Arab countries, Iran, Iraq and Turkey are reviewed and some speculations are made to understand how things can evolve and their impact on the economic life of this area( for example: if Turkey wants to play a role in the Middle-East policy). If it is obvious that changes can arise the direction of these changes is not clearly established. (N.C.)

  1. Denmark: Intervention Dilemma in South Harbour and Aalborg East

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    2014-01-01

    industrial, ill-reputed brownfield area; whereas in Aalborg East, this point of collective action is still open: will collaborators succeed in supporting a joint agenda? Is it possible for Aalborg Municipality to enable this sort of collaborative, flexible planning? Will one of the actors succeed in...... demonstrating a strategic leadership that will convince collaborators of the added value of the project, in order to change the status quo in the huge, fragmented suburban area of Aalborg East? For general background information concerning the context of the cases, the reader should consult the case...

  2. THE VIOLATION OF VOWEL HARMONIES IN THE EAST GROUP DIALECTS

    Fatih ÖZEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We see vowel disharmonies in most of the Turkey-Turkish East Group dialects. A part of the vowel disharmonies seen in Turkey-Turkish East Group dialects are characteristic for this regional dialects, but some of the disharmonies can be explained with certain phonetical features and they are not characteristic. We can group these disharmonies as much: 1. Disharmonies sprung from spelling 2. Vowel disharmonies explanied by certain phonetical phomena. 3. Disordered vowel dishormonies In this study, we try to the explore the reasons of the disharmonies seen in this region under these heading.

  3. Coriolis effect as cause of East-West Earth's asymmetry

    Scalera, G.; INGV (retired)

    2014-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on t...

  4. The development of Middle-East natural gas markets

    The economic, political and strategic environment under which plans to explore and develop gas fields in the Middle East have been drawn and implemented are reviewed. The topic is of particular importance in view of the fact that the Middle East holds more than one third of the world's proven reserves of natural gas, largely underdeveloped and under utilized as of the beginning of the second millennium. Particular attention is paid to Saudi Arabia, Iran and Israel, where despite serious challenges and political uncertainties, significant developments are underway to develop the region's natural gas potential. 27 refs., 1 tab

  5. CrossFit East Turun asiakastyytyväisyys

    Viinanen, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää CrossFit East Turun asiakkaiden tyytyväisyyttä yrityksen palveluihin, toimipaikkaan ja henkilökuntaan. CrossFit East Turku on Itä-Turussa toimiva hyvinvointi- ja liikuntapalveluihin erikoistunut yritys. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli tarjota toimeksiantajalle tietoa asiakastyytyväisyyden tasosta sekä tietojen pohjalta konkreettisia parannusehdotuksia palvelujen ja olosuhteiden kehittämiseksi. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa käsitellään asiakastyytyväisyyt...

  6. [The development of nursing schools in East and West Germany].

    Moses, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the various nursing schools in East and West Germany. In the 1980s and early 1990s the professionalization of nursing was still in its infancy there compared with Anglo-America. There were attempts to professionalize nursing that were meant to enhance the quality of nursing as well as lead to improved working conditions. As part of the political debates in the field after German reunification, the nursing schools in the former east were also affected by reform efforts. From the 1960s, diploma courses in nursing studies and in the teaching of medicine had been offered in the east and, up into the 1990s, these courses were repeatedly modified and adapted to educational requirements. The study also tries to establish the extent to which the academization of nursing in the reunified Germany was driven by the concurrence of the different training routes in West and East. It analyses above all the diverse study syllabi and lengths of training. What also emerged was that, despite all the positive impulses arising from the East German training models, the continuous changes in training in the GDR not only served to improve the nursing qualifications but also to promote identification with the socialist system and its political ideology. In addition, the teaching of theory was never prominent in East German nursing, while, in the west, theory was increasingly asked for and eventually also implemented. The possibility, in the former east, to study the teaching of medicine definitely made an impact on the nursing training in the west after the reunification and the subject is now offered at universities there, too. Despite all that, the concept of "professional nursing," which needs to be practised in a practical, patient-oriented way, and on a scientific basis, is again being discussed since the introduction of Bachelor and Master study courses. The process of professionalizing and academizing the nursing schools and further training courses clearly

  7. Long run Relationship among East Asian equity markets and KSE

    Ghulam Ali Bhatti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of various stock markets plays a vital role in diversification while selecting securities in an investor’s portfolio. This study examines interdependence among the East Asian stock markets in relation to the Karachi Stock Exchange. Monthly data ranging from 2000 to 2010 is included and tested in this paper. This relationship is tested by using descriptive statistics and correlation matrix. Data stationarity is ensured by Unit Root Test. Evidence from Granger Causality and Impulse Response Test prove no relationship between KSE and stock markets of the East Asian countries while there exists certain level of unidirectional relationship from Japan to China and from Japan to Pakistan.

  8. Psychiatry in the East African colonies: a background to confinement.

    Mahone, S

    2006-08-01

    This article is concerned with the discipline of psychiatry in colonial East Africa as it emerged out of the crime and disorder problem to become an intellectually significant 'East African School' of psychiatry. The process of lunacy certification, in particular, provides a snapshot of the medical and political tensions that existed among the medical establishment, the prison system and the colonial courts, all of whom sought to define collective African behaviour. This historical article utilises archaic terminology, such as 'lunatic' or 'lunacy', as these categories were in use at the time. PMID:16943144

  9. Phylogeny of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid species flock and its relationship to the Central and East African haplochromine cichlid fish fauna

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel; Baric, Sanja; Verheyen, Erik; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the East African Great Lakes, harbors the ecologically, morphologically, and behaviorally most complex of all assemblages of cichlid Fishes, consisting of about 200 described species. The evolutionary old age of the cichlid assemblage, its extreme degree of morphological differentiation, the lack of species with intermediate morphologies, and the rapidity of lineage formation havemade evolutionary reconstruction difficult. The number and origin of seeding lineag...

  10. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  11. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  12. East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe – Part 2: Evolution and potential impact

    A. Stohl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first observation-based case study of an aged East Asian anthropogenic SO2 pollution plume over Europe. Our airborne measurements in that plume detected highly elevated SO2 mole fractions (up to 900 pmol/mol between about 5000 and 7000 m altitude. Here, we focus on investigations of the origin, dispersion, evolution, conversion, and potential impact of the observed excess SO2. In particular, we investigate SO2 conversion to gas-phase sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid aerosols. Our FLEXPART and LAGRANTO model simulations, along with additional trace gas measurements, suggest that the plume originated from East Asian fossil fuel combustion sources and, 8–7 days prior to its arrival over Europe, ascended over the coast region of central East Asia to 9000 m altitude, probably in a cyclonic system with an associated warm conveyor belt. During this initial plume ascent a substantial fraction of the initially available SO2 must have escaped from removal by cloud processes. Hereafter, while mostly descending slowly, the plume experienced advection across the North Pacific, North America and the North Atlantic. During its upper troposphere travel, clouds were absent in and above the plume and OH-induced gas-phase conversion of SO2 to gas-phase sulfuric acid (GSA was operative, followed by GSA nucleation and condensation leading to sulfuric acid aerosol formation and growth. Our AEROFOR model simulations indicate that numerous large sulfuric acid aerosol particles were formed, which at least tempora-rily, caused substantial horizontal visibility degradation, and which have the potential to act as water vapor condensation nuclei in liquid water cloud formation, already at water vapor supersaturations as low as about 0.1%. Our AEROFOR model simulations also indicate that those fossil fuel combustion generated soot particles, which have survived cloud induced removal during the initial plume ascent, have experienced extensive H2SO4/H2O

  13. Formative Assessment in Context

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  14. After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East?: conclusion: the Middle East after the Arab Spring

    Dodge, Toby

    2012-01-01

    The title of this report, ‘After the Arab Spring: Power Shift in the Middle East?’, deliberately ends with a question mark. The events over the year and a half since the death of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia, have left the politics of the Middle East in tumult. The Arab Spring has certainly resulted in a change of regime in Tunisia and then Egypt. The uprisings against Gaddafi’s regime triggered a military intervention by NATO that drove the Libyan leader and his entourage from power. Ali Abdu...

  15. When efficient star formation drives cluster formation

    Parmentier, G

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the star formation efficiency in cluster forming cores on the evolution of the mass in star clusters over the age range 1-100Myr, when star clusters undergo their infant weight-loss/mortality phase. Assuming a constant formation rate of gas-embedded clusters and a weak tidal field, we show that the ratio between the total mass in stars bound to the clusters over that age range and the total mass in stars initially formed in gas-embedded clusters is a strongly increasing function of the averaged local SFE, with little influence from any assumed core mass-radius relation. Our results suggest that, for young starbursts with estimated tidal field strength and known recent star formation history, observed cluster-to-star mass ratios, once corrected for the undetected clusters, constitute promising probes of the local SFE, without the need of resorting to gas mass estimates. Similarly, the mass ratio of stars which remain in bound clusters at the end of the infant mortality/weight-loss ...

  16. Borehole core recovered from the Late Carboniferous to early Permian Fitzroy tillite and Port Sussex formations, Falkland Islands : geological background and sample details

    Stone, P

    2011-01-01

    Within the Palaeozoic sedimentary succession of the Falkland Islands the Fitzroy Tillite Formation is the local representative of glacigenic strata deposited widely across Gondwana during Late Carboniferous glaciation. In West Falkland, a terrestrial lithofacies contains a wide range of erratic pebbles, cobbles and boulders; in East Falkland a glaciomarine diamictite contains fewer and generally smaller clasts from a more restricted lithological range. At the top of the East Falkland successi...

  17. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  18. Proceedings of the 7th Middle East oil show

    This book contains the November, 1991 proceedings of the 7th Middle East Oil Show. It includes the following topics: Horizontal drilling; Emergency pipeline repair; Geologic interpretation and digital processing of satellite images; Fracturing patterns; Oil and gas saturation monitoring; and The environmental impact of oil spills

  19. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    Praha: CERGE-EI, 2011 - (Dušek, L.; Lízal, L.), s. 269-279 ISBN 978-80-7344-238-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/cerge-ei-tackles-transition.pdf

  20. 'Open SESAME' for science in the Middle-East

    2003-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding has just been signed between CERN, SESAME and Jordan. SESAME, the international centre for Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, is currently being built in Jordan. Its President of Council is no other than CERN's former Director-General, Herwig Schopper.